The Laws of Pesach-Summary of Laws

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This Halacha is an excerpt from our Sefer


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1.Thirty days before the festival:

Learning the laws prior to the festival:

Starting from Purim, the 14th of Adar, it is a Mitzvah on every person to learn the laws of the festival prior to the festival until he is expert in them, and knows what is to be done. One should increase in learning these laws from Rosh Chodesh Nissan. [It is proper to study the Tractate in Talmud relevant to the festival prior to each festival. Thus, prior to Pesach one is to study Miseches Pesachim.]

Avoiding sticky Chametz starting from thirty days before Pesach:

From thirty days before Pesach it is proper to be careful to avoid getting Chametz stuck onto surfaces, in a way that the Chametz will not be easily removable when Erev Pesach arrives.

Giving children play dough within thirty days before Pesach:

Many varieties of Play-doh are made of actual Chametz. The company brand Play-doh, which is the main manufacturer of the item, makes the compound from flour, water, and food coloring. Therefore, in compliance with the above law, it is suggested that children not be given play-doh to play with, starting from Purim and onwards. It goes without saying that Pesach arts and crafts should not be made using play-doh. There are alternative brands of Play-dough that do not contain Chametz, and thus would not pose a problem in their use over [Chol Hamoed] Pesach.

Sefarim:

One is to be careful that crumbs do not fall into Sefarim beginning from Purim and onwards. If one is learning while eating he is to verify that the Sefer is clean of any crumbs prior to closing it in order so he does not find the crumbs on Pesach. [Regarding if one must check his Sefarim for Chametz, see Halacha 5]

Starch:

Ironing starches are made either from a legume flour, such as corn, or what flour. One may not to starch one’s clothing or tablecloths with a Chametz starch if he plans to wear it on Pesach. This applies even if the starch is applied prior to thirty days before Pesach. One may however use a Kitniyus based starch, even within thirty days before Pesach.

Avoiding Matzah:

The Chabad custom is not to eat Matzah starting thirty days before Pesach, which is from Purim and onwards. One is to avoid eating Matzah even if it is a Kefula, Nefucha, non-Shmura, or machine made Matzah. It is disputed amongst Poskim if one may eat Chametz Matzah. Egg Matzah which has a strong taste of egg or fruit juice may be eaten. One may eat cooked Matzah, such as Matzah balls and the like.

Bedikas Chametz for one who is traveling:

One who will be traveling from home before Pesach must check his house prior to leaving if he does not plan to sell his Chametz in that area to a gentile. See The Laws of Bedikas Chametz [Halacha 6] for the full details of this issue.

Buying Hagada’s:

One is to buy a personal Hagada for each of his children. The Hagada’s are to contain pictures and designs in order to arouse the interest of the child.

Buying Pesach vessels:

One is to buy beautiful vessels in honor of Pesach and have them set on the table for the night of the Seder. Those Chametz vessels that are difficult to clean and Kasher, is best not to be used and one should rather buy a new vessel for Pesach. [Some write that it is always proper to have a Pesach set of vessels rather than to Kasher, in order to avoid complications.] 

Avoid saying “This meat is for Pesach”:

One is not to say regarding meat or poultry, that “This meat is for Pesach” or “Buy me this meat for Pesach”. Rather one is to say “This meat is for Yom Tov” or “Buy me this meat for Yom Tov”.  One is likewise to avoid writing this statement, such as on a shopping list. This statement is especially forbidden to be said regarding a live animal, and particularly against a goat or sheep. It is proper to avoid saying the above statement of “This is for Pesach” regarding any item, even fish and non-meat products. This however is with exception to things which need to be guarded from becoming Chametz, such as kernels.

Bedieved: If one said the above statements on food, or other items, they nevertheless remain permitted to be eaten. However, if one said this regarding a sheep, or goat, whether alive or pieces of meat, then one is to completely avoid eating the meat, even after Pesach. One may however sell the meat, and in a case of great loss or great need, one may even be lenient to eat it. If the goat/sheep or meat does not belong to oneself, his statement is meaningless and the meat may be eaten by its owner.

Pesach complaints:

One may not say “How troublesome is Pesach”, as this is similar to the statement of the wicked son. Nevertheless today people are not careful in the above and some have learned merit to justify these statements.

Maos Chitim:

It’s a widespread custom amongst all Jewish communities, that each community collects charity from its residents in order to distribute them to the poor people of that community.

2. From Rosh Chodesh Nissan:

Omitting Tachanun and other prayers of supplication in the month of Nisan:

The custom in these provinces is that throughout the month of Nissan the following prayers are omitted from Davening: Tachanun is omitted daily. Vehu Rachum [added in Tachanun on Mondays and Thursdays] is omitted on Mondays and Thursdays. Kel Erech Apayim is omitted prior to the Torah reading on Mondays and Thursdays. The Yehi Ratzon customarily said after Kerias Hatorah is omitted. [It is not the Chabad custom to recite Yehi Ratzon after the Torah reading even on other days of the year.] Lamnatzeiach is omitted daily prior to Uva Letzion, [however it is recited after Davening]. The Psalm of Tefila Ledavid is omitted on all days that Tachanun is not recited. Av Harachamim is omitted on Shabbos before Musaf, [with exception to the last day of Pesach, due to Yizkar, for which it is recited.] Tzidkascha Tzedek is omitted after Mincha Shemoneh Esrei of Shabbos. Eulogies are not given with exception to a Torah Scholar, before he is buried.

 

Uniqueness of Nissan:

This month is one of a miraculous nature. It is an auspicious time for one to be able to accomplish spiritually that which to him seems a distance away.

Is one to increase in Simcha in the month of Nissan?

Rashi [on Taanis 29a] explains the reason for the increasing in joy in the month of Adar is due to the miracles that occurred on Purim and Pesach. Some Poskim rule based on this that one is to increase in joy also in the month of Nissan. Others however explain that Rashi does not intend to novelize a new law of increasing in joy in Nissan but rather is explaining why the month of Adar is meritorious.

Every day of the month is like Rosh Chodesh:

Every day of the month of Nissan is like Rosh Chodesh. Just like Rosh Chodesh is not a day of work and is a slight holiday, so too the entire month of Nissan.

 

Cemetery:

Some are accustomed not to visit cemeteries throughout the month of Nissan. If they have a Yartzeit in Nissan they visit the grave on Erev Rosh Chodesh Nissan. Many however are accustomed to visit cemeteries during the month of Nissan just like any other time of the year. One may visit Kivrei Tzadikim.

Fasting:

One does not fast in the month of Nissan. This applies even to a Taanis Yachid, and certainly to a Taanis Tzibur. This applies even to the last day of Nissan which is Erev Rosh Chodesh Iyar [known as Yom Kippur Katan, of which there are people that are accustomed to normally fast on that day]. A Chasan and Kallah must fast on the day of their wedding even if it takes place in the month of Nissan. Even on Rosh Chodesh Nissan they are required to fast if their wedding is taking place that day, or that night after sunset. However on Isru Chag, a Chasan and Kalah do not fast even if their wedding will be taking place that day.

Nassi:

One is to recite the Nassi each day after Davening starting from Rosh Chodesh Nissan until the 13th of Nissan. On the first day of Nissan one begins to read from “Veyihi Biyom Kalos Moshe“. On the 13th day one begins to read from “Zos Chanukas Hamizbeiach”. The Yehi Ratzon prayer is read after the reading of each day’s Nassi. It is recited even by a Levite or Kohen.

 

Sparks of Kabala:

Purpose of Hakrava of the Nessim is to refine the first 12 years of a person in which he only has his animal soul.

 

Birchas Ilanos:

In the month of Nissan, upon seeing Kosher fruit trees which are sprouting forth blossom of fruits one says the blessing of “Baruch Ata Haashem, Elokeinu Melech Haolam, Shelo Chiser Biolamo Klum Uvara Bo Brios Tovos Veilanos Tovos Leihanos Bahem Binei Adam.” This blessing is only said the first time that one sees the blossom that year. Thus, once one sees a blossoming fruit tree in the month of Nissan, he is to immediately say the blessing. The blessing is not to be delayed for a second sighting. The blessing should only be said in the month of Nissan. The blessing may be said at night, and may be said on Shabbos, although some avoid saying it on Shabbos. The blessing may only be said over a fruit bearing tree, and only over the blossoming of its fruit. The blessing may not be said over an Arla tree, or tee that transgressed Kilayim. The blessing is preferably to be said over the blossoming of two trees, although this is not required. Women likewise recite this blessing. Some are accustomed to say the blessing over blossoming fruit trees that are outside the city.

 

Sparks of Kabala:

The Zohar states that the souls of the upper worlds are found in the month of Nissan in the gardens. There are also various sparks of Kedusha, and reincarnated souls found in trees. By reciting the blessing over the trees one elevates these sparks and souls.

 

Nuts:

One is to purchase nuts [and/or sweets] to distribute to the children on the Seder night. It is a Biblical obligation of Simchas Yom Tov to purchase nuts [and/or sweets] for his children to distribute to them during Pesach. 

Jewelry and clothing:

It is a Biblical command for one to rejoice, himself, his wife children and his entire household, throughout all days of Yom Tov, including Chol Hamoed. One is to buy his wife [and adult female children and other adult female household members] jewelry or clothing in accordance to his affordability. ]If one cannot afford to purchase clothing or jewelry then he is to purchase them new shoes in order to fulfill this Mitzvah.] One is to purchase sweets for his children for Yom Tov.

 

3. Shabbos Hagadol:

The Shabbos before Pesach is called Shabbos Hagadol, as on that Shabbos a great miracle occurred. On that Shabbos, the 10th of Nissan, was the day that Bnei Yisrael took a lamb for the Pesach offering, as is stated explicitly in the verse. When the first born Egyptians saw this occurring on Shabbos, they gathered by Bnei Yisrael and asked for an explanation for their actions. They were then told by Bnei Yisrael that the lamb is going to be a sacrifice to G-d, which will kill the Egyptian first born. The first born Egyptians proceeded to go to their fathers and to Pharaoh to request from them to release the Jewish people. When they were answered negatively, the first born Egyptians resorted to making war with them and they killed many of them. This is the meaning of the verse “And Egypt was stricken by their first born”. This miracle was then set to be remembered for all generations on Shabbos [before Pesach], and they called it “The Great Shabbos”.  Shabbos Hagadol was thus the beginning of the redemption and the miracles.

The Haftorah on Shabbos Hagadol that falls on Erev Pesach: The custom in these provinces is that when Shabbos Hagadol falls on Erev Pesach the Haftorah of “Veareiva..” is read.

Shabbos Hagadol Drasha: The custom is for the Rabbi to give a speech dealing with the laws of the Holiday on the Shabbos preceding Pesach, [unless that Shabbos is Erev Pesach in which case it is given on the preceding Shabbos]

Recite Avadim Hayinu after Mincha: The custom in these provinces is that [after] Mincha of Shabbos Hagadol, we recite “Avadim Hayinu” [until Lichaper Al Kol Avonoseinu], as Shabbos Hagadol was the beginning of the redemption and the miracles. This applies even if Shabbos Hagadol falls on Erev Pesach.

Vayehi Noam: Whenever Pesach, or any Yom Tov, falls on a weekday the paragraph of Vayehi Noam which is normally said after Shabbos, is omitted. If Pesach falls on Shabbos, Vayehi Noam recited on the Motzei Shabbos prior to it.

 

The laws of Erev Pesach:

See Halacha 14!

 

4. Laws relating to Chametz:

 

 

Introduction:

There are a number of different commands and prohibitions regarding the owning and eating of Chametz on Pesach. There is a positive command to destroy Chametz, two negative commands not to own Chametz, a negative command against eating or benefiting from Chametz, and a Rabbinical command to search one’s house for Chametz. The following chapter will discuss the general laws involving Chametz. Further details of Chametz related laws are recorded throughout the later chapters, in their relevant area of discussion.

Being careful from Chametz protects from sin:

The Arizal states that one who is careful to avoid even a small piece of Chametz is guaranteed not to sin throughout the year. [This means that his nature will change to the point that he will not naturally do a sin inadvertently. However, regarding sinning advertently one always retains his freedom of choice.]

The Yetzer Hara:

Chametz represents the Yetzer Hara. The entire idea of cleaning the house for Chametz is to get rid of bad traits.

 

 

What is Chametz?

Chametz is defined as foods which contain any one of the five grains [wheat, barley; rye, spelt, oat] which have leavened. When these grains, or their flour derivatives, come into contact with water or water derivatives, they leaven after remaining with the water for 18/24 minutes. When the mixture of grains or flour with water has leavened it is defined as Chametz, so long as the Chametz remains edible. Thus, whether or not an item is Chametz depends on the following three factors:

  1. The species of grain.
  2. The type of liquid.
  3. The leavening process.
  4. Edibility

There are various gradations of Chametz prohibitions. Some Chametz is considered Biblical Chametz. Other Chametz is considered Rabbinical Chametz. Likewise, there are foods that are not Chametz that are nevertheless not eaten due to a decree against coming to eat Chametz. This Halacha will discuss all the details of the foods that are not eaten due to Chametz.

 

*Important note:

The Halacha below will deal with the general laws of the definition of Chametz and when dough becomes Chametz. Practical directives of how to make dough and bake Matzos for Pesach cannot be derived from this section, as there are various additional adherences brought in Shulchan Aruch and the later Poskim that have not been brought in this section. As a rule, baking Kosher for Pesach Matzas involves many details and is not to be done unless under expert Halachic supervision.

 

The following is a list of Chametz items:

  • Pasta
  • Flour that does not have a Pesach Hashgacha
  • Bread
  • Pita
  • Beer
  • Whisky
  • Cookies
  • Crackers

 

The grain/flour:

Only the five grains; which are 1) wheat, 2) barley; 3) rye, 4) spelt, 5) oats, can leaven and become Chametz. All other flours, such as flour made from rice [and corn] and all other legumes and starches, cannot ever leaven and become Chametz. Although these flours also rise when kneaded with water, this rising is not a leavening but rather a spoiling. For example, if one were to take rice flour and the like and knead it with boiling water and then cover it with a cloth until it rises like dough that has leavened, in truth this act of rising is not leavening but rather a spoiling of the dough. The dough remains permitted to be eaten on Pesach. [Nonetheless, certain flours are considered Kitniyus and are accustomed by Ashkenazi Jewry not to be eaten on Pesach, as will be explained.]

The liquids:

The Biblical definition of Chametz refers only to dough that has been kneaded with water or with water derivatives. Only water or water derivatives can leaven the grain or flour. If one kneads 100% fruit juice, without any water, into the flour then the dough cannot become Chametz, even if the dough rises and remains un-worked for over 18 minutes. However, there are opinions who say that not only does fruit juice make flour into Chametz, but it does so much quicker than water, in less than 18 minutes. Practically the main Halachic opinion is like the former/lenient opinion. If however if the fruit juice is mixed with even a minute amount of water, then according to all the dough can become instant Chametz, in even less than 18 minutes. [The Ashkenazi custom however is not to eat such Matzah over Pesach, as will be explained in E.]

The leavening of the dough:

The Biblical term of Chametz refers only to [five grain] dough kneaded with water that has leavened/risen. Leavened dough is considered Biblical Chametz whether the Dough leavened due to a fermenting agent or a non-fermenting agent, or even on its own, it is Chametz. 

  • How long does it take dough to leaven? If dough remained a Shiur Mil without being worked on, it becomes Chametz. Some Poskim rule this is 18 minutes, while other Poskim rule it is 24 minutes. Practically, the main Halachic ruling follows the latter opinion, that there are 24 minutes in a Mil and it takes 24 minutes for dough to become Chametz.  Nonetheless, one is to be stringent like the first opinion [that a Mil is 18 minutes and it thus takes dough 18 minutes to become Chametz] unless this involves a great loss.
  • The above measurement of 18/24 minutes applies in general circumstances, however in certain circumstances dough can become Chametz in even less than 18/24 minutes and in certain circumstances it will not become Chametz even after 18/24 minutes. The following are the cases of exceptions: 1) Working on the dough: Working on the dough prevents it from becoming Chametz even if one were to work on the dough for the entire day. If one worked on the dough even one time within the 18/24 minutes, it undoes the partial leavening that occurred prior to the kneading and the dough then requires another full 18/24 minutes without being worked on in order to leaven and become Chametz. 2) Drops of water which fall on flour: If drops of water fall onto flour immediately one after the other, without any break at all in between, it prevents the flour from leavening and becoming Chametz, and thus even the flour were to remain under the drips for the entire day, it is valid.
  • There are a number of matters that cause the dough to leaven and become Chametz in even less than 18/24 minutes. These are: 1) Warm flour/dough; 2) Liquids defined as fruit juice: If liquids defined as fruit juice are kneaded into the flour together with water, it causes the dough to become Chametz in even less than 18/24 minutes, as brought above.

Matzah Ashira-Egg Matzah:

If one adds 100% fruit juice, without any water, into the flour then the dough cannot become Chametz, even if the dough rises and remains un-worked for over 18 minutes. However there are opinions who say that not only does fruit juice make flour into Chametz, but it does so much quicker than water, in less than 18 minutes. Practically the main Halachic opinion is like the former/lenient opinion, however according to all if the fruit juice is mixed with even a minute amount of water, then the dough can become instant Chametz, in even less than 18 minutes. Due to this the Ashkenazi custom is to be stringent not to eat Matzah kneaded even with 100% fruit, even if baked right away. Thus, Ashkenazim may not eat egg Matzah or any Pesach product that states “Matzah Ashira” on them, and therefore, foods with the blessing of Mezonos is not available for Ashkenazim over Pesach. Such foods however may be eaten by Sefaradim, under a reliable Hashgacha, as they never accepted the custom to avoid Matzah Ashira which is made from 100% fruit juice. However, there do exist Sefaradi communities that are stringent just like the Ashkenazim.

  • An old or sick person [who cannot eat other Matzah or foods], may be lenient to eat Matzah Ashira during Pesach, even if he is of Ashkenazi origin.
  • It is permitted even for Ashkenazim to own Matzah Ashira products during Pesach, as the above adherence is only with regards to eating it, and not regarding owning.
  • According to all opinions one does not fulfill the obligation of eating Matzah on the night of the Seder with eating Matzah Ashira.
  • Some Poskim rule that even according to Ashkenazim one may eat Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah] until midday of Erev Pesach. However, practically, the custom is to avoid eating Matzah Ashira beginning from the time that one must stop eating Chametz, which is the beginning of the 5th hour.

Chametz Nuksha: 

Chametz Nuksha is dough that is not fit to eat [unless in a pressing situation] such as dough which has began the leavening process, but has not reached its completion, and is thus very sour, and is only eaten in pressing situations. Similarly, dough made for attaching papers together which is made from the flour-dust of the mills, and is not fit to eat when baked [unless in a pressing situation]. The same applies to all similar cases [that the dough is not really edible when baked, due to its rising or flour consistency]. Since the dough is not fit to be eaten [unless in a pressing situation] it’s not considered actual Chametz and is thus Biblically permitted to be eaten, as its not considered Chametz at all. However, it is forbidden Rabinically to be eaten, benefited from or even owned on Pesach, and one thus must destroy it.

Play dough/Play-doh:

Play-doh is made up of actual Chametz. It is made of flour water and food coloring. It must be destroyed before Pesach or sold to a gentile. If one did not do so then he is to destroy it on Pesach as soon as he remembers. Nevertheless, a blessing is not recited upon destroying it. If one sold his Chametz then the play dough is to be placed in the area sold to the gentile.

Spoiled Chametz:

Chametz, such as bread or Chametz wheat kernels, which was once fit to eat and thus was Biblically forbidden, remains Biblically forbidden even if it has spoiled to the point that it is no longer fit for human consumption, as long as it still remains edible for dogs. If the Chametz became inedible even for dogs before the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, including if it was burnt until this point, then it is permitted for one to own on Pesach, although it is nevertheless Rabinically forbidden to be eaten.

Non-food products that contain Chametz ingredients:

All non-food products that contain Chametz ingredients are permitted to be owned and benefited from over Pesach. However, care must be taken not to consume the product, and hence it must not come into contact with food or one’s lips. See Halacha 10D!

Kitniyos:

Kitniyos, which includes various forms of legumes and seeds, is not Chametz. However Ashkenazi Jewry forbids eating these products on Pesach as will be explained in Halacha 10E!

Gebrochts:

Matzah that is dipped in water is not considered Chametz, even if it remains for less than 18 minutes. However Chassidic Jewry is careful in this regard and avoid eating any Matzah that contacted water, as will be explained in Halacha 11A!

 

The Chametz prohibitions:

Tashbisu-The command to destroy Chametz:

The positive command for one to destroy his Chametz begins to apply at midday of Erev Pesach. This law is elaborated on within the section of Biur Chametz.

Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzei-The negative command against owning Chametz:

The negative command against owning Chametz begins to apply on the night of the 15th. This law is elaborated on within the section of Cleaning for Chametz and Biur Chametz.

Prohibition of eating Chametz:

It is Biblically forbidden to eat Chametz beginning from midday of Erev Pesach. One who eats Chametz on Erev Pesach, past midday, receives Biblical Malkus. However the Kareis penalty for eating Chametz only begins at night. This law is elaborated on within the section of Kosher for Pesach foods and products.

Prohibition against benefiting from Chametz:

It is Biblically forbidden to benefit from Chametz beginning from midday of Erev Pesach. This law is elaborated on within the section of Kosher for Pesach foods and products.

Bedikas Chametz:

There is a Rabbinical obligation which requires one to search for Chametz in all his properties and then destroy it. Biblically, it suffices for one to merely disown the Chametz prior to midday of Erev Pesach. This law is elaborated on in the section of Cleaning one’s house for Pesach and the section of Bedikas Chametz.

Owning-The prohibition of “Tashbisu” & “Baal Yiraeh Ubaal Yimatzei”:

Owning Chametz: The Torah forbids owning Chametz on Pesach. This applies even if the Chametz will not be within one’s home over Pesach, but will be left elsewhere, in an area that one owns. Likewise this applies even if the Chametz is hidden away in an area from which the Chametz is not visible. However this only applies to Chametz that is within ones property, either through ownership, rental, or borrowing. If however the Chametz is within an area that he does not own and he did not borrow, such as he placed the Chametz in the house of another person without his knowledge, then Biblically it may be left there over Pesach. However, Rabbinically he is obligated to destroy it, even if it is in another person’s possession without his knowledge.

Liability on Chametz: If one does not own the Chametz but has liability over the Chametz, such as if the Chametz were to be stolen one would have liability to pay for the loss, it is nevertheless Biblically forbidden to have such Chametz in one’s property over Pesach. It is however permitted to have such Chametz left in the gentile’s property.

Storing Chametz that one does not own: If one does not own the Chametz and does not contain liability over it, it is Biblically permitted to have the Chametz remain in one’s home over Pesach; although Rabinically it is forbidden to have such Chametz in one’s home unless it belongs to a gentile and one made a Mechitza in front of it.

When does Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh begin to apply? One only begins to transgress the commands of Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeah from the night of the 15th of Nissan and onwards, as the verse states “For seven days yeast shall not be found in your home,…and you shall not see yeast in all your property for seven days”. [Thus we learn from the verse that] prior to the 7 days, one does not transgress a negative command if he owned Chametz in his house.

Tashbisu-Destroying the Chametz from midday and onwards on Erev Pesach? Although one does not transgress a negative command when owning Chametz prior to the night of the 15th, nevertheless, [he is Biblically obligated due to a positive command, to destroy all Chametz from his home] from midday of the 14th and onwards. This obligation is called Tashbisu. If he did not destroy his Chametz [at that time], then he transgresses the positive command of Tashbisu for every moment thereon. The above obligation to destroy the Chametz by midday is only from a Biblical perspective, however Rabinically once the beginning of the 6th hour of the day has arrived one is to destroy the Chametz. Today the custom is to destroy the Chametz prior to the beginning of the 6th hour.

How does one fulfill the Mitzvah of Tashbisu-destroying the Chametz? Biblically, destroying the Chametz [in fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Tashbisu] means that one eradicates [Mashbis] and destroys the Chametz completely from the world until no other person can benefit from it.

Disowning Chametz and leaving it in ones possession: Biblically, if one nullifies his Chametz and disowns it prior to the 6th hour of the day of the 14th, the Chametz may remain in his home throughout the entire Pesach. However the Sages decreed that nullifying and disowning one’s Chametz before Pesach is ineffective, and hence Rabbinically remains within one’s ownership, until it is removed from one’s home and either is burnt or placed in a public area. One must thus clean all of his possessions from Chametz before Pesach.

Disowning Chametz and removing it from one’s home: Prior to the 6th hour of the day, one can free himself from the prohibition of owning Chametz by giving or selling the Chametz to a non Jew, or by disowning the Chametz and placing in a public area. If he disowns the Chametz and leaves it in his house or building courtyard or lobby, then he transgresses the Rabbinical prohibition of Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh, as Rabinically the Chametz must be placed in an area that is considered public to all, even after it is disowned. Even when placing the Chametz in an area that is public to everyone, one must leave it there with a full heart, without the intention to take back after Pesach. If he intends to retrieve the Chametz after Pesach then it is not considered disowned, and he thus transgresses on its ownership even when placed in the public area. After the beginning of the 6th hour it no longer helps to disown the Chametz in a public area and one must rather destroy the Chametz from the world in a way that no person can get benefit from it. Furthermore, even prior to the 6th hour, the disowning of the Chametz simply refrains one from transgressing ownership once the 6th hour arrives, however it does not fulfill the Mitzvah of destroying Chametz. It is for this reason that we burn the Chametz on Erev Pesach prior to the 6th hour, in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of destroying Chametz with at least some part of our Chametz that we own.

How to destroy the Chametz: After the beginning of the 6th hour it no longer helps to disown the Chametz in a public area and one must rather destroy the Chametz from the world in a way that no person can get benefit from it. It does not have to be destroyed to the point that animals cannot get benefit from it. Even prior to the 6th hour, the disowning of the Chametz simply refrains one from transgressing ownership once the 6th hour arrives, however it does not fulfill the Mitzvah of destroying Chametz. It is for this reason that we burn the Chametz on Erev Pesach prior to the 6th hour, in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of destroying Chametz with at least some part of our Chametz that we own. The following are the valid methods of destroying the Chametz: Initially, the best method to be used is to burn the Chametz until it becomes charcoal. When burning the Chametz prior to the 6th hour, it suffices to burn it until it becomes unfit for a dog, and not until it becomes charcoal. If one cannot burn the Chametz it is valid to destroy the Chametz through any of the following methods: Break the Chametz into crumbs and then throw it into the wind or sea. If one finds kernels of Chametz then they are to be broken into 2/3 pieces and then thrown. If however there are many kernels, then it should be thrown as is. Alternatively, one can place the Chametz in a toilet [and flush it], even if the pieces are large.

 

  

General Summary

All Chametz that one owns must be either destroyed, or disowned and removed from one’s home, or sold, by the time the 5th hour of the day arrives. One who continues owning the Chametz past the 5th hour transgresses a Rabbinical owning prohibition of Tashbisu. One who continues owning the Chametz past the 6th hour transgresses a Biblical owning prohibition of Tashbisu. One who continues owning the Chametz past the night of the 15th transgresses a Biblical owning prohibition of Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh. Prior to the 5th hour arriving it suffices to disown the Chametz and remove it from one’s home, or to sell it and leave it within one’s home behind a partition. From the 5th hour and onwards one is no longer able to disown or sell the Chametz, and any Chametz that remained in one’s possession must be completely destroyed from the world.

 

 

The prohibition of eating and benefit:

It is forbidden to eat or benefit from Chametz, even if the Chametz is ownerless, or is owned by a gentile.

From when: From midday of the 14th and onwards it becomes Biblically forbidden to eat or benefit from Chametz and one who does so transgresses a negative command. The sages added two more hours towards this prohibition in order to prevent one from transgressing if he gets mixed up on a cloudy day. Thus they prohibited eating Chametz from the beginning of the 5th hour. However it is permitted to receive pleasure from Chametz until the beginning of the 6th hour. Thus one may sell Chametz to a gentile during the 5th hour. As well one may feed it to animals and birds during the 5th hour. From the 6th hour all Chametz becomes forbidden in benefit even if it does not belong to him.

What is considered benefit? Beginning from the 6th hour of the day of the 14th it is forbidden to sell Chametz to a gentile or give it to him as a present. It is forbidden to disown the Chametz [by declaring it hefker and placing it in a public area, and rather one must destroy any Chametz that he still has not removed from his home.] It is forbidden to feed Chametz to even a wild, disowned, animal [as one receives benefit by fulfilling his desire to satiate the animals hunger.] The Chametz of a gentile is also forbidden in benefit.

May one smell bread that is baking? From the 6th hour it is forbidden to smell the baking of Chametz [as this gives one pleasure].

Irregular benefit: Irregular benefit of Chametz is only Rabinically forbidden. However if one needs to do so for the sake of medicine, then it is permitted. Thus one swallow capsules on Pesach even if they contain Chametz, and even if the pill has Chametz as a main ingredient.

 

Q&A

Is ownerless Chametz forbidden in benefit?

Yes.

 

May one feed ownerless Chametz to an animal?

No.

 

If ones animal only eats Chametz foods what should he do with it on Pesach?

He should sell the animals to a gentile.

 

Does one have to move for Pesach if he lives near a bakery and will inevitably smell the Chametz?

No. However he should not intend to receive pleasure from the smell

 

May one pass by a bakery even though he will inevitably smell the Chametz?

Yes he may do so long as he has no intention to smell the Chametz.

 

Bedikas Chametz-Understanding the obligation of cleaning the house for Chametz:

Biblically, if one nullifies his Chametz and disowns it prior to the 6th hour he is not required to clean his house from Chametz, and the Chametz may rather remain in his home throughout the entire Pesach. Biblically, one is only obligated to check, search and destroy Chametz, if one does not want to nullify it and disown it [or did not do so for whatever reason and the 6th hour has already arrived]. In such a case then when the time of the Chametz prohibition arrives [the beginning of the 7th hour], he is Biblically obligated to search for it and destroy it. However the Sages decreed that nullifying and disowning one’s Chametz before Pesach is ineffective and the Chametz hence remains within one’s ownership, Rabinically. One must thus clean all of his possessions from Chametz before Pesach just like he would Biblically be required to perform if he did not disown it.

One who finds Chametz on Pesach:

If one sold his Chametz before Pesach: He does not destroy it, as the Chametz belongs to the gentile and thus it is even forbidden for him to do so, as this is stealing from the gentile. Rather one should make a Mechitza of ten Tefachim by the Chametz. If this is not possible, then one should push it with a stick into an area that is designated for the gentile, and has a Mechitza of ten Tefach. However some Rabbanim allow one to burn the Chametz if he desires to, even though there is no obligation for him to do so, as the gentile is not particular if the Jew burns some of the Chametz, as long as he has in mind to pay the gentile back. However, even in such a case, one may not say a blessing over the Chametz, and if he does so it is a blessing in vain.

If one did not sell his Chametz before Pesach: One who did not sell his Chametz before Pesach is required to destroy any Chametz which he finds past the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, throughout the seven days of Pesach, eight days in the Diaspora. This includes even less than a Kezayis of Chametz, and even if one had nullified it before Pesach. [Although in the latter case, if the Chametz is dirty then it does not need to be destroyed as explained in chapter 442.] Regarding if a blessing is to be recited: When destroying Chametz on Erev Pesach before the night of the 15th then a blessing is not said regardless of the amount being burned, or whether one had known of this Chametz at the time of the search done the previous night. When destroying the Chametz on Chol Hamoed then a blessing is only recited if all the following conditions were fulfilled: 1) One did not do Mechiras Chametz; 2) This Chametz was not found or known of during the Bedikah. 3) All the Chametz found and known of during the Bedikah has already been burned; 4) It is at least a Kezayis in size, or is not but one did not nullify this Chametz before Pesach; 6) The Chametz is Biblically considered Chametz.

What to do if found Chametz on Shabbos or Yom Tov: The Chametz is Muktzah and may not be moved. One is to cover the Chametz until Motzei Shabbos or Yom Tov and then burn it [if he did not do Mechiras Chametz] or sweep into the area sold to the gentile.

What does one do if he was searching through his Matzas and found a Kefula? The Matzah is considered Muktzah being that it is forbidden to be eaten. If one only noticed the Kefula while it was already in his hand then one does not need to immediately drop it, and may go place it down in the toilet and destroy it.

Buying Chametz after Pesach:

The Chametz of a Jew which was owned on Pesach is forbidden in benefit for all Jews. Thus when buying Chametz from a Jewish owned store, one must verify that they have performed Mechiras Chametz before Pesach. The above requirement however only applies when buying Chametz that was manufactured before Pesach. If one does not know when the Chametz was manufactured then one may be lenient and permit the Chametz to be eaten, as by every Rabbinical prohibition, when there is doubt we are allowed to be lenient. However there are opinions which prohibit eating any Chametz which even has doubt that was around on Pesach. Practically one should suspect for their opinion to not eat the Chametz, unless it’s a case of great loss [and the Chametz cannot be sold], however to benefit [like sell] the Chametz is permitted according to all opinions.

May one touch Chametz on Pesach?

Throughout the entire Pesach one is forbidden to touch Chametz, with exception to when one is doing so for the purpose of burning it. This prohibition includes even if one has a gentile’s Chametz in one’s home and wants to return it to the gentile. Thus if a gentile left Chametz in one’s home, a stick should be used to get rid of it.

5. Cleaning for Pesach:

Understanding the Obligation-See F above!

 

 

A Chassidic perspective-The Holiness of the Job:

We can learn from the following story, the great holiness involved in cleaning for Pesach: It occurred one year on Rosh Hashanah, after Reb Levi Yitzchak of Berditchiv blew the Shofar, that he exclaimed “Sweet Father, if the angels which were created from the Shofar blowing of Levi Yitzchak the son of Sara are weak, let the holy and healthy angels which were created from the hard work and toil of your people before Pesach, in which they scrubbed, smoothened and Kashered in honor of Pesach and for Hiddur Mitzvah; let those angels come and appease you.”

 

The general rule of where and what to check:

One must check and search for Chametz in all areas where there is even suspicion and doubt that perhaps Chametz was brought into it [even] coincidently. This includes even if one is positive that he never actually ate Chametz in that area, but it is common to enter the area while eating, such as to retrieve an item from the area. It goes without saying that all areas which one recalls entering Chametz into even one time during the year, must be checked. Those places which one does not ever remember entering Chametz into them, and it is not common for him to enter the area with food, do not need to be checked. However in homes that there are children, one needs to search for Chametz in all areas that the child can reach, even if one knows that he personally never entered Chametz there.

Crumbs of Chametz? One must search for even a crumb of Chametz and destroy it as the Sages decreed against owning even less than a Kezayis of Chametz, lest one come to own a Kezayis. This applies even if one has already nullified his Chametz, or plans to nullify it before Pesach. If however the Chametz is dirty and one has already nullified his Chametz, or plans to do so before the 6th hour, then if the Chametz is less than the size of a Kezayis, one is not required to search for this Chametz or destroy it.

 

Q&A

Does a bedroom need to be checked if one does not ever recall entering Chametz into it?

Even if one never recalls entering Chametz into his room, if it is common for one to enter there to get something in middle of a Chametz meal or snack, then it is required to be checked.

What areas must be checked in a home with children?

When there are children in one’s home, all areas which can be entered and reached by the child, must be checked. This applies even if one is positive that he himself never entered Chametz there and it is uncommon to enter there while eating or snacking.

 

Do clothing closets have to be checked?

Even if one never recalls entering Chametz into his room, if it is common for one to enter there to get something in middle of a Chametz meal or snack, then it is required to be checked. If it is uncommon to do so, and one never recalls entering food there, it does not need to be checked.

Does a book case have to be checked?

Yes, as it is common to take a book to read while snacking or eating. Those shelves which one knows that its books have not been used the past year by anyone in his home do not need to be checked if they are above the reach of children.

 

Do books need to be checked?

Some Poskim rule books do not need to be checked. Others rule they are required to be checked. The Rebbe was not particular to clean his Sefarim.

 

Do Tallis and Tefillin bags need to be checked?

The inner bags do not have to be checked unless one specifically remembers placing Chametz in them. The outer bag also does not need to be checked if one is particular against entering food into it. If one is not particular, then it must be checked.

Chametz which is found in areas that are not reachable by hand:

Chametz that is in cracks and crevices of tiles and furniture: If one cannot remove the Chametz with his hands due to it being stuck under cracks and crevices and the like then it suffices for him to nullify the Chametz before the 6th hour [through saying the Bittul of Kol Chamira], and if he plans to do so he is not required to destroy this Chametz before Pesach. One is not required to undo the floor [or to undo furniture] to remove the Chametz even if he is capable of doing so, and rather the nullification suffices.  This applies even if one is able to see the Chametz. [This applies even if there is a Kezayis of Chametz. This applies even if the Chametz is visible.] Thus the Chametz that is in between the deep crevices of one’s floor between the tiles [or in the cracks of one’s table or other furniture], does not need to be removed or destroyed but is to merely be nullified. [If one did not nullify his Chametz and did not sell it before Pesach then he must destroy this Chametz on Pesach upon remembering even if it entails taking apart the furniture and the like.] All the above is from the letter of the law, however practically the Jewish people are holy and hence the custom is to destroy all Chametz that is in one’s possession, even the Chametz found in unreachable areas. One is thus to pour bleach or other spoiling agent over Chametz that he is unable to reach with his hands.

Does one have to destroy Chametz that is found on a high surface such as on top of a closet or bookcase? One is obligated to destroy a Kezayis of Chametz even if it is found on a very high surface. [Furthermore even less than a Kezayis should be destroyed.] The above obligation applies even if one already nullified his Chametz. Thus one is obligated to bring a ladder on the night of the 14th [or prior to it] and take the Chametz down from on top of his closets, dressers, book cases and the like.

Chametz that is found in a pit? If Chametz fell inside a pit or was placed there to remove before Pesach, then if it is not common to descend into the pit throughout the year it is not required to remove the Chametz from there and rather mere nullification suffices.  The above however is only discussing a case of Chametz that fell into the pit or was placed in there with intent to remove before Pesach. It is however forbidden to intentionally place Chametz in the pit for it to stay there until after Pesach, even if one plans to nullify it. If one [transgressed] and placed Chametz in the pit with intent to remove after Pesach then he must remove it and destroy it on the 14th, even if he hid it there prior to thirty days before Pesach.

The law of Mapoles-Chametz found under heavy items: If a wall fell in ones house and created a mound of heavy rocks then if the mound is three Tefach in height one is not required to remove the mound and search there for Chametz, and is rather to rely on his future nullification. Furthermore, even if one knows for certain that there is Chametz under the mound, if there is three Tefach of mound over the Chametz he is not required to undo the mound and rather it suffices to nullify the Chametz before Pesach. If the mound is less than three Tefachim [24 centimeters] in height, or he is unsure if there is three Tefachim of rocks over the Chametz, then he must undo the mound to search if there is any Chametz under it even if he plans to nullify his Chametz before Pesach.

 

Q&A

Must one search for Chametz under furniture or appliances?

Pieces of furniture or appliances which are not commonly moved and are the height of 24 cm, such as closets, book cases, and items of the like, do not have to be moved and have their Chametz cleaned even if one sees Chametz under them. If however the Chametz is reachable with one’s hands, one must destroy all the Chametz that can be reached. Furthermore, if the furniture is commonly moved then one is required to move the items and clean under them even if they have a height of 24 cm.

Does one have to use toothpicks and the like to remove Chametz from areas that he cannot manage to remove with his hands?

No. However by ones fridge and other items used with food, one is required to do so in order so Chametz does not Chas Veshalom come to fall into one’s food. In any event Yisrael Kedoshim Heim and it is thus proper to pour a damaging agent, such as bleach onto the Chametz in all cases that one is able to do so.

 

Must one remove his car seats in order to remove the Chametz that is stuck under them?

All Chametz that is found under the car seat and is reachable by hand must be removed. All Chametz that cannot be reached by hand is not required to be removed even if one is able to see it. There is no obligation to remove the car seats in order to reach Chametz that is stuck under it. One is likewise not required to vacuum out unreachable Chametz.  Nevertheless, practically, experience dictates that it is very difficult to remove even the reachable Chametz [due to abundance of crumbs] without either using a vacuum or removing the car seats. Likewise, in light of Yisrael Kedoshim Heim, Chametz that remains visible and unreachable under the car seat one is to pour bleach or another spoiling agent over it, although is not required to remove the seat.

Must one undo his chair if he sees Chametz in-between the crevices of the cushion and the chair?

This follows the same ruling as the previous Q&A. Thus, all the Chametz that is reachable by hand [or that can be shaken out] must be removed. All Chametz that cannot be reached by hand [and cannot be shaken out] is not required to be removed even if one is able to see it and one is not required to undo the chair in order to remove it. Nevertheless, if there is Chametz that remains visible and unreachable under the cushion, it is proper, if doing so will not damage the cushion, to destroy it by pouring bleach or other spoiling agent over it. If however the Chametz stuck inside is less than a Kezayis and is dirty, then even shaking is not required, as explained in other Halachos.

Must one undo the keyboard of his computer to remove the Chametz stuck under the keys?

No. This applies even if one knows for certain that there is Chametz found there. Nevertheless, in light of Yisrael Kedoshim Heim, those who desire to be stringent and undo the keyboard are not to be protested.  In any case that a thorough cleaning was not done, it is strongly advised not to use the same keyboard on Pesach as that used during the year, as it is possible for Chametz to get onto one’s finger and end up in one’s food or mouth.

 

Chametz that is on walls:

From the letter of the law it is permitted to leave Chametz on ones walls so long as all the attached Chametz in a single room does not accumulate to 27 grams. However the Jewish people are holy and are accustomed to be stringent and scrape off every speck of Chametz that is stuck to the walls/ceiling/floor, and are even furthermore stringent to sand down the benches and chairs and walls which touched the Chametz.

 

Chametz vessels-Cleaning and storing:

Cleaning: All Chametz vessels which one does not desire to Kasher for Pesach, or is unable to Kasher them, are to be cleaned from Chametz. One is to scrub them and slightly rinse them down from any recognizable Chametz.

Putting them away: One is to hide the vessels in an area which he will not be accustomed to enter into throughout all the days of Pesach. Furthermore, it is proper to place the vessels in a room [or closet] which will be locked, and then hide the keys, in order to prevent any possibility of entering there during Pesach. Those which are accustomed to place the vessels in a very high area which is visible, have upon what to rely, although one who is stringent to hide them away from sight will be blessed.

Un-cleanable Chametz vessels: All vessels that are difficult to clean from Chametz are to be sold to a gentile and stored away as written above.

Checking one’s clothing for Chametz:

Every person must be careful to check his clothing and shake his gloves and pockets of his clothing, and of his children’s, as at times one enters Chametz into them. However, this only applies for one who is accustomed to at times place Chametz into the pockets of the clothing, however one who never does so, does not need to check the pockets at all, not on the night of the 14th or by the time of Biur Chametz. Nevertheless one who is stringent [to check them] is blessed.

When are they to be checked? However, they do not need to be checked on the night of the 14th being that anyways the next day when one eats Chametz it is possible that one will place Chametz in them, and thus what use was the Bedikah. Thus rather one should check and shake them the next day at the time of the destruction of Chametz. Even if one wants to be stringent upon himself and check them on the night of the 14th, he nevertheless needs to recheck them the next day by the time of the destruction of Chametz, as perhaps one has reentered Chametz which he ate after the Bedikah into the pockets.

 

Q&A

Does laundered clothing have to be checked?

No.

 

Does one have to check the cuffs of his pants?

Being that cuffs usually pick up a lot of dirt, including Chametz, one is to make sure to check for Chametz.

Does one need to clean/search his backyard for Chametz?

One does not need to search the open areas of his outside property for Chametz, as the Chametz usually has been all eaten by birds. However closed items that are outside, such as boxes and a barbecue, do have to be checked, as since they are closed the birds do not have access to them. As well if one knows for certain that there was Chametz outside, then he needs Lechatchilah to go outside at the 6th hour to check if there is any Chametz remaining

 

Yisrael Kidoshim Hem: Going beyond the letter of the law to destroy all Chametz:

Although there are cases in which from the letter of the law one is not required to clean the Chametz, nevertheless the Jewish people are holy [i.e. Yisrael Kedoshim Hem] and are accustomed to be stringent upon themselves and scrape off all Chametz, even a mere speck, that is stuck to the walls/ceiling/floor or a vessel. They are even furthermore stringent to sand down the benches and chairs and walls which have touched Chametz. [In light of this stringency] if there is Chametz [in an area that one cannot reach, such as] in a crack that one cannot remove, then one can place cement over it [or anything else something to make it not fit for eating such as bleach]. 

Item or Area Obligated or not to be cleaned
Bathroom If have kids must check.
Books No need to check. Some are stringent.
Car Clean and Check car. No need to unscrew the benches. Remove floor mats.
Computer No need to undo keyboard to check
Computer bag Must be checked.
Couch Must be cleaned. Must remove the cushions but no need to unscrew.
Desk Clean and check.
Table Must be cleaned and checked. No need to undo screws to remove Chametz from cracks and crevices.
Files Possibly need check between the folders and in box.
Chair Must be cleaned and checked. No need to undo screws to remove Chametz from cracks and crevices.
Kitchen Cabinets Must be checked.
Medicine cabinet May be owned. Chametz vitamins are to be sold
Passport No need check
Phone cover Undo phone cover to check for Chametz under
Bedroom
Suitcase Depends if person never remembers placing Chametz inside, no need to check. If used to travel and perhaps entered food then must check.
Refrigerator Must be checked
Wallet Must be checked.

Traveling-Cleaning/Checking one’s home for Chametz prior to traveling for Pesach:

If one is traveling from home before Pesach and does not plan to return before Pesach, then he must do a Bedikah and nullification the night before he travels, following all the normally required laws. However, he does not recite a blessing prior to his Bedika.

When planning to sell ones Chametz: The above law does not apply if one will be selling the Chametz in his home to a gentile on the 14th, through his Mechiras Chametz sale. It is thus advisable to do so. However, if by doing so he will have no other place to check before Pesach, such as if he is traveling to in-laws on the day of Erev Pesach, then there is room to be stringent to check at least one room, rather than sell it all. If however one will arrive by his host before the night of the 14th, then he is to simply eat some of his own Chametz by his host’s home, and is included in the Bedika done by the owner.

Renting a home before Pesach from a Frum owner-who has to check?

Acquisition/keys done before 14th: If the renter made an acquisition for the rental, and thus validated it, and was also given the keys before the night of the 14th, then the Bedikah obligation falls entirely upon him-the renter. However the owner is still obligated to verbally nullify his Chametz before the 6th hour.

Acquisition/keys done on the 14th: If the renter did not yet make an acquisition before the night of the 14th, or did but did not receive the keys before the night of the 14th, then the owner must do the Bedikah and the Biur and bittul, even if he later that night will finalize with the renter and have him make an acquisition and give him the keys. Nevertheless although the renter need not check for the Chametz, he must also nullify the Chametz.

 

Q&A

Does one who is staying at a hotel for Pesach have to do Bedikah?

Entered prior to the night of the 14th: If one received the keys for the room prior to nightfall of the 14th then he is obligated to check the room for Chametz with a blessing, placing out 10 pieces of bread. This applies whether or not he himself ate Chametz in the room or not.

Entered after the beginning of the night of the 14th: If one only received the keys after nightfall of the 14th, as is common with those which arrive late to the hotel for Pesach or are only arriving on Erev Pesach, then if the hotel is owned by a Jew it is the Jewish owners responsibility to check the rooms for Pesach. [If however one ate Chametz in their room after the search was done by the owner, then if they were not careful with the Chametz, the search must be redone.] In all cases that the room had not had a Bedika done to it before ones arrival, whether this is because the Jewish owner was negligent or it is owned by a gentile, then one must immediately check the room for Chametz, even if one arrived on Erev Pesach or on Chol Hamoed. A blessing is to be said before the Bedikah and all the common Bedikah laws apply.

If one entered prior to the 14th but will be leaving on the 14th? Then one is to check for Chametz with a blessing the night before.

 

Renting a home for Pesach from a non-Frum owner, or gentile:

If one is renting a home for Pesach from a gentile, or a non-Frum Jew, he is obligated to check the home for Chametz prior to Pesach.

Leaving sold Chametz in one’s home over Pesach:

It is permitted to house the Chametz of a gentile in one’s home over Pesach if one builds a Mechitza of ten Tefach in front of the Chametz. Thus it is permitted to leave all of one’s Chametz that is included within the sale of Mechiras Chametz within one’s home over Pesach, so long as it is behind a divider that reaches the minimum height of ten Tefach. The Mechitza placed in front of the Chametz must be sturdy in a way that it refrains people from passing through. Thus using a sheet as a Mechitza would not be valid.

6. Bedikas Chametz:

  1. Where?

All the areas that are obligated to be cleaned, as explained in the previous Halacha, are required to be checked for Chametz at night with the use of a candle [or flashlight and the like]. This applies even if one has completely cleaned and checked that area by day. However some Poskim rule that once the area has been cleaned it no longer needs to be checked at all, and so is the custom of many. Others rule that all moveable items merely require a swift glance at night, and not a thorough checking. Practically, it is best to check each area/item the night that he cleans it, even several days before the night of the 14th, and to make sure Chametz is guarded from that area. One is however to leave at least one area unchecked, which he will check with a blessing on the night of the 14th.

 

 

Does one have to do Bedikas Chametz to areas of Chametz that will be sold to the gentile?

No.

Maaseh Rav

The Bedikah of the Alter Rebbe:

The Alter Rebbe went to Mezritch for the first time in the year 1764 and remained there until a few days before Pesach of 1765. Upon returning home, on the 13th of Nissan that year he did not eat due to his preoccupation with the preparations for Bedikas Chametz, assuring that all the Divine intents that he learned in Mezritch regarding the Bedikah would be translated into action. The actual Bedikah continued throughout the entire night despite the fact that he only had one room in his possession.


 

 

  1. When:

The Bedikah is to be done on the night of the 14th. One is to begin the Bedikah immediately after nightfall of the 14th, after Davening Maariv.

May one do the Bedikah on a night prior to the night of the 14th?  If one wants he may do the Bedikah with a candle on all of his rooms on any night prior to the night of the 14th. A blessing is not said upon doing this search. He must make sure not to enter any more Chametz into those rooms that he checked. Nevertheless one should leave at least one room unchecked in order so it can be checked on the night of the 14th with a blessing. Practically, even if one checked all of the areas on a night prior to the 14th, and did not leave over anything to be checked, one must nevertheless recheck at least one room on the night of the 14th

Checking during the day: Lechatchilah one may never check during the day. If one transgressed and checked during the day before the night of the 14th, then if the area does not contain direct sunlight, it must be rechecked at night, even if he made the room dark and checked with a candle.

One who forgot to check for Chametz on the night of the 14th: One who forgot and did not check a certain area for Chametz on the night of the 14th, is to check for Chametz on the day of the 14th, using a candle. If he did not check at all on the night of the 14th, then before beginning the search one says the blessing of “Al Biur Chametz”. After the Bedikah one nullifies the Chametz if the 6th hour has not yet arrived.

 

Q&A

What does one do if he is at work, or has a Job which requires him to work, past nightfall?

Ideally one should arrange to be home by nightfall in order for him to do the Bedikah himself. However if this is not possible, then one must appoint a Shliach to do the Bedikah as soon as nightfall begins, rather than delay the Bedikah until he arrives home.

Appointing ones wife or kids to do the Bedikah in such a situation: One may appoint his wife, and children above the age of 13, to begin the Bedikah in the above a situation.

Leaving one area unchecked for the husband: Some suggests that one can ask the Shliach to leave out one room from being checked, and not include it in the blessing, In this way when the owner returns home he can check that room with a blessing, and hence have the advantage of fulfilling the Mitzvah himself.

 

 

  1. Prohibition of doing work, eating, or studying Torah prior to performing the Bedikah:

On the eve of the 14th one may not eat a meal, study Torah, or do any of the works forbidden to be done before Mincha and Maariv, beginning from a half hour before nightfall,.

When checking past the 14th: If one forgot to check for Chametz on the night of the 14th, and then remembered on the day of the 14th, then it is forbidden for him to do any of the above mentioned items until he performs the Bedikah.

If the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday, which is also the night of Bedikas Chametz, may one eat before doing the Bedikah? When Pesach falls on Sunday the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday the 13th, which is Erev Bedikas Chametz. In such a situation if a Bechor who is fasting has many rooms to check, and it is difficult for him to continue fasting until its conclusion, then he may eat a little prior to performing the Bedikah as only an actual meal was forbidden to be eaten. Alternatively, he is to appoint an emissary to perform the Bedikah while he eats.

Asking ones friend to remind him: One may begin to learn within a half hour before nightfall if he tells a friend, which is not learning, to remind him when the time of Bedikah arrives at nightfall. [However it does not help to appoint a friend to remind oneself at the time of Bedikah to allow one to do mundane matters within a half hour before the Bedika.]

If one began an activity before the time of Bedika, must he stop when nightfall arrives? Yes. If one began one of the above mentioned activities prior to a half hour, and certainly if he started to do it within the half hour, then he is obligated to stop when the Bedikah time arrives [at nightfall]. [However if one began one of the above mentioned activities prior to the half hour period before nightfall, then he does not need to stop when the half hour point arrives, and he may rather continue the activity until nightfall.]

 

Q&A

May one snack within the half hour period before nightfall?

Yes. However once nightfall has begun it is forbidden to continue eating even a mere snack.

Definition of snack: One may eat fruits without limit until nightfall. One may eat up to a Kebeitza [55 grams] of bread or Mezonos. One may drink without limit until nightfall.

 

May someone who was appointed an emissary to do the Bedikah, eat prior to doing the Bedikah?

It is proper not to do so.

 

  1. Maariv:

One should Daven Maariv before doing the Bedikah if a Minyan is now available and it will be difficult to gather a Minyan later on, or if one usually Davens with a Minyan, and tonight there is no Minyan available, and he will thus be Davening alone. [The Chabad custom is to always Daven Maariv before the Bedikah in all cases.]

 

  1. Guarding the Chametz from the night of the 14th

Prior to the Bedikah one must place all one’s known Chametz in an area that is not accessible to children or rodents. Similarly any Chametz found during the Bedikah is to be guarded, both during and after the Bedikah, from being accessible to rats and children.

  1. The blessing:

Before one begins to check for the Chametz one says the blessing of “Baruch Ata Hashem Elokeinu Melech Haolam Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Biur Chametz.”

What does one do if he forgot to say the blessing over the Bedikah? If one forgot to say a blessing over the Bedika at night, then he is to say the blessing the next day at the time of the burning without Hashem’s name.

 

Q&A

If one does not own a home that needs checking, does he say a blessing upon checking his belongings, such as his suitcase or car and the like?

Ø  Example: One is traveling to relatives for Pesach and will be selling his home to a gentile?  A Bochur is traveling home for Pesach? On the night of the 14th is he to check his belongings with a blessing?

One who does not have a house to check for Chametz is nevertheless obligated to check his belongings, including his car, for Chametz. However he does not recite a blessing prior to this search, as the main Bedikah was only instituted regarding one’s home.

 

When checking two separate buildings, such as two different homes, or a home and an office or store, does one say a separate blessing upon checking in the second building?

No. A separate blessing is not recited.

 

 

  1. May one talk while doing the Bedikah:

Between the blessing and the start of the search it is forbidden to talk of any matter, even if it relates to the Bedika, unless one cannot begin the Bedika until it is spoken. Once the Bedikah has begun, although one may not talk of unrelated matters, it is permitted to talk of matters that relate to the Bedika.

 

Q&A

May those helping the father perform the Bedika talk during the Bedika?

It is initially proper for them not to talk just as is the law regarding the father himself, which said the blessing.

 

If one went to the bathroom during the Bedikah may he say Asher Yatzar?

One may say Asher Yatzar after using the bathroom, before finishing the Bedikah.

 

During the Bedika may one answer Amen and Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo after a blessing?

If one hears a blessing during the Bedika he may answer Amen and Baruch Hu Uvrach Shemo.

 

During the Bedika may one recite a blessing upon hearing thunder or lightning?

Yes.

 

 

  1. Walking from house to house and room to room during the Bedikah:

Between the blessing and start of the search: Between the blessing and the start of the search one may not go into a different house. One is to first begin the search in the house that the blessing was said in. If one switched houses before beginning the search then it is considered an interval between the blessing and the mitzvah and must thus repeat the blessing. This however only applies if one goes into a different house prior to beginning the search, if however one simply goes to a different room within the same house then it does not consist of an interval.

After beginning the search: After one has begun the search it does not consist of an interval for one to go into a different house. [However Lechatchilah, one should not go into another house which does not need to be checked, just like we say that Lechatchilah one should not talk of unrelated matters during the Bedikah.]

 

  1. Who in the house is obligated in doing the Bedikah:

The search obligation is only upon the leader of the home, and is not upon any of his family members or other dependents. However in a case that the owner is not at home to do the search, then the obligation falls upon the dependents, even if the father did not directly appoint them to do the search. If one is living in the house of another Jew and is not dependant on him for his food, then although he is obligated to destroy his Chametz from the home before Pesach, nevertheless he does not need to do a search for his Chametz, as when the owner of the house does the search he is automatically acting as a messenger for the Jew to fulfill his Bedikah.

 

Q&A

If the dependents have their own money which they use to buy food are they also obligated in the Bedika?

Yes. However seemingly in such a case the dependent receives the same status as one who lives in the house of another Jew, in which case the house owner fulfills the Bedika obligation on behalf of the Jew. 

 

If the father is not at home, are the dependents obligated to check the house with a blessing?

Yes.

 

If one is living in the house of a gentile, does he have to check the gentile’s house for Chametz?

Seemingly he is obligated to check the house for Chametz in order to remove all Chametz that he owns from the home. If he has his own room, then certainly he is obligated to check his room with a blessing.

 

 

  1. Appointing others to help perform the Bedikah:

One may appoint another person in his place to perform the Bedika of his home, with a blessing. One should only appoint men over the age of 13 to perform the Bedikah. It is proper for one to engage in at least some part of the Bedikah, rather than have it completely done by emissaries. Some learn that it is encouraged to merit others [males above the age of 13] to participate in the Mitzvah of Bedikah, rather than have the father of the home perform the entire Bedikah himself.

 

 

Q&A

May women today be appointed to help search for the Chametz?

Some Poskim rule that women may be appointed to help search for Chametz, even initially.

 

May a gentile be appointed as a Shliach to do the Bedikah?

No.

 

  1. The ten pieces of bread:

The custom is to place ten pieces of Chametz throughout the house before doing the Bedikah. It is customary in the Rebbe’s household to place ten pieces of hard bread in various places, each wrapped in paper. One can use masking tape.

Hard pieces: One should beware to place hard Chametz which does not crumble, as [otherwise] perhaps some of it will crumble off [after it is found] and will remain in ones house during Pesach.

Guarded from rats/children: One must be careful to guard the pieces of Chametz found during the search so they are not taken by children or rodents.

 

Q&A

Who should put out the pieces of bread, the person doing the checking or someone else?

Some Poskim write, and so is the custom, that the pieces should not be placed out by the checker, as by doing so this Chametz is not considered to be included in the required search being that he knows where it is.

 

Should the pieces placed out be less than a kezayis?

Some Poskim rule that the pieces of Chametz should be less than a kezayis, in order so that if he does not find one of the pieces, he will not be required to go back and check.

 

 

  1. What may one use as light to check for Chametz?

A single wicked candle: One may not use the light of a torch to search the Chametz, but rather one is to search with the light of a small single [one wicked] candle. If one transgressed and checked using the light of a torch, then he has not fulfilled his obligation and must repeat and check using the light of a single candle. If one took two bees wax candles and placed them near each other and checked with them, the Bedikah is not valid. Even if one went ahead and braided the two candles into one, or melted them until they became one candle, nevertheless since it contains two wicks it is considered a torch.

The wax: Lechatchilah a beeswax candle should be used. If this is not available, then one may use a candle made of any kosher wax. If this is also not available then [non-kosher fat] Cheilav should be used. If this too is not available then oil should be used. An oil candle should not be used in other circumstances.

 

Q&A

May one use a flash light or a florescent light in the room to do the Bedikah?

It is permitted to use a flash light or other form of electric light for the Bedika. Nevertheless the custom is to use specifically a candle for the Bedika. However in a situation that the electricity is needed to help one do the Bedikah then one should not refrain from using it together with the candle. Similarly those areas which one cannot check properly with a flame due to fear of causing fire, then even Lechatchilah a flashlight should be used. If one does not have a flame available then he may even Lechatchilah use a flashlight and say a blessing over it.

 

 

  1. Does a shul or Beis Medrish need to checked for Chametz?

Shul’s and Batei Midrashim need to be checked on the night of the 14th with a candle. The gabaim of the shul are responsible to search the shul for Chametz. The Gabaim may say a blessing on their search for Chametz in the Shul and Beis Midrash. The Gabbaim do not have to nullify the Chametz after having completed the search, being that they cannot nullify and disown Chametz which does not belong to them, as a person cannot disown something that is not his. If one transgressed and did not check the Shul at night of the 14th, then he may Lechatchilah check it on the day of the 14th using sunlight, without a candle, being that it is common to have many windows in a shul, and they thus have a lot of light.

 

Who is responsible for searching for Chametz in the stairs and lounge of an apartment building?

All the residents have an obligation to search the building for Chametz, therefore they should appoint one person to perform the Bedikah and thus fulfill the obligation for all.

 

 

7. Bittul Chametz:

It is an institution of the sages to nullify all the Chametz which one has in his property which he did not find during the search. The Bittul is to be recited immediately after completing the Bedikah. The reason for this institution is because we suspect that one may find a significant piece of Chametz on Pesach and delay destroying it and thus transgress a Biblical prohibition of Baal Yiraeh.

How does one nullify the Chametz/How is the Bittul done: The main aspect of nullification is [done] in ones heart, that one place in his heart that all the Chametz in his property is like non-existent, and is insignificant, and is like dust, and like a matter which has no use of at all. By one concluding the above in his heart he has removed his mind from all the Chametz that is in his property, and it becomes completely disowned, and he no longer transgresses Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh. Although the main aspect of nullification is in one’s mind and heart, nevertheless the Sages instituted for it to be verbalized. One should explicitly say that his Chametz is disowned.

Understanding the Bittul: One must verbally disown the Chametz in a language that he understands. If he said it in a language that he does not understand, then if he does not understand at all the meaning of what he is saying, then the nullification is invalid, as he had no intention in his mind to disown the Chametz. Thus those which do not understand Aramaic are to say the bittul in their language.

Bittul the next day: It is proper that before the 6th hour one repeat the bittul, and nullify once again all the Chametz which he has in his possession. This Bittul is to be said only after performing Biur Chametz. The Bittul can no longer be performed once the 6th hour has arrived.

  1. Biur Chametz

When? The custom is that the Chametz which one finds by the search is not burned immediately that night but rather is hidden away to be burned the next day. One needs to be careful to destroy the Chametz prior to the 6th hour, and then recite the Bittul. Although one does not transgress a negative command when owning Chametz prior to the night of the 15th, nevertheless, he is Biblically obligated due to a positive command, to destroy all Chametz from his home from midday of the 14th and onwards. This obligation is called Tashbisu. If he did not destroy his Chametz [at that time], then he transgresses the positive command of Tashbisu for every moment thereon. The above obligation to destroy the Chametz by midday is only from a Biblical perspective, however Rabinically once the beginning of the 6th hour of the day has arrived one is to destroy the Chametz. Today the custom is to destroy the Chametz prior to the beginning of the 6th hour.

How-Leaving the Chametz in a public area: Prior to the 6th hour of the day, one can free himself from the prohibition of owning Chametz by giving or selling the Chametz to a non Jew, or by disowning the Chametz and placing in a public area. If he disowns the Chametz and leaves it in his house or building courtyard or lobby, then he transgresses the Rabbinical prohibition of Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh, as Rabinically the Chametz must be placed in an area that is considered public to all, even after it is disowned. Even when placing the Chametz in an area that is public to everyone, one must leave it there with a full heart, without the intention to take back after Pesach. If he intends to retrieve the Chametz after Pesach then it is not considered disowned, and he thus transgresses on its ownership even when placed in the public area. After the beginning of the 6th hour it no longer helps to disown the Chametz in a public area and one must rather destroy the Chametz from the world in a way that no person can get benefit from it, however it does not have to be destroyed to the point that animals cannot get benefit from it.

How-Destroying the Chametz: After the beginning of the 6th hour it no longer helps to disown the Chametz in a public area and one must rather destroy the Chametz from the world in a way that no person can get benefit from it. It does not have to be destroyed to the point that animals cannot get benefit from it. Even prior to the 6th hour, the disowning of the Chametz simply refrains one from transgressing ownership once the 6th hour arrives, however it does not fulfill the Mitzvah of destroying Chametz. It is for this reason that we burn the Chametz on Erev Pesach prior to the 6th hour, in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of destroying Chametz with at least some part of our Chametz that we own. The following are the valid methods of destroying the Chametz: Initially, the best method to be used is to burn the Chametz until it becomes charcoal. When burning the Chametz prior to the 6th hour, it suffices to burn it until it becomes unfit for a dog, and not until it becomes charcoal. If one cannot burn the Chametz it is valid to destroy the Chametz through any of the following methods: Break the Chametz into crumbs and then throw it into the wind or sea. If one finds kernels of Chametz then they are to be broken into 2/3 pieces and then thrown. If however there are many kernels, then it should be thrown as is. Alternatively one can place the Chametz in a toilet [and flush it], even if the pieces are large.

What does one burn: One is to burn any Chametz that he found during the Bedika, including the ten pieces of bread and the vessels used for the Bedika, such as the spoon and candle. If one did not find any Chametz during his search then it is proper for him to burn the vessels used for Bedikah. Some have the custom to use the Aravos which were hit on Hoshana Rabah as fuel to burn the Chametz.

Bittul: After performing Biur Chametz, prior to the 6th hour, it is proper that one repeat the bittul, and nullify once again all the Chametz which he has in his possession. The Bittul cannot be performed once the 6th hour has arrived.

 

 

Q&A

May one throw his Chametz into the garbage can/dump of his building, if it will not be removed until after the 6th hour?

Owned by Jew: If the garbage can is owned by you, or by your building, or by a municipality of Jews, which is the case in Israel, then leaving the Chametz there past the 6th hour is forbidden, and by doing so one transgresses on it [if he did not sell his Chametz]. Thus the following are one’s options:

1) If one sold all of one’s Chametz in all areas that they are in [as is commonly written in all contracts of Mechiras Chametz today], then the Chametz which was thrown into the garbage is also included in the sale, and therefore he does not transgress owning it. However in such a case one may no longer use the garbage can over Pesach, as it is considered rented to the gentile for the entire duration of that time.  

2) To disown the garbage can and its garbage in front of three people. If the garbage can is standing on ones property, then one is to also disown that area of one’s property. In such a case one may use the garbage can throughout Pesach.

3) To spill bleach or the like before the 6th hour onto the Chametz that is in the garbage can

4) To break the pieces of Chametz to less than a Kezayis prior to putting them inside the garbage bag.

Owned by gentile: If the garbage can/dump is owned by the gentile municipality, then it is permitted to throw Chametz garbage into it before the 6th hour, as the garbage is automatically acquired to the gentile municipality.

 

May one barbecue hotdogs or marshmallows over the flame used to burn the Chametz?

The custom is not to do so.

 

Should one destroy the Chametz himself rather than appoint someone else to do it for him?

Yes. It is best for the owner of the Chametz to burn it than to have someone else do so for him.

Does one need to wait to make sure that all the Chametz is burned?

Before the 6th hour: No, however it is proper to do so. One should verify that at least one Kezayis is burnt in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Tashbisu. [This however only applies when the Chametz is being burnt in a public area. If however it is being burnt in a private area, such as the open garage of a private building, then one must verify that all the Chametz is burned.]

After the 6th hour: When burning the Chametz past the 6th hour one must make sure that all the Chametz has been burned. Therefore one must remain by the fire there until all the Chametz is burnt, as many times if the flame is not stoked it will not penetrate and burn all of the Chametz.

Where should the Chametz be burned; in a public area or in ones property?

There are opinions which say that the Chametz should be burned in ones property, or in a public area but in a vessel that belongs to oneself. This is because once the Chametz is placed in a public property he is no longer obligated Biblically to destroy it, and thus he only fulfils the mitzvah of burning it Rabinically. In such a case however one must verify that all the Chametz is burned, as explained above.

If one does not own any Chametz, is he to buy Chametz in order for him to be able to burn it before the 6th hour?

There is no obligation to do so, although one who desires to be stringent upon himself may do so, although he may not rule this way for others.

 

What does one do with the candle/spoon and feather customarily used to search for the Chametz?

After the search one places the bag, together with the feather and any remnant of the candle, in a wooden spoon. All this is then wrapped in paper (except for the spoon handle which remains uncovered), and bound several times with string, which is then knotted. This is then thrown in the fire.

                         

 

9. Mechiras Chametz:

  1. The obligation:

Anyone which is planning to own Chametz over Pesach is Biblically required to sell his Chametz prior to Pesach.  One who has cleaned his house from any known Chametz is not obligated to do Mechiras Chametz. Nevertheless the custom today is to be extra meticulous and do Mechiras Chametz just in case some Chametz has remained in his possession without his knowledge.

 

 

Q&A

May one sell actual Chametz and leave it at home during Pesach?

Yes, and so is the Chabad custom. However there are those which are particular against doing so.

 

Should one arrange a sale of Chametz for non religious people who may perhaps use the Chametz that was sold During Pesach?

Yes.

 

Does one have to sell his Chametz stocks?

A person who owns stocks of a company which deals with Chametz foods needs to sell his stocks before Pesach.  However, some hold that if the stock holder does not have any power over anything in the company, then he does not need to sell. Whatever the case, according to all one may not sell Chametz stocks on Pesach.

 

Are pieces of Chametz that are in the Chametz room that is being rented to the gentile included in the sale?

Yes, in the contract Admur writes that all Chametz in the rooms rented are included in the sale even though they have no market value and would not be bought by anyone.

 

May/Should the Gabai sell the Chametz of the Shul?

The Gabai is unable to sell the Chametz, just like he may not nullify the Chametz, being that it does not belong to him but rather to others. However some Poskim bring that the gabai, or another person appointed by the Shul, is able to sell the Shul’s Chametz, especially if the Shul is privately owned by an Admur or Rav which makes all the decisions of the Shul. [Nonetheless, even if sold one must still clean and search for Chametz in the Shul.] Practically the custom is for the Gabai or another person appointed by the shul directors to sell the Chametz, in addition to them doing the Bedikah.

 

 

If a person has traveled to a different time zone for Pesach, where should he sell his Chametz?  

Ø  Example 1: If an Israeli traveled to America for Pesach does he sell his Chametz in Israel or in America?

Ø  Example 2: If an American traveled to Israel for Pesach does he sell his Chametz in Israel or in America?

One who owns Chametz in the area which he traveled from is to always do the sale in whichever area is the earlier time zone [east versus west], whether he traveled to an earlier time zone or later time zone. Thus, in both examples above, if one has Chametz in his home area he is to sell his Chametz through a Rav in Israel. [Although when doing so in the first example one should specify that he is only selling him the Chametz in that time zone, otherwise he will not be able to eat Chametz even before the 5th hour, as it was already sold.]

A further example-Flying from east coast to west in America: Thus when even flying for Pesach from the east coast to the west coast in America, or from the east coast to the middle of America, one needs to make sure to sell his Chametz in accordance to the time that Chametz becomes prohibited in the east coast. Similarly when flying to Hawaii from America for Pesach one must be careful to sell his Chametz by the Rav in the area in which he currently lives.

Flying from west coast to east coast in America: He must sell the Chametz in accordance to the time of the east coast.

Regarding buying back the Chametz after Pesach: There is no problem for the Chametz to be bought back in a place that Pesach ends earlier then the time it ends in the place that one lives, as one has no intention to buy back the Chametz until after Pesach ends for him.  However, some Poskim rule that one is to sell the Chametz in the earlier time zone and tell the Rav not to buy it back on his behalf from the gentile until Pesach ends in his later time zone.

 

 

  1. Where is one to store his Chametz that was sold?

All Chametz which has been sold to a gentile must be kept behind a Mechitza/divider that is at least 10 Tefach high. [80cm]

 

 

Q&A

May one leave Chametz in his fridge or freezer and close it off?

No. This applies even if he wraps the Chametz well and writes sold or Chametz on it. However there are Rabbanim that are lenient in this matter.

 

May one leave sold Chametz in his kitchen cabinets?

Yes. However there are Rabbanim that discourage one from doing so.

 

May one leave Chametz in the cabinets under his counter?

Yes. However some write against doing so as if one does so he will no longer be allowed to use the counter for his needs being that it is rented to the gentile.

 

Does one have to do Bedikas Chametz to areas of Chametz that will be sold to the gentile?

No.

 

 

May one sell his home to exempt it from Bedika and then live in it throughout Pesach?

No.

 

May one enter into a Chametz room or closet which was sold if he needs to retrieve something from there?

Yes. However, one may not use the area regularly as if it was his, and rather the allowance is only to be allowed to enter on occasion to retrieve an item which one needs.

 

 

  1. Doing the sale through a Rav:

One may appoint a messenger to do the sale for him. This is the way all the sales are done today, through the Rav of the community. Ones wife and child may be appointed as a messenger to sell the Chametz for him, or to appoint the Rabbi to do it for him. However a Kinyan should be made with her. However it is best for the person to sign himself onto the document as there are opinions which require this to be done.

 

Does one have to do a Kinyan when appointing the Rabbi, and if so then how is it done?

No, although the custom is to do so. One lifts an item [such as a Gartel or handkerchief] of the Rav. This is done merely to elucidate to the seller that it is a true sale, as in truth no acquisition is needed in appointing the Rav to be ones sale messenger.

Are witnesses required when appointing him?

No

May one appoint a Rabbi to do the sale for him over the phone, or through email?

Yes

Does one have to give money to the Rabbi which is doing the sale?

The custom is to give a donation to the Rabbi doing the sale. Some authorities claim that this is more than a mere custom, but rather is required by the letter of the law, as the Rav cannot be ones Shliach to sell the Chametz, and through paying him money it turns him into an employee working for the owner of the Chametz, of which he then has the ability to sell the Chametz for the owner.

May one sell his Chametz through a Rav in a different time zone?

One is to sell his Chametz through a Rav that is in the same time zone that he is in. If this is not possible, one may sell it through a Rav found in an earlier time zone, that takes Pesach in earlier than him. One may not sell it through a Rav that is found in a later time zone, that takes in Pesach later than him.

 

May a Lubavitcher Chassid sell his Chametz through a non-Lubavitch Rav?

Being that there are areas of dispute regarding the validity of the acquisitions, in which Admur rules in a specific way, such as that one must have a guarantor, and that a Kinyan chatzer does not help for a gentile, it is therefore incumbent for one to sell his Chametz through a person that will be doing the sale in accordance to the Alter Rebbe. Thus when selling the Chametz through a non-Lubavitcher care should be taken to make sure that it will be a valid sale according to Admur. This is in addition to the fact that by all means one should use the sale contract which Admur authored as opposed to contracts taken from other sources.

 

Does one have to particularize in the contract all the areas that he owns Chametz in?

One should mention all the areas which he has Chametz is found in. Nevertheless even if the gentile was not made known of which areas contain the Chametz, the sale is nevertheless valid.

 

 

  1. May one begin to eat Chametz after Pesach prior to the conclusion of the sale?

Yes.

10. Kosher for Pesach foods and products:

  1. The definition of a Kosher for Pesach product:

A Kosher for Pesach product refers to a food that is permitted to be eaten on Pesach without any suspicion of Chametz or Kitniyos. If a dish was made without intention to eat on Pesach then is forbidden to be eaten on Pesach, as there is a suspicion that perhaps Chametz fell inside.

 

  1. Not to use Kosher for Pesach foods which one used for Chametz foods:

Some are accustomed to be stringent to not use foods which have been opened and used for Chametz meals, even if they were careful to only use non-Chametz utensils, as perhaps one returned the food that was leftover from a meal back into the original container, and at times this food may have in it crumbs of Chametz. However in places that it is difficult to get a replacement of that food easily, then people are not accustomed to be stringent.

 

  1. From what time on Erev Pesach must one be careful to only eat Kosher for Pesach products?

One must to be careful to only eat Kosher for Pesach products beginning from the 5th hour of the day of the 14th.

 

Q&A

At what time must Ashkenazim stop eating Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah]?

Some Poskim rule that even according to Ashkenazim one may eat Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah] until midday. However practically the custom is to avoid eating Matzah Ashira beginning from the time that one must stop eating Chametz, which is the beginning of the 5th hour.

 

From what time are those that are accustomed to not eat processed foods to begin their stringency? From the night of Pesach or from 5th hour of Erev Pesach?

One is to avoid eating these foods starting from the 5th hour of the day. However many are lenient to eat processed foods up until the night of Pesach.

 

From what time are those that are accustomed to not eat spices or unpeeled foods to begin their stringency? From the night of Pesach or from 5th hour of Erev Pesach?

One is to avoid eating these foods starting from the 5th hour of the day. However many are lenient to eat these foods up until the night of Pesach.

 

 

  1. Must Non-edible products be Kosher for Pesach?

Non-edible products that contain Chametz may be owned and benefited from throughout Peach.

Chametz ink: One may write with a pen that contains Chametz ink.

 

Q&A

May one own cosmetics, shoe polish, soap, gas, cleaning alcohol, medicines on Pesach, if they contain Chametz?

Yes.

 

May non-edible Chametz products be used on the body?

Some Poskim rule that smearing is similar to drinking, and hence just as one may not eat non-edible Chametz products, similarly one may not smear them on his body. Other Poskim rule it is completely permitted. Practically, the widespread custom is to be lenient, although many are stringent in this matter.

 

May one use non-Kosher for Pesach deodorant and perfume, facial creams, oils, and cosmetics?

Yes. However many are stringent today in this matter. 

 

May one own or use Play dough/Play-doh:

Play-doh is made up of actual Chametz. It is made of flour water and food coloring. It must be destroyed before Pesach or sold to a gentile. If one did not do so then he is to destroy it on Pesach as soon as he remembers. Nevertheless a blessing is not recited upon destroying it. If one sold his Chametz then the play dough is to be placed in the area sold to the gentile.

 

May one lick the back of stamps and envelopes which have a suspicion of containing Chametz ingredients on its glue part?

Some Poskim write against doing so.

 

Does lip stick need a Kashrus verification for Pesach use?

Many are stringent in this matter.

 

Does chap stick need a Kashrus verification for Pesach use?

Many are stringent in this matter.

Vaseline:[1] The Vaseline company made 100% petroleum jelly does not require a Hashgacha for Pesach as it does not contain any other ingredient. [The flavored Vaseline’s would require a Hashgacha for those who are stringent   

 

May one use non-Kosher for Pesach detergent to clean his clothing?

Yes, as the detergent is not edible and even if it falls into ones food one has no intention to eat it.

 

May one use non-Kosher for Pesach cleaning sprays and soap for ones floor?

Yes.

 

May one use non-Kosher for Pesach dish soap for washing dishes and cutlery?

From the letter of the law, one may use Chametz soap for his dishes and cutlery being that the soap is not fit for eating, and even if some of it gets on the food it’s not a problem being that one does not have intention to eat it. Nevertheless, the custom is to be stringent to purchase Kosher for Pesach soap.

 

May one use or own pure Chametz alcohol?

No. If however it is not pure alcohol one may use it.

 

May one use or own non-Kosher for Pesach medicinal creams?

Yes. This may be done according to all.

 

May one smoke cigarettes which have their Tabaco or rolling paper coated with Chametz?

No.

 

May one eat on non-Kosher for Pesach plastic/paper plates and cuttlery?

Plastic plates and cutlery may be used. Paper plates are to be avoided due to worry that a Chametz starch was used.

 

Do napkins, paper towels and the like require a Kashrus verification for Pesach use?

Yes.[2]

 

May one use non-Kosher for Pesach Styrofoam plate?

Yes, all types may be used.

 

May one use eardrops/eye drops/or other medical ointments?

Yes it may be used according to all.

 

May one use non-Kosher for Pesach toothpaste/mouthwash?

From the letter of the law it may be used. However, many are stringent today in this matter, especially if flavored, as is done for children. 

 

Does Dental floss require a Hashgacha for Pesach?

No, unless it is flavored.

 

 

Medicine & Vitamins

May one take non-Kosher for Pesach medicines?

Chewable or syrups: No. A Kosher for Pesach alternative is to be found, or one is to contact a Rav.

Swallow-able pills: Yes, if one is sick or in pain one may take swallow able medicines even if they are not Kosher for Pesach. If however the pill contains a tasty coating, it is to have a Kosher for Pesach Hashgacha.

  

A full English and Hebrew Medicine list can be found on the Kelalit website: http://www.clalit.co.il/he/medical/pharmacy/Pages/kosher_medicine_2014.aspx

 

May one eat medicines which contain Kitniyos?

There is no need to be stringent to avoid taking medicines which contain Kitniyos.

 

May one take non-Kosher for Pesach vitamins?

No. A full Kosher for Pesach vitamin list can be found in the Madrich of the Eida Hachareidis.

 

  1. Kitniyos:

The custom in these provinces is to not eat Kitniyos on Pesach. The reason behind this custom is because if kitnoyos were to be allowed to be cooked and eaten then the laymen would come to think that even heat/spelt/rye/oats/barley kernels is permitted to be cooked and eaten.

The definition of Kitnoyos: Based on the reason mentioned above, only legumes are forbidden due to the custom, being that they are similar when cooked, to the cooking of the 5 grains. However seeds are not forbidden according to the custom, being that they are not similar to grains. This however is with exception to mustard being that it grows in stalks similar to legumes, and with exception to cumin which is similar to wheat. However cumin which is not similar to wheat, there is no custom to forbid. All types of vegetables may be used as they are not similar to grains.

List of Kitniyos?  Corn, Rice, Buckwheat, beans including soy, lentils, sesame, mustard, Millet, chickpeas, Peas, String beans, grouts, sun flour seeds, poppy seeds, cloves, fenugreek, green beans, cumin, caraway, linseed, cardamom, coriander,  fennel; Anise, ascorbic acid, aspartame, beans (all types of beans e.g., kidney, lima, garbanzo), bean sprouts, BHA and BHT (in corn oil), black-eyed peas, buckwheat, calcium ascorbate, canola (rapeseed) oil, caraway, citric acid (sometimes Chametz), chickpeas, coriander, corn and corn oil, corn syrup, cumin, dextrose, emulsifiers, fennel, fenugreek, flax seeds, glucose, green beans, guar gum, hydrolyzed vegetable oil, kasha, kimmel, lecithin (all commercially produced lecithin is made from soy), lentils, licorice, Lucerne, lupine, maltodextrin (sometimes Chametz), millet, MSG (can be from beets [kosher for Pesach], corn [Kitniyos], or wheat [Chametz]), mustard and mustard flour, NutraSweet, peanuts, peas, polysorbates (sometimes Chametz), popcorn, poppy seeds, rice, saffron, sesame seeds, snow peas, sodium citrate, sodium erythorbate, sorbitan, sorbitol (could be Chametz unless manufactured in the U.S.A), soybeans and soy oil, stabilizers, starch (possibly Chametz), string beans, sunflower seeds, tofu, vitamin C (could be Chametz), xanthan gum (may be Chametz). Quinoa is disputed if it is Kitniyos. Flax seeds and hemp seeds from the letter of the law are not Kitniyos. However since they can be ground as flour, some opinions include them in the category of Kitniyos.

Checking the permitted seeds for grains: Those seeds which are not similar to wheat and are thus permitted, nevertheless must be checked very well to make sure that they do not contain any grain kernels in them. For this reason one who is stringent to avoid eating cumin and sheves will be blessed as it is very difficult to sift them from grains.

May one own and get benefit from Kitniyos? One may both own and benefit from kitnyus on Pesach even if it is wet, as it was only forbidden in eating when wet.

May one have Kitniyos products on ones table when one eats? One may [have Kitniyos products on ones table, such as to] have Kitniyos oil on ones table which is being used for candles. The reason for this is because we do not suspect that the oil will fall into food, as even if it does it is nullified in majority.

What is the Halacha if Kitniyos fell in ones food? It is nullified in majority as this prohibition is a mere stringency due to custom.

 

Q&A

May one eat Kitniyos on Erev Pesach until the night?

Some Poskim rule it is permitted to eat Kitniyos on Erev Pesach until the night on the condition that one checks the kernels for grains three times. However, other Poskim rule that eating Kitniyos is forbidden starting from the 5th hour. Practically, the widespread custom is to be stringent.

 

May children or an ill person eat Kitniyos?

If needed they may be given Kitniyos to eat, even if there is no danger involved. When doing so it is proper to designate pots which will be used for the Kitniyos.

 

May one cook in a pot that had Kitniyos cooked in it?

After 24 hours one may cook in it even Lechatchilah. Within 24 hours one may not do so, although if he does then the food is permitted, as there is majority of Heter verses the Kitniyos taste.

 

What does one do if he cooked Kitniyos on his stove and some of it spilled?

One must make sure to clean it well prior to cooking on it Pesach foods.

 

If an Ashekenazi woman married a Sefardi may she eat Kitniyos?

Yes, she may, and she does not even need to perform a removal of a vow.

 

Is Kitniyos Muktzah on Yom Tov of Pesach?

No.

 

May one eat Kitniyos on Shabbos which follows the last day of Yom Tov?

It is permitted to eat edible Kitniyus on Shabbos which follows the last day of Pesach. Thus one may buy Chumus and Tehina which are Kosher for Pesach during Chol Hamoed, and eat it that Shabbos.

 

May one cook the Kitniyos on Friday which is Yom Tov?

Some Poskim rule this is permitted. Others rule it is forbidden.

 

 

Q&A

Are peanuts Kitniyus?

The Igros Moshe writes that from the letter of the law peanuts are permitted to be eaten, although in places that the custom is to be stringent one may not permit them to eat it.

 

May coffee and cocoa be eaten?

It is allowed as it grows on a tree and is thus not considered Kitniyos. However there are those which are stringent to not eat it, in order so others do not think that Kitniyos is also permitted to be eaten.

The Chabad custom: One is to boil it in water before Pesach.

 

Are Potatoes and potato flour allowed to be eaten?

Some opinions prohibit using potatoes flour being that it is too similar to grains and an ignoramus may come to permit even flour of grains if it were to be allowed. The Chayeh Adam even goes as far as saying that even actual potatoes are forbidden. The custom however is to be lenient even regarding potato flower, and so rule majority of the Poskim.

 

Is Quinoa Kitniyos?

This matter is under dispute amongst Kashrus organizations.

 

May Kitniyus Shenishtana/Kitniyus oil be used?

Some Hashgacha organizations allow Kitniyos derivatives to be used in their Kosher Lepesach labeled products. An example of this is corn syrup and aspartame, which is a sweetener used in diet sodas. Other Hashgacha organizations, such as Rav Landaus, do not accept any Kitniyos derivatives, and thus there is no Kosher Lepeasach diet coke in Israel.

Opinion of Admur: From the fact that Admur considers Kitnityus oil to be forbidden to eat it implies that he holds that all Kitniyos derivatives are forbidden.

 

May mushrooms be eaten?

Mushrooms are grown off rye and wheat and thus are Chametz and may not be eaten, unless they carry a Hashgacha for Pesach.

 

May one use canola/soy oil, and other oils made of seed?

Many Poskim allow oil made from seeds to be used if they were carefully checked. However the Minchas Yitzchak prohibits all oils made from seeds being that it is difficult to clean them from grains.

 

 

  1. List of foods and their Kosher for Pesach status:

Salt and other spices: One may not eat sugar on Pesach unless it has a reliable Hashgacha as we suspect that perhaps Chametz becomes mixed into the sugar.

Sugar: One may not eat sugar on Pesach unless it has a reliable Hashgacha as we suspect that perhaps Chametz becomes mixed into the sugar. Some have the custom of avoiding sugar although this custom is not for all to take upon themselves. Others boil the sugar and use the sugar water for Pesach. See Halacha 11C!

Filtering water: The custom is to filter the water when drawing it with a clean white cloth.

Honey: One may not eat honey on Pesach unless it has a reliable Hashgacha.

Dried fruits: One may not eat dried fruits on Pesach unless it has a reliable Hashgacha.

Cloves: One may not use cloves on Pesach unless it has a reliable Hashgacha.

Tabak: One may not sniff Tabak on Pesach unless it has a reliable Hashgacha.

Matzah Ashira-Egg Matzah: The Ashkenazi custom is to prohibit eating egg Matzah throughout Pesach. See Halacha 12C for further details!

Machine made Matzah: The Chabad custom is not to eat machine Matzah at all on Pesach, and one should not give it to kids either, as by Emunah one cannot be lenient. See Halacha 12D for further details!

Gebrochts: Chassidim are very particular not toe at any Gebrochts on Pesach. See Halacha 11A!

Radish: The Rebbe Rashab said that the Tzemach Tzedek forbade radishes on Pesach without giving any explanation. The Rebbe Rashab himself would sell his radish jelly before Pesach.

Garlic: There are those which are accustomed not to eat garlic on Pesach. Those that are accustomed to follow this custom are not to swerve from it. However those that did not receive such a custom are not required accept it.

Cinnamon: Our custom is not to eat cinnamon because it may contain Chametz.


 

  1. Pesach Chumros:
 

The source of Pesach Chumros:

The Rishonim and Poskim  record that the Jewish people are holy and go above and beyond the letter of the law requirements on Pesach. The Arizal states that on Pesach one should be stringent to follow all the stringencies.

 

Justifying Pesach complaints:

One may not say “How troublesome is Pesach”, as this is similar to the statement of the wicked son.  Nevertheless, today people are not careful in the above and some Poskim have learned merit to justify these statements.  They learn that one is only similar to a Rasha when one complains regarding the Mitzvos of Karban Pesach, and other Mitzvos which are Biblical, as by saying this one makes it seem that the commands of the Torah are a burden on him. However, today this statement is said in reference to all the great stringencies which are accustomed with Pesach, and when he says on them how troublesome they are there is no prohibition in the matter.

 

Reason for Pesach Chumros:

First Mitzvah we accepted:  The Mitzvah of prohibiting Chametz was the first Mitzvah given to all the Jewish people, and they therefore accepted it with love and affection, and were stringent in it regarding all details.

Chametz symbolizes the Yetzer Hara:  The reason that the Torah was so stringent regarding Chametz is because Chametz symbolizes the Yetzer Hara, as just as Chametz is defined as bread that has risen, so too, the Yetzer Hara derives from haughtiness. Therefore, the Torah gave very strict rules regarding the Chametz on Pesach, in order to banish the Yetzer Hara completely from within us.

Banishes the Yetzer Hara to the point one does not sin:  The Arizal states that on Pesach one should be stringent to follow all the stringencies, as one who is careful to avoid even a speck of Chametz on Pesach is guaranteed not to sin throughout the year. [This means that his nature will change to the point that it is so refined that he will not naturally do a sin inadvertently. However, regarding sinning advertently, one always retains his freedom of choice.

Idolatry:  Chametz is referred to by the Zohar as idolatry.

 

Baseless Chumros:

Ideally, according to Halacha, one is not allowed to be stringent regarding Rabbinical matters more than the stringencies of the Shulchan Aruch, nevertheless, regarding Pesach, the Jewish people are holy and go above and beyond the letter of the law.  Nonetheless, this only applies if the custom has some basis or source, one however is not to innovate new Chumros that have no base in Halacha.

 

Being Machmir not to offend others with your Chumros:

It once occurred by a Pesach meal on the table of the Rebbe Rayatz in New York that a certain uneducated guest dipped his Matzah in the Borscht [beet soup], performing a grave sin in the eyes of the Chassidic brotherhood that were present by the meal. As can be understood, a great tumult transpired surrounding the actions of this guest, and the other Chassidim present gave the guest a piece of their mind. The Rebbe Rayatz inquired as to the reason behind the commotion and was told of the grave actions performed by the guest on his very own Pesach table. The Rebbe Rayatz nonchalantly replied “It is better that the Matzah become red [with the Borscht soup] than you cause the face of a Jew to redden in shame.”

 

  1. Matzah Shruyah/Gebrochts

What is it? Matzah that has come to contact with water either by cooking with water or dipping in water.

The Law: The Chassidic custom is not to eat any Matzah dipped in water due to a suspicion that part of the flour may not have been kneaded into the dough and thus now when it will come into contact with the water it will become Chametz. “Now although that this is not a complete and clear prohibition according to the letter of the law, nevertheless one who is stringent is blessed, and is not considered to be a wondrous person which does things without reason, as there is a great reason involved in order to avoid a suspicion of eating flour which was not kneaded into the dough and then came into contact with water, which is a Biblical prohibition according to many Rishonim.“…. “However one should not to protest against those that are lenient as they have upon whom to rely, mainly the Rambam and Rashi, although according to what the Arizal writes that one should be stringent on all the stringencies of Pesach, then it’s obvious that one should be stringent.”

On the last day of Pesach: On the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora one who is lenient to eat Matzah with water for the purpose of Yom Tov joy, is not losing out on keeping of the above mentioned stringencies of the Arizal. Our Holy Rabbeim were even scrupulous to dip their Matzas in liquids, and with each different food, in fish, meat, and especially soup. Even those foods which throughout the year are not normally eaten with bread, they would eat with their Matzah. 

The Chabad custom: We are so stringent in the above that we make sure to place our Matzas in bags when we eat them, lest a crumb of it enter the food. Similarly we check our cups and plates before we eat from them to make sure

Dipping Matzah in Fruit Juices: “Regarding dipping Matzah in fruit juice it’s obvious that one need/should not be stringent against doing it throughout the entire Pesach.” The Rebbe Rashab would eat his Matzas with wine [and milk]. If fruit juice is mixed with water then it is even more of a problem then plain water regarding its ability to ferment, being that plain water takes at least 18 minutes to ferment, while when mixed with fruit juice it can ferment immediately. Thus care must especially be taken that when eating Matzah with fruits etc, that there is no water around, including perspiration, on the fruit. Practically one may eat Matzah with avocado, tomato, oil. Nonetheless, despite the above, most Chassidim are accustomed not to eat Matzah with even fruit juice, perhaps due to worry of mixture of water or condensation.

Eating on vessels used with Gebrochts:  The custom is to not use any vessels on Pesach which had wet Matzah fall on it that Pesach. However from a previous Pesach, it is not a problem to use even though no koshering was done.

May children eat Gebrochts on Pesach? In a letter from the earlier years the Rebbe writes that one may be lenient to with regards to children in feeding them Gebrochts. However in a Sicha of 1988 the Rebbe states that children should not eat Gebrochts on Pesach, being that Matzah is Emunah, and with faith one cannot be lenient. [However babies which will not be able to eat anything else, may eat Gebrochts, and it is better to eat it then to eat Kitniyos.]

May one take a bite off a large piece of Matzah or is one to only enter small pieces into his mouth? Some are accustomed to only enter bite pieces of Matzah into their mouth at a time, in order to prevent saliva [which is equivalent to water] from coming into contact with the bitten area. Rav Groner told me he never heard of such a custom.

 

  1. Matzah Ashira/Machine made Matzah:

See Halacha 12C!

 

  1. Sugar:

The custom of the Rebbe Rashab: The Rebbe Rashab avoided using sugar due to suspicion that a Chametz ingredient was used in the boiling process, or alternatively the workers would dip their breads into it, and thus there is a suspicion that a crumb of Chametz remained in the sugar. There is a story with the brother-in-law of the Rebbe Rashab which owned a sugar production plant and had made a specially supervised batch of sugar to be used by the Rebbe Rashab on Pesach despite that even throughout the year there was no suspicion of Chametz in the sugar. When the Rebbe Rashab was brought the sugar cubical his face became stern with concern, and he followed to break open one of the cubicles, and unexplainably a wheat kernel fell out.

The Rebbe’s directive: Regarding if this stringency applies for all Chassidim the Rebbe writes that if one knows for certain that there is no suspicion of Chametz in the sugar then he does not see a reason for one to be stringent.

The custom of some to boil the sugar: There are many which boil the sugar before Pesach and thus make sugar water in order that if there were to be a speck of Chametz in the sugar then it would dissolve through the cooking and become nullified in 60x before Pesach and would thus be allowed to be eaten.  Some have the custom to filter the sugar water afterwards.

  1. Alcoholic beverages:

The Tzemach Tzedek would not drink any alcohol/liquor on Pesach even if it was supposedly made without Chametz, and so was the custom also of the Rebbe Rashab, as well as that he spoke against drinking it on Pesach. Rebbe Akivah Eger sent a proclamation prohibiting it without a revealed reason, saying that he is saving the reason for himself. This proclamation is mentioned in the Teshuvahs of the Tzemach Tzedek and seems to be the source for why the Tzemach Tzedek avoided drinking it. In many places this stringency became widespread while in others it did not. There were amongst Rabbanei Anash which also ruled that it may be drunk on Pesach.

  1. Water:

Preparing before Pesach: There was a certain Chassid which was accustomed every year before Pesach to prepare all the water that he will be using for Pesach. When he came to the Rebbe Rashab to ask if he can retract this custom being that it had become too burdensome for him, the Rashab told him that initially there would not have been an issue for him not to follow this custom, however since he already started bit he should not stop it being that this was the custom of the Baal Shem Tov. The Rabbeim were not stringent to prepare water before Pesach.

Filtering: The custom is to place a thick covering over the tabs of water in order to filter it from any possible Chametz that would be inside. When the Rebbe once came for the Seder in Tomchei Temimim he checked to make sure that a filter was placed by the water.

 

  1. A vessel or food that fell on the ground:

A vessel which fell on the ground is put away and not used for the rest of Pesach. The same applies for food which falls on the ground, although if the food has a peal there are those which peal it, and then use the food.

 

  1. Radish:

The Rebbe Rashab said that the Tzemach Tzedek forbade radishes on Pesach without giving any explanation. The Rebbe Rashab himself would sell his radish jelly before Pesach.

  1. Garlic:

Garlic is not Chametz, or Kitniyus, and is thus permitted to be eaten over Pesach.  Nevertheless, there are those who are accustomed not to eat garlic on Pesach.  Those families who are accustomed to follow this custom are not to swerve from it.  However, those families who did not receive such a custom are not required to accept it upon themselves.  Nevertheless, if one is part of a community in which everyone is accustomed to be stringent, he is not to be lenient in public regarding this matter. 

The Chabad custom: Some record that there is no Chabad custom to avoid eating garlic on Pesach. [Practically, each family is to follow their Minhag.]

 

  1. Cinnamon:

Our custom is not to eat cinnamon because it may contain Chametz.

*I. Ginger:

Spice: Although ginger is not Kitniyus , our custom is not to use ginger [spice] over Pesach due to it having worry of Chametz mixtures.

Fresh ginger:  One may eat fresh ginger that has no worry of Chametz.

  1. Eggs:

Washing the eggs before Pesach: The cook in Tomcheiy Temimim once asked the Temimim why they do not wash the eggs before Pesach? The Temimim then asked Rebbetzin Rivkah if she washes the eggs, and she answered that she is not accustomed to do so. When the Temimim came to the Rebbe Rashab to ask what they should do the Rebbe told them that on the “Safta” they do not want to rely but on the cook they do!

Cooking the eggs in a separate pot: Many are accustomed to use a designated pot to cook the eggs and do not use that pot for any other purpose throughout Pesach.

The egg box: One is to search the egg box prior to Pesach to verify it does not contain any grains or Chametz from the chicken feed.

 

  1. Smoking:

The Rebbe Rashab would smoke on Pesach.  The students would sift it to make sure that there is no Chametz contained in it.

 

  1. Peeling all produce:

Many have the custom to peel all their fruits and vegetables and to avoid eating anything which cannot be peeled.

Use separate knife for peeling the fruits/veggies: Many have the custom to designate a separate knife or peeler for the peeling of all the fruits and vegetables throughout Pesach.

 

Q&A

From what time are those that are accustomed to not eat spices or unpeeled foods to begin their stringency? From the night of Pesach or from 5th hour of Erev Pesach?

One is to avoid eating these foods starting from the 5th hour of the day. However many are lenient to eat these foods up until the night of Pesach.

 

 

  1. To wash all ones produce prior to Pesach:

Some have the custom to wash all their produce prior to Pesach. This includes even the bottles of wine and oil.

 

  1. Processed foods:

It is a renowned Chabad custom to avoid eating all processed foods on Pesach.

Matzah and wine: This is with exception to Matzah and wine, which due to inability to self produce, is widely purchased from a store or company. Nevertheless many families are stringent to produce their own wines and even bake their own Matzas.

Oil: The Rebbe writes that “Anash use Natala margarine on Pesach”. This refers to a congealed vegetable fat that was processed by a company under a local Mehadrin Hashgacha. Thus one may purchase any Kosher for Pesach oil that contains a most reliable Hashgacha. Nevertheless there are those which are stringent to only use melted chicken fat [Shmaltz] as their oil base product for Pesach food and cooking.

Sugar: See above!

 

From what time are those that are accustomed to not eat processed foods to begin their stringency? From the night of Pesach or from 5th hour of Erev Pesach?

One who is stringent to avoid eating processed foods is to avoid eating them starting from the 5th hour of the day. However many are lenient to eat processed foods up until the night of Pesach.

 

 

  1. Eating out by others on Pesach:

It is stated in the name of his father the Alter Rebbe “On Pesach one does not invite others to eat and drink, however it is permitted for one to take on his own.” This means that the host is not to offer or pressure others to eat our foods on Pesach, as perhaps he is stringent regarding this food. However from the perspective of the guest there is no issue in one eating another person’s food if he so chooses. Furthermore one is to make his food available for guests that desire to eat from his foods. Nevertheless some are custom not to eat at other people houses, or partake in other people’s foods, throughout Pesach.

 

  1. Lending vessels to others:

Some are custom not to lend or borrow their Pesach vessels throughout Pesach.

 

  1. Not to wipe lips by Mayim Achronim:

It is our custom to not wipe the lips with the water of Mayim Achronim throughout all the days of Pesach.

 

  1. Using hot water in a sink on Pesach:

It is advised not to use hot water that is over Yad Soledes [110° F] on Pesach, in a sink that is not Kasherable, as one can possibly Treif up the vessels in the sink through doing so. Thus one should not turn on the hot water to the point of Yad Soledes and is likewise not to pour hot water into the sink. If the water is warm, below Yad Soledes, it may be poured into the sink. Likewise if the hot water of a pot was placed in a Keli Sheiyni, it may be poured into the sink even if it is still very hot.

  1. Not to say the word Chametz:

Some write that one is not to mention the word “Lechem” or “bread” on Pesach, and rather one is to say the word Chametz. Some however write that the Rebbe negated the use of the word Chametz when in reference to actual existing Chametz. [However certainly the word Chametz may be used in general reference such as in Halacha and Torah learning.] Some would avoid even saying the last name of a person that had reference to Chametz [such as the Bagel family].

12. Matzah:

  1. Shmura Matzah:

For Matzas Mitzvah eaten on the night of Pesach, one only fulfills the mitzvah if the grains were supervised for the sake of Pesach from becoming Chametz from when the flour is mixed with water. [Meaning in addition to the fact that all matzos eaten over Pesach must be guarded from Chametz, in addition, those matzos eaten on the night of the 15th/16th must be guarded Lishma, for the sake of the Mitzvah.] This is from the letter of the law, however the custom of all Jews is to supervise the wheat used for all the Matzas mitzvah eaten on the night of the 15th and 16th from water, already beginning form the time that they are ground into flour. For the Matzas Mitzvah it is proper for one to be stringent if possible and supervise the grains already beginning from the time of harvest.

Must a Jew thus actually grind the kernels? No. By the grinding, unlike by the kneading, it may be done by a gentile, as long as there is a Jew which is supervising him, and thus guarding the grains from becoming Chametz.

Should one eat Shmura Matzah on all days of Pesach? Yes. The Jewish people are holy and are accustomed to even guard the grinding of the grains used for the Matzas of the rest of the days of Pesach.

 

Understanding Rasham versus Rashi:

Many Matzah bakeries offer two different types of Matzah, one called Rasham and the second called Rashi. The Rashi Matzas are traditionally more expensive. To the unaware, this may seem like Matzas which follow two different opinions of Rishonim, however in truth it does not refer to any person or opinion but rather to the form of grinding. Rashi means “Reichaim Shel Yad” or hand ground Matzah. Some opinions require that the grains be made into flour by a Jew. Rasham means “Reichaim Shel Mechona”, or machine ground flour. Admur ibid rules that there is no need for a Jew to grind the Matzas, as stated above, and hence in his opinion there is no need to purchase the more expensive Matzah called Rashi.

 

Understanding 18 minutes from table versus 18 minutes from kneading:

Many Matzah bakeries offer two different types of Matzah, one being 18 minutes from the table and the second being 18 minutes from the kneading. The 18 minutes from kneading Matzas are traditionally more expensive. To the unaware, this matter seems puzzling as how can the Matzah bakery sell Matzas that passed 18 minutes? The explanation is as follows: From the letter of the law so long as 18 consecutive minutes did not pass without the dough being worked on then it is not Chametz, even if many hours pass by. Furthermore, when one works on the dough the 18 minutes restart. For example, if after the dough was mixed with water it remained 17 minutes without work, and it was then worked on, then the 18 minutes restart. This is the meaning of “18 minutes from the table” Matzas, as these Matzas have passed a total of 18 minutes from the time of kneading with water, although they have not passed 18 minutes from the time of rolling the dough on the table, and is hence not Chametz. Nevertheless the custom of all Jewry for some generations is to only eat Matzas that did not pass 18 minutes total from the time of it being kneaded with water even though the dough is being worked on in the interim. This is the meaning of the “18 minutes from the kneading” Matzas, as these Matzas did not pass 18 minutes from the time water was added until they were baked. Practically one should try to purchase only the 18 minutes from kneading Matzah, as was the aged custom, however in a time of need one may purchase the 18 minutes from table Matzas.   

 

 

  1. Does one fulfill the mitzvah even if he eats Matzah which does not belong to him?

One only fulfills the Mitzvah with Matzah that he owns. If one wants to eat his friend’s Matzah he must ask him permission beforehand, and have him give it to him as a present. If one borrows Matzah then he also fulfills his obligation.

 

  1. Matzah Ashira/ “Rich mans Matzah”:

What is Matzah Ashira? Any dough kneaded with wine or other juices [to the point that the juice can be tasted], is considered Matzah Ashira. Any liquid which does not derive from water is considered fruit juice. This includes wine, oil, milk, honey, eggs etc. [fat, milk and sweat are all considered fruit juice]. As well if the Matzah is very thick, it is also considered Matzah Ashira, even if it had only water kneaded into it. However even if one uses very fine flour, if it is kneaded with water and is not thick, it is not considered Ashira

May one eat Matzah Ashira by the Seder for the Mitzvah of Matzah? According to all opinions one does not fulfill the obligation of eating Matzah on the night of the 15th, with eating Matzah Ashira, as we learn from the term “Lechem Oini” that the Matzah must be similar to that of a poor man. Furthermore, one can only fulfill his obligation with Matzah that can become Chametz and thus needs to be guarded against becoming Chametz, and flour that is mixed with 100% fruit juice cannot become Chametz, as explained next.

May one eat Matzah Ashira on other days of Pesach? It is forbidden for Ashkenazim to eat Matzah Ashira throughout Pesach. The explanation is as follows: If one adds 100% fruit juice, without any water, into the flour then the dough cannot become Chametz, even if the dough rises and remains un-worked for over 18 minutes. However there are opinions which say that not only does fruit juice make flour into Chametz, but it does so much quicker than water, in less than 18 minutes. Practically, the main Halachic opinion is like the former/lenient opinion, however according to all if the fruit juice is mixed with even a minute amount of water, then the dough can become instant Chametz, in even less than 18 minutes. Due to this the Ashkenazi custom is to be stringent to not knead flour with any fruit juices, even if no water is added, as perhaps a drop of water will fall in which case according to all it can become Chametz instantly. Furthermore, even Bedieved if one already made the Matzas with 100% fruit juice, it is not to be eaten in order to be stringent like the latter opinion. However, an old or sick person who cannot eat other Matzah or foods, may be lenient. Thus Ashkenazim may not eat egg Matzah or any Pesach product that states “Matzah Ashira” on them. Such foods may only be eaten by Sefaradim, under a reliable Hashgacha.

May an Ashkenazi own Matzah Ashira over Pesach:  It is permitted for Ashkenazim to own Matzah Ashira products during Pesach, as the above adherence is only with regards to eating it, and not regarding owning.

 

Q&A

At what time must Ashkenazim stop eating Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah]?

Some Poskim rule that even according to Ashkenazim one may eat Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah] until midday. However practically the custom is to avoid eating Matzah Ashira beginning from the time that one must stop eating Chametz, which is the beginning of the 5th hour.

 

May one eat egg Matzah or other forms of Matzah Ashira?

It is forbidden for Ashkenazim to eat egg Matzah or any other Matzah which contains any liquid other than water. However, an old or sick person who cannot eat other Matzah or foods, may be lenient.

 

May one eat “Papushato” cookies?

Based on the above it is forbidden for an Ashkenazi to eat the “Papushato” company Mezonos cookies which is made using fruit juice. The same would apply for any Mezonos cookies that is made using fruit juice, that it is forbidden for Ashkenazim to eat it. Many leading Sefaradi Rabbis forbid the eating of such cookies for any person, as they claim it is not possible to supervise in such companies that not even one drop of water mix within the fruit juice that is used. Furthermore, it was discovered that in such cookies there is water placed in the wine, and other chemicals and spices, and hence they rule that the above cookies are absolute Chametz, and may not be eaten even after Chametz if they were not included in the Mechiras Chametz. 

 

  1. Machine made Matzah:

The Chabad custom is not to eat machine made Matzah at all throughout all the days of Pesach. One should not give this Matzah to even his children to eat as by matters of Emunah one cannot be lenient. The reason behind why we do not eat machine Matzah is based on both Halacha and Kabala. In a time of need however one may use such Matzah. The Rebbe’s grandfather permitted machine made Matzah, and the Rebbe Rashab would send it out to people for Pesach.

 

May one eat Matzas which are rolled with a machine like item?

Some Poskim rule it is allowed to do so. Others rule doing so is similar to machine made Matzah, and hence those stringent by machine made are to be stringent by this as well.

 

 


 

  1. Kefulos and Nefuchos:

Kefula: A Kefula is when a Matzah contains a fold which is touching the Matzah on both ends without any interval of air in-between the fold and the Matzah. If one finds such a fold on his Matzah then one must remove the folded area and the worth of a thumbs width that surrounds the area of the fold. If this fold was found on Pesach, from the 5th hour of Erev Pesach and onwards, it is proper to be stringent to burn this area of Matzah that must be removed. If the fold is not touching the Matzah at both ends, even if there is only a tiny space of air in-between them, the Matzah is kosher, unless one sees that the area under the fold has not changed color.

Nefucha: A Nefucha is if there is a hollow vacuum with an air bubble the size of an average thumb top, on the Matzah. If as Nefucha of this size was discovered on the Matzah the entire Matzah is forbidden to be eaten, as the air bubble reveals that the entire Matzah is Chametz. [Practically, the custom today regarding our Matzas which are very thin and cracker like, is to permit eating Matzas that contain Nefuchos air bubbles, and hence they may even initially be eaten on Pesach. However regarding Kefulos, one must be stringent even regarding Matzas of today. 

  1. Gebrochts: Matzah balls, Matzah dipped in liquids:

On the night of the Seder: On the night of the Seder one does not fulfill his obligation of eating Matzah, with Matzas which are cooked, being that their taste have been nullified. Furthermore, Lechatchilah one may not even fulfill his obligation with Matzah that is dipped in water, as the Matzah must be eaten plain. However Bedieved if one did so, he does fulfill his obligation. Furthermore, a sick or old person may be lenient to do so even initially if they cannot eat the Matzah otherwise. One however does not fulfill his obligation with Matzah dipped in fruit juice, even Bedieved, being that it removes the taste of the Matzah.

The rest of Pesach: The Chassidic custom is not to eat any Matzah dipped in water due to a suspicion that part of the flour may not have been kneaded into the dough and thus now when it will come into contact with the water it will become Chametz. On the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora one who is lenient to eat Matzah with water for the purpose of Yom Tov joy, is not losing out on keeping of the above mentioned stringencies of the Arizal. Regarding dipping Matzah in fruit juice it’s obvious that one need not be stringent against doing it throughout the entire Pesach See Halacha 11A for further details on this matter!

 

What does an old or sick person do if he cannot eat hard Matzah?

Then one may be lenient and let him eat Matzah dipped in water for the Seder night. One needs to dip a Kezayis in the water, and needs to make sure that the Matzah is not cooked and has not stayed 24 hours in water, otherwise he does not fulfill his obligation.

 

13. Kashering:

The laws of Kashering vessels are complex and hence it should only be done by one which is expert in these laws.

One must be aware of the following details:

  1. Is the vessel made of a Kasherable material?
  2. How has the vessel been used? What form of Kashering is required for it? Libun? Hagalah?
  3. What must one do if the vessel is rusty?
  4. How does one do Libun?
  5. How does one do Hagalah?
  6. May the vessel be Ben Yomo?
  7. Must the vessel one is Kashering in be itself Kashered?
  8. How long must the vessels remain in the water by Hagalah?
  9. May many vessels be Kashered simultaneously?
  10. May one Kasher on Erev Pesach or Pesach?
  11. What to do with Chametz vessels that one does not plan to Kasher:

Cleaning: All Chametz vessels which one does not desire to Kasher for Pesach, or is unable to Kasher them, are to be cleaned from Chametz. One is to scrub them and slightly rinse them down from any recognizable Chametz.

Putting them away: One is to hide the vessels in an area which he is not accustomed to enter into throughout the entire Pesach. Furthermore, it is proper to place the vessels in a room [or closet] which will be locked, and then hide the keys, in order to prevent any possibility of entering there during Pesach. Those which are accustomed to place the vessels in a very high area which is visible, have upon what to rely, although one who is stringent to hide them away from sight will be blessed.

Un-cleanable Chametz vessels: All vessels that are difficult to clean from Chametz are to be sold to a gentile and stored away as written above.

 

  1. Kashering new vessels:

New vessels which are bought from a gentile do not need to be Kashered. Hence, all vessels which appear new may be bought from a gentile store or company. However, vessels sold by a gentile individual from his home are not to be purchased

 

 

Do new pots and pans need to be Kashered today due to suspicion of them having been smeared with non-Kosher fats?

Many Poskim rule there is no need to Kasher new pots or aluminum which had non-kosher fats smeared on them during manufacturing. However, some are accustomed to be stringent. Practically, the worldwide custom is to not require them to be Kashered. However in certain areas, such as Eretz Yisrael, many are accustomed to do so.

 

 

  1. Forms of Kashering:

The Torah taught us a great rule “Kebolo Kach Polto”; the same way the Issur entered that is the way it is removed. There are a thus number of different forms of Kashering that are done to Kasher a vessel.  How each vessel is to be Kashered, and what level of Kashering it needs, is determined based on its past use.

The following are the different levels:

  1. Libun Chamor
  2. Libun Kal
  3. Hagalah
  4. Iruiy with Even Meluban
  5. Hadacha

 

Libun Chamor/Gamur:

Libun Chamor [also called Libbun Gamur] is defined as torching the vessel until sparks fly from it or alternatively, until a sheet of its metal peels off.

 

Libun Kal:

Libun Kal is defined as torching the vessel until its opposite side becomes Yad Soledes. When burning Chametz from a rusty area or crack the custom is to do so until the point that a piece of straw would burn if it were to be placed on other side.

 

Hagalah:

Hagalah is defined as entering the vessel into a pot of boiling water.

 

Iruiy with Even Meluban:

Iruiy with Even Meluban refers to pouring hot water from a Keli Rishon onto the item and then passing throughout the entire item a red hot stone or metal, hence causing the water to boil.

Using an iron: A hot iron which causes the water to boil may be used as an Even Meluban. Hence when Kashering through Iruiy with Even Meluban one is to pour hot water onto the item and then pass the hot iron throughout the entire surface of that item, hence causing the water to boil. When doing so one must observe when the iron has lost its power of heat to be able to boil the water, and consequently reheat the iron to its boiling power.

Using a water boiler “Kumkum”: Water which is poured from a mini water boiler [“Kumkum”], while the boiler is still on and the water is boiling, is considered like both Iruiy and Even Meluban, and hence when pouring from such a vessel there is no need to pass over the surface using a red hot stone or metal.

 

Hadacha:

This refers to Kashering through cleaning the vessel very well with even cold water.

 

  1. What form of Kashering does a vessel require-General rules?

*The below list only refers to the form of Kashering required for vessels made of Kasherbale materials. For a list of those materials that are Kasherable and those materials that are not Kasherable-see Halacha E! For a list of vessels and their specific Kashering Laws see Halacha F!

Chametz cooked in liquid in the vessel: All Kasherable material vessels that had Chametz cooked with liquids require Hagalah or Libun Kal.

Chametz baked without liquid in the vessel: All Kasherable material vessels that had Chametz baked in them [without liquids] require Libun Chamur.

Chametz soaked in the vessel: All Kasherable vessels which had Chametz soaked in liquid for 24 hours require Hagalah or Libun Kal.

Do pots which are used to cook in have the status of absorbing food through liquid, or the status of absorbing food directly? All pots that had food cooked inside with liquid have the status of absorbing food through liquid, even if the food burnt inside the pot, and thus it does not require Libun Chamur, as there is always some liquid found on the bottom of the pot.

  1. What materials may be Kashered?

Earthenware pottery: Can only be koshered through placing it in an oven and heating it to the point that it can be reformed. Even if an earthenware dish was used for only cold Chametz, one should not place even cold Pesach foods on it. An earthenware oven can be Kashered through Libun Gamur. Examples of earthenware vessels that cannot be Kashered: Crockpot; Mugs.

Sundried clay vessels: Vessels made of sun dried, is Kasherable

Wood vessels: Is Kasherable so long as it does not contain cracks and the like. The custom is to Lechatchilah never use any wooden vessels which were used for flour consistently, even if one cleaned it and performed Hagalah. All wooden vessels may be sanded down and koshered.

Metal vessels: Are Kasherable. If the vessel absorbed the food through cooking in water, then it suffices for it to be heated to the point that its outside reaches the point of “Yad Soledes Bo”. This can be done by either using a torch [Libun Kal] or dipping it in boiling water [Hagalah]. If the vessel absorbed the food directly, without any liquid then it requires “Libun Gamur, which means that it must be heated until sparks begin to fly off from it, or until a layer of it peels off. This applies even Bedieved.

Glass vessels: The custom amongst Ashkenazic Jewry is not to Kasher for Pesach any glass vessels which have suspicion they may have absorbed Chametz. These vessels are not to be used for Pesach, and are rather to be put away with the Chametz vessels. [Sefardim however are lenient to allow using glass vessels even without Hagalah, so long as they have been washed and cleaned.]

Glass coated vessels: If the vessel is coated with glass on its inside, in the area where the food is placed, then it may not be Kashered. If it is coated with glass only on its outside, then if it is never commonly placed directly over a fire to cook in, such as silver vessels coated externally with glass, then it may be Kashered through Hagallah. If however it is not uncommon to use it to cook with over a fire, or even to occasionally heat food in it over a fire, then it may not be Kashered.

A vessel placed together using glue: Hagalah is invalid for such a vessel as the heat can easily ruin it and there is thus suspicion that to prevent this one will not heat the water enough for the Hagalah.

See the chart below for all of the following materials: Ceramic; Enamel; Marble; Plastic; Porcelain; Pyrex; Teflon.

 

  1. Practical list of items:

List of vessels and their Kashering status

Vessel Law
Aluminum Kasherable based on use
Baking Pan Libun Chamor They are thus not Kasherable.
Burners of stove top Libun Chamor
Ceramic Cannot be Kashered
China Cannot be Kashered
Counter Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban
Cups Cannot be Kashered unless made of metal, in which case needs Hagalah
Earthenware Cannot be Kashered
Enamel Custom is not to Kasher for Pesach
Frying pan If coated with enamel/Teflon may not be Kashered. If not coated may be Kashered based on use.
Glass Cannot be Kashered
Grates of stove top Libun Chamur
Grinder Hagalah
Marble Hagalah
Oven Libun Chamur
Kiddush Cup [silver or metal] Hagalah
Knives Best not to Kasher for Pesach; if Kasher needs sharpening and Hagalah
Plastic Dispute amongst Poskim if may be Kashered.
Pot [not coated with enamel] Hagalah
Porcelain Cannot be Kashered
Pyrex Dispute amongst Poskim if may be Kashered.
Silverware Hagalah
Sink spout Clean and wash
Sink [made of enamel/ceramic/glass/plastic] Cannot be Kashered
Sink [made of metal] Iruiy with even Meluban
Skewer for barbecue Libun Gamor
Steel [including stainless steel] Kasherable based on use
Stove top [enamel] Cannot be Kashered
Stove top [stainless steel] Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban
Teflon Cannot be Kashered
Toaster Oven Do not Kasher. Sell to gentile and put away
Wood [without cracks] Hagalah
Wood [with cracks] Cannot be Kashered

Pots, Cutlery and Kitchenware

Forks/Spoons:

All forks, spoons and other cutlery made of Kasherable material, such as silver or stainless steel, is to be Kashered through Hagalah.

 

Knives:

It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for all those which have the capability of doing so, to buy new knives for Pesach. However from the letter of the law doing Hagalah to them does suffice [and one may certainly rely on this if it is not so feasible for him to get new knives.] One must sharpen the blade prior to doing Hagalah in order to remove any rust he blade may contain. If the knife contains a handle and the blade is inserted into the handle then it cannot be koshered due to the inability to remove any Chametz from in between the crevices. Likewise if the blade is attached to the handle with glue it cannot be Kashered.

Cups:

The custom is to Kasher cups through Hagalah. If one used the cup for a hot Pesach drink without previously Kashering it, the drink remains Kosher.  

Glass cups: Are not Kasherable.

May one Kasher a Kiddush cup that contains an upper lip? Yes, as the lip is external and there is thus no worry that Chametz entered inside.

 

Pots:

Whether or not a pot may be Kashered is dependent on the material that it contains of-See previous Halacha E! If the pot is made of a Kasherable material, such as metal without a Teflon coating, then if it is used for cooking with liquid it requires Hagalah. 

Teflon/Enamel: If coated with enamel/Teflon then it may not be Kashered.

Do the handles of pots and pans need to be Kashered? From the letter of the law they do not need to be Kashered and certainly one need not worry of the cracks that they contain [which may have food on them]. Nevertheless one should clean it and do Hagalah to it, or do Iruiy Keli Rishon without needing a stone.

Do pot covers need Hagalah? Yes.

 

Frying pans and all pots used for frying:

If one used this pot to fry the food with a nice amount of oil, than by Kashering for Pesach the pan needs Hagalah. If however one fried food in it using very little oil, just enough so the food does not stick, then the pot needs Libun Chamur.

Teflon/Enamel: If coated with enamel/Teflon then it may not be Kashered.

 

Water urn/Kumkum:

If made of metal then it is Kasherable through Hagalah. If made of plastic it is disputed as to its Kasherable status. In all cases, one must beware to remove the hardened calcium from the urn before Kashering.

 

Grater:

A grater requires Libun Kal.

Appliances and furniture

The stove:

The grates: Need Libun Chamur. If one cannot do Libbun Chamor, then one is to clean it very well and wrap the grates in thick aluminum that will last throughout Pesach.

Burners: One is to clean the burners and use toothpicks or needles to remove any dirt or food from within the gas holes of the burner. Afterwards, turn on the fire for some time to accomplish Libun Kal.

Stove top surface: One is to clean the stove surface well and then do Iruiy Keli Rishon to it. If the surface is made of non-Kasherable material, such as enamel, that it must be covered with aluminum.

Knobs: One is to clean the stove knobs very well, cover them or attach clean replacement knobs.

Covering all items: Practically, the custom is that even after Kashering all the above items of the stove, one covers all the surfaces with aluminum.

Oven:

From the letter of the law an oven requires Libun Chamur. If ones oven does not have a self-clean oven it is very difficult to accomplish Libun Chamur through using a blow torch, as the oven can break in the process. One is thus to buy a Pesach oven or alternatively Kasher it in the following way:

  1. Clean the oven well using a Chametz killing agency such as bleach or oven stain remover.
  2. Wait 24 hours prior to Kashering.
  3. Turn the oven on for a period of at least one hour to its highest temperature or blow torch the oven from the inside.
  4. After the Kashering process is complete one should cover the walls and floors with aluminum foil.
 

Self cleaning oven:

An oven with self cleaning mode reaches a temperature of 900° F and is equivalent to Libun Chamur. An oven with a “Continuous cleaning” cycle is not equivalent to Libbun Chamur, and hence the above mentioned method must be used.

                                                

 

Counters/Tables:

If one is accustomed to place hot pots on his counter or table then the custom is to do Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban. However other surfaces on which one is not accustomed to place hot Chametz pots do not need to be Kashered.

Covering the counter or table: If one covers his table or counter then from the letter of the law it does not need to be Kashered. Likewise if the counter or table has been Kashered it does not need to be covered. However the custom is to do both, to Kasher and cover the areas. 

The walls of the counter: They are to have Iruiy Keli Rishon performed and then covered.

 

 

Must one cover all kitchen surfaces such as tables, counters, cabinets, refrigerator shelves and the like?

From the letter of the law, once these areas have been properly cleaned and Kashered they may be used for all foods without any cover. However, some Poskim rule that one is to cover the surfaces even after they are Kashered due to suspicion that perhaps they still contain actual Chametz that was not properly removed. Practically, the widespread custom is to cover all items that contact food even after they have been cleaned and Kashered.

 

 

Tablecloths: 

It is best to buy new tablecloths for Pesach. Nevertheless, from the letter of the law one may Kasher and use the tablecloths that he uses during the year. The following is how they are Kashered: One is to wash them with hot water and laundry detergent.

 

The Fridge:

One is to wash it down very well using a water based killing agent, such as bleach and the like.

The elastic insulation material: One must take special care to wash well the elastic area from Chametz crumbs. A suggestive form of cleaning is to use Q-tips dipped in bleach.

Bedikas Chametz: One is to perform Bedikas Chametz to his fridge prior to entering the Pesach foods back into or and prior to covering it shelves.

Covering the shelves: Some are accustomed to cover the shelves of the fridge. This is not required from the letter of the law.

Cord: One is to clean the electric cord of the fridge that enters into the outlet.

Sink:

The actual sink: The Kashering of a sink is dependent on the material that it is made of. A metal sink can be Kashered through Iruiy Keli Rishon. Most sinks are made of Porcelain or enamel which are non-Kasherable materials and thus cannot be Kashered. Nevertheless, the custom is to do Iruiy Keli Rishon on such material sinks. One is then to insert a sink insert which will be used throughout Pesach.

The spout: The custom is to clean and wash the spouts of the sink as throughout the year they have been used with hands that are dirty from Chametz. [One is to pour boiling water of the spout, and leave it open with the hot water running.]

Knobs: Wash and clean.

The drain: Pour boiling water that contains bleach or Drano down the drain.

Metal strainer: Iruiy Keli Rishon.

Using the hot water on Pesach: It is advised not to use hot water that is over Yad Soledes [110° F] on Pesach, in a sink that is not Kasherable, as one can possibly Treif up the vessels in the sink through doing so. Thus one should not turn on the hot water to the point of Yad Soledes and is likewise not to pour hot water into the sink. If the water is warm, below Yad Soledes, it may be poured into the sink. Likewise if the hot water of a pot was placed in a Keli Sheiyni, it may be poured into the sink even if it is still very hot.

 

Microwave:

One is to purchase a new one for Pesach. If this is not possible, some Poskim rule the microwave is to be cleaned, not used for 24 hours and have water with bleach placed in it and heated for about 10-20 minutes, until it steams out.

Teeth; Fillings and Braces:

Natural teeth without fillings and the like: Do not have to be cleaned or Kashered from the letter of the law. Nevertheless the custom is to clean them well and wash them with water to make sure that no crumb of Chametz has remained in one’s teeth.

Teeth with fillings: Although there is much room to say that they to need not to be Kashered, nevertheless practically the Rabbinical directive given is to clean them out prior to the 5th hour and then swish ones mouth with the hottest temperature of water, from a Keli Sheiyni, that he can intake. It is best to not eat hot Chametz 24 hours prior to doing so [Although this is a mere stringency and is not required.]

Braces: If possible, are to be removed by a dentist, cleaned and Kashered. If not possible, then one is to clean them to the best of his ability, and follow the above mentioned order for fillings.

Dentures: Are to be removed, cleaned and Kashered. If this is not possible then one is to clean them to the best of his ability, and follow the above mentioned order for fillings.

 

  1. How does one do Hagalah?

Having an expert do the Hagalah: Since the laws of Hagalah involve many details, it should only be done by one who is expert in its laws.

When to Kasher: It is proper for a person to be careful to perform Hagalah to his vessels prior to the 5th hour on Erev Pesach. Some (meticulous) individuals are accustomed to perform Hagalah three days before Pesach.

Cleaning the vessels prior to Hagalah: One must remove any rust, dirt patches that are on the vessel prior to doing Hagalah to it, as the Hagalah must be done purely to the vessel. If one cannot remove the rust by hand then one may place a coal or flame on the rust spot until the other side becomes “Yad Soledes Bo” or until a piece of paper touching the outside gets scorched. Only the rust that is on the inside of the vessel needs to be removed, and only if it has substance to it. However if it is just coloring or a stain, then it does not need to be removed at all as there is no suspicion that any food has been stuck under it. If the vessel has a crack in it which cannot be properly cleaned, then Hagalah does not help for such a vessel until one first does Libun to the crack. This however only applies if the crack is inside the vessel where it contacts food, however a crack the external part of the vessel does not need to have Libun performed on it. The company trademark that is on the vessel needs to be cleaned well. One should not Kasher a vessel which has paint on it as it prevents the absorbed Chametz from leaving the walls of the pot.

Cleaning and drying the vessel before Hagalah: One needs to clean and dry the vessels before doing Hagalah.

Boiling water for Hagalah: The water used for Hagalah must be boiling. It does not suffice for it to just be Yad Soledes. Furthermore, the water must remain boiling when the vessel is dipped into it. If the water stopped boiling after one vessel, then one must wait for it to boil before placing in it another vessel.

How long does the vessel need to be placed into the water for? Some opinions say that one should place the vessel in for as much time as he accesses is needed to remove the foods that it has absorbed. However the custom is to place it in and then immediately take it out. Nevertheless one should leave the vessel in the water a little in order to allow the heat to penetrate the vessels thickness.

May one Kasher many vessels together in a sack/basket? One should not do so, as if the vessels touch each other then Hagalah does not help for those areas.

Must the vessels stay 24 hours before Kashering: The custom is to only Kasher vessels which are not Ben Yomo, which means that they have remained without use for 24 hours.

Washing the vessel after Hagalah: The custom is to wash the vessel in cold water immediately after Hagalah has been performed.


 

14. Erev Pesach:

  1. Taanis Bechoros-Fast of First Born:

When: The fast of the first born sons takes place on Erev Pesach.

Who? If one is a firstborn male for either the mother or the father he has to fast. This applies likewise to Levim and Kohanim. If one’s mother had a miscarriage prior to her firstborn then he still has to fast, unless his father has had a child from a previous woman. The custom is that the father fasts on behalf of his son, if his son is not yet old enough to fast on his own. If the father is also a firstborn then the mother should fast for her son unless it will bring her pain, or she joins a Siyum. First born females are not accustomed to fast.

Siyum: One may eat if he hears a Siyum. One must fast until he hears one. One who is stringent not to make a siyum and does fast will be blessed.

 

What is one to do if he has missed all the Siyumim?

He must fast. Alternatively he can learn Tractate Tamid and make a Siyum on it.

 

Can one make a Siyum on Mishnayos?

One can make a Siyum on one of the six Sedarim of Mishnayos. Likewise one can make a Siyum on a single Misechta if he learns it in depths with one of the commentaries

 

Must a firstborn convert fast?

This matter is disputed and one may thus be lenient to snack if he is unable to hear a Siyum.

 

 

  1. The Davening:

Awaking early on Erev Pesach: One is to awaken early to Daven Shacharis in Shul in order to finish eating the Chametz meal prior to the 4th hour.

Mizmor Lisoda: Is omitted on Erev Pesach and Chol Hamoad [being that the Todah sacrifice cannot be brought at this time as it contains Chamietz bread offerings.]

 

  1. Sof Zman Achilas Chametz: From what time on Erev Pesach must one be careful to eat only Kosher for Pesach products?

It is forbidden to eat Chametz past the 5th hour of the day on Erev Pesach. One must to be careful to only eat Kosher for Pesach products beginning from the 5th hour of the day of the 14th. How are these hours calculated? These hours are calculated starting from sunrise in accordance to Shaaos Zmaniyos, [the amount of minutes that there are within the twelve hours of daylight in ones area]. [Practically this is equivalent to the time of Zman Tefila for Shacharis.]

Benefiting: It remains permitted to receive benefit from Chametz until the beginning of the 6th hour. Thus one may sell Chametz to a gentile during the 5th hour. As well one may feed it to animals and birds during the 5th hour. From the 6th hour all Chametz becomes forbidden in benefit even if it does not belong to him.

Kashering: One is to finish any last minute Kashering prior to the 5th hour.

End of Chametz eating Time for Jerusalem on Erev Pesach

 

Year Eat Burn
5774 10:30 11:34
5775 10:36 11:39
5776 10:25 11:31
5777 10:32 11:36
5778 10:39 11:41
5779 10:27 11:32
5780 10:33 11:37

Cleaning Teeth:

Prior to the arrival of the 5th hour one is to clean and wash his teeth with water to make sure that no crumb of Chametz has remained.

Teeth with fillings: One is to clean them out prior to the 5th hour and then swish ones mouth with the hottest temperature of water, from a Keli Sheiyni, that he can intake. It is best to not eat hot Chametz 24 hours prior to doing so.

Braces: One is to clean them to the best of his ability, and follow the above mentioned order for fillings.

Dentures: Are to be removed, cleaned and Kashered. If this is not possible then one is to clean them to the best of his ability, and follow the above mentioned order for fillings.

 

Q&A

From what time are those that are accustomed to not eat processed foods to begin their stringency? From the night of Pesach or from the 5th hour of Erev Pesach?

One is to avoid eating these foods starting from the 5th hour of the day. However many are lenient to eat processed foods up until the night of Pesach.

 

From what time are those that are accustomed to not eat spices or unpeeled foods to begin their stringency? From the night of Pesach or from 5th hour of Erev Pesach?

One is to avoid eating these foods starting from the 5th hour of the day. However many are lenient to eat these foods up until the night of Pesach.

 

At what time must Ashkenazim stop eating Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah]?

Some Poskim rule that even according to Ashkenazim one may eat Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah] until midday. However practically the custom is to avoid eating Matzah Ashira beginning from the time that one must stop eating Chametz, which is the beginning of the 5th hour.

 

  1. Sof Zman Biur Chametz-Burning the Chametz:

Benefiting from Chametz: It remains permitted to receive benefit from Chametz until the beginning of the 6th hour. At the 6th hour and onwards all Chametz becomes forbidden in benefit even if it does not belong to him. Thus one may no longer sell Chametz to a gentile, and may not feed it to animals and birds.

Remove all Chametz from home: Prior to the start of the 6th hour one is to clean the house of all Chametz leftovers. Make sure the Chametz garbage is removed to an area that is public for all, and has not remained in a building shoot. Clean out your Chametz pockets

Biur Chametz: With some time prior to the start of the 6th hour of the day one is to burn the Chametz. One is to burn any Chametz that he found during the Bedika, including the ten pieces of bread and the vessels used for the Bedika, such as the spoon and candle. If one did not find any Chametz during his search then it is proper for him to burn the vessels used for Bedikah. Some have the custom to use the Aravos which were hit on Hoshana Rabah as fuel to burn the Chametz.

Bittul: After performing Biur Chametz, prior to the 6th hour, it is proper that one repeat the bittul, and nullify once again all the Chametz which he has in his possession. The Bittul cannot be performed once the 6th hour has arrived.

 

 

End of Chametz burning Time for Jerusalem on Erev Pesach

 

Year Eat Burn
5774 10:30 11:34
5775 10:36 11:39
5776 10:25 11:31
5777 10:32 11:36
5778 10:39 11:41
5779 10:27 11:32
5780 10:33 11:37

 

  1. Doing work on Erev Pesach:

One may not do any Chol Hamoed forbidden Melacha on Erev Pesach beginning from midday. One who does Melacha will lose the profit that he made.

Definition of work: Included in the above prohibition is all work that is forbidden to be performed on Chol Hamoed.

Working without pay: The forbidden works may not be done even for free, without pay.  

Haircut: It is forbidden to get or give a hair cut past midday.

Cutting nails: It is disputable if one may cut nails after midday. Practically Lechatchilah one is to cut the nails prior to midday, although if he did not do so, then they may be cut after midday. 

Fixing something:  Only actual work is forbidden to be done on Erev Pesach. It is permitted however to fix an item.

Writing: It is forbidden to write sefarim for others, although it is permitted to write on one’s own behalf, such as words of Torah and the like.

Printing: Due to the above, one must beware to print prior to midday all papers needed during the duration of Pesach. Bedieved, if one did not print the papers before midday, then one may do so after midday.

Time of Chatzos in Jerusalem on Erev Pesach

Year Midnight
5774 12:39
5775 12:42
5776 12:37
5777 12:40
5778 12:44
5779 12:38
5780 12:41
  1. Eating on Erev Pesach:

Fast day for Bechoros: First born sons must fast unless they hear a Siyum. See Halacha A!

Food restrictions that apply past the 10th hour [Three Zmaniyos hours before sunset]: It is forbidden to eat wine or a large amount of any food from the beginning of the tenth hour of Erev Pesach. One may eat a small amount of fruits and other foods. One may not drink wine or grape juice at this time.

Foods of the Charoses and Maror: The Chabad custom is to refrain from eating any of the foods that enter into the Charoses [nuts, apples, pears] and Maror, Erev Pesach until Koreach of the second Seder. However one may eat from the egg, potato, onion or roasted meat. A child who is not old enough to understand the story of the exodus that is retold on the Seder night, may be fed any of these foods throughout  Erev Pesach, as well as on Pesach even prior to Kiddush.

 

Matzah on Erev Pesach:

It is forbidden to eat Matzah on Erev Pesach.

Kefula; Nefucha; Machine; Non-Shmura: One is to avoid eating Matzah even if it is a Kefula, Nefucha, non-Shmura, or machine made Matzah.

Chametz Matzah: It is disputed amongst Poskim if one may eat Chametz Matzah prior to the 5th hour of Erev Pesach.

Matzah Ashirah: Matzah Ashirah, such as egg Matzah which has a strong taste of egg or fruit juice, may be eaten until the start of the 5th hour of the day.

Gebrochts: One may eat cooked Matzah, such as Matzah balls and the like [however only until the start of the 5th hour of the day, for those particular on Gebrochts.] Those which are not particular on Gebrochts may eat it until the 10th hour of the day.

May a child eat Matzah on Erev Pesach? A child who is not old enough to understand the story of the exodus that is retold on the Seder night, if needed, may be fed Matzah throughout  Erev Pesach, as well as on Pesach even prior to Kiddush. However a child who can understand the story of the exodus is forbidden to be fed Matzah on Erev Pesach. This law applies whether the child is a boy or a girl.

  1. Getting a haircut on Erev Pesach:

It is a Mitzvah upon a person to get a haircut on Erev Pesach in honor of Yom Tov, in order so one does not enter into the holiday looking unrespectable.

Until when is a haircut permitted on Erev Pesach? It is forbidden to get or give a haircut past midday.

May one get a haircut prior to Davening? It is forbidden to get a haircut prior to Davening. This prohibition begins from Alos Hashachar.  However, prior to Alos it is permitted.

If one began a haircut before midday and it is now past midday may he complete the haircut? Yes.

The Kavanos of a Haircut: One is to intend upon getting a haircut that he is removing the powers of severity and is fulfilling the Mitzvah of having Peyos and the Mitzvah of paying a worker for his job on the same day and the Mitzvah of honoring Yom Tov. One can fulfill a total of fourteen Mitzvos when he gets a haircut.

  1. Cutting the nails:

It is a Mitzvah to cut one’s nails on Erev Pesach in honor of Yom Tov, just as is the law on Erev Shabbos. [One is to cut his nails prior to immersing.]

  1. Seder preparation to do list:
  • Immerse new vessels in a Mikveh
  • Don’t eat lettuce; apples; pears; nuts
  • Wash and clean the lettuce
  • Don’t soak the lettuce that will be used for Maror, in water for 24 hours.
  • Roast the Zeroa-neck of the chicken.
  • Do not roast any meat or poultry to be eaten for Seder night. One may roast fish. Don’t cook the meat in a pot without liquids, even if it will simmer in its own juice. One may roast the meat and then cook it.
  • Set up the Seder table
  • Check the Matzos for Kefulos.
  • Separate Challah from the Matzos if needed.
  • Place wine in the Charoses before Shabbos. Alternatively, place the Charoses in a large amount of wine prior to the dipping, and mix with your finger.
  • Make salt water
  • Cook the egg for Beitza.
  • If you don’t have a broken plate for the spilling of the wine by the Makos, then chip a plastic bowl before Yom Tov.

 

  1. Roasting meat for the Seder:

It is forbidden to roast meat on Erev Pesach for the sake of the Seder meal, as one may not eat roasted meat on the night of the Seder. In the Diaspora, this applies towards the meals of both Sedarim.

What is the definition of roasting? Roasting includes any cooking that is done without additional liquids, such as barbecuing, baking or cooking in a pot without any liquid. The meat is considered roasted even if it simmers in gravy that it released.  Some Poskim rule it is likewise forbidden to fry the meat with only oil.

What meats are included in the above prohibition? All meats that require Shechita are included in the roasting prohibition. Thus one may not roast beef, lamb, chicken or other meat or poultry. One may roast fish.

May one roast the meat and then cook it in water? Yes. One may roast the meat if it will afterwards be cooked.

May one cook the meat and then roast it without water? No. One may not roast the meat even after it has been cooked.

Liver: One may not eat liver on the night of Pesach as liver is roasted.

Smoked meat: One may not eat smoked meat on the night of Pesach as it is considered like roasted.

May one eat roasted meat on the Pesach day meal? Yes.

 

  1. Mincha Erev Pesach:

Seder Karban Pesach: In preparation for the Pesach offering one is to learn the detailed laws of the Karban Pesach as written in the Siddur. It is read after Mincha of Erev Pesach, as Mincha corresponds to the afternoon Tamid offering which was brought prior to the Pesach offering. It is to be read before sunset.

Pesach Erev Shabbos: If Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos, one is to recite Hodu and Patach Eliyahu before Mincha.

 

  1. Eiruv Tavshilin-In applicable years:

In the Diaspora, whenever the 2nd day of Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos one must do Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach [Wednesday] in order to be allowed to cook on the 2nd day of Pesach for Shabbos.

Cooking on the first day of Yom Tov for Shabbos: It is forbidden to cook foods on the first day of Yom Tov [i.e. Thursday] on behalf of Shabbos even if Eiruv Tavshilin was performed. The Eiruv Tavshilin only allows one to cook on the second day of Pesach [i.e. Friday] on behalf of Shabbos.

Cooking with enough time so the food is ready before Shabbos: Even when Eiruv Tavshilin is performed it is only permitted to cook food for Shabbos if there is enough time for the food to be fully cooked and servable to guests on Yom Tov, prior to sunset. It is Biblically forbidden to cook foods if there isn’t enough time left for the food to be served before sunset. Many are unaware of this matter.

When? 

The Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed on Erev Pesach. It may be performed any time on Erev Pesach. If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach then if it is still prior to nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim] one may still do the Eiruv Tavshilin, even if it is already past sunset.

 

How is it done?

The foods: The owner of the house takes a [whole] loaf/role of bread/Matzah the size of a Kibeiytza [which is to later be used on Shabbos for the meal] and a Kezayis of a cooked piece of meat or other food which one eats together with bread. Nevertheless initially it is best to use an honorable food, such as meat or fish.

Being Mizakeh on behalf of others:  The custom is to acquire the food to all the other members of the city in order to merit them with the Mitzvah in case someone forgot to do so. This is done through placing the food into the hands of a non-family member or one’s married son, or any child above Bar/Bas Mitzvah which supports himself/herself. After the food is placed in their hands the owner of the house says “I hereby acquire [this food] to all those that want to acquire and rely on this Eiruv”. The person then lifts up the food one Tefach from its current area, hence acquiring it for the townspeople. The owner then takes back the food and recites the blessing of “Al Mitzvas Eiruv” as explained next. If there is no non-family member or married son available then one may give it to one’s wife, or one’s child who is over Bar Mitzvah, to lift up one Tefach and acquire the Eiruv to the city members. However children under the age of Bar Mitzvah which are supported by the household may not be used for this acquisition.

The blessing: One says the following blessing upon making the Eiruv Tavshilin: “…Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Mitzvas Eiruv”. After the blessing one says in a language that he understands “With this eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and do all our needs for Yom Tov to Shabbos”.

If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin:

If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach and it is already after nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim] one may no longer do so even through making a Tnaiy, as explained above in B. One is to speak to a Rav in regards to how he may cook food on Erev Shabbos for the sake of Shabbos.

 

What does one do with the Eiruv Tavshilin food?

The bread and food used for the Eiruv Tavshilin must be put away in a secure area in order so it will not get eaten or destroyed prior to the completion of the Shabbos preparations on Friday. From the letter of the law, once the Shabbos preparations have been completed, one may eat the foods designated for the Eiruv Tavshilin. Nevertheless if the bread is whole, and can hence be used for Lechem Mishneh, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to delay eating the bread until one of the Shabbos meals. Some have the custom to use the bread as Lechem Mishneh for the first and second Shabbos meal and then eat it only by the third Shabbos meal.

If the food was eaten or lost: If the cooked food was partially eaten or lost prior to completing the Shabbos preparations then it is forbidden to cook or do any more preparation on behalf of Shabbos unless a Kezayis worth of the cooked food remains. If however only the bread was eaten or lost then it remains permitted to cook and prepare on Friday for Shabbos.

 

Reminding the public:

In those years that Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed it is proper to place signs by the public areas [i.e. Shul; Mikveh; Website] in order to remind the public of this matter. [It is suggested to also announce this in Shul at the conclusion of Shacharis and prior to Mincha.]

 

 

Summary:

Whenever the 2nd day of Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos one performs an Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach [Wednesday]. The owner of the house takes a whole loaf/role of bread/Matzah the size of a Kibeiytza [which is to later be used on Shabbos] and a Kezayis of a cooked piece of meat or other food which one eats together with bread. If one has another person to use to acquire the food to him on behalf of the city then the owner is to say: 

“אני מזכה לכל־מי שרוצה לזכות ולסמוך על ערוב זה”

 

The person who is acquiring the food for the townspeople then lifts the food up one Tefach. The owner then takes back the food and recites the following blessing: [If one does not have another person to use to acquire the food to the townspeople then he is to simply hold the food and begin from here with the following blessing:]

 

ברוך אתה ה’ אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על מצות  עירוב.

 

After the blessing one says in a language that he understands “With this eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and to do all our needs on Yom Tov for Shabbos”.

 

בדין יהא שרא לנא לאפויי ולבשולי ולאטמוני ולאדלוקי שרגא ולתקנא ולמעבד כל צרכנא מיומא טבא

לשבתא לנא ולכל ישראל הדרים בעיר הזאת

 

 

Q&A

May one use bread and cooked meat that is frozen for the Eiruv Tavshilin?

Yes.

 

 


 

15. The Seder:

 

General overview of the Seder:

The Shlah Hakadosh describes the order of the night of the Seder as follows: “After completing the festive prayer of Maariv and Hallel one is to return home. Him and his wife are to act like a King and Queen and his children are to act like princes. They are to prepare vessels of gold and silver and wear silk and expensive garments of all that Hashem has made available for them. This is all done to express one’s great joy and gratitude of all the kindness that Hashem has done for us. The holiness of this night and all of its accompanied laws and customs, contains much holiness, as on this night Hashem chose us as His nation from amongst all other nations, and sanctified us with his Mitzvos. Therefore one is to beware not to talk any mundane speech on this night. One is to likewise warn his family not to talk of any mundane matters, in order so they not to be separated even one moment from their Dveikus to Hashem. The entire night they should be involved in the Mitzvos of that night, retelling the story of the exodus, and publicizing it to his family. However one who knows the Kabalistic intents of this night is to spend his time dealing with them.”

 

 

  1. Erev Pesach Seder preparation to do list:
  • Wash and clean the lettuce. Don’t soak the lettuce that will be used for Maror, in water for 24 hours.
  • Roast the Zeroa-neck of the chicken.
  • Do not roast any meat or poultry to be eaten for Seder night. One may roast fish. Don’t cook the meat in a pot without liquids, even if it will simmer in its own juice. One may roast the meat and then cook it.
  • Set up the Seder table
  • Check the Matzos for Kefulos.
  • Separate Challah from the Matzos if needed.
  • In years that Pesach falls on Shabbos, place wine in the Charoses before Shabbos. Alternatively, place the Charoses in a large amount of wine prior to the dipping, and mix with your finger.
  • In years that Pesach falls on Shabbos make the salt water before Shabbos.
  • Cook the egg for Beitza.
  • If you don’t have a broken plate for the spilling of the wine by the Makos, then chip a plastic bowl before Yom Tov.

 

  1. The order upon returning home:

Coming home to a set table: One is to prepare the Seder table on Erev Pesach, before Yom Tov. [This is however with exception to the Seder plate which is only prepared once the father returns from Shul. The cushions for leaning are to also be prepared at this time. It is not necessary to prepare cushions for women if they are not accustomed to lean.]

Having beautiful vessels on the table: On the night of Pesach one is to set the table with his most beautiful vessels. One is to place vessels of beauty on the table even if does not plan to use it during the meal.

Coming home immediately after Davening: One is to return home immediately after Davening has concluded in order to begin the Seder right away.

Acting like kings: The husband and wife are to act like a King and Queen and his children are to act like princes by the Seder. They are to prepare vessels of gold and silver and wear silk and expensive garments of all that Hashem has made available for them. This is all done to express one’s great joy and gratitude of all the kindness that Hashem has done for us.

Distributing nuts to the children: It is a Mitzvah to distribute nuts to the children on the night of Pesach in order to arouse them to ask questions regarding Pesach.

Shalom Aleichem and Eishes Chayil when Pesach falls on Shabbos: When Pesach falls on Shabbos one is to recite Shalom Aleichem and Eishes Chayil in an undertone upon returning from Shul.

  1. Setting up the Kearah/Seder plate:

Its meaning: Upon saying the Hagadah one must have Matzah, Maror, Charoses, Zeroa and egg placed in front of him on the table.

The Matzas: Three Matzas are placed on top of a plate which is called the Keara. The Matzas are separated from each other with a cloth, also known as a Matzah cover. One first places the bottom Matzah, which is called the Yisrael, and then the middle Matzah which is the Levi, and then the top Matzah which is the Cohen. [The largest of the Matzas is to be used for Levi.]

Selecting the Matzas: We make a point of selecting specifically Matzas which have a concave shape, similar to a bowl. One must verify that the Matzas are complete [Shaleim] and do not contain any folded [Kefulos] areas.

The order of the Simanim: On top of the three Matzas, which are covered by a cloth or plastic [known as the Matzah cover] one arranges the Simanim/foods in the order shown below. It is our custom to place the foods directly on the Matzah cover without placing them in individual bowls or a general plate.

Who should have a Kearah/Seder plate? The leader of the house [and all other males above the age of Mitzvos] are to have a Kearh/Seder plate arranged in front of them. Children which have reached the age of Chinuch should likewise have a Keara.

When is the kearah to be brought to the table? The Kearah is placed on the table before the Seder begins.

  1. The Simanim:

The Simanim include Karpas, Charoses, Maror/Chazeres, the Zeroa, and the Beitza.

Karpas: One is to take a raw onion for Karpas. If this is unavailable, or one is unable to eat raw onion, a cooked potato is to be taken.

Charoses: The Charoses is a thick paste which is made in memory of the clay. It is softened with a red liquid [wine or vinegar] in memory of the blood. The Charoses is made from apples, pears, almonds and wine. It is our custom to only add the wine later on during the Seder. The Charoses is placed onto the wine which had spilled from the four cups. We are particular to add only some of the Charoses to the wine rather than its entirety, in order to keep some of the Charoses free from liquids. [However when Pesach falls on Shabbos, the wine must be added before Shabbos. Alternatively one may make it on Shabbos into a very think batter, through placing a large amount of wine and making the mixture in the opposite order, which is defined as first place the wine in the vessel and then the Charoses, and to mix it with ones hand or with the vessel itself, through shaking it. This must be done in order to avoid the kneading prohibition.]

Maror/Chazeres: One is to use romaine lettuce and horseradish for both Maror and Chazeres. This means that both vegetables are to be placed by the area of Maror and likewise by the area of Chazeres. If the leaves of the Chazeres became dry then one cannot fulfill his obligation with them. However the spine may be eaten even if it dried out. If the Maror was cooked or was soaked in water for 24 hours then the Maror is invalid.

Shankbone/Zeroa: This is one of the two foods taken in memory of the Pesach and Chagigah sacrifice. From the letter of the law any dish may be used for this remembrance. However the custom is to use a roasted shank bone [it is roasted in memory of the roasted Pesach sacrifice]. One is to use a bone with a small amount of meat. The custom is to use the neck of a chicken. The custom is not to eat the shank bone on the night of the Seder being that it appears to be like “Kodshim” [which may not be eaten in impurity]. For this reason the shank bone may not be roasted on Yom Tov, [being that one will not be eating it then] unless one plans to eat it during the day. One is to leave some meat on the shank bone, despite the fact that one will not be eating it. [The Chabad custom is to remove almost all the meat from the bone.]

Egg: This is one of the two foods taken in memory of the Pesach and Chagigah sacrifice. From the letter of the law any dish may be used for this remembrance. However, the custom is to use an egg. The egg may be either fried or boiled. The Rebbe used an egg that was still in its shell.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Directives for the Seder:

 

 

Checklist

ü  Look inside the Hagadah prior to each step.

ü  Lean by Matzah, Koreich, afikoman, 4 Kosos. Lean to the left, includes Lefties. Women do not have to lean

ü  The Shiurim:

o    Matzah 28.8 grams. By Koreich and Afikoman, in time of need may take 21.2 grams

o    Maror 27 grams Lechatchila if unable then take 21.2

o    Achilas Pras: 4 Minutes.

 

  1. Leaning:

The leaning on the night of the Seder is done as an act of freedom as this was the common practice of kings.

When? One must lean upon eating Matzah, Korech, Afikoman, and the four cups of wine because all of these acts are done to remember the freedom and redemption. By the rest of the Seder it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to lean and is not required from the letter of the law. [The Chabad custom is not to lean by the other parts of the Seder, other than those mentioned above which are obligated from the letter of the law.]

How? One is to lean towards his left. This applies equally to one which is left handed. One is to prepare his seat with pillows and covers, for him to lean on. One is not to lean on his thigh as this appears like he is in worry.

Who? All men are required to lean. Women are accustomed not to lean. When one is at the same table with his father he must lean however if he is by his Rebbe then one must receive explicit permission to lean. If he is eating on a separate table then he must lean regardless.

One forgot to lean: If one forgot to lean by the above required parts then by Matzah of Motzi Matzah [not Afikoman or Korech] and by the second cup of wine, one is to repeat the eating/drinking. However by the first, third and forth cups, one should not re-drink the cups because he would have to make a new blessing of Hagafen and doing so appears that he is adding to the four cups. However regarding the first cup, one should initially have in mind by the first cup to drink more wine afterwards and thus in such a case if he forgot to lean, he may re-drink the first cup leaning.

  1. The law of the four cups:

Drinking in order of the Hagadah: The four cups of wine must be drunk in the order of the Hagadah, otherwise one is not Yotzei.

How much wine does the cup have to hold? The cup must hold at least a Revius of wine. The cup is to be filled to its top. There is a dispute amongst Poskim regarding the amount of a Revius: The Grach Naah writes that it is 86 Mill. [2.9 fluid ounces] Others say that it is 105 mil [3.5 fluid ounces]. Others say that it is 127 mil [4.3 fluid ounces].

How much of the wine in the cup does one have to drink? Initially one is to drink the entire cup. If one is unable to do so it suffices for him to drink majority of a Revius.

Does the wine need to be drunk in one shot or can it be gradually drunk? One should be careful to drink the majority of a Revius in one shot. [The Rebbe writes that one should drink the entire cup in one shot]. If one did not drink the entire cup in one shot: Then if one took more than the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras of bread [over 4 minutes] to drink a full majority of a Revius, then he has not fulfilled his obligation. Furthermore, there are opinions which say that if it took one to drink the majority of a Revius, more than the amount of time it takes to drink a Revius, then he has not fulfilled his obligation. Practically one should be stringent by the first two cups, that if he waited more than a Revius [between his first and second gulp], then he should drink another cup. [However after the first cup, he may only drink another cup if he had in mind to be able to drink more wine with the blessing over the first cup, and thus he does not have to repeat a blessing over the cup being re-drunk.] However by the last two cups, one may rely on the lenient opinion, as otherwise it will appear as if he is adding to the four cups.

Who is obligated to drink the four cups of wine? Both men and women are obligated to drink four cups of wine. Children: Girls and boys who have reached the age of Chinuch, that can understand the story of the exodus, are obligated to drink four cups of wine.

Should each participant have their own cup of wine? It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for each participant to have their own full cup of wine.

Are the participants to say their own Kiddush over their cup? They are not obligated to say their own blessing, and may be Yotzei with the leaders blessing. [Practically the custom of many is to be Yotzei and not to say their own individual blessing.]

Which wines should be used for the four cups? All wines which are kosher for Kiddush are Kosher for the four cups. However, one should use the best quality wine which he has, whether it is red or white. If the red wine and white wine are of equal quality, then red wine should be used over white.

May grape juice be used for the four cups? One should only drink grape juice if there is no wine available, or if one made a vow against wine.

Is a separate blessing over wine said also on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cups which are drank? Some have the custom to not say a blessing over these cups, as it was already included within the blessing said over the 1st cup. However in these provinces the custom is to say a blessing on each individual cup, as each cup has its own importance.

 

  1. Children:

Girls and boys who have reached the age of Chinuch, that can understand the story of the exodus, are obligated in the following:

  1. Drinking 4 cups of wine
  2. It is proper for them to recite Maggid
  3. Recite Birchas Hamazon
  4. Recite Hallel
  5. Recite Hallel Hagadol
  6. Recite Nishmas

The Seder

 

 

The importance of every step of the Seder:

Every person should perform the exact steps of the Seder as established by the Sages, and no matter of this order should be light in his eyes, as every step of the Seder contains significance even if it does not appear so in the eyes of the person.

 

How many steps are there in the Seder?

There are fifteen steps in the Seder from Kadesh until Nirtzah.

 

 

  1. Kadesh:

Have in mind when drinking the first cup, to also drink other wine: Initially, one should have in mind upon saying Kiddush to drink other wine afterwards, if he so chooses.  

Having someone else pour the wine: It is proper to have someone else pour ones cup of wine, as this is an act of freedom [which is to be emphasized on this night.] Nevertheless, the custom of the Rabbeim was not to have someone else pour them the wine.]

Saying Shehechiyanu: One who did not say Shehechiyanu by candle lighting is to say it by Kiddush. If a man is lighting the candles, then he should say the Shehechiyanu by Kiddush. If he said it by candle lighting then he does not repeat the blessing by Kiddush. If one forgot to say it by Kiddush, then he says it immediately upon remembering. The same applies in the Diaspora, that if one forgot to say Shehechiyanu on the Kiddush of the second night, then he says it immediately upon remembering.

Yaknahaz-Pesach that falls on Motzei Shabbos: When Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos one may not begin doing any Melacha which is permitted on Yom Tov until he says Havdala, or recites Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh, after the conclusion of Shabbos. It is of importance to remind women of this requirement, and have them say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing any Yom Tov preparations. When Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos one says Yaknaha”z in the order of Kiddush. The order of the blessings are: 1) Hagafen 2) Kiddush Hayom 3) Ner 4) Havdala 5) Shehechiyanu. In acronym this is called Yaknahaz. When Motzei Shabbos coincides with Yom Tov the blessing of Besamim is omitted from the order of Havdala “Yaknahaz”. If one has a candle available one is to recite a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush” but prior to the blessing of Havdala. [The custom is to say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish over the Yom Tov candles that were lit. We do not place the candles together, and nor do we place our nails towards them. Rather we simply look at the candles after the blessing and then continue with Yaknahaz.]

May one drink after Kiddush? One should not drink any wine or intoxicating beverage after Kiddush, until after the second cup is drunk. However from the letter of the law, if one does not have to say another blessing over the drink, such as he had it in mind when he made the blessing over Kiddush, then he may drink wine and the like, although as stated above nevertheless even in such a case one should not do so. Regarding drinking other beverages; one may drink as much as he wants even if he is required to say another blessing over them. [Such as he did not have them in mind while saying the blessing of Hagafen, and they were not on the table at the time.]

  1. Urchatz

One is to wash his hands as he normally washes for bread, although without reciting a blessing over the washing. One may not to talk between the washing and the eating of the Karpas.

What does one do if by mistake he said a blessing by Urchatz? Some Poskim rule that one is to continue the Seder as usual and repeat the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim again before Hamotzi, if he did not guard his hands in the interim. The Rebbe however states that the following is to be done: One is to right away perform Yachatz and Motzi Matzah, saying Hamotzi on the three Matzah in order to save oneself from a Safek Bracha Livatalah. One then eats the Karpas [without a Bracha of Hadama, as one is in middle of a meal]. One then continues with Maggid and Maror. Thus in summary the order according to the Rebbe is: a) Yachatz; b) Eat Matzah; c) Karpas without Bracha;

  1. d) Maggid; f) Maror.
  1. Karpas:

The reason behind Karpas: The Karpas was instituted to be eaten in order to make the children wonder at what is being done, and thereby ask questions on it. The reason for why we want the children to ask questions is because the mitzvah of telling over the story of leaving Egypt, is for it to be said in a way of an answer to a question that was asked. This is learned from the verse “When your child asks you”.

Which vegetable is used for Karpas? The custom is to use a vegetable called Karpas as it stands for “600,000 were made to work hard.” [This refers to an onion or potato.] If it is not available, then one may use any vegetable which has a blessing of Hadama, which is not considered any of the vegetables with which one can use for Maror.

Having the Maror in mind: Upon saying the blessing of Hadama on Karpas one is to have in mind to also include the future Maror in the blessing. The reason for this is as follows: There is a dispute amongst Poskim regarding if the Maror eaten later on in the meal is included in the blessing of Hamotzi over the Matzah, and thus does not need a blessing said over it, or if the Maror is not included in the Hamotzi and thus does need a blessing said over it. Therefore, by Karpas we take a vegetable which is Hadama and have in mind to also include the Maror in the blessing.  

How much of the karpas should one eat? One should not eat a Kezayis [17 grams] or more of the vegetable, as if one does so there is a dispute regarding if an after blessing must be said..

Dipping the Karpas in salt water: The Karpas is to be dipped in salt water or vinegar. The salt water may be made on Yom Tov, with exception to when Shabbos falls on Yom Tov, in which case it is to be made before Shabbos. If one did not do so before Shabbos then it may be done Shabbos following these three conditions: 1) One does so right before the meal. 2) One makes just enough to dip for that meal. 3) One has a ratio of salt that is less than 2/3.

Removing the Karpas from the kearah: Once the Karpas has been eaten it is not replaced onto the kearah. However the salt water remains on the table in order to dip the egg in it by Shulchan Orech.

Leaning: One does not lean upon eating Karpas.

  1. Yachatz:

Which Matzah is broken? The middle Matzah is broken within the cloth.

Why is the Matzah split? The reason for why the Matzah is split is because the Hagadah is to be said over “poor man’s bread”, and a poor man’s bread is not a whole loaf.

What does one do with the two halves? The larger half [is broken into 5 pieces] and placed under the tablecloth. [Our custom is to place it between two pillows. This is in memory of the Matzah which was wrapped by the Jews within their clothing. Others however have the custom to place it in a pillow case, or the like and then carry it on their shoulders.] The smaller half is placed back in between the two matzos. There should be at least a Kezayis remaining in the middle Matzah that is placed back, [and if there is not, then one should add Matzah to it].

The Afikoman: Should be placed between two pillows.

  1. Maggid:

General overview: The majority of Maggid, from Avadim Hayinu and onwards, is an answer to the questions asked in the Mah Nishtana and is the fulfillment of the positive commandment to tell over the story of Yetzias Mitzraim. One must explain the Hagadah to the women and children in a language that they understand in order to fulfill this Mitzvah. It is customary to read the Hagadah in a happy tune. Each person is to say the Hagadah to themselves.

Revealing the Matzah during Maggid: One needs to say the Hagadah over the Matzah/Maror/Charoses/Beitza/Zeroa. Therefore all the three Matzas should be revealed throughout Maggid. However, whenever one holds the cup of wine (by Vehi Sheamda and Asher Gealanu) we cover the Matzah. Immediately afterwards the Matzah is revealed.

Hei Lachma Anaya-Lifting the Matzah: The Matzah is to be lifted while this paragraph is said. [However the custom of the Rabbeim is to only reveal the matzos and not to actually lift them.]

Mah Nishtana: Before Mah Nishtana the second cup is poured and the kearah is moved to the side. This is done in order to make the children wonder and thus encourage them to ask questions.

Who asks the questions of Mah Nishtana? The son is to ask his father the Mah Nishtana. If the son does not have the knowledge to say it then the father is to teach it to him. If one does not have any children to ask him, then ones wife is obligated to ask him. If one is not married then he asks himself, or has a friend ask him. If one has a daughter she is to ask the questions rather than the wife. If one has an older daughter, and a son under the age of understanding, then the daughter is obligated to ask the questions being that the son is too young to understand an answer and thus, even if he has memorized the Mah Nishtana, the father does not fulfill his obligation in his explanation to him.

Does the person being asked need to repeat the questions? No. However there are opinions which say that the person being asked is to repeat the question afterward. The Rabbeim were accustomed to follow this opinion, and would even repeat the “Tate” introduction to the questions. Practically, each person is to repeat Mah Nishtana after the children complete saying it.

Returning the Seder plate: After Mah Nishtana one is to return the Seder plate and reveal some of the Matzas.

Vhi Sheamda: By Vehi Sheamda one is to cover the Matzos and then lift the Kos.

Spilling the wine by the Makos: We spill wine from the cup for a total 16 times because the sword of Hashem is called yo-cha and is the angel of Nekama. Some have the custom to spill with their index finger and some with the pinky and some with the cup itself. Practically one is to spill the wine with the cup itself and not with ones finger. The wine is spilled by Dam, Esh, Timros Ashan, each of the ten Makos, and then by Datzach, Adash, Achav. The wine is spilled in a broken vessel, such as a chipped plate or bowl. Upon spilling, one is to have intent to spill the wrath from the wine. After all the above spills are performed one is to refill the cup with wine. 

Dayeinu: Dayeinu is to be recited without making any interval in between.

Holding the Matzah upon saying Matzah, and holding the Maror by saying Maror: When one recites the word Matzah in the phrase of “Pesach, Matzah, Maror” one is to hold the middle Matzah in order show it to the people at the table. Likewise, when one recites the word Maror one is to hold the Maror in order to show it to the people on the table. The custom in the Rebbe’s household is to hold the middle and lower matzos in their covering until the second על שום of the former paragraph. When mentioning the bitter herbs, however, it is the custom in the Rebbe’s household to rest one’s hands [both hands] on the Maror, as well as on the Maror to be used for the Korech until the second על שום of the latter paragraph.

Hallel: One may read this Hallel in a sitting position. However one may not lean upon reciting it.

May one drink after the second cup? One may drink any beverage, to his heart’s content, after the second cup has been drunk.

 

  1. Rachtzah:

One now washes for the Matzah just as he would wash before eating bread. A blessing is recited prior to the washing.

 

  1. Motzi-Matzah:

Upon saying the blessing of Hamotzi one takes hold of the two whole Matzas and the middle broken Matzah. Immediately after this blessing one drops the bottom Matzah, and says the blessing of Matzah with only the top and middle Matzah in his hand.

Having in mind the Matzah of Korech and Afikoman: When saying the blessing over the mitzvah of eating Matzah one should also have in mind the Matzah eaten by Korech, as well as the Matzah eaten by the Afikoman.

Does one dip the Matzah in salt? Some dip the Matzah in salt. Others do not do so because they want to only taste the Matzah taste [and so is the practical custom]. Nevertheless one is to have salt on the table.

Which Matzah is to be eaten and how much is one to eat? One is to break off a Kezayis from both the whole and split Matzah and eat a Kezayis of each at the same time. One is to enter both kezeiysim into his mouth at the same time, swallowing one entire kezayis at one time, and then swallowing the next entire kezayis. If placing two kezeiysim of Matzah in ones mouth is not feasible, then one should first eat a Kezayis of the top whole Matzah, and afterwards he should eat a Kezayis of the broken Matzah. Bedieved, if one only ate only one Kezayis of Matzah, within 4 minutes, then whether the Kezayis was from the whole Matzah or from the split Matzah, he has fulfilled his obligation, even if he talked in between.

How much Matzah must be eaten by the other participants? They are each to eat 27 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. One is to distribute a piece of both the middle and upper Matzah to all the participants.

Leaning: One must lean upon eating the Matzah. This applies to both Kizeisim eaten by the leader of the table. If one did not lean then he must re-eat another Kezayis of Matzah.

Not to talk of matters unrelated to the meal from Matzah until after Korech: Based on the above that one has in mind the Matzah of Korech when saying the blessing of Matzah, therefore one should not talk of matters unrelated to the meal until after Korech, as otherwise the blessing is considered interrupted and it does not count for the Matzah eaten by Korech. Some have the custom to not talk of unrelated matters until after eating the afikoman [as we also have the Afikoman in mind when saying the blessing over the Matzah] however this custom is a mere superfluous stringency. [This was not the custom of Beis Harav]

Old and sick: Old or sick people may dip a Kezayis Matzah in water in order to eat if they cannot eat the Matzah in its hard state.

 

  1. Maror:

Lettuce and horseradish: For Maror we eat both from the lettuce leaves and horseradish.

Eating the Maror immediately after finishing eating the Matzah: The Maror is to be eaten immediately after eating the Matzah.

How much Maror does one have to eat and in how much time? One is to initially try to eat 27 grams of Maror within 4 minutes. If this is difficult then one may even initially eat 21.2 grams of Maror within 4 minutes. Many write that one may even initially take only 17 grams worth of leaves which is approximately one large leaf or two medium leaves. Both the lettuce leaves and horseradish combine to make up this amount and hence one needs to only take a combined amount of 27 or 21 or 17 grams of leaves together with horseradish.

To place the entire Kezayis in ones mouth simultaneously: It is best for one to place a full Kezayis in ones mouth simultaneously and then swallows it. If this is difficult then one may rely on the opinion which holds that this is not needed, and thus one may eat it within the time of pras [4 minutes]. If at least 17 grams was not eaten within the time of Pras then one has not fulfilled his obligation.

Dipping the Maror in the Charoses: Before eating the Maror it is to be partially dipped into the Charoses. After the Maror is dipped into the Charoses one is to immediately shake it off. As well the Maror should not be left to soak in the Charoses, and rather is to be immediately removed after dipping it in. It is our custom to only add the wine to the Charoses now, during the Seder. The Charoses is placed onto the wine which had spilled from the four cups. We are particular to add only some of the Charoses to the wine rather than its entirety, in order to keep some of the Charoses free from liquids. [However when Pesach falls on Shabbos, the wine must be added before Shabbos. Alternatively one may make it on Shabbos into a very think batter, through placing a large amount of wine and making the mixture in the opposite order, which is defined as first place the wine in the vessel and then the Charoses, and to mix it with ones hand or with the vessel itself, through shaking it. This must be done in order to avoid the kneading prohibition.]

When is the blessing over the Maror said: Before or after dipping it into the Charoses? One is to say the blessing only after he has already dipped the Maror in the Charoses.

Having in mind the Maror of Korech when saying the blessing: One is to have in mind the Maror of Korech upon saying the blessing over the Maror.

Does one lean when eating the Maror? There is no obligation to lean while eating the Maror, although one is allowed to do so. [Practically our custom is not to lean.]

 

  1. Korech:

The reason behind Korech: Hillel is of the opinion that in the times of the Temple one only fulfilled his obligation if he eats the Matzah, Maror, and Pesach together. Therefore, according to his opinion, after eating the Matzah alone without the Maror one is to then eat the Maror with the Matzah, and only if one eats them together does one fulfill the Rabbinical mitzvah of eating Maror.

Lettuce and horseradish: For the Maror of Korech we eat both from the lettuce leaves and horseradish of the second Maror [Chazeres].

How much Matzah and Maror does one eat and how is it eaten? Lechatchilah one should eat a Kezayis of Matzah and a Kezayis of Maror simultaneously. If this is difficult, then one is to eat part of the Kezayis of both the Matzah and Maror simultaneously, until one eats a full Kezayis of each the Matzah and the Maror.

How much is a Kezayis? One is to initially try to eat 27 grams of Maror and 27 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. If this is difficult then one may even initially eat 21.2 grams of Maror and 21.2 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. Many write that one may even initially take only 17 grams worth of Maror, and 17 grams worth of Matzah. Both the lettuce leaves and horseradish combine to make up this amount and hence one needs to only take a combined amount of 27 or 21 or 17 grams of leaves together with horseradish.

Dipping the Maror of Korech in Charoses? The custom is to dip the Maror into dry Charoses [that was not mixed with wine] and then shake it off.

Does one need to lean when eating the Korech? Men are required to lean towards their left while eating Korech. If one did not do so he is not required to repeat the eating in a leaning position.

 

  1. Shulchan Orach:

Eating an egg during the meal?  Some have the custom to eat an egg during the meal in memory of the destruction of the Temple. [Our custom is to eat the egg in the beginning of the meal, and to dip it in salt water.]

May one eat roasted meat on Pesach night? One may not eat roasted meat or chicken during the meal. One may eat meat or chicken which was roasted and then later cooked. One may eat roasted fish.

Not to eat too much prior to Afikoman: One should not eat too much during the meal in order to retain an appetite for the Afikoman.

Dipping foods during the meal: Some have a custom not to dip any foods during the meal

Leaning: It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to lean upon eating the meal. However the Chabad custom is not to lean by the other parts of the Seder, other than those mentioned above which are obligated from the letter of the law.]

Check plate to avoid crumbs: Prior to placing food or drink on one’s utensils one is to check that they are free of crumbs of Matzah.

 

  1. Tzafun/Afikoman:

Does one fulfill his obligation even if he ate the Matzah on a full stomach? The Afikoman must be eaten with an appetite. If one was full and forced himself to eat the Afikoman he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. However if he is full to the point that he is disgusted by the eating, then he does not fulfill his obligation.

How much Matzah does one have to eat for the Afikoman? One needs to eat a Kezayis of Matzah within pras [4 minutes]. Lechatchilah it is proper to eat two Kezeisim within time of Peras, one Kezayis for the Pesach sacrifice and one Kezayis for the Matzah that was eaten with the Pesach. If this is difficult then one may eat only one Kezayis. In such a case one should intend that the Kezayis serve to commemorate whichever of the above two subjects is ultimately the one requiring commemoration.

How much is a Kezayis? One is to initially try to eat 27 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. If this is difficult then one may even initially eat 21.2 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. Many write that one may even initially take only 17 grams worth of Matzah.

By what time does the Afikoman have to be eaten by? [On the first night] the Afikoman is to be eaten by midnight. [However there are those that are lenient to eat the Afikoman after midnight even on the first night. However on the second night one can eat it until morning.]

May one eat the Afikoman in two different areas? One may not even eat the Afikoman on two different tables. Rather the entire Afikoman is to be eaten on the same table within the same room.

May one eat his Afikoman in a different area/house then he had the meal/Seder in?  One may eat the meal in one area and then eat the Afikoman elsewhere, [if he had in mind to do so when he washed for the Matzah].

Does one need to lean when eating the Afikoman?  Men are to eat the Afikoman leaning towards their left. If one ate the Afikoman without leaning he has fulfilled his obligation.

May one eat or drink after the Afikoman, before the 3rd cup? One may not eat or drink any food or beverage, including water, after eating the Afikoman.

If one fell asleep during eating his Afikoman, may he continue to eat it? If one fell into a light doze then he may continue to eat the Afikoman. Similarly if he fell asleep prior to beginning to eat the Afikoman, he may eat it after awakening. However if one fell asleep after he began eating, then if there are other members of his group which are still awake at the table, then he may continue eating upon awakening. However if he ate alone, or all of the other members also fell asleep, then one cannot continue eating.

 

 

May one steal the Afikoman on the night of the Seder?

Some communities are accustomed to have the children steal the Afikoman on the night of the Seder and hold it ransom until the father redeems it with a promissory gift of some kind.  Other communities however specifically avoid doing so due to resemblance of the stealing prohibition, and so is the Chabad custom to avoid this Minhag.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time of Chatzos in Jerusalem on Seder night

Year Midnight
5774 12:39
5775 12:42
5776 12:37
5777 12:40
5778 12:44
5779 12:38
5780 12:41
  1. Beirach:

The cup of Eliyahu: It is accustomed in these provinces to pour an extra cup [of wine] in addition to the [four cups] of the diners. This cup is called the cup of Eliyahu. 

When is one to pour the cup of Eliyahu: One is to pour the cup of Eliyahu before Birchas Hamazon, and prior to pouring the 3rd cup.

The third cup: The third cup should be poured after the Afikoman, before beginning the Bentching. The reason for this is because we want to do an additional mitzvah with the cup by using it for Bentching.

Mayim Achronim: One does not place water on the lips upon performing Mayim Achronim.

Who leads the Birchas Hamazon? The custom is to have the person which read the Hagadah to lead the blessing said after meal, although he has permission to honor someone else to do so in his stead.

May one drink after drinking the third cup of wine, prior to drinking the 4th cup? One is not to eat or drink anything, including water, after having drunk the 3rd cup. This applies likewise to the 2nd Seder which is observed in the Diaspora. Nevertheless, one may drink entire 3rd cup even if it contains much more than a Revius.

 

Q&A

What is the order for Sheva Brachos that is taking place on the night of the Seder?

Some Poskim rule one is to recite the Sheva Brachos on the cup of the Chasan and the Zimun on the cup of the Mizamen. The order is as follows: The person leading the zimun is to delay his blessing of Hagafen and the men then recite the seven blessings over the cup of the Chasan. The cup is then returned to the Chasan, The leader of the Zimun recites Hagafen on his cup and everyone drinks their third cup. The Chasan drinks his cup entirely and it is not given to the Kallah or anyone else to drink.

 

If one is repeating Birchas Hamazon due to forgetting Yaleh Veyavo, must he pour himself another cup?

The repeated Birchas Hamazon is to be recited without another cup of wine.

 

  1. Hallel/Nirtza:

When is the 4th cup poured? After the 3rd cup is drunk, one pours the fourth cup.

Shefoch Chamascha: All the doors leading to the public are opened by Shefoch Chamascha to remember that this night is a night that G-d guards and protects us, and we are thus not scared of anything. In merit of this faith, Moshiach will come, and G-d will then pour his wrath on the Gentiles. Shefoch Chamascha is very auspicious time to ask Hashem for ones requests.

Leaving ones doors unlocked throughout the night: Some even have the custom not to lock their doors at night when they go to sleep, being that it is a night guarded for G-d to take us out of the exile [and bring us to the upcoming redemption]. We thus leave the door open, as if Eliyahu will come; he will find an open door and will be greeted quickly. We believe in this, and this faith carries with it a great reward. Nevertheless if robbers are common in ones area, then one should not rely on a miracle [and leave his door open].

Having a zimun for Hallel:  It is a Mitzvah to seek a zimun for Hallel. It is best to be done with three men above Bar Mitzvah. The greatest of the three is to say the verses while the others answer. If there are not three adult men then one can join a child that has reached the age of chinch, or join a woman. Even ones wife can read the verses and have her husband answer. However by a Katan, he can only answer and not read it.

What does one say after Hallel? After Hallel is said one is to say “Birchas Hashir. Some say that this refers to “Yehalilukah”. Others say that it refers to Nishmas. We do like both opinions.

May Hallel and the 4th cup be said/drunk in a different area? One may say Hallel and drink the 4th cup in a different area than the area of the Seder.

By when must Hallel be completed? There is no need to finish Hallel before Chatzos.

To drink the 4th cup immediately after Hallel: One is not to make an interval between the end of Hallel and the drinking of the 4th cup.

Pouring the cup of Eliyahu: After the Seder one is to pour the wine of the Kos Shel Eliyahu back into the bottle. One sings Keili Ata of the Alter Rebbe upon doing so.

 

What is the meaning of Nirtzah and how is it one of the steps of the Seder?

 

  1. After the Seder:

May one eat or drink? One is not to eat or drink anything, including water, after having drunk the 4th cup, until one awakens from sleep of that night. This applies likewise to the 2nd Seder which is observed in the Diaspora.

The obligation to continue saying the story of the exodus: After the Seder one is obligated to discuss and deal with the laws of Pesach and the story of the Exodus, telling over the miracles which G-d has done for our ancestors, until sleep overcomes him.

Saying an abridged version of Krias Shema Sheal Hamitah on the 1st night of Pesach: [On the 1st night of Pesach] one only says the 1st paragraph of the Shema and then goes straight to Hamapil. [On the 2nd night of Pesach however one says the regular paragraphs as is said on any Yom Tov.]

 

  1. Mivtzaim Sedarim-What does one do if he needs to lead more than one Seder?

If one does not plan to do the Seder together with the public but rather prefers to do a private Seder afterwards in a different area, then the following is the order that should be followed:

Kadeish-Karpas: One says for them the blessings of Kiddush and Hadamah to be Moitzi them, if they do not know to say the blessing themselves.  However it is forbidden for him to eat or drink anything.

Maggid: One then says Mah Nishtana and explains the Hagadah in a language that they understand. One explains those matters which must be said from the letter of the law [see chapter 473]. One says for them the blessing of “Asher Gealanu” at the conclusion of Maggid, although he himself may not drink.

Moitzi Matzah-Maror: One recites the blessings of Matzah, Hamotzi, and Maror for the congregation although he himself may not eat anything.

Beirach: One may not read Birchas Hamazon for the public being that only one who has eaten can bentch. However it is allowed to read to them the Bentching having them repeat after him word by word just like it is allowed to teach a child.

If one plans to do a private Seder in the same area after the public Seder concludes: Then one may say up until Maggid together with the public, and from Maggid and on-words is to continue the Seder for the public, and after the conclusion to continue from Maggid for himself.

May one begin the Seder prior to nightfall?

It is forbidden to begin the Seder [i.e. Kadesh] prior to nightfall [i.e. Tzeis Hakochavim].  [If one is making a public Seder in an area that nightfall begins at a very late hour, and fears that people will not attend, he is to start the Seder early, after Plag Hamincha, through Davening Maariv, saying speeches, Pesach skits, and saying parts of Maggid, and then begin Kadesh after Tzeis Hakochavim. If this too is not viable, then some Rabbanim suggest making Kiddush after Pelag Hamincha and beginning the order of the Seder until Maggid. After Tzeis Hakochavim one is to begin Maggid and drink two cups of wine as part of the four cups. Practically, one is to contact his Rav.]     


 

16. The Pesach Davening and schedule:

  1. Mincha Erev Pesach:

Seder Karban Pesach: In preparation for the Pesach offering one is to learn the detailed laws of the Karban Pesach as written in the Siddur. It is read after Mincha of Erev Pesach, as Mincha corresponds to the afternoon Tamid offering which was brought prior to the Pesach offering. It is to be read before sunset.

Pesach Erev Shabbos: If Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos, one is to recite Hodu and Patach Eliyahu before Mincha.

 

  1. Maariv:

Saying Hallel on the first nights of Pesach: We say the complete Hallel with a blessing on both nights of Yom Tov [in the Diaspora]. In Eretz Yisrael Hallel is only recited on the first night.

After Hallel recite Kaddish with Tiskabel

Pesach falls on Shabbos: One is to begin with Mizmor Ledavid. One recites Gam Besimcha in Lecha Dodi. In Shemoneh Esrei one needs to mention “Shabbos” in the beginning of the middle blessing, and in the conclusion of the blessing. One recites Vayechulu after Shemoneh Esrei. Do not recite Meiyn Sheva even if Pesach falls on Shabbos. Recite Hallel. Recite Kaddish Tiskabel. Recite Mizmor Ledavid. Recite half Kaddish. Recite Barchu. Recite Aleinu and Kaddish Yasom.

Meiyn Sheva: Meiyn Sheva is not said after Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv even when Pesa1ch falls on Shabbos.

 

  1. Shacharis:

The Torah reading: One removes two Sifrei Torah from the ark. Five people are called to 1st Torah and the 6th to Maftir. [On Shabbos one reads 7 Aliyos from the first Torah.]

  1. Musaf:

Morid Hatal:  In Musaf of the first day of Pesach one stops reciting Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem and rather recites Morid Hatal. The Gabai is to announce prior to the silent Shemoneh Esrei of Musaf that Morid Hatal is to be said.

The Rabbis speech: On the day of the holiday the Rabbi of each community expounds on the meaning and miracles of that holiday.

 

What does one do if he has not yet davened Shacharis and the congregation has already davened Musaf?

Once the congregation that one prays by has prayed Musaf, he is to omit Mashiv Haruach from even his Shacharis Shemoneh Esrei.

 

If one said Mashiv Haruch Umorid Hagesehm and then immediately remembered must he return to the beginning of Ata Gibur?

Yes. The, same applies for Vesen Bracha in Bareich Aleinu.

 

 

  1. Making a special meal on the second day of Pesach in honor of the death of Haman:

One is to enhance his meal on the 16th of Nisan in honor of the meal which Queen Esther made with Haman and Achashveirosh on the 16th of Nissan, and which then led Haman to be hung.

 

  1. Maariv of the 16th:

Sefiras Haomer: One begins to count Sefiras Hamoer on the second night of Pesach, which is the 16th of Nissan.

The Sefirah is counted at night immediately following Maariv. One is to count in a standing position.

 

If the Minyan is holding by Sefira and one has not yet begun Maariv is he to recite Sefira with the Tzibur?

Yes.

 

 

Havdala on Motzei Yom Tov:

*In those years that Motzei Yom Tov is also Motzei Shabbos then the order of Havdala follows the same order as Motzei Shabbos.

On Motzei Yom Tov, whether it is Motzei Yom Tov to a weekday or Motzei Yom Tov to Chol Hamoed, one is required to recite Havdala over a cup of wine just like on Motzei Shabbos. [However when Motzei Yom Tov falls on Friday night it is not recited-see B!]

Haeish: During Havdala of Motzei Yom Tov we do not say a blessing over fire.

Besamim: During Havdala of Motzei Yom Tov we do not say a blessing over Besamim.

 

 

Q&A

Are the Pesukim of Hinei Keil Yeshuasi recited on Motzei Yom Tov?

Yes. Although some have the custom to omit it.

 

Is Vayiten Lecha recited on Motzei Yom Tov?

No.

 

Is Vayiten Lecha recited on Motzei Shabbos Chol Hamoed?

Some Poskim rule it is to be recited. Others rule it is to be omitted. The Chabad custom is to recite it quietly.

 

 

  1. Motzei Yom Tov that falls on Shabbos:

When Yom Tov falls on Erev Shabbos one does not say Havdala. [Havdala is not recited either in prayer or over a cup of wine. Hence Veata Chonantanu is omitted in Shemoneh Esrei of Friday night, and one does not say Yaknahaz by Kiddush].

  1. Chol Hamoed:

Shacharis: If one forgot Yaleh Veyavoh, even in Maariv, then he must repeat the prayer. If one forgot it in Birchas Hamazon then he does not have to repeat it.

Musaf: The Musaf of Chol Hamoed follows the same dialect as Musaf of Yom Tov of the 1st day of Pesach, with exception that when the Musaf sacrifice is mentioned in the prayer, one begins from “Vehikravtam” and not from “Ubachimash Asar Yom”. The reason for this is because all the Musaf sacrifices were the same on all the days of Pesach. On Chol Hamoed Sukkos however each day has a different offering which is read in the Musaf.

Hallel: The sages only instituted Halel to be read on the 1st day of Pesach [and 2nd in Diaspora]. Nevertheless the custom is to read the Hallel on each day of Pesach. Thus on the first day [and second in Diaspora] the entire Hallel is read, while on the remaining days only an abridged Hallel is read. When reciting the Hallel with the Minyan only the Chazan is to recite the before and after blessing, and he is to have in mind for the congregation to fulfill their obligation with him. If one is praying privately he is to recite the opening and concluding blessings of Hallel even when the entire Hallel is not recited and so is the Chabad custom. Furthermore many Chabad Chassidim are accustomed to recite the blessing on their own even when Davening with the Minyan. Some recite it prior to the Chazan and hence complete it prior to the Chazan completing his blessing. Others recite it together with the Chazan and some recite it after the Chazan.

Simcha: It is a Biblical command for one to rejoice, himself, his wife children and his entire household, throughout all days of Yom Tov, including Chol Hamoed. Men [includes oneself and his adult male household members] are obligated to drink wine [every day of Yom Tov and Chol Hamoed] in order to fulfill their Mitzvah of Simcha. One who does not drink wine does not fulfill the command. In addition to drinking wine, there is also a [Biblical] Mitzvah, although not an obligation, to eat meat and other delicacies. [One who increases in eating other delicacies and doing other matters of joy is as well considered to be fulfilling the Biblical command, although he is not obligated in doing so.] One is to give his children and other young members of his household [treats such as] nuts. [Today this can be fulfilled through giving children chocolate and other candies.]

 

Q&A on wine

How much wine must a man drink?

A man is to drink a Revius of wine every day of Yom Tov, including Chol Hamoed.

 

Must one drink actual wine, or is grape juice also valid?

One does not fulfill his obligation with grape juice.

 

Must one drink actual wine, or are other alcoholic beverages also valid?

One can drink any alcoholic beverage.

 

Are also women to drink wine for Simchas Yom Tov?

No.

 

 

  1. Shabbos Chol Hamoed:

Shacharis: Follows the same dialect of prayer as a regular Shabbos, with exception that Yaleh Veyavo is added in the Shemoneh Esrei.

Musaf: For Musaf one prays the Musaf dialect prayed by a holiday, adding to it the parts added on Shabbos. If one forgot to mention the Shabbos sacrifices in the Musaf then if one said “Kimo Shekasuv Besorasecha” then he has fulfilled his obligation. The same applies whenever one forgets to mention particular Karbanos.

Haftorah: Both the Haftorah of Shabbos Chol Hamoed Pesach and Sukkos discuss the times of the redemption. On Pesach the Haftorah discusses the resurrection, being that the resurrection will take place in Nissan. On Sukkos the Haftorah is the battle of Gog and Magog, being that in Tishreiy will be the war of Gog and Magog. The last blessing said after the Haftorah concludes on Pesach with only “Mikadeish Hashabos” being that Chol Hamoed Pesach is not considered a separate Yom Tov. On Sukkos it ends with “Mikadesh Hashabbos Yisrael Vehazmanim” being that each day is a separate Yom Tov.

Reading Shir Hashirim:  Some have the custom to read Shir Hashirim on Shabbos Chol Hamoed. When doing so a blessing is not said. This is not the Chabad custom.

 

Q&A

Is Vayiten Lecha recited on Motzei Shabbos Chol Hamoed?

Some Poskim rule it is to be recited. Others rule it is to be omitted. The Chabad custom is to recite it quietly.

 

 

  1. The Torah reading on Chol Hamoed:

The second day of Pesach: The Torah reading is always “Shur oa kesev”.

On the third, fourth and fifth day: The Torah portion varies in accordance to if one of those days falls on Shabbos. Whenever one of the days falls on Shabbos, the Torah portion is always read from the portion of “Riea-Psal Licha”. On the other two days the order is first Kadesh Li, and then Im Kesef Tilveh. If there is no Shabbos on these days then the order is Kadesh, Im Kesef, and Psal Licha.

On the 6th day: The portion read is always Bamidbar Sinai.

If Pesach falls on Sunday or Shabbos the order is: 2nd-“Shur oa kesev”; 3rd-Kadesh; 4th-Im Kesef; 5th-Psal Licha, 6th-Bamidbar Sinai

If Pesach falls on Tuesday the order is: Wednesday/2nd = “Shur oa kesev”; Thursady/3rd = Kadesh; Friday/4th = Im Kesef; Shabbos/5th = Rieh- Psal Licha; 6th  = Bamidbar Sinai.

If Pesach falls on Thursday the order is: 2nd-“Shur oa kesev”; 3rd-Rieah-Psal Licha; 4th-Kadesh; 5th-Im kesef Tilveh; 6th-Bamidbar Sinai.

The Maftir:Every day of Pesach a second Sefer Torah is taken out of the Ark and from it is read the portion discussing the Musaf offering of that day of Pesach. The Maftir of all the days is read from the same portion, beginning from “Vehikravtam”. This is with exception to the Maftir of the 1st day which begins one verse earlier “And on the 1st day…”

How many people are called up for the Torah reading? On Yom Tov there are 5 people called up for the daily reading in the first Sefer Torah, and a 6th person is called up for the Maftir. On Chol Hamoed there are 3 people called up for the daily reading in the 1st Sefer Torah and a 4th is called up for Maftir. This 4th Aliyah in the times of Temple when the Maftir was not read, was part of the reading of the daily portion, as on Chol Hamoed 4 people must always be called up to the Torah. The reason for why 4 people are to be called up is because on every day that Musaf is prayed the sages added another Aliyah to the Torah reading.

May one call up for the Torah reading more people than needed? On Chol Hamoed one may not call up more than 4 people for the Torah reading.

When is the post-Torah reading Kaddish recited?  On Yom Tov the Kaddish is recited after the daily reading in the 1st Torah scroll. The reason for this is because we want to differentiate between the original institution to call up 5 people on Yom Tov, and the additional institution to call up an additional person for Maftir. On Chol Hamoed the Kaddish is recited only after the reading of the Maftir in the second Sefer Torah. The reason for this is because the 4th reading which is read as Maftir is part of the original institution to call up 4 people to read on Chol Hamoed, and the Kaddish is only read before the Maftir when the Maftir Aliyah is not part of the original institution.

17. Throughout Pesach reminders:

  1. One who finds Chametz on Pesach:

If one sold his Chametz before Pesach: He does not destroy it, as the Chametz belongs to the gentile and thus it is even forbidden for him to do so, as this is stealing from the gentile. Rather one should make a Mechitza of ten Tefachim by the Chametz. If this is not possible, then one should push it with a stick into an area that is designated for the gentile, and has a Mechitza of ten Tefach. However some Rabbanim allow one to burn the Chametz if he desires to, even though there is no obligation for him to do so, as the gentile is not particular if the Jew burns some of the Chametz, as long as he has in mind to pay the gentile back. However even in such a case one may not say a blessing over the Chametz, and if he does so it is a blessing in vain.

If one did not sell his Chametz before Pesach: One who did not sell his Chametz before Pesach is required to destroy any Chametz which he finds past the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, throughout the seven days of Pesach, eight days in the Diaspora. This includes even less than a Kezayis of Chametz, and even if one had nullified it before Pesach. [Although in the latter case, if the Chametz is dirty then it does not need to be destroyed as explained in chapter 442.] Regarding if a blessing is to be recited: When destroying Chametz on Erev Pesach before the night of the 15th then no blessing is said regardless of the amount being burned, or whether one had known of this Chametz at the time of the search done the previous night. When destroying the Chametz on Chol Hamoed then a blessing is only recited if all the following conditions were fulfilled: 1) One did not do Mechiras Chametz; 2) This Chametz was not found or known of during the Bedikah. 3) All the Chametz found and known of during the Bedikah has already been burned; 4) It is at least a Kezayis in size, or is not but one did not nullify this Chametz before Pesach; 6) The Chametz is Biblically considered Chametz.

What to do if found Chametz on Shabbos or Yom Tov: The Chametz is Muktzah and may not be moved. One is to cover the Chametz until Motzei Shabbos or Yom Tov and then burn it [if he did not do Mechiras Chametz] or sweep into the area sold to the gentile.

What does one do if he was searching through his Matzas and found a Kefulah? The Matzah is considered Muktzah being that it is forbidden to be eaten. If one only noticed the Kefula while it was already in his hand then one does not need to immediately drop it, and may go place it down in the toilet and destroy it.

 

  1. May one touch Chametz on Pesach?

Throughout the entire Pesach one is forbidden to touch Chametz, with exception to when one is doing so for the purpose of burning it. This prohibition includes even if one has a gentile’s Chametz in one’s home and wants to return it to the gentile. Thus if a gentile left Chametz in one’s home, a stick should be used to get rid of it.

  1. Making a special meal on the second day of Pesach in honor of the death of Haman:

One is to enhance his meal on the 16th of Nisan in honor of the meal which Queen Esther made with Haman and Achashveirosh on the 16th of Nissan, and which then led Haman to be hung.

  1. Begin Learning Tractate Sota on the 2nd day of Sefira.

It is the custom of Cahssidim to begin learning Tractate Sotah on the 17th of Nissan, which is the 2nd night of Sefirah. One is to learn one Daf per day in order to complete the Tractate on Erev Shavuos.

  1. Drinking a Revius of wine:

Men are to remember to drink a Revius of wine daily.

  1. Entering sold areas:

It is permitted on occasion to remove items from the closets or rooms sold to the gentile for Pesach.

18. Erev Shevii Shel Pesach:

  1. Eiruv Tavshilin-In years applicable:

Perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Thursday in years that Shevi Shel Pesach coincides with Erev Shabbos

How is it done? The owner of the house takes a whole loaf/role of bread/Matzah the size of a Kibeiytza [which is to later be used on Shabbos] and a Kezayis of a cooked piece of meat or other food which one eats together with bread. If one has another person to use to acquire the food to him on behalf of the city then the owner is to say: 

“אני מזכה לכל־מי שרוצה לזכות ולסמוך על ערוב זה”

The person who is acquiring the food for the townspeople then lifts the food up one Tefach. The owner then takes back the food and recites the following blessing: [If one does not have another person to use to acquire the food to the townspeople then he is to simply hold the food and begin from here with the following blessing:]

ברוך אתה ה’ אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על מצות  עירוב.

After the blessing one says in a language that he understands “With this eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and to do all our needs on Yom Tov for Shabbos”.

בדין יהא שרא לנא לאפויי ולבשולי ולאטמוני ולאדלוקי שרגא ולתקנא ולמעבד כל צרכנא מיומא טבא

לשבתא לנא ולכל ישראל הדרים בעיר הזאת

 

Reminding the public:

In those years that Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed it is proper to place signs by the public areas [i.e. Shul; Mikveh; Website] in order to remind the public of this matter. [It is suggested to also announce this in Shul at the conclusion of Shacharis and prior to Mincha.]

 

 

  1. Candle lighting:

We do not recite Shehechiyanu during candle lighting.

19. Shevii/Achron Shel Pesach:

  1. The meaning:

The Joy: The Joy of Shevii Shel Pesach surpasses the joy of all the previous days of Pesach as this day is connected to the complete and final redemption.

Time is precious-Revelation of Atzmus: The Rebbe Rashab stated: On Shevii Shel Pesach Atzmus is revealed. Every person is able to take and receive. Hence time on this day is very precious. Every moment of one’s time is to be properly utilized.

Rosh Hashanah of Mesirus Nefesh: The Tzemach Tzedek remarked that Shevii Shel Pesach is the Rosh Hashanah for Mesirus Nefesh. On this day Nachshon plunged with complete faith into the Red sea. One draws down Mesirus Nefesh on this day for the entire year that follows.

 

  1. The night of Shevii Shel Pesach:

Staying awake the entire night learning: On the night of Shevii Shel Pesach one is to stay awake throughout the night learning. Kerias Shema Sheal Hamita is not recited. One is to learn until Alos Hashachar.

What to learn: It is proper to learn the Mamar “Hayam Yanos”and “Vehinif “ in Likkutei Torah. Otherwise one may learn sections in Nigleh and Chassidus as his heart desires.

The morning blessings: If one did not sleep at night for a period of thirty minutes the Chabad custom is to recite all the morning blessings [including Al Netilas Yadayim, Elokaiy Neshama and Hamaavir Sheiyna] from after Alos. This however is with exception to Asher Yatzar which may only be said if one went to the bathroom. One may not say these blessing prior to Alos unless one received their corresponding pleasure. See “Awaking like a Jew” Chapter 8 Halacha 7 for further details on this matter.

Is one to recite Birchas Hatorah if he did not sleep at night? One is to recite Birchas Hatorah even if he did not sleep at all the previous night. [There is no need to try to hear the blessing from another person.] However the blessing may only be said starting from Alos, just as is the law regarding Birchas Hashachar. [If however one slept at night a standard sleep then the blessing is recited even prior to Alos, if it is past midnight. If however he only slept a temporary sleep it is considered as if he has not slept at all, as explained in the previous Halacha, and thus the blessing may not be recited until Alos.]

Is one to avoid Tashmish: There is no requirement to avoid Tashmish on Shevii Shel Pesach. 

 

Q&A

Which Alos is one to follow with regards to saying Birchas Hatorah?

One is to be stringent in this regard to follow the opinion which states that Alos begins 72 minutes prior to sunrise. One may learn Torah until this time arrives, even though it is past the Alos of other opinions [90 minutes and 120 minutes].

 

May one continue learning past Alos, prior to reciting Birchas Hatorah?

One may not continue learning Torah past Alos [of 72 minutes], and thus he is to stop learning and recite Birchas Hatorah. However some Poskim are lenient to allow one to continue learning past Alos, prior to saying Birchas Hatorah.

 

What is the law if one recited the blessing prior to Alos?

The blessing must be repeated after Alos. However there are Poskim that rule one is not to repeat the blessing a second time, and is rather to hear it from another person or have in mind to fulfill his obligation within prayer.

 

 

  1. Day of Shevii Shel Pesach:

Kerias Torah: One is to stand during the reading of the Shirah. The Haftorah is from Shmuel discussing the song of David. The reason for why this Haftorah is read is because this song is similar to the song of the sea that was sung, and because it discusses the exodus from Egypt.

Yizkor: In Eretz Yisrael Yizkor is recited on Shevii Shel Pesach after the Torah reading.

Av Harachamim: In the Diaspora Av Harachamim is not recited. In Eretz Yisrael it is optional to recite it.

Shevi Shel Pesach that coincides with Erev Shabbos: In Israel, recite Shnayim Mikra past midday. Eat Moshiach Seuda before 10th hour of day. Prior to Mincha Hodu is omitted but Patach Eliyahu is said.

 

  1. Moshiach Seuda:

What is it? The Baal Shem Tov was accustomed to eat three meals on the last day of Pesach. This meal was referred to as Moshiachs Seuda, as on this day shines a revelation of Moshiach.

When is it celebrated? One celebrates Moshiachs Seuda on the last day of Pesach as the third meal of the day, after Mincha. In Eretz Yisrael it is celebrated on Shevii Shel Pesach, while in the Diaspora on Achron Shel Pesach. In Eretz Yisrael, when Shevii Shel Pesach coincides with Erev Shabbos one is to celebrate Moshiachs Seuda on Erev Shabbos prior to the 10th hour of the day. One is likewise to continue the celebration on Shabbos day [through making another Moshiachs Seuda that next day].

The Menu: One is to drink four cups of wine. Upon drinking each cup one is to have in mind their connection to the future redemption. One who drank without this intent is to re-drink that cup of wine.

Niggunim of the Rabbeim: The custom is to sing Niggunim of each of the Chabad Rabbeim. Likewise the Niggun of the Shpola Zeida is sung.

Moshiach Tantz: It was customary at the Seudas Moshiach of the Rebbe Rayatz to perform a dance called “Moshiachs Tantz”. This was likewise performed by the Rebbe in 1951.

 

 

Is one required to have Lechem Mishneh on by Seudas Moshiach?

Some Poskim learn one is required to have Lechem Mishneh during every meal of Yom Tov, even in one’s third or fourth meal, just as is the law by Shabbos. [Practically it is proper to be stringent in this matter.]

 

  1. Achron Shel Pesach-Diaspora

Matza Shruya/Gebrochts: One is allowed and encouraged, to eat Gebrochts on the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora. One is to eat Gebrochts by both meals. This can be fulfilled by simply dipping the Matza in liquid that contains water and eat it. One may cook and Gebrochts in his regular Pesach vessels, which will also be used next year for Pesach. They do not need to be Kashered next year for Pesach use.

Haftorah: On the 8th day in the Diaspora the Haftorah of “Oad Hayom Binoav Laaamod” is read from Yishayahu. The reason for this is because it commemorates the fall of Sancheirev.

 

 

May one cook Gebrochts on Friday which Shevii Shel Pesach for the sake of eating on Shabbos?

Yes.

 

 

  1. If ones meal on the last day of Pesach continues past nightfall, may one eat Chametz during this meal?

One may eat Chametz after Tzeis Hakochavim, even before saying Havdala.

 

 

The Seder in Eretz Yisrael when Shevii Shel Pesach falls on Friday:

 

May one eat Kitnoyos on Shabbos which follows the last day of Yom Tov?

It is permitted to eat edible Kitniyus on Shabbos which follows the last day of Pesach. Thus one may buy Chumus and Tehina which are Kosher for Pesach during Chol Hamoed, and eat it that Shabbos.

 

May one cook the Kitniyos on Friday which is Yom Tov?

Some Poskim rule this is permitted. Others rule it is forbidden.

 

May one eat Chametz that was sold to the gentile on Shabbos which follows the last day of Pesach?

From the letter of the law one may do so. However the custom is not to do so due to various reason.


 

20. After Pesach:

  1. May one begin to eat Chametz after Pesach prior to the conclusion of the sale?

Yes. One may begin eating Chametz immediately after the conclusion of Pesach, even though it is prior to the return sale of the Chametz taking place with the gentile.  Doing so does not border on stealing from the gentile or any other transgression.  This especially applies in those sale contracts that make an explicit stipulation with the gentile that one may eat the Chametz prior to the conclusion of the return sale.  [Practically, so is explicitly written in the sales contracts of the Eida Hachareidis  and of Rav Landa of Bnei Brak.  Others however do not explicitly write this stipulation.] Even by those sale contracts that do not explicitly make this stipulation, one may be lenient to allow one to eat the Chametz prior to the end of the sale if one knows for certain that the gentile is not particular on this matter.  Practically, it is proper for every Rav who is arranging a sale contract to enter this stipulation explicitly in the contract and hence merit the public.  Alternatively, the Rav is to arrange to purchase back the Chametz immediately after Pesach.

 

  1. Buying Chametz after Pesach:

The Chametz of a Jew which was owned on Pesach is forbidden in benefit for all Jews. Thus, when buying Chametz from a Jewish owned store one must verify that they have performed Mechiras Chametz before Pesach. The above requirement however only applies when buying Chametz that was manufactured before Pesach. [This can be verified through looking for the manufacture date that is on the product.] If one does not know when the Chametz was manufactured then one may be lenient and permit the Chametz to be eaten, as by every Rabbinical prohibition, when there is doubt we are allowed to be lenient. However, there are opinions who prohibit to eat any Chametz which even has doubt that was around on Pesach. Practically, one should suspect for their opinion to not eat the Chametz, unless it’s a case of great loss [and the Chametz cannot be sold], however to benefit [like sell] the Chametz is permitted according to all opinions.

A gentile owned store: It is permitted to purchase any Chametz from a gentile owned store anytime after Pesach.

 

Q&A

May one buy non-Kosher for Pesach foods from a Jewish store that does not have a sign of Mechiras Chametz?

All foods that do not list any Chametz in their ingredients, and are not suspected to contain Chametz, may be purchased from any store even if they are not Kosher for Pesach and were owned by the Jewish owned store from before Pesach. If however one suspects the food may contain Chametz, then it requires further analysis as to whether it may be eaten, even if Chametz is not listed in the label ingredients.

 

May one eat Chametz that is being offered by a non-observant Jew?

If one knows for certain that the Jew owned the Chametz before Pesach then it is forbidden to eat it. If one is unsure as to when it was owned, then this matter is subject to dispute and one should be stringent as stated above. Vetzaruch Iyun if one can rely on the statement of the Jew as to when he purchased the Chametz.

 

 

  1. Issru Chag:

One is to increase a little in eating and drinking on Isru Chag. Even a Chasan and Kallah on the day of their wedding may not fast on this day. Similarly, a child may not fast on his parent‘s Yartzeit.

Yartzite that falls on Isru Chag.

 

Is one to wear Shabbos clothing on Isru Chag?

Some Poskim  rule that one is to wear Shabbos clothing on Isru Chag.

 

 

Sparks of Kabalah:

The Arizal taught that on the day after Yom Tov, Isru Chag, a ray of the Holiday still shines.

 

  1. Kneading a key into Challah the first Shabbos after Pesach:

Many are accustomed to braid the Challah in the shape of a key. Others knead a key within the Challah dough on the first Shabbos after Pesach. Some acclaim the above custom is not followed by Chabad Chassidim.

  1. Reciting Pirkei Avos:

It is accustomed to recite Pirkei Avos on every Shabbos between Pesach and Shavuos. Some are accustomed to continue reciting it after Shavuos, throughout the summer months, until Rosh Hashanah. [Practically the Chabad custom is to say Pirkeiy Avos until Rosh Hashanah. On the Shabbossim which are in approximation to Rosh Hashanah, two chapters of Pirkeiy Avos are read, in order to complete the cycle prior to Rosh Hashanah.]

Reciting “Kol Yisrael…” prior to each chapter and “Rebbe Chanania Ben Akashiya…” at the end of each chapter: One is to recite the Mishnaic saying of “Kol Yisrael…” prior to beginning the chapter of Pirkeiy Avos. At the conclusion of the chapter one is to recite the teaching of “Rebbe Chanania Ben Akashyia..”. [On the Shabbossim which are in approximation to Rosh Hashanah, in which two chapters of Pirkeiy Avos is read, some write one is to read the above opening and closing statements before and after each individual chapter. Others write it is only to be said once; the opening statement at the beginning of the first chapter and the concluding statement after concluding the second chapter. Others write that by the first 4 chapters that are said together [1-2 and 3-4], one reads the opening statement at the beginning of the first chapter and the concluding statement after concluding the second chapter. However by the last two chapters [5-6] one reads the opening statement at the beginning of the first chapter and the concluding statement after concluding the second chapter.]

Learning one Mishna in depth each Shabbos: It is proper to learn in depth at least one Mishna of the weekly chapter in Pirkei Avos. One is to learn this Mishneh together with its commentaries.

In Eretz Yisrael, when the last day of Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos, is Pirkei Avos recited that first Shabbos? There are different customs regarding this matter. Practically the widespread custom amongst Anash in Eretz Yisrael is to delay saying Pirkeiy Avos until the next Shabbos in order to be able to say it together with the Diaspora. [Perhaps however, as a compromise of the opinions, one should say the first chapter the first Shabbos, and then repeat it again the next Shabbos when the Diaspora begins reading it.]

In Eretz Yisrael, when Shavuos falls on Erev Shabbos, is Pirkei Avos recited that following Shabbos? Yes. In such a case in Eretz Yisrael they will be one chapter ahead of the Diaspora throughout the reading, until Rosh Hashanah.

  1. Traveling when Parshiyos are not aligned in years that Shevi’i Shel Pesach falls on Friday:

Kerias Hatorah for Ben Chutz Laretz in Eretz Yisrael when Parshiyos are not aligned: If one traveled from the diaspora to Eretz Yisrael in a week that Eretz Yisrael is one Parsha ahead of the Diaspora, as occurs in certain years starting from the Shabbos after Pesach or the Shabbos after Shavuos, then one is to try and find a Minyan of Bnei Chutz La’aretz which will read the weekly Parsha of the Diaspora.  Alternatively, one can ask the Baal Korei to begin the reading of Kohen from the previous Parsha and have him read until Levi of the current Parsha.  If neither of the above options are possible, then due to lack of choice he has lost the previous Parsha and is to join the reading of Bnei Eretz Yisrael.

Shnayim Mikra:  If one traveled to Eretz Yisrael in a week that Eretz Yisrael is reading a different Parsha than the Diaspora  one is to read the Shnayim Mikra of both Parshiyos, the one which he is now missing in the Diaspora and the one which he will now hear in Eretz Yisrael. [If he returns to the Diaspora after Shabbos he is not required to repeat the Shnayim Mikra of the Parsha that was read in Eretz Yisrael and is now being read in the Diaspora.] In the event that he finds a Minyan of Bnei Chutz La’aretz who will only be reading the Parsha of Chutz La’aretz then he is to do Shnayim Mikra of only the Parsha of Chutz Laaretz.

Kerias Hatorah for Ben Eretz Yisrael in Chutz Laretz when Parshiyos are not aligned: If one traveled from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora in a week that Eretz Yisrael is one Parsha ahead of the Diaspora, as occurs in certain years starting from the Shabbos after Pesach or the Shabbos after Shavuos, and thus in the Diaspora they will repeat the reading that he heard in Eretz Yisrael, then he is obligated to hear the Parsha a second time.

Shnayim Mikra:  If one traveled from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora in a week that the Diaspora is reading the Parsha that was read the previous Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael  He is not required to repeat Shnayim Mikra of that Parsha , even though he is required to hear the reading of the Torah.

[1] See Blumenkrantz Digest p. 10-334

[2] The reason: Starch is used on many paperware, including at times wheat starch.

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