The night meal of Shavuos night

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The night meal

Kiddush after nightfall:[1]

On the [first] night of Shavuos one is not to say Kiddush prior to nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim], even if one plans to delay Maariv until after nightfall.[2] [This applies for both men and women.[3]]



The blessing of Shehechiyanu is recited during the night Kiddush. It is recited after the completion of Kiddush, prior to drinking the wine.[5] In the Diaspora, it is recited in the night Kiddush of both the first and second night of Shavuos.[6] [One who recited the blessing of Shehechiyanu during candle lighting may not to repeat the blessing during Kiddush.[7] See Chapter 2 Halacha 10 for the full details of this matter!]

Forgot Shehechiyanu:[8] One who forgot to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu during Kiddush, prior to drinking the wine, is to recite it afterwards, immediately upon remembering. Even if he only remembered the next day, he is to recite Shehechiyanu. It may be recited even without a cup of wine. It may be recited anywhere upon remembering, even if he is in middle of the marketplace. In the Diaspora, this law applies to both days of Yom Tov. [If in the Diaspora one did not remember to recite Shehechiyanu until the second night of Yom Tov began, then he fulfills his blessing of Shehechiyanu of the first day through the Shehechiyanu recited in Kiddush of the second day.[9] Once the Yom Tov of Shavuos concludes, in Eretz Yisrael after one day and in the Diaspora after two days, Shehechiyanu can no longer be recited.[10]]


Kiddush when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos:[11]

When the second night of Shavuos in the Diaspora falls on Friday evening, the following passages prior to Kiddush are read in an undertone: shalom aleichim, eishes chayil, mizmor ledavid Hashem ro’i, da hi se’udasa.


Kiddush when Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos-Yaknahaz:[12]

When Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos one says Yaknahaz in the order of Kiddush.[13] The order of the blessings is: 1) Hagafen 2) Kiddush Hayom 3) Ner 4) Havdala 5) Shehechiyanu. This is called Yaknahaz.

Besamim:[14] When Motzei Shabbos coincides with Yom Tov, the blessing of Besamim is omitted from the order of Havdala “Yaknahaz”.[15]

Haeish:[16] If one has a candle available, one is to recite a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush”, but prior to the blessing of Havdala. [The custom is to say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish over the Yom Tov candles that were lit. We do not place the candles together[17], and nor do we place our nails towards them. Rather, we simply look at the candles[18] after the blessing and then continue with Yaknahaz.[19]]

Standing or sitting:[20] [From the letter of the law] one may recite Kiddush of Yaknahaz in a sitting position.[21] [However, the Chabad custom is to stand for Kiddush by all times, whether on Shabbos or Yom Tov.[22]]

The Nussach of the Havdala:[23] The dialect of the blessing of Havdala recited on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov contains seven stanzas of “Havdalos” and concludes with Bein Kodesh Lekodesh.

If one did not follow the correct order:[24] If one did not say the blessings in the above order, and rather preceded one of the latter blessing to one of the earlier blessings, then he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and is not to repeat any of the blessings already said. This, however, is with exception to if one preceded the blessing of Kiddush to the blessing of Hagafen, in which case one must repeat the blessing of Kiddush.[25]

If no wine is available:[26] If one does not have wine available on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov, the custom is to say Havdala [Yaknahaz] over bread.[27]




When Shavuos falls on Sunday the order for Kiddush on Shavuos night follows Yaknahaz. When one recites the blessing over the candle, it is our custom to merely look at it. We do not move it closer or spread our hands near it, or look at our nails.


May women drink from the wine of Kiddush on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov?

The custom is to allow women to drink from the wine of Kiddush of which Havdala was said over on Motzei Shabbos that coincides with Yom Tov.[28] This is despite the fact that Havdala was recited over this wine and in general women do not drink from the leftover Havdala wine.[29]


If during Kiddush of Yaknahaz one accidently concluded the blessing “Bein Kodesh Lechol”, what is he to do?[30]

If he remembers right away, within “Kdei Dibur”, he is to correct himself and recite “Bein Kodesh Lekodesh”. If he did not remember within this time, he is to repeat the blessing of Hamavdil. If he already drank the wine he is to say Havdala again over wine. Regarding if he should repeat the blessing of the wine, this matter is disputed in Poskim.[31]


What is one to do if he forgot to say Havdala in Kiddush of Yom Tov which falls on Motzei Shabbos?

He is to say Havdala over wine immediately upon remembering, whether he remembers that night or the next day.[32] If he remembered before the Yom Tov day meal, he is to say Havdala over a cup of wine and then eat the meal. If one remembered only on Sunday night which is also Yom Tov [in the Diaspora], then he is to say Havdala within Kiddush.

If one remembered by Bein Hashmashos on Sunday: If Sunday night is Motzei Yom Tov then he is to wait until then, and when he recites Havdala for Motzei Yom Tov he fulfills Havdala also for Shabbos.[33] If however that night is the second night of Yom Tov then he is to say Havdala by Kiddush of the Yom Tov night meal.



May one eat dairy for the night meal?[34]

The night meal of Yom Tov is to consist of meat as opposed to dairy. This applies even on Shavuos, in which it is customary to eat a dairy meal.[35] The dairy meal is to only be eaten the next day, prior to the meat meal of the day. See Chapter 4 Halacha 5 for the full details of this matter!


[1] Admur 494:2; M”A 494:1; Elya Raba 494:3; Masas Binyamin 494; Kneses Hagedola; Olas Shabbos 494:1; Peri Chadash 494; Chok Yosef 494:1; Shulchan Gavoa 494:1

[2] The reason: Although on all eves of Holidays, and of Shabbos, one is allowed to accept the Holiday earlier than its set time at sunset, and thus say Kiddush prior to sunset, nevertheless on the Eve of Shavuos this should not be done. The reason for this is because by doing so one is cutting short the length of the 49th day of the counting of the Omer, and the Torah requires that there be 49 full days. [Admur ibid]

[3] Lehoros Nasan 7:31; See Kaf Hachaim 494:1, Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:2

The reason: As although women are not obligated in counting the Omer, nevertheless, the holiday of Shavuos is dependent on the passing of a full 49 days, and thus is not fulfilled when one accepts Yom Tov early. [ibid]

[4] Admur 600:5 regarding all Yomim Tovim; Admur 473:2 regarding Pesach

[5] Admur 473:2; Michaber 472:1

[6] Admur 600:5 regarding all Yomim Tovim; 473:2 regarding Pesach

The reason: The reason for this is because the entire reason of keeping two days in the Diaspora is because of the doubt of their ancestors as to (on which day the month was sanctified and consequently as to) which day is Yom Tov. Now, the ancestors always said Shehechiyanu also on the second day as perhaps the second day is Yom Tov and the previous day was a weekday and hence it was not exempt with the blessing of Shehechiyanu said yesterday. [Admur 600:5]

[7] Mateh Efraim 619:12; Sefer Haminhagim p. 128 [English]

[8] Admur 473:2 regarding Pesach and 643:5 regarding Sukkos; M”A 473:1; Eiruvin 40b; Sukkah 47b

[9] See Admur 473:2 “He is exempt with the Shehechiyanu that he recites over Kiddush of the second night.” This implies that he fulfils his obligation of Shehechiyanu of the first night. Now, although in 473:2 the case refers to Pesach, in which one has seven days of Tashlumin. Nevertheless, Admur rules that the second day of Yom Tov is part of the Tashlumin, and the same would apply here regarding Shavuos.

[10] Elya Raba 494:4; P”M 473 A”A 1 “Safek Brachos Lehakel”; M”B 473:1 and in Shaar Hatziyon 473:5 that intent of M”A 473:1 is that one can say the blessing until the end of Shavuos; Kaf Hachaim 473:11; See Admur 473:2 regarding Pesach and 643:5 regarding Sukkos that one can make up the Shehechiyanu throughout the seven days of Pesach/Sukkos. However, Shavuos does not contain Chol Hamoed as does Pesach and Sukkos, and hence the above law would not extend to Shavuos.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one who forgot to recite Shehechiyanu on Shavuos may make it up [i.e. Tashlumin] for the next for a full seven days from the start of Shavuos. [Implication of M”A 473:1 “And the same applies every Yom Tov”; Chok Yaakov 473:1, Beir Heiytiv 473:1; P”M 473 A”A 1 that so is implied from M”A ibid]

[11] Sefer Haminhagim p. 118 [English]; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Nissan p. 142; See Mateh Efraim and Alef Hamagen 583:1

Original Chabad custom: In the earlier prints of Hayom Yom p. 46 it stated that one does not say Shalom Aleichem or Eishes Chayil at all on Shabbos Yom Tov or Shabbos Chol Hamoed. This was based on an explicit directive of the Rebbe Rayatz that one is not to say it and that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab and the Rebbe Maharash, although there were some years in which they said it. [Reshimos 4:12 and 22]

[12] Admur 473:6; 491:4; 599:1 [regarding R”H]

[13] “When [the night of the Seder] falls on Motzei Shabbos one needs to say Havdala after Kiddush, and if he has a candle he is to say a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush”, but prior to the blessing of Havdala. After Havdala, one is to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu” [Admur 473:6]

[14] Admur 473:6

[15] The reason: The reason for this is because the entire purpose of smelling Besamim on Motzei Shabbos is to comfort the soul which is saddened due to the leave of the extra soul it received on Shabbos. On Yom Tov, however, there is no need for Besamim as the pleasure of Yom Tov and its joy calms and soothes the soul [from its loss]. [Admur ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun on some of the wording there [not recorded here]]

[16] Admur 491:4                                       

[17] Some suggest this is due to that separating the candles from each other afterwards is similar to extinguishing. [see Admur 502:7; Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 4]

[18] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 298 footnote 59 for a discussion amongst Poskim in how one is allowed to say the blessing of Haeish over the candle lit in honor of Yom Tov. Simply speaking however, it is allowed being that Shabbos and Yom Tov candles are lit for the use of their light on the table as well as for Shalom Bayis.

Benefiting from light prior to Havdala: It is disputed ion Poskim as to whether one may benefit from light prior to reciting Meoreiy Haeish within Havdala. Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to do so. [opinion in Kol Bo 41; Beis Yosef 693; 298 Orchos Chaim; Perech Shushan 3:2; Beis Yehuda 107; Mahrkash; Birkeiy Yosef 693:1; Erech Hashulchan 693:2; Yifei Laleiv 2:2] Other Poskim rule it is permitted. [second opinion in Kol Bo 41; Beis Yosef 298; implication of Rama ibid; Levush ibid; Kneses Hagedola; Chabad custom by night of Purim]. However, according to all, one may read from a Siddur prior to Havdala, as the Nussach is well versed in one’s mouth and there is hence not a lot of benefit involved. [Birkeiy Yosef 599:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 599:1; M”B 5991; Kaf Hachaim 599:6]

[19] Sefer Haminhagim p. 76 [English]

[20] Admur 473:8

[21] The reason: Although the custom is to stand for Havdala on every Motzei Shabbos out of respect for the king whom we are escorting [296:15; See “The Laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Havdala Halacha 4] nevertheless by Havdala of Motzei Shabbos which is Yom To, since one is saying the Havdala within Kiddush, it is said in a sitting position just like Kiddush. See 271:19 [ibid]

[22] Sefer Haminhagim [Hebrew] p. 39; English p. 55; Haggadah of Rebbe p. 8;

[23] Admur 472:9

The middle Nussach of Havdala: The middle Nussach of Havdala on Motzei Shabbos which falls on Yom Tov contains seven sets of “Havdalos” [separations] that Hashem made. The normal Nussach of Havdalah on Motzei Shabbos and Motzei Yom Tov only contains four Havdalos. The following is the Nussach read by Yaknahaz versus the regular Nussach. The words in Itallics are the stanzas that are added to the Yaknahaz Nussach versus the regular Nussach:

ברוך אתה ה, אליקינו מלך העולם המבדיל בין קדש לחול, בין אור לחשך, בין ישראל לעמים, בין יום השביעי לששת ימי המעשה. בין קדשת שבת לקדשת יום טוב הבדלת, ואת יום השביעי מששת ימי המעשת קדשת, הבדלת וקדשת את עמך ישראל בקדושתך ברוך אתה ההמבדיל בין קדש לקדש.

Background of this Nussach: From the letter of the law, one is allowed to recite the regular Havdala of Motzei Shabbos/Yom Tov, which contains 4 stanzas of Havdalos, and simply switch the words of “Bein Yom Hashevi Lesheishes Yimei Hamaaseh” to the words “Bein Kedushas Shabbos Lekedushas Yom Tov Hivdalta” and then conclude Baruch Ata Hashem…”. The reason for the switch is because one needs to conclude the middle blessing of Havdala with a matter that is similar to the words of the concluding blessings, and hence, since we now conclude Bein Kodesh Lekodesh we therefore switch the ending stanza of the Nussach to one that pertains to it. However, in the later generations [mentioned in Ran], the custom became to recite a total of seven stanzas of Havdalos, adding the stanza of “Bein Yom Hashevi Lesheishes..” [4th Havdala] and “Bein Kedushas Shabbos…Yimei Hamaaseh Kidashta” [5th Havdala, as it all counts as one Havdala] and “Hivdalta Vekidashta..” [6th and 7th Havdala as it refers to the Kohanim and Levi’im being separated from the rest of Klal Yisrael]. The reason for this is because the Sages stated that one may never say less than three Havdalas within the Havdala of Motzei Shabbos and Yom Tov, and one who desires to add more, may add up to seven Havdalos corresponding to the seven heavens. [This does not include the Havdala of “Bein Yom Hashevi..” which is said at the end to serve as “Meiyin Chasima”.] Now, on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov, due to the obligations of the day of Yom Tov, it became accustomed to recite 7 Havdalos in order so one says at least one time seven Havdalos. [Admur ibid]

[24] Admur 473:6 in parentheses

[25] The reason: The reason for this is because [this order is disputed between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel and] by doing so one followed Beis Shamai over Beis Hillel, and anyone who follows Beis Shamai over Beis Hillel does not fulfill his obligation. [ibid]

[26] Admur 296:11

[27] A dispute in this matter is brought in Admur. Some Poskim rule [Geonim; 1st opinion in Michaber] that since one is allowed to say Kiddush over the bread, and Havdala is secondary to Kiddush on this night, he may likewise say Havdala over the bread. Other Poskim [Rosh; 2nd opinion of Michaber] however rule in such a situation it is better to say Kiddush over Chamer Medina than to say it over bread. Practically, the custom in these countries is like the former opinion. [ibid] So is the ruling of Rama in our current wording of the Shulchan Aruch, however some prints have written the Rama rules like the latter opinion. [See Kaf Hachaim 296:28]

Other opinions: Michaber, based on Klalei Haposkim, rules like the latter opinion. [Kaf Hachaim 296:27]

[28] SSH”K 62:16

[29] M”A 296:4 in name of Shlah

[30] Rav SZ”A in Maor Hashabbos 2:28; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296:4

[31] See “The laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Havdala Halacha 3 in Q&A; Kaf Hachaim 296:44; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296 footnote 34

[32] As it is forbidden for him to eat until he says Havdala. [Based on M”B 299:16]

[33] Har Tzevi 1:166

[34] Darkei Teshuvah 89:19; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:11

Other opinions: Some are accustomed to eat dairy on the night meal of Shavuos. [Custom brought in Darkei Teshuvah ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] This is based on those Poskim who rule the Mitzvah of Simcha does not apply at night. [Shaagas Aryeh 66]

[35] The reason: As one is obligated in Simchas Yom Tov also on the night of Yom Tov [Shaareiy Teshuvah 529:529:2 in name of M”A 546:4] and the Mitzvah of Simcha is only fulfilled with meat. [Darkei Teshuvah ibid]

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1 Comment

  1. Michael

    Rabbi Simcha Bunim Cohen writes in The Radiance of Shabbos that even if one switched the order (first said Kiddush and then hagofen), he is still yotzi, as the order of the brachos is not me’akev and to repeat the bracha is a bracha l’vatala.

    Indeed, even if one completely forgot to make a hagofen, and only said the bracha of Kiddush, and already drank the wine, he is yotzi (although he did an aveira by drinking without hagofen).

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