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Staying awake throughout the night:
Many are accustomed to stay awake learning Torah throughout the night of Shavuos.
What is one to learn?
The Oral Torah: One’s main involvement in learning should be in the teachings of the Oral Torah. [For this reason, based on our custom of first reciting the entire Tikkun, once one has completed the recital of the Tikkun, his main learning is to be the oral Torah.]
The Tikkun: Many are accustomed to recite the Tikkun Leil Shavuos on the night of Shavuos. This is also the Chabad custom. The Tikkun is to be recited by every Jew, even if one is a Torah scholar and is able to study during this time. [Although the saying of the Tikkun can take up one’s entire night, in the event that one completed it before morning, one is to spend the remainder of the night in learning the oral Torah, as brought above.]
The reasons and benefits involved in staying awake throughout the night:
· The reason behind this custom is in order to rectify the mistake made by Matan Torah, in which we overslept into the morning. Therefore, to rectify this sin we stay awake throughout the entire night. [In truth, we were in a great state of excitement and anticipation to receive the Torah, and did not oversleep due to lack of enthusiasm. The oversleeping was done intentionally, in order to benefit from the Divine and spiritual revelations which the soul experiences during sleep when it is no longer confined to the body, and hence come more spiritually prepared for Matan Torah. Nevertheless, this was considered a mistake, as the entire purpose of the Torah is top refine the physical world and work with its boundaries, and hence it was improper to use extra sublime spiritual injections attained when the soul is away from this world, to prepare for Matan Torah which needs to work with the world.]
· The recital of Tikkun Leil Shavuos helps draw down the level of Keser.
· The Arizal states: “Whoever stays awake throughout the entire night without sleeping for even one moment at all, and stays awake the entire night learning Torah, is promised to survive the year without damage. Furthermore, the direction of one’s very life for that year is dependent on this. If he does not sleep at all he will certainly not die that year. It is for this reason that the custom became widespread amongst all Israel to stay up throughout the night.”
· The Rebbe Rashab stated “I have a written manuscript from the Mittler Rebbe which states that one who stays awake throughout the night he promises that he will merit the level of Keser Torah. The Mitteler Rebbe was a Posek. Listen Yidden, one is to stay awake the entire night on the night of Shavuos. The intent is very simple, to simply not sleep” This level is a ray of the revelation of the general Keser which will be revealed in the times of Moshiach. Meriting the level of Keser draws pleasure and joy into ones learning.
Q&A on the Tikkun
The Seder of the Tikkun:
How many verses are read? One is to read from the beginning of Parshas Bereishis until the words “Eileh Toldos Hashamayim Veharetz.” He is then to skip until the end of the Parsha and read the last three verses of Bereishis. One is then to read the first three and last three verses of each Parsha. If there is a short beginning or end section of 4-5 verses, then one is to read 4-5 verses. In Parshas Yisro, one is to read the first three verses, and then skip to the verse of Ubechodesh Hashlishi, and read until the end of Parshas Yisro. In Parshas Mishpatim, one is to read the first three verses, and then skip to the verse of “V’el Moshe Amar”, and read until the end of Parshas Mishpatim. In Parshas Pinchas, one is to read the first three verses, and then skip to the verse of Ubeyom Habikkurim, and read from there. In Parshas Vaeschanan, one is to read the first three verses, and then skip to the Aseres Hadibros, and read until the end of Shema, Vayisharecha, and then skip and read the last three verses of the Parsha. In Parshas Riei, one is to read the first three verses, and then skip to the verse of Shiva Shavuos Tispor, and read until the end of Parshas Riei. After completing the five books of Chumash, one is then to read Nevi’im and Kesuvim, for a total of all 24 Sefarim in Tanach. One is to read the first three and last three verses in every Sefer in Navi and Kesuvim. The words of Megillas Eicha should be read quietly, due to the Yom Tov. One is to read the entire Megillas Ruth. In Sefer Yechezkal one is to read the entire Haftorah of Shavuos, which is from the verse “Vayehi Beshloshim Shana” until the end of the Haftorah, and then read the verse of Vatisaeini Ruach, and then skip and read the last three verses. In Sefer Chabakuk one is to read the first three verses and then skip and read the entire Haftorah of the 2nd day of Shavuos, which is from the verse “VaHashem Beoreich Kodsho” until the end of Chabakuk. [The above are the sections brought in the Arizal, for the complete Chabad custom of verses, see the Chabad Tikkun Leil Shavuos.]
Reading Mishnayos: The custom is to read Mishnayos after the completion of Tanach. [One reads the first and last Mishna of each Misechta of the 63 Misechtos in Shisha Sidrei Mishneh.]
Zohar: After the completion of Tanach [and Mishnayos] one is to read Zohar.
Taryag Mitzvos: After the completion of Tanach [Mishnayos and Zohar] one is to recite the 613 Mitzvos. When reading the Mitzvos one is to intend to fulfill the Mitzvah with his speech and fix the Ruach aspect of his soul.
Learning Midrashim on Yisro/Matan Torah: Some are accustomed to read the Midrashim of Parshas Yisro which discuss Matan Torah.
Reading the Yehi Ratzon: The Chabad custom is not to recite the Yehi Ratzon that is printed in the Tikkun.
Reciting Kaddish after Tikkun: The Chabad custom is not to recite Kaddish after the completion of the Torah and Navi sections of the Tikkun.
Is one to say the entire Tikkun?
The Rabbeim would say the entire Tikkun from beginning to end.
Is one to recite the Tikkun with a Minyan?
It is proper and customary for one to recite the Tikkun together with a Minyan. A fascinating story is related in the Shlah, regarding the Tikkun that was recited by Rav Yosef Karo, Rav Shlomo Alkabetz and other luminaries on the first night of Shavuos, and how they merited to have Ruach Hakodesh. The spirit told them that if only they were with a Minyan they would have made an even greater effect. The saying of the Tikkun with the Minyan on the second night merited the congregation to receive a greater prophetic vision and correspondence with the Shechina. Nonetheless, the Rebbe was not accustomed to recite the Tikkun together with the congregation, and he rather recited it in the privacy of his room.
When may one begin to recite the Tikkun?
The Rebbe Rashab would begin saying the Tikkun immediately after the lighting of candles of Shavuos and stop and continue after the Yom Tov meal.
Reading the written Torah before midnight, and the oral Torah after midnight:
It is customary to recite the Tanach portion of the Tikkun prior to midnight, and the oral Torah [i.e. Mishnayos] after midnight. Nonetheless, it is not customary to be particular to finish the Tanach before midnight, and not to begin the Mishnayos until after midnight.
May one speak and make interruptions during the Tikkun?
It is proper not to speak any mundane speech throughout the night. Some write one is to avoid speaking mundane speech until after Keser of Musaf. One may speak of Torah related matters in between the paragraphs of the Tikkun. It is best to speak in only Lashon Hakodesh throughout the night.
What is one to do if he cannot finish the entire Tikkun at night?
One who did not finish saying the Tikkun at night should finish saying it during the day.
Is one to recite the Tikkun also on the second night of Shavuos?
There were Chassidim who were accustomed to recite the Tikkun also on the second night. Accordingly, some Poskim rule one is to recite the Tikkun also on the second night. Nonetheless, the Rebbe instructed that this is not a directive for the public, and practically the widespread custom is not to recite the Tikkun on the second night.
Are women to recite the Tikkun?
Some Poskim rule that women are not to recite the Tikkun. Other Poskim rule that those women who recited Sefiras Haomer, may likewise recite the Tikkun Leil Shavuos. However, those women who do not recite Sefiras Haomer, are likewise not to read the Tikkun. [Practically, the widespread custom amongst women is not to read the Tikkun.]
If one will not stay up the whole night, is there a point for him to still recite the Tikkun?
Yes. The Tikkun is effective even if one cannot stay up for the entire night.
If one plans to do a Siyum Misechta and left the last Mishneh to be studied for the Siyum, may he read it during the Tikkun?
Seemingly he may read it with intent to study in greater depth for the sake of the Siyum.
Sparks of Chassidus
The purpose of learning the revealed Torah throughout the night of Shavuos is to elevate the Divine sparks to Keser. Throughout Sefiras Haomer, one elevated the sparks of Tohu which are found in the animal soul to the world of Atzilus. However, elevating those sparks to Keser can only be accomplished through Torah.
Each week of Sefiras Haomer we fixed one of the Sefiros in Atzilus. In the first week we fixed Chochmah, the second week Bina, the third week Chesed of Daas, the fourth week Gevura of Daas, the fifth week Chesed, the sixth week Gevura and the seventh week we fixed Tiferes and Malchus. The Sefiros of Netzach, Hod, Yesod, and Keser still remain to be fixed, and these Sefiros are fixed on Shavuos through the recital of the Tikkun.
Saying the Tikkun:
The recital of the words written in the written Torah is the main Avoda of Shavuos and is the main preparation for the receiving of the Torah. Thus, the Tikkun must be recited by all.
The Divine revelation experienced during the Tikkun of Rav Yosef Karo and Rav Shlomo Alkabetz:
The following occurrence was jotted down by Rav Shlomo Alkabetz in a letter attained by the Shlah Hakadosh: Know, that I and the Chassid [Rav Yosef Karo] as well as other colleagues decided to stay awake throughout the entire night of Shavuos. Thanks to the Almighty, we were successful in doing so and did not stop [learning] for even a moment. This is the order that I arranged for the nights learning. First, we read numerous sections from Chumash, then from Tanach, including the entire Megillas Shir Hashirim and Megillas Ruth. All this was done with great awe and trepidation. Afterwards we studied Mishnayos. After the study of Mishnayos we studied Kabbalah. At around midnight, after completing the Mishnayos and Kabbalah, we heard a loud cryptic voice coming from the mouth of one our comrades, the Chassid. Only we understood what he was saying, while others in the vicinity could not make out the words coming from his mouth. He spoke with such a pleasant voice, and the voice became stronger and louder as each word was spoken. We fell on our faces in great fear and could not lift our heads to lift our face. The voice said as follows: Listen my friends, the scrupulous of the scrupulous, my beloved comrades, Peace to you! Praised are you and praised are your parents. Praised are you in this world and praised are you in the next world over the fact you decided to frown me on this night. For many years my crown has fallen and there is no one to comfort me. I am thrown to the earth, mingling with trash, and now you have returned the crown like old. Be strong my friends and rejoice as you are men of stature, and have merited that your Torah reach Hashem. Your Torah has broken all the heavens and bypassed all the angels, who stand mesmerized at your Torah. I am the Mishneh that has come to speak to you. If only you would have been a quorum of ten I would have been elevated even more…….. It is an opportune time for you to move to Eretz Yisrael and I will promise you peace and prosperity. The Divine spirit taught us Torah and revealed to us many secrets, including prophecies. We performed the same order on the second night, this time though with a quorum of ten. The Divine spirit returned to us as soon as we began reading the Aseres Hadibros and once again praised us for our learning and taught us Torah. It made a second appearance after midnight and taught us Torah for about an hour.
Going to Mikveh:
The custom is to immerse in a Mikveh at the time of Ashmuros Haboker, which is slightly prior to the time of Alos Hashachar/Dawn, when the Eastern side of the sky begins to brighten. One is to immerse in the Mikveh four times. One is intend in his immersion towards the Supernal Mikveh of Keser which is drawn down to him on this night, and corresponds to the 50th gate of Bina. The Rashash records specific Kavanos for each one of the four immersions.
The morning blessings:
*See the supplement provided at the end of the book for the full details, sources and opinions of this subject!
According to Chabad custom, one who did not sleep throughout the night is to nevertheless personally recite all the morning blessings, including the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim after washing hands, Elokaiy Neshama, Hamaavir Sheiyna, Birchas Hatorah, and all the other morning blessings. This however is with exception to the blessing of Asher Yatzar which may only be recited after using the bathroom.
Blessing on Tzitzis: One does not say a blessing on the Tallis Katan in the morning, unless he switches to a different pair of Tzitzis. If one does not desire to switch the Tallis Katan, then he is to recite a blessing on a different pair [wear it for a few moments] and include it within the blessing [or alternatively he is hear the blessing from another person who is putting on a Tallis. If one is married, then upon wearing his Tallis Gadol he is to have the Tallis Katan in mind.]
The definition of not having slept: One who did not sleep for a period of thirty minutes at night is considered as if he did not sleep at all. If one is in doubt as to the amount of time he slept, then those blessings which require one to sleep in order to be allowed to be said [i.e. Asher Yatzar according to Chabad custom, if he did not go to the bathroom], are to be said without the mentioning of G-d’s name.
Receiving the benefits of the blessings: If possible, it is proper for one to try to receive the pleasures of as many blessings as he can.
From when may the above blessings be recited if one did not sleep the previous night? If one did not sleep the night before and hence did not receive the benefit that corresponds to a particular blessing, such as he did not switch clothing, then that blessing may only be said after Alos [daybreak]. [If however he received the corresponding benefit after midnight, then he may say that blessing even before Alos.] Hence, if one heard the rooster crow after midnight, he may say the blessing of Lasechvi Bina. If, however, he heard the rooster crow before midnight, then the blessing may not be said until Alos.
If one did not sleep at night for a period of thirty minutes the Chabad custom is to recite all the morning blessings [including Al Netilas Yadayim, Elokaiy Neshama and Hamaavir Sheiyna] from after Alos. This however is with exception to Asher Yatzar, which may only be said if one went to the bathroom. One may not say these blessing prior to Alos, unless one received their corresponding pleasure.
When is Alos Hashachar?
There are various calculations and opinions for when the time of Alos Hashachar begins. The opinions fluctuate between a maximum of 120 fluctuating minutes before sunrise to a minimum of 72 fluctuating minutes before sunrise.
Which Alos is one to follow with regards to saying Birchas Hashachar?
One is to be stringent in this regard to follow the opinion who states that Alos begins 72 fluctuating minutes prior to sunrise.
Q&A on Birchas Hatorah
Which Alos is one to follow with regards to saying Birchas Hatorah?
One is to be stringent in this regard to follow the opinion who states that Alos begins 72 minutes prior to sunrise. One may learn Torah until this time arrives, even though it is past the Alos of other opinions [90 minutes and 120 minutes].
May one continue learning past Alos, prior to reciting Birchas Hatorah?
One may not continue learning Torah past Alos [of 72 minutes], and he is thus to stop learning and recite Birchas Hatorah. However, some Poskim are lenient to allow one to continue learning past Alos, prior to saying Birchas Hatorah.
One is to avoid marital relations on the night of Shavuos.
Night of Mikveh: If the night of Mikveh falls on Shavuos night, one is to have marital relations.
Is one to avoid marital relations on both nights of Shavuos in the Diaspora?
Some Poskim rule one is to abstain from marital relations on both nights of Shavuos, in the Diaspora. Other Poskim however rule that it only applies on the first night.
Is one to avoid Tashmish by the Shloshes Yimei Hagbala?
Some avoid marital relations beginning three nights before Shavuos, during the Shloshes Yimei Hagbala. However, according to the Arizal, one is only to abstain on the night of Shavuos.
Kerias Shema Sheal Hamita:
Kerias Shema Sheal Hamita is not recited on the night of Shavuos.
 Admur 494:3; M”A 494 “So is the custom of majority of students”; Zohar Emor 98a “The original Chassidim did not sleep on this night and they would learn Torah”; Shaar Hakavanos 89a; Peri Eitz Chaim 21:1; Agudas Eizov; Chemdas Yamim; Elya Raba 494:3; Peri Chadash 494; Chok Yaakov 494:1; Chok Yosef 494:3; Birkeiy Yosef 494:1; Mamar Mordechai 494:1; Derech Hachaim 2; Kaf Hachaim 494:6
 Admur 494:3; Shelah Miseches Shavuos p. 180 that so was custom of Beis Yosef and Rav Moshe Alkabetz
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to learn Mishnayos on the night of Shavuos. [Lev David 31; Ben Ish Chaiy Bamidbar 4; Kaf Hachaim 494:9 that so is implied from Zohar and Arizal]
 Hakdamas Zohar 1:8; Shaar Hakavanos ibid; Shlah Hakadosh Miseches Shavuos that so was custom of Beis Yosef; Kaf Hachaim 494:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:3; See “Tikkun Leil Shavuos Chabad” pp. 7-32 for a full analysis on this subject, its sources and meaning.
 See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 295; The custom of Tikkun is mentioned in Likkutei Torah Bamidbar p. 22
Other opinions: Some Poskim discouraged Torah scholars from saying the Tikkun, claiming that it was authored simply for the ignoramus who does not know to learn. [Chok Yaakov 494:1]
 Lev David [Chida] 31 wonders at those who divert from the Jewish custom and do not recite the Tikkun, as who is greater than the Beis Yosef and his Chabura who read the Tikkun; Toras Menachem 23:65
 Midrash Shir Hashirim 1:12
 M”A ibid
 Likkutei Sichos 4:1024
 Shaar Hakavanos p. 89a; Kaf Hachaim 494:7
 Shaar Hakavanos p. 89a; Peri Eitz Chaim 21:1; brought in Shulchan Aruch Haarizal; Beir Heiytiv 494:7; M”B 494:4; Kaf Hachaim 494:6
 Toras Shalom p. 3
 Mamar Admur Hazakein 5066 p. 381, brought in Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 295
 See Kaf Hachaim 494:7-8
 Shaar Hakavanos p. 89a; Kaf Hachaim 494:7
 See Rashash in Nehar Shalom p. 29a and Kaf Hachaim 494:8 that the reason we read three verses is to fix the three Sefiros of Netzach, Hod, Yesod.
 Admur 494:3 “Ones main involvement in learning should be in the teachings of the Oral Torah.”; Shelah Miseches Shavuos p. 180 that so was custom of Beis Yosef and Rav Moshe Alkabetz and that the custom in Eretz Yisrael is to read “Mikra and Mishneh”; Mishmeres Shalom 39:2;in name of Seder Hayom;
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to learn Mishnayos on the night of Shavuos. [Shaar Hakavanos ibid writes “After Tanach one is to learn Sodos Hatorah and the Zohar”; Chida in Lev David 31 and Ledavid Emes Kuntrus Toras Hashlamim 21; Ben Ish Chaiy Bamidbar 4; Kaf Hachaim 494:9 that so is implied from Zohar and Arizal and so is custom of Yerushalayim and Chevron and Tzefas; Zohar Chaiy of Kumrana; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 638]
 Shaar Hakavanos ibid; Kaf Hachaim 494:7
 Kaf Hachaim ibid that some are accustomed to do so; Chabad Tikkun
 Kaf Hachaim ibid
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 296
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 296
 Sichas Bamidbar 1991; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 253 [in Tikkun]
 Lev David [Chida] 31
 Printed in Shlah Miseches Shavuos
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 252 [in Chabad Tikkun of Heichal Menachem]
 Sefer Hamamarim 1950 p. 242
 Mamarei Admur Hazakein Emor p. 920; Mamarei Admur Haemtzai Chag Hashavuos 5579 p. 326;
 Rav Y.S. Ginzberg and Rav Leibel Groner related to me that he never saw or heard of this custom being kept
 Or Tzaddikim 32; Kaf Hachaim 494:11
 Zohar Chaiy [Kumrana] in name of Baal Shem Tov
 Shelah Hakadosh Miseches Shavuos
 Shelah ibid
 Directive of Rebbe Rayatz brought in Koveitz Lubavitch 3 p. 35; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 296
 Rav Yosef Karo and his Chabura recited the Tikkun on both nights of Shavuos [see Shlah Miseches Shavuos]; Reb Hillel Paritcher [see Sicha ibid]; The Rebbe Rashab also said the Tikkun on both nights. [Sefer Hasichos 1990 p. 114]
 Kaf Achas 22:9; Ben Ish Chaiy Bamidbar 7; Kaf Hachaim 494:10
 Toras Menachem 1990 3:133 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:261]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:4
 Rav Poalim 1 Sod Yeshaim 9
 Kaf Hachaim 494:8
 Kaf Hachaim 494:8
 See Shach 246:27 in name of Maharam Mintz 119 that one is to leave the last lines for the day of the Siyum. However, seemingly, in this case it is valid if he plans to study it later on in greater depth. Vetzaruch Iyun!
 Likkutei Torah Emor p. 65
 Rashash in Nehar Shalom p. 29a; Kaf Hachaim 494:8
 Sefer Hasichos 1940 p. 113; Toras Menachem 23:65
 Shelah Miseches Shavuos
 This paragraph is selected excerpts from the letter and not the full letter.
 Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos p. 89a; Peri Eitz Chaim 23:1; Shelah Meseches Shavuos; Chok Yaakov 494:1; Kaf Hachaim 494:7
 The reason: To receive the ray of Keser. [Arizal ibid]
The Kavanos: [Siddur Rashash brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Based on Shulchan Menachem 1:6 [Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag vol. 1 page 25; Likkutei Sichos 9 p. 276]; According to the ruling in Shulchan Aruch one is to wash hands without a blessing. However, the Chabad custom is to wash hands with a blessing. See Supplement!
 Based on Shulchan Menachem 1:6 [Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag vol. 1 page 25; Likkutei Sichos 9 p. 276]; According to the ruling in the Siddur one is to omit the blessing of Elokaiy Neshama. However, the Chabad custom is to say it. See Supplement!
 Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6; See Supplement!
 Siddur; 47:7; See supplement
 46:7; Siddur; Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6
 Ketzos Hashulchan 5:2
 Admur 8:27; 494:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 7:7; See our Sefer “the laws of Tzitzis” for the full details of this law!
There is a dispute of opinion regarding if there is an obligation to have Tzitzis on a four-cornered garment at nighttime. According to those who hold that there is an obligation of Tzitzis at night, then one cannot say a blessing upon awakening, as there has been no interval between the previous blessing made, and his current fulfillment of the Mitzvah. However, according to those who hold that at nighttime there is no obligation of wearing Tzitzis on a four cornered garment, then it’s considered that he was not fulfilling the mitzvah throughout the entire night, and there is thus a long interval between the previous Bracha he said and his fulfillment of the Mitzvah in the morning, and thus he is required to say a new Bracha. Practically, in compliance with the rule that when there is a dispute regarding the saying of a blessing, the blessing is not said, the blessing may not be said on the Tallis that he has woken up wearing. Nevertheless, in order to satisfy also the stringent opinion, one should try to wear another Tallis and upon saying the blessing on it have in mind also the Tallis that he is wearing. [Admur 8:27]
 The reason: As it is a dispute in whether nighttime is a time of wearing Tzitzis
 Ketzos Hashulchan ibid
 Ketzos Hashulchan 5:5
 Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6
 Thus, one is to try to change at least one clothing, put on a belt and hat prior to saying the blessings. This is done in order to suspect for the opinion that is stringent in this matter. Although this ruling is not recorded in the Siddur, the Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6 records this ruling after bringing the ruling of the Siddur.
 Siddur; Admur 47:7; Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6; See also 4:13 that the washing is to be done after Alos; This is not mentioned in previous Poskim. Tehila Ledavid 4:10 questions this matter of whether one must wait until Alos to say blessings that he did not receive pleasure from. He brings support from 47:13 that according to the Rama it is not necessary. Piskeiy Teshuvos 46:15 writes it is proper to suspect for these words of Admur in the Siddur.
Other Opinions: The Mekubalim rule that one is to recite all the morning blessings from after midnight, even if one did not sleep at night and did not receive their corresponding blessings. [Kaf Hachaim 46:49 in name of Rashash in Nehar Shalom and Arizal; brought also in Shalmei Tzibur 46 and Zechor Leavraham 1:300]
Yair Hayom versus Alos: In the Siddur Admur uses the term Alos while in the Shulchan Aruch 47:7; 47:9 and in the Siddur regarding Birchas Hatorah the term “Yair Hayom/Daylight” is used. Vetzaruch Iyun as to whether there is a difference between Yair Hayom and Alos. Seemingly, there is no difference, as Admur states that one may say the blessings starting from Alos [Siddur] and Yair Hayom [Siddur by Birchas Hatorah] and if there were a difference this would create a contradiction in Admur in the Siddur. Nevertheless, it remains to be understood why Admur uses different terms each time. See glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 16 and 22.
 The reason for waiting until after Alos: Seemingly the reason for this is because it is not applicable for one to say a blessing based on the worldly custom prior to the common time that people of the world receive these pleasures. [See Tehila Ledavid ibid]
 Regarding saying the blessings before day break, from Admur in Siddur and from Ketzos Hashulchan 5:6 it is implied that it has the same Halachic status as one who has slept and woke up before daybreak, in which the ruling is that one may say any blessing for which he has already received the corresponding pleasure. This is implied from the fact that he writes that if one heard the rooster crow before dawn then he may say the blessing of Hanosen upon hearing it. Seemingly the same should apply if he received the corresponding benefits of other blessings. This is also implied from the wording of the Siddur “and he did not yet become obligated in them” implying that it is possible to not sleep and nevertheless become obligated in them prior to dawn.
 Siddur; Admur 47:9 regarding one who slept at night
Other Opinions: According to the Michaber 47:13 one may never say the blessing of Hanosein Lasechvi Bina prior to Alos even if he heard the rooster crow. So is also implied from M”A 47:13 that one is initially to be stringent not to say the blessing.
 See Shiureiy Tziyon 37; Yagdil Torah Tzemach Tzedek 23 p. 23; Siddur Raskin p. 625 and Miluim 27; Rav Sangwai in Habracha 5:162; Piskeiy Teshuvos 89:2
 Rulings of Admur: Admur wrote different calculations regarding Alos Hashachar throughout the Shulchan Aruch, Siddur and Tanya. This created confusion as to Admur’s opinion as to the time of Alos Hashachar. From 89:1, 184:3, and 261:5 it is calculated that Alos Hashachar is 72 minutes before sunrise, or possibly 96 minutes. In 249:3, 459:10 and the Siddur [Seder Hachnasas Shabbos] it can be calculated that Alos Hashachar is 96 minutes or 120 minutes before sunrise. From the time of Alos mentioned in the Siddur regarding Sefiras Haomer it is possible to calculate it as 72 or 120 minutes. In Igeres Hateshuva 3 Admur extends the time of starting a fast to three hours before sunrise. The following are the opinions of Chabad Rabbanim in this matter:
Opinion of Admur according to the Gra”ch Naah-Two fluctuating hours: Rav Avraham Chaim Naah ruled that according to Admur, Alos Hashachar begins two fluctuating hours prior to sunrise. [Shiureiy Tziyon 37; Yagdil Torah Tzemach Tzedek 23 p. 23] The calculation is as follows: There are 5 Mil between Alos and Neitz [as rules Ula in Pesachim 93b]. Each Mil is 24 minutes [as rules Rambam in Pirush Hamishnayos Pesachim 3:2]. Thus 24 minutes per Mil x 5 Mil between Alos and Neitz equals 120 minutes. [This follows the ruling of Admur in 249:3; 459:10 and Siddur and so rules regarding 24 minutes per Mil: Peri Chadash Y.D. 69:26; Kitzur SHU”A 36:11. However, in 89:1 and 261:5 Admur rules that there is only 4 Mil between Alos and sunrise, hence there is only 96 minutes between Alos and sunrise. As well, although in 459:10 Admur rules that the day begins from sunrise and ends by sunset, in 89:1 he rules that it begins from Alos until nightfall. Nevertheless, the final ruling of Admur follows the ruling of the Siddur in which Admur rules like in 459:10.]
Other opinions amongst Chabad Rabbanim: See article of Rav Raskin in Siddur Miluim 27 for a summary of opinions of Chabad Rabbanim regarding the time of Alos Hashachar according to Admur. The opinions vary between 120 minutes, 72 minutes, 90 minutes and 96 minutes.
Opinion of Shulchan Aruch and majority of Poskim-72 minutes: Some Poskim rule Alos Hashachar begins 72 minutes prior to sunrise. [Rashal Pesachim 2a; Minchas Kohen 2:6; M”A 89:2; Levush 261 and 459; Admur in 89:1, 184:3, and 261:5; Derech Hachaim; M”B 89 in Biur Halacha “Veim”; 58 Biur Halacha “Kemo”; and chapters: 92; 163; 235; 261; 459] This is based on the calculation that there are 18 minutes per Mil [as rules Terumos Hadeshen 123; Michaber 459:2; Yoreh Deah 69:6; Rama 261:1; Admur in 89:1, 184:3, and 261:5] and there are 4 Mil between Alos and Neitz [as rules Rebbe Yehuda in Pesachim 93b]
Opinion of some Achronim-90 minutes: Some Poskim rule Alos Hashachar begins 90 minutes prior to sunrise. [Gr”a 459; Chok Yaakov 459:10; Chasam Sofer in glosses 89] This is based on the calculation that there are 22.5 minutes per Mil [as rules Maharil in Hilchos Pesach] and there are 4 Mil between Alos and Neitz [as rules Rebbe Yehuda in Pesachim 93b]
 Rav A”C Naah in Shiureiy Tziyon 37 “One needs initially to be stringent like all opinions”; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 47:16; Upashut!
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 47:16; Upashut!
 Kaf Hachaim 494:12; Ashel Avraham Butchach 46; Poskim brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 47 footnote 139; and so rules Shevach Hamoadim [page 240] and Luach Kolel Chabad. So is clearly implied from Admur in Siddur who rules it is forbidden to learn prior to the blessing despite the fact that he rules Birchas Hatorah is like Birchas Hashachar. This clearly disputes the ruling of the Maharshag and Rav Raskin brought in next footnote.
 Maharshag 1:62; Minhag Yisrael Torah Hi 47:1; Poskim brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 47 footnote 141; and so concludes Rav Raskin in his glosses on Siddur footnote 135 [however there are many questions on his explanation there as brought in previous footnote]; See Hiskashrus Shavuos and Sukkos which debates this matter.
 M”A 240:3 in name of Arizal; Implication of Admur 494:3; Or Tzaddikim 27:11; M”B 240:7; 494:1
The reason: As a) One is meant to stay awake the entire night learning Torah. B) This is based on Kabala.
 Admur 494:3; M”A 494 in name of Arizal ibid; M”B ibid
 Kaf Hachaim 494:14
 Birkeiy Yosef 668 in name of Ramaz regarding Simchas Torah, and the same would apply here [Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Birkeiy Yosef 668 regarding Simchas Torah [in his own opinion], and the same would apply here [Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Kneses Hagedola 494; Or Tzadikim 27:11; Siddur Rav Shabsi; Makor Chaim 494
 Kaf Hachaim 494:13
 Sefer Hasichos 1942 p. 100
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