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A mourner may attend a party if they are not having a sit-down meal, and there is no music being played.

See Michaber 391:2 regarding Simchas Mereios; Shach 391:1 “This is a meal that friends make together in which they eat and drink together”; See Pnei Baruch 20 footnote 27

It is biblically forbidden for one to call someone by a nickname with intent to belittle him, even if it is normal for this person to be referred to by this nickname and is not embarrassed by it. Furthermore, even if one does not have any intent to belittle him with the nickname, it is forbidden for one to call someone by a nickname if he may be embarrassed by it, and certainly, if one knows that he feels ashamed when called by this name. Accordingly, you should not call somebody by a nickname unless you know that it is common for the person to be called by this name and he is not embarrassed by it, and you do not have any intent to belittle him by using it. When in doubt, simply ask him.

See Admur C..M. Hilchos Onah Halacha 29; Michaber 228:5; Tur 228; Rambam Deios 6:8; Bava Metzia 58b; Imrei Yaakov on Admur ibid

Even during a leap year, the period of Aveilus for a parent extends for only 12 months, and the two months of Adar are considered two out of the 12 months of mourning. [As a result, one whose 12 months of mourning for a parent occurs during leap year months of Adar, will conclude his mourning customs a month prior to the first Yahrzeit. Thus, for example, if the death/burial was on the 13th of Tishrei of a leap year then the children’s last day of Aveilus is on the 12th of Elul.] Thus, after the passing of 12 months [which is one month before the Yahrzeit] he may participate in festive meals without restriction. 

Michaber 391:2 regarding festive meals that “Even in a leap year he is permitted after 12 months” [See Nekudos Hakesef 391:1]; Rosh in name of Ravaya; Shach 391:2; 395:3; Taz 391:1 “All Aveilus ends after 12 months even in a leap year, and those that continue the mourning customs into the 13th month have no source and are certainly doing a worthless act”; Bach 391; Chochmas Adam 166:8; Kitzur SHU”A 216:3; Beis Yitzchak 2:157; Maharsham 3:205-8; Mateh Ephraim 3:3 regarding Kaddish; P”M 55 A”A 10 regarding Kaddish; Nitei Gavriel 34:4; Vol. 2 62:5

Yes. The Rebbe lit the candle throughout the year, up until the Yahrzeit, even in a leap year.

Nitei Gavriel 65:5 footnote 9; Rabbi Groner in written correspondence that so directed the Rebbe

Also women are prohibited from speaking while using a bathroom. The exceptions which are recorded in the Poskim which allowed women to speak in a bathroom applied only to public bathrooms, and only in previous times when they were not gender segregated, and was enacted in order to prevent Yichud. In today’s times bathrooms are gender segregated, and hence there is no need for them to speak in the bathroom and on the contrary it would fall under the regular prohibition relevant to men..

See Admur Basra 3:2l; M”A 3:2; Michaber and Rama Even Haezer 22:13; Sanhedrin 19a; Kaf Hachaim 3:4 and 5

It is forbidden to spit opposite a Sefer Torah. Seemingly, for this reason many avoid spitting opposite the Aron Kodesh, which holds the Sefer Torah, and so explicitly rules the Ketzos Hashulchan that it is forbidden to do so.

See Ketzos Hashulchan 29:2

Some Tum products contain beetles [Cochineal bugs] and are hence inherently not kosher. Likewise some of the products contain animal derivatives. Accordingly, Tum products must contain a valid kosher certification in order to be used for consumption.

See https://www.tums.com/faqs/#:~:text=Most%20TUMS%20products%20are%20Kosher,Cherry%20%26%20Watermelon%20and%20Chewy%20Bites; https://kosheratlanta.org/tums-products/

I am not aware of any source for this custom and it also seemingly does not have any logic to it. The documented custom in the Rishonim and Poskim is to say Shalom Aleichem to a friend to which they are to respond Aleichem Shalom. No mention is made that the person is then to answer back again Aleichem Shalom.

See Rama 426:2; Siddur Admur; Tur 426; Miseches Sofrim 20:1; Machzor Vitri; Rokeiach; Agguda; Mateh Moshe 540; Leket Yosher p. 70

If the last opportunity to recite Kiddush Levana falls on Friday night or the night of Yom Tov, it may be recited at that time. In such a case, one is to say Kiddush Levana immediately at nightfall and only then Daven Maariv.

See M”A 426:7 based on Bach who once recited Kiddush Levana on a Friday night that was the last date for it to be recited; So rules also Taz 426:1; Kitzur SH”A 97:12; M”B 426:12; Shaar Hakolel 33:1; Kaf Hachaim 426:33

One is to Daven Maariv prior to reciting Kiddush Levana, as Maariv is a more common Mitzvah and hence receives precedence. If however there is suspicion that one will not be able to say Kiddush Levana afterwards that month due to cloudy skies, then one is to say Kiddush Levana prior to Maariv. 

See Machazikei Bracha 426:7; Shaareiy Teshuvah 426:9; Nodah Beyehuda 41; See Admur 431:6; See Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:310; 2:248 and Piskeiy Teshuvah 489 footnote 16 in name of Shagas Aryeh and Rav Chaim Volozhin that they Daavened Maariv before Kiddush Levana even at a time that there was chance they would lose the opportunity.

Not only is there no requirement to wait to take off one’s shoes until after one washes, but on the contrary there is actually a Hiddur Mitzvah to do so prior to washing esspecially if the shoes contain laces, even though it is not obligatory. Practically, different customs exists in different communities regarding this matter. 

See Mateh Moshe 179; Kneses Hgaedola 128:4; P”M 128 A”A 9; Kaf Hachaim 128:30; Piskeiy Teshuvos 128:17

The main legal effect of a name is in place after its been used for 30 days. If a Minyan is not available, any individual can read a Mi Shebeirach and recite the name. It does not need to have a Minyan or be by Kerias Hatorah for it to count. Nevertheless, I would suggest you call an individual who is part of a Minyan and tell him to do the Mi Shebeirach with the name by the next Kerias Hatorah.
Amino acids are derived from proteins which in turn can be derived from meat products, which of course has the worry of being not Kosher, and thus would most definitely need a Hashgacha. I would suggest to send questions such as these to the OU or Ok Hashgacha companies and see their response. 

See https://oukosher.org/ask-kosher-question/ See here for a list of Kosher NAC products: https://www.koshervitamins.com/Supplements-Kosher-N-Acetyl-Cysteine-NAC

This matter is dependent on the custom of one’s society and if they are accustomed to greeting dignitaries without socks. Practically, it is not accepted in western societies to greet dignitaries in the barefoot, and therefore one must wear socks during Davening. 

See here: https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/wearing-slippers-during-davening/#_ftn4

This matter is dependent on the custom followed in one’s current society and if they are accustomed to walk around without socks at home upon accepting guests. This is measured by the custom of the Orthodox community of one’s area and not by the custom of gentiles. Practically, in general, it is accepted for one to walk around at home without socks, however, some people are stringent in this matter.

See here: https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/revealing-ones-feet/

Al Hagafen must still be recited so long as you remember prior to reciting Birchas Hamazon and within Shiur Ikkul [not too much time has passed]. However, if you planned on washing for bread right after Havdalah and planned to also drink wine during the meal, then it is not said at all, even before washing. 

See Admur 174:6; Seder 4:11; Ketzos Hashulchan 31:1; See here for the full details of this matter: https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/one-who-is-washing-on-bread-directly-after/

Dabbing a medicinal cream on a baby is permitted if it is dabbed and not smeared. 

See here for the full details of this matter: https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/smearing-on-skin/

Beating on a table is forbidden to be done in the form of a rhythm as explained Shulchan Aruch chapter 339. One may, however, bang on the table to get ones attention. 

See here for the full details of this matter: https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/clapping-dancing-and-snapping/

This matter is under dispute amongst the Poskim due to the Molid prohibition. Practically, it should not be used, although those who are lenient have upon whom to rely.

See SSH”K 11:14; Maor Hashabbos 13:60 brought in Shabbos Kehalacha 3 17:78 [p. 117]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 326 footnote 161; 321 footnote 330; See there that perhaps one can allow it on the basis that the person is simply pressing the button to expel the content, and is not actually creating it with his hands. See also Orchos Shabbos 15:28 that permits it.

While this matter is disputed amongst the Poskim, practically, according to the rulings of Admur, it is not necessary to use new wicks for the second day of Yom Tov. This applies even by the second day of Rosh Hashanah. The Achronim write that by today’s modern wicks this applies according to all opinions, and even when Shabbos goes into Yom Tov.

See Admur 501:18 and Kuntrus Achron 2;Michaber 501:7 and 514:4; Taz 501:7; M”B 501:34; Kitzur SHU”A 101:6; Aruch Hashulchan 501:16; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 25:1

This matter is debated amlongst the Poskim. Practcially, it should be treated with the same status as other parts of the beard which may not be shaven with a razor, and is not to be trimmed according to those [i.e. Chabad] who are stringent like the authorities who hold that it is forbidden to trim the beard.

See Michaber Y.D. 181:11; Tur 181; Rambam Avodas Kochavim 12:2; Taz Y.D. 181:3; Rosh Makos 3:2-1 in name of Rabbeinu Chananel; Tzemach Tzedek Chidushim on Shas Makos “Veal Hazakan” that Rabbeinu Chananel forbids the lower mustache

If you had in mind to do use your Maaser money for the sake of paying the pledge at the time of making the pledge, or you are accustomed to write down and deduct from Maaser all charity that you distribute throughout the year, then you may use Maaser money to pay the pledge. If, however, you did not have anything in mind and do not generally record your contributions to deduct from Maaser, then payment for the pledge cannot come from Maaser funds.

See Taz Y.D. 249:1; Chasam Sofer Y.D. 221; Maharil Diskin 1:24; Ahavas Chesed 18; Orach Mishor 249:1; Shaareiy Tzedek 10:11; Pesakim Uteshuvos 249:31 footnote 301

This matter is debated amongst the Poskim with some holding that all red caviar is assumed to be kosher, while others holding that we are no longer expert in this matter, and practically one should only purchase it with a Hashgacha, although those who are lenient have upon whom to rely.

See Michaber Y.D. 83:8; Taz 83:12; Shach 83:27; Peri Chadash 83:26; P”M 83 S.D. 27; Darkei Teshuvah 83:80; Aruch Hashulchan 83:3; Kaf Hachaim 83:62; Hakashrus 11:19; Hakashrus Lemaaseh p. 196 footnote 35

So long as you did not yet say an after blessing before Shacharis, and enough time has not passed for it to be considered “Shiur Ikkul” [96 minutes Lechumra] then you may continue drinking without a new blessing and a new blessing may not be recited.

See  https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/davened-in-middle-of-eating-or-drinking-muzt-the-before-blessing-be-repeated/

This matter is under debate amongst the Poskim, and practically while one should be stringent regarding Pesach, those who are lenient for during the year have upon whom to rely.

See Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:34

Usually, electric plates do not have an option to variate temperatures, and hence not only is there no need to cover it with tinfoil, but I would furthermore discourage you from doing so due to safety reasons. Having a sheet of tinfoil on the electric plate does not make the return of food onto it anymore lenient on Shabbos.

See: https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/chapter-2-the-blech-setting-up-the-hot-food-before-shabbos/

So long as it does not contain a filament, such as if it uses LED light, then it is permitted to be moved in order to use its light or if it is in the way, and is not Muktzah [although is debated if it has the same status as a Keli Shemilachto Leissur]. Indeed, the vast majority of flashlights today are made with LED light. 

See here: https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/from-the-ravs-desk-are-the-new-shabbos-lamps-really-ok-to-use/

It is permitted for one to benefit from the smell of a nonkosher food so long as the food is not forbidden in benefit [such as Chametz on Pesach and meat, excluding poultry, with milk], in which case it is forbidden to benefit from the smell. Thus, while you may smell pork being cooked, you may not smell a cow beef stew that is together with milk or butter.

See Admur 443:3 in parentheses; Michaber Y.D. 108:5; Rama Y.D. 155:3; See Shach Y.D. 108:27; Biur Halacha 443 “Afilu”; Glosses of Maharsham 447:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 443:2

This matter is debated amongst the Poskim, and practically one is to be stringent on Pesach, however, one who is lenient during the year to Kosher it from Issur [i.e. meat and milk] through Hagalah has upon whom to rely so long has he did not bake or fry non-Kosher [in contrast to meat or milk] without oil or with very little oil in which case it would require Libun Chamur, which would damage the Teflon. 

See Pesakim Uteshuvos 121:7; By Basar Bechalav, we never require Libun Gamur by a Kosherable vessel that absorbed meat and then absorbed milk [Admur 451:13 in gloss; 1st approach in Shach 121:7; unlike 2nd approach in Shach ibid, based on ruling of Ramaz 96, that requires Libun Chamur even by Basar Bechalav.]

You may not charge any of the tenants for the Mezuzos, including even the Jewish tenants, being that a building which contains both Jewish and Gentile tenants is not obligated in having a Mezuzah, and placing it there is a mere stringency, and one cannot obligate tenants to pay for a stringency. However, you may make a request of the Jewish tenants to help you with the costs, even though they are not obligated to pay.

See https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/is-a-room-or-home-to-have-a-mezuzah-if-both-a-jew-and-gentile-live-there-i-e-gentile-roommate-or-housemate/

She should not unless she is the mother of the bride or groom, in which case another couple is to be joined to the pregnant mother when they escort and encircle the groom/bride.

See: https://shulchanaruchharav.com/halacha/a-pregnant-woman-being-a-kvaterin-by-bris-and-shushvinin-by-wedding/

It is proper to check it for Shatnez in the event that it contains wool and states on it “OF-other fibers” or contains an additional layer that is sewed onto it.

See Habegadim Kehalacha p. 14

In all cases, the mezuzah must be placed within one Tefach [which is a 8 cm] of the opening or door. Hence, if you have a window panel to the right of the doorway opening, then the mezuzah is to be placed on this panel within 8 cm of the doorway opening, and not on the actual doorpost to the right of the panel. This is extremely common by the glass door entrances to buildings and porches and by fancy front door entrances with sidelits.

See Daas Kedoshim 286:17 footnote 25; Kevius Mezuzah Kehilchasa p. 152; Chovas Hadar 7:22

While there is a halachic discussion on this matter, and in many cases from the letter of the law they can be held liable, practically the custom by employment today is not hold them liable by accidental damage, and so is the final ruling today in Batei Dinim.

See Michaber and Rama C.M. 304:1; 333:6; Shach 333:39; Shvus Yaakov 3:177; Chavos Yair 106; Pischeiy Teshuvah 331:1; Aruch Hashulchan C.M. 331:7; Shaareiy Shlomo 2:71

If one was born on Bein Hashmashos, he is to choose one of the days to celebrate his birthday and fulfill the birthday customs. Some are accustomed to fulfill the customs on both days.

Source: See Piskeiy Teshuvos 55:16 that by a Bar Mitzvah one is to be Machmir by a Safek; See Hiskashrus 776:6 and footnote 7 that there is no known arbitration of the Rebbe on this matter. Rav Y.S. Ginzberg understands that in such a case one is to keep both days.

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