Chapter 3: Separating between meals of meat and milk

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Chapter 3: Separating between meals of meat and milk

1. Waiting six hours between eating meat and milk:

It is a Rabbinical obligation to separate one’s meat and dairy meals from each other.[1] It is disputed amongst Poskim as to how the two meals are to be separated. Some Poskim[2] rule one is Rabbinically required to wait six hours between eating meat and then dairy [and so is the ruling of Sephardic Jewry]. Other Poskim[3] however rule one is not required to wait any time between eating meat and then dairy, and rather is to simply clean and wash his mouth and hands, and recite Birchas Hamazon, and he may then eat dairy.[4] Based on this, the Ashkenazi custom [in previous times[5]] was to wait [only] one hour between meat and dairy.[6] Nevertheless, the meticulous [even amongst Ashkenazi Jewry] were particular to wait six hours between eating meat and dairy and so is the proper custom.[7] Practically, today, every person who has a spirit of Torah is to wait six hours[8] [and so is the widespread custom today amongst all Jewry[9], with exception to Ashkenazim of certain European regions, such as the Deutsch, who only wait three hours]. One who does not wait six hours is to be protested, especially if he is a Ben Torah.[10] One who does not wait six hours is considered a Poretz Geder, in all its severity.[11]

Q&A on the meat

If one accidentally ate non-Kosher meat must he wait 6 hours prior to eating dairy products?[12]

If he ate meat of a Kosher species, then he must wait 6 hours. If he ate meat from a non-Kosher species he does not need to wait.

 

Q&A on cleaning the mouth

Must one perform Kinuach and Hadacha after waiting 6 hours?[13]

After six hours have passed we assume that one’s mouth is cleaned of meat. If, however, he suspects that there may be meat stuck between his teeth then he must clean his mouth.

 

If one has cavities, must he floss and clean his mouth prior to eating, even if he waited 6 hours?[14]

No, unless he has reason to suspect that meat has gotten stuck to his teeth.

May one who has fillings eat hot milk after eating hot meat or vice versa?[15]

Yes. One who has fillings follows the same laws as one with regular teeth. [This leniency likewise applies for metal braces.[16]]

Must one have separate dentures for eating meat and dairy?[17]

There is no need to have a separate set of dentures for meat and dairy foods, and so is the custom.[18] However, some Poskim[19] rule that it is proper for every G-d fearing Jew to do so.

Q&A on finding meat in teeth

What is the law if one finds meat in between his teeth after 6 hours?[20]

If one finds meat in between his teeth after waiting 6 hours he must remove the meat[21] and clean[22] and wash out his mouth prior to eating milk products.[23] One however does not have to re-wait the 6 hours from the time the meat is removed.[24]

If one found meat in between his teeth and swallowed it must he wait another set of 6 hours?[25]

No. Seemingly, this applies even if he swallowed the meat within the six hours, so long as it was swallowed unintentionally, without knowing that it was meat.[26]

Q&A on from when to wait 6 hours

From when does one begin to count the six hours-from the time he finished eating the meat or from after saying the after blessing for the meal?

The six hours is counted starting from the time he finished eating the meat, even if the meal itself concluded at a much later time.[27]  However, some Poskim[28] rule one is to wait six hours from the end of the meal, from when the after blessing was said and onwards, even if he finished eating the meat much time earlier.[29] Practically, the custom is like the first opinion.

 

May one begin eating a dairy meal within the 6 hours, if he will abstain from eating actual dairy products until 6 hours have passed?

Yes.[30] However, some Poskim[31] rule one is to wait six hours prior to beginning the dairy meal, even if he will not eat actual dairy until after six hours.[32]

 

If one is eating a very long meal [i.e. wedding feast, all-nighter Farbrengen] and six hours have passed since last eating meat, may he now eat dairy during this meal prior to reciting Birchas Hamazon?[33]

No. One must always say an after blessing for the meat prior to eating milk products even if 6 hours have already passed from the time that he ate the meat. This applies even if he did not eat bread in the meat meal.[34] [If, however, too much time has passed, and he is no longer Halachically able to say the after blessing[35], then he is to eat dairy without saying it so long as he has removed himself from the meat meal.[36]]

 

Q&A on calculating the 6 hours

Must one wait 6 full hours, or does it suffice to wait “into” the 6th hour, which is after 5 hours have passed?

One must wait six full hours.[37] However, there are Poskim[38] who permit waiting into the start of the 6th hour which is as soon as five hours have passed. The final ruling and custom is like the former opinion.

Are the six hours calculated as 60 minutes each or as Zmaniyos hours?[39]

The hours are not Zmaniyos and contain 60 minutes each during all times of the year.

 

Must one wait six hours between meat and dairy even in the winter months?[40]

Yes. One is required to wait six hours both in winter and summer. However, some Poskim[41] are lenient to allow waiting 4 hours in the winter. We do not rule like this opinion.

 

If one slept after eating meat may he wait less than six hours prior to eating dairy?

No. However, there are Poskim[42] who are lenient and allow waiting 1-2 hours less.

 

If one is unsure how much time has passed since he ate meat, what is he to do?[43]

Some Poskim[44] rule that if one is in doubt as to whether six hours have passed then he must wait until he is certain the time has passed.[45] Other Poskim[46], however, rule that one may be lenient. Practically one who chooses to be lenient has upon whom to rely.[47]

2. The cases in which waiting six hours is required:

A. Tavshil Shel Basar: One who ate a food that was cooked with meat [i.e. chicken soup]:[48]

Some Poskim[49] rule that one who ate meat gravy, but not actual meat, is not required to wait 6 hours prior to eating dairy, although he is required to wash his hands if he plans to eat actual cheese. Other Poskim[50], however, rule that one is required to wait 6 hours prior to eating cheese even if he only ate the gravy of the meat or chicken, and so is the final ruling and custom.

 Q&A

If one drank the broth of chicken soup must he wait six hours?

Yes.

 

If one ate a potato from a meaty Chulent must he wait six hours?

Yes.

 

If one ate an egg which was cooked in a meat dish with its shell, must he wait 6 hours?[51]

Yes.

B. If Pareve food was cooked in a meat pot must one wait six hours after eating it?[52]

If Pareve food was cooked in a meat pot it is permitted to eat dairy products after eating that food without waiting at all. There is no custom to be stringent. [This applies even if the pot is Ben Yomo.[53] One is not even required to wash his hands or clean his mouth prior to eating dairy.[54] One may even eat the food in the same meal as actual dairy, without needing to recite Birchas Hamazon beforehand.[55] However, if the pot was Ben Yomo one may not eat the food with actual dairy, as will be explained in chapter 95.]

If the pot was dirty with meaty leftovers:[56] Even if the pot was not washed well and contained some leftover meat when the Pareve food was cooked inside it, one does not need to wait six hours prior to eating milk products [and one is also not required to wash his hands or mouth or to recite an after blessing beforehand[57]], although one may not eat this food with dairy products.[58] [Some Poskim[59], however, rule that this only applies if the food contains 60x versus the meat, and there is no meat taste felt in the food. Other Poskim[60] rule that this applies even if the food did not have 60x the meat.[61] Even in their opinion, however, this only applies if there is very small amount of meat fat or gravy in the food, while if there is a large amount, then one must wait six hours.[62] Likewise, it only applies if one does not eat any actual meat.[63] Likewise, this only applies if one did not intentionally leave the meat in the pot to be mixed with the Pareve food, however if one purposely did so then he needs to wait six hours.[64] However, some Poskim[65] are lenient even in the case that one intentionally added a small amount of meat. In all cases, one is to clean and wash his mouth prior to eating dairy.[66]]

Summary:

Pareve food that was cooked in a meat pot one does not need to wait six hours prior to eating dairy. This applies even if the pot contained a small amount of leftover meat gravy/fat, in which case although it may not be eaten together with dairy, one does not have to wait six hours prior to eating dairy. However, in such a case, one should clean and rinse his mouth prior to eating dairy. If the pot contained a large amount of meat gravy, or one ate actual pieces of meat, he must wait six hours.

 

Q&A

If a dirty meat spoon was used to mix a Pareve food, must one wait six hours?

Ø  Example: One used a spoon that was used to mix chicken soup to mix or serve the rice/spaghetti that was cooked as Pareve in a meat pot. Must one wait six hours?

No. [If, however, one sees pieces of meat in his food and eats them, he is to wait six hours.]

If one placed Pareve spaghetti in a pot that contains a small amount of meatball sauce, must he wait six hours?

If one did so intentionally, so the spaghetti gain taste of the sauce, then he must wait six hours irrelevant of the amount of sauce added. If he did so simply due to lack of desire to clean the pot, then if the amount of sauce was minute, he is not required to wait six hours. 

If one deep fried falafel or French fries in oil that was used to deep fry chicken, must one wait six hours prior to eating dairy?

Yes.[67]

If one ate pastries which were partially in contact with meat gravy must he wait 6 hours?[68]

If the pastry contains a nice amount of gravy, or one intentionally dipped the pastry in the gravy, then one must wait six hours. If, however, it contains a minute amount of gravy which just happened to contact it, then seemingly one is not required to wait 6 hours.

Q&A on eating Pareve cut or cooked with dairy/meat utensils

May one eat Pareve food cooked in a milk pot if he is within six hours of eating meat?[69]

Some write it is permitted for one who is within 6 hours of eating meat to eat Pareve foods that were cooked in a milk pot, even if the pot was dirty with leftover milk.

 

Must one wait six hours after eating a Davar Charif which was cooked or cut with meat utensils?[70]

No.[71] However, there are Poskim[72] who rule that one is to be stringent to wait six hours after eating a Davar Charif that was cut with a meat knife.

May one eat onions that were cut with a dairy knife during a meat meal and vice versa?

Seemingly it is forbidden to do so due to leftover meat that remains in the mouth.

May one eat a Davar Charif which was cooked or cut with dairy utensils within 6 hours of eating meat?

Yes.[73] However, some Poskim[74] rule one is not allowed to eat a Davar Charif which was cut with dairy utensils, within six hours of eating meat. If the knife was not Ben Yomo, one may certainly be lenient.[75]

C. If one tasted a meat food must he wait 6 hours prior to eating dairy?

Chewed but did not swallow:[76] One who chews meat is required to wait [6 hours[77]] prior to eating dairy even if he did not swallow the meat.[78] See Halacha 2B! [The same applies towards any food cooked with meat, that if one chewed that food, even if he did not swallow it and did not chew actual meat, he must wait six hours prior to eating dairy.[79] Thus, if one chewed a potato that was cooked in a chicken soup or Chulent, he must wait six hours even if he did not swallow it and immediately spat it out.]

Swallowed but did not chew:[80] If one swallowed meat he is required to wait 6 hours prior to eating dairy even if he did not chew the meat. [The same applies towards any food cooked with meat, that if one swallowed that food, even if he did not eat or chew actual meat, he must wait six hours prior to eating dairy.[81] Thus, one who swallows some chicken soup for the sake of tasting it must wait six hours.]

Did not chew or swallow:[82] If one licked a meat food, or entered a meat food or dish into his mouth and immediately spat it out without even chewing or swallowing it, then he does not need to wait 6 hours prior to eating milk.[83] [However, one is to clean and to rinse his mouth before eating dairy.[84] Hence, one may taste a meat soup or chicken soup, or lick a piece of meat, to see if it needs spices, and spit out the liquid and then rinse his mouth and eat dairy.]

Blessing:[85] A blessing must be recited prior to eating and swallowing any amount of food even if he is eating it for mere taste, to see if it needs spices. If, however, one plans to spit out the food, a blessing is not recited unless he chews/tastes a Kezayis/Revius or more of the food.

 

 Summary:

One who chews or swallows a meat food or dish is required to wait six hours before eating dairy. If one did not chew or swallow the food, and simply licked it, or entered it into his mouth and spat it out prior to chewing, then he is not required to wait and is to simply rinse his mouth prior to eating dairy.

 

Q&A

If one tasted the broth of a soup and spat it out must he wait 6 hours?

No. If one tasted a meaty food and immediately spat it out then he does not need to wait 6 hours prior to eating milk long so as he did not chew any of the vegetables. Hence, one may taste a meaty soup or chicken soup and then spit it out if he wants to eat dairy within the next 6 hours.

If one chewed a potato from the meat cholent and spat it out, must he wait 6 hours?

Yes. Thus, if one chewed a potato that was cooked in a chicken soup he must wait six hours.

 Final Summary:

One must wait 6 full hours, and say an after blessing, between eating meat or chicken products and eating dairy products. This applies even if one did not eat any actual chicken or meat but rather a food that was cooked with chicken or meat. One must wait six hours even if one desires to eat a dish that contains cheese or milk which is not its main ingredient.

 

Q&A on children waiting 6 hours

How long are children to wait between eating meat and milk?[86]

Introduction: The accustomed six-hour wait between meat and dairy is not a Biblical requirement and is even debated as to if it is a Rabbinical requirement or a mere custom.[87] Either way, whether it is Rabbinical or a mere custom, the question is asked regarding to its implementation regarding children. Did the Sages decree this delay also upon children? Was the custom accepted also upon children? Although, in general, all matters of Kashrus, whether Biblical or Rabbinical, apply equally to children, from the day that the child is born, and it is the responsibility of the parent to prevent a child from eating non-Kosher[88], nevertheless, in regard to waiting six hours between meat and milk, it is possible that the Sages never implemented their decree upon children, being that a) in general, decrees that involve fasting from food were not placed onto children; and b) The decree was not placed onto people who are sick[89], and in Halacha, children are viewed in the same status as one who is sick[90]; and c) Children eat their meals in closer proximity than adults and have a faster metabolism.[91] The following is the law regarding this matter as discussed in Poskim:

The law: Some Poskim[92] rule that a child is not required to wait six hours between meat and dairy, and rather may eat dairy after meat so long as his mouth has been cleaned. Other Poskim[93], however, rule that the accepted custom is for children to gradually wait sometime between meat and milk, depending on their age, and so is the final ruling. The following suggested practice is recorded in Poskim:

· Below age three:[94] Children who are below the age of three do not need to wait at all, although should have their mouths rinsed out prior to eating dairy.[95]

· From age three to six:[96] Children who are above the age of three begin waiting 1 hour between meat and dairy and then gradually wait 2/3 hours as the child gets older, until the age of six.

·  From 6 to Bar/Bas Mitzvah: Some[97] write that all children who are above the age of six are ideally to wait 6 hours. If, however, the child is hungry and is below the age of 9, then if he has waited three hours and refuses to eat other foods, one may be lenient to give him dairy. If, however, the child is above age nine, then he must wait six hours.[98] Others[99] state that from age 5-10 the child is to wait up to 3 hours, while from age 10 he is to wait 6 hours. Others[100] write that all children who are under Bar and Bas Mitzvah are ideally to wait six hours, although if there is difficulty for them to wait 6 hours, can be lenient to wait 3-4 hours.[101] Others[102] write that in a time of need, all children may be lenient to wait one hour between poultry and dairy.

·  A weak or sick child:[103] All children of all ages who are weak or sick, and need to eat dairy foods, may be lenient to wait one hour and clean out their mouths between meat and dairy.

Q&A on the sick waiting 6 hours

May one who is sick and is in need for milk products, eat them within 6 hours of eating meat?[104]

One who is [weak[105] or] slightly ill and is in need for milk products may be lenient to recite an after blessing, wash out the mouth, and wait one hour between milk and meat. [The same applies for a nursing or pregnant woman who is in need of milk.]

Need one wait 6 hours before taking a dairy medicine?[106]

Medicines which contain dairy ingredients [such as pro-biotics] may be taken within 6 hours of eating meat by one who is sick and needs to take them within this time.

If one ate a meat meal and vomited must he still wait six hours before eating milk?

Yes. He must wait from the time he originally finished eating meat[107] [and not from the time he vomited].

 

Q&A on transgressed

If one said a blessing over a milk product within 6 hours of eating meat what is he to do?[108]

He may taste and swallow[109] the food in order to prevent the blessing from being said in vain. This however, may only be done if he already recited an after blessing after his meat meal [and he has cleaned his mouth or at least one hour has passed].[110]

If one remembered in middle of a dairy meal that he is still within 6 hours of eating meat, what is he to do?

Some Poskim[111] rule that he may continue eating, and he does not need to atone for his mistake.[112] Others[113], however, rule he is to stop eating immediately.

3. Eating meat after dairy:[114]

A. Waiting period:

Letter of law: From the letter of the law there is no waiting period between eating dairy and meat and one may eat meat products immediately after eating dairy products so long as one verifies that his hands are clean, and he performs Kinuach and Hadacha to his mouth, as will be explained in B-D.[115] Nevertheless, the Ashkenazi custom is to be stringent and wait six hours after eating [certain forms of] hard cheese, prior to eating meat, as will be explained in Halacha 4.

Custom of Zohar-Wait one hour:[116] According to the Zohar[117], one is required to wait one hour between eating dairy and meat. [This applies by all dairy products, even by soft cheese and milk.[118] Some Poskim[119] conclude that it is proper for every G-d fearing individual to be stringent like this opinion. Whatever the case, even if one plans to wait an hour, one is to perform Kinuach and Hadacha and wash his hands, prior to eating meat, as explained in B-D.[120]]

 Summary:

From the letter of the law, one is not required to wait at all between eating cheese and meat, and he is simply required to wash his hands and clean and wash his mouth in the interim. However, after eating a piece of hard cheese [as opposed to a dish that contains dissolved cheese], one is to wait six hours [prior to eating an actual piece of meat or chicken, as opposed to chicken soup]. Furthermore, according to the Zohar, one is to wait one hour even after eating soft cheese [in addition to cleaning the hands and mouth]. Practically, the custom is to be lenient, although every G-d fearing Jew is to wait an hour as writes the Zohar.

Customs

The Sephardic Custom:

The Michaber ibid rule there is no requirement to wait between eating any kind of cheese, even hard, and meat. Accordingly, there is no need at all for Sephardim to wait even after eating hard cheese and meat.[121] However, due to the Kabalistic ruling, some Sephardim are accustomed to wait one hour between eating any dairy and meat.[122] By hard cheese, some Sephardim are accustomed to wait one hour per month of its age.[123] 

 

Custom of Chabad:

The Chabad custom is to follow the Zohar and wait one hour [and clean the hands and mouth] after eating or drinking dairy products and eating meat.[124] This applies even after eating soft cheese and drinking milk. [Those cheeses which are defined as hard cheese are subject to a six hour wait, as will be explained.]

 

Custom to wait a half hour:[125]

Some Chassidic communities have a custom to wait 30 minutes between milk or cheese and meat, rather than an hour.

 

Q&A

Does one have to say an after blessing between eating dairy and meat?

Some Poskim[126] rule one does not have to say an after blessing between dairy and meat and he may thus eat meat within the same meal as cheese [unless he is required to wait 6 hours, such as after eating aged cheese]. Other Poskim[127], however, rule one is required to recite an after blessing after all dairy products, prior to eating meat, and so is the custom. This applies even if one ate the cheese outside of a meal.[128]

 

Does one have to wait an hour from the end of the dairy meal until the start of the meat meal, or does it suffice for there to be an hour lapse between the dairy and meat foods?

Some[129] write that one may begin the meat meal within one hour from eating dairy so long as he does not eat meat until one hour passes from his conclusion of eating dairy. However, others[130] write that based on the Zohar’s requirement of waiting an hour between meals, one must delay the start of the meat meal until an hour passes from the conclusion of the dairy meal. Practically, those who suspect for the words of the Zohar are to follow this opinion.

 

If a Davar Charif was cooked in a dairy pot must one wait prior to eating meat?[131]

No.

         

Why we wait six hours after meat but not after milk & Its connection to eating dairy on Shavuos-A fascinating explanation of the Alter Rebbe:

Introduction: The Halacha is that while one is required to make a separation between his meat and dairy meals[132], and wait six hours[133], one is not required to make a separation between his dairy and meat meal[134] and wait six hours[135], with exception to certain hard cheeses in which Ashkenazim are accustomed to wait six hours.[136] The Halachic reason behind this is because meat gets stuck between the teeth and regurgitates its fat odor for up to six hours, as opposed to [most] cheese.[137] The Alter Rebbe, in a tradition recorded in the Sefer Pardes Haretz[138] [written by Rav Yeshaya Horowitz, a Lubavitcher Rav in Tzfas in the early 1900’s] sheds deeper light onto the reason behind this distinction and explains that this distinction served as the fundamental principal to allow us to receive the Torah. This explanation is based on the following Midrash:

The Midrash:[139] The Midrash[140] famously states that the supernal angels attempted to litigate against the giving of the Torah to the Jewish people for various reasons. The final rebuttal, or comeback, which closed all litigation and allowed the Torah to be given involved the Mitzvah of not eating meat and milk together. The argument was as follows:[141] After the angels told Hashem that they desired to keep the Torah for themselves, Hashem answered the angels that it states in the Torah “Thou shall not eat a kid in its mother’s milk.” Now, you angels surely remember the meal you ate in the home of Avraham Avinu? You ate meat and milk together during that meal as the verse[142] states “Vayikach Chema Vechalav,” so how can you now ask to receive the Torah? This, states the Midrash, was the final comeback which refuted any claims from the angels, and allowed the Torah to be given. Accordingly, we eat dairy and then meat on Shavuos to emphasize the reason why we received the Torah over the angels, as they did not keep the dietary laws of separating between meat and milk.[143]

The Alter Rebbe’s explanation: An even deeper approach is stated in the name of the Alter Rebbe:[144] The law is that while one may not eat dairy after meat, one may eat meat after dairy.[145] The above Midrash is hence puzzling, as the verse explicitly states that it offered first dairy and then meat to the guests, and they therefore performed no transgression. The explanation is as follows: The reason for the prohibition against eating meat and milk together is because milk is from Chesed and meat is from Gevura, and their combination can be catastrophic. However, this only applies if the Gevura overpowers the Chesed, while if the Chesed overpowers the Gevura then it is actually a positive matter. Now, we have a general rule of Tatah Gavar, the bottom overrules, and hence if one first eats dairy, he may eat meat afterwards, as the bottom which is dairy/Chesed, overrules the meat/Gevurah. However, if one eats meat first, then the Gevurah overpowers the Chesed. This system however only applies in this world, in which we hold that the lower realms are of greater importance than the higher realms, and hence the lower item overpowers. However, in the Heavens, they believe that the higher realm is greater than the lower realms, and therefore the rule of Tatah Gavar does not apply. Accordingly, Hashem told the angels that if the Torah is given to them, and thus the higher realms prevail, it would end up that they ate meat and milk together, hence transgressing the Torah. Furthermore, by the mere fact that by Avraham they agreed to eat first dairy and then meat shows that they too agree that the lower realms overpower, and hence they have no claim to receive the Torah. [Accordingly, we can explain the custom of eating a dairy meal on Shavuos, and then eating a meat meal, as this commemorates the victorious rebuttal which gave us the Torah to begin with. It also emphasizes that the purpose of the Torah is for the lower realms.]

B. Actions required between eating dairy and then eating meat:

In A we explained that from the letter of the law one may eat meat even immediately after eating cheese, and there is no need to wait 6 hours in between [with exception to hard cheese, in which the Ashkenazi custom is to wait six hours]. This creates a situation where the leftover cheese that remains on one’s hands or mouth may mix with the meat he will now eat, and he will come to transgress Basar Bechalav. Accordingly, the Poskim give certain regulations regarding cleaning the hands and the mouth prior to eating the meat course. These regulations are as follows: One who desires to eat meat products after eating [soft] dairy products [and will hence not be waiting 6 hours], must verify that his hands are clean, and he performs Kinuach and Hadacha to his mouth. This applies even prior to eating poultry.[146] The laws of washing the hands will be explained in C, while the laws of Kinuach and Hadacha will be explained in D.

C. Washing hands between eating dairy and meat:

One who ate a dairy product may not eat meat with dirty hands. The following are the details of the washing and cleansing:

Ate a cooked dairy dish [i.e. Tavshil Shel Gevina]:[147] One who ate a dairy dish is to wash his hands in the interim if he plans to eat actual meat. [This requirement of washing the hands applies even during the day.[148] If, however, he merely plans to eat a Tavshil Shel Basar afterwards and not actual meat, then washing the hands is not required. Practically, the custom is to wash the hands and perform Kinuach and Hadacha to the mouth before eating even a poultry dish, if one ate cheese or a cheese dish.[149]]

Ate a piece of cheese: If one ate a piece of cheese [as opposed to a cooked dairy dish] then some Poskim[150] rule that it suffices to simply examine the hands in front of light to make sure that they are clean, and one is not required to wash them with water, unless it is at night and proper lighting is not available. Other Poskim[151], however, rule one is required to wash the hands even if they appear clean, whether he ate a piece of cheese or a cheese dish, and so is the final ruling and custom of all Jewry.

Plans to eat poultry: From the letter of the law, one is not required to wash his hands between eating cheese and poultry.[152] Nonetheless, the custom is to do so.[153]

Which liquids may be used to wash one’s hand? Some Poskim[154] rule that water is the only valid liquid that can be used for the washing of the hands between dairy and meat. Other liquids, such as fruit juice and the like, are invalid.[155] Other Poskim[156], however, rule that all liquids are valid for this washing.[157] [Practically, one is to be stringent like the former opinion to use only water for this washing.[158] However, in a time of need that water is not available, then one may use other liquids.[159]]

Hot water:[160] One may not wash the hands using hot water [that is above Yad Soledes[161]].[162]

Drying the hands:[163] One is required to dry his hands after the washing.

Pouring it into a vessel: Some Poskim[164] rule that one is not to pour the washing water onto the ground and is hence to wash into a basin which is later discarded. Other Poskim[165], however, rule it is not necessary.

Dipping versus pouring?[166] For the washing between cheese and meat, one may dip his hands into a vessel of water and it is not necessary to specifically pour the water onto his fingers.

Summary:

One who eats dairy, or a dairy product, is to wash his hands prior to eating meat or a meat product. This applies even if the hands appear clean. One is to be stringent to use only water for this washing, however, in a time of need that water is not available, one may use other liquids. One may not wash the hands using hot water that is above Yad Soledes. One is required to dry his hands after the washing. For the washing between cheese and meat, one may dip his hands into a vessel of water and it is not necessary to specifically pour the water onto his fingers.

 

Cleaning the nails:[167]

It is proper to clean under one’s nails prior to eating meat after eating cheese.

 

Q&A

What is one to do if no water is available?

In a time of need, if liquids[168] are not available to be used to wash one’s hands, then one may rely on the first opinion to examine his hands in the light and make sure they do not contain any dairy residue.[169] One is to also wipe his hands on a towel and the like.[170] [The above, however, only applies if one ate a piece of cheese. If, however, one ate a cooked dairy dish, then he is required to wash his hands according to all, and hence is to eat with a plastic bag and the like if water is not available.]

 

Must one wash his hands if he ate the milk product with a fork?

One who eats dairy with a fork is not required to wash his hands prior to eating meat.[171] Nevertheless, it is proper to be stringent to wash one’s hands even in such a case being that doing so does not contain much difficulty.[172] Practically, the custom is to wash the hands even if one ate the dairy food with a fork.[173]

 

Must one wash his hands if another person fed him the dairy foods?

Some Poskim[174] rule that seemingly one is not required to wash his hands between eating dairy and meat if he was fed by another person and did not touch the cheese with his hands.

 

D. Kinuach and Hadacha-Cleaning and rinsing the mouth between eating cheese and meat:[175]

In A we explained that from the letter of the law one may eat meat even immediately after eating cheese, and there is no need to wait 6 hours in between [with exception to hard cheese, in which the Ashkenazi custom is to wait six hours]. This creates a situation where the leftover cheese that remains in one’s mouth may mix with the meat he will now eat, and he will come to transgress Basar Bechalav. Accordingly, the Poskim required one to perform two types of cleansing of the mouth prior to eating meat. The first is called Kinuach [i.e. cleaning] and the second called Hadacha [i.e. washing].

How to perform Kinuach:[176] One is to chew bread, or another food, in order to clean his mouth [from any dairy residue]. The following foods, however, may not be used for this cleaning being that they stick to the gums and thus do not clean well:

  1. Flour [of all types[177], from all grains and legumes,] is invalid for performing Kinuach.
  2. Dates are invalid for performing Kinuach.
  3. Vegetables are invalid for performing Kinuach.
  4. Fruits: Some Poskim[178] rule that fruits are not valid to be used to perform Kinuach. Practically, we rule that fruits are valid, and one may thus eat a fruit to perform Kinuach to his mouth.[179]

How to perform Hadacha:[180] One is to rinse his mouth using water or wine. [Possibly, all liquids are valid for this washing.[181]]

The Order-What should be done first; the cleaning or rinsing?[182]  It makes no difference as to the order that the cleaning is done in. One can first clean his mouth by chewing a food and then rinse it with liquid, or first rinse it with liquid and then clean it by chewing a food. [However, some Poskim[183] rule it is better to precede the cleaning through eating food and only then do the rinsing.[184]]

 Q&A

When performing Kinuach [i.e. chewing bread] is one also required to swallow the food?

Some Poskim[185] rule one is required to both chew and swallow the food when performing Kinuach, and merely chewing it and spitting it out does not suffice. Other Poskim[186], however, rule it is not necessary to swallow the chewed food. Practically, one is to swallow it.[187]

 

Is brushing one’s teeth considered like Kinuach and Hadacha?[188]

The act of brushing one’s teeth consists of both aspects of Kinuach and Hadacha.

 

If one drank milk, must he wash his hands and mouth prior to eating meat?[189]

If one drank milk it suffices for him to simply rinse out his mouth or take a drink prior to eating meat.

 

Flossing one’s teeth:[190]

It is proper to floss one’s teeth prior to eating meat after eating cheese. This especially applies to one who has cavities and holes in his teeth.[191]

 

4. Waiting six hours after hard cheese:

A. The law and custom:

Letter of law:[192] From the letter of the law there is no requirement to wait six hours after eating any form of dairy, as explained in A.

Custom:[193] There are those who are stringent to wait between eating cheese and then eating meat.[194] Practically, the [Ashkenazi[195]] custom is to be stringent and wait [six hours[196]] after eating [certain forms of] hard cheese, prior to eating any meat, including poultry. However, there are those who are lenient and do not wait prior to eating meat, even after eating hard cheese. Practically, one should not protest their custom so long as they wash their hands and clean and wash their mouths prior to eating the meat. Nevertheless, it is best for one to be stringent.[197] [However, after eating soft cheese, the custom is to be lenient to not wait at all[198], unless one is accustomed like the Zohar, as brought above.]

Eating meat broth after hard cheese:[199] If one plans on eating only the broth of the meat or chicken, and not the actual meat or chicken itself, [i.e. chicken soup] then there is no need to wait 6 hours even after eating hard cheese, and it suffices to wash the hands and clean and wash one’s mouth.

Eating meat after a dairy dish of hard cheese:[200] The custom is to allow eating meat after eating a dairy dish that contains cheese or milk [i.e. Tavshil Shel Gevina]. [This applies even according to the stringent opinion above.[201] This applies even if the dish contains hard cheese, so long as it is dissolved.[202]] However, if one’s hands touched the cheese, then one is to wash his hands [and perform Kinuach and Hadacha[203]] in the interim even if he plans to merely eat a Tavshil Shel Basar afterwards and not actual meat. [This requirement of washing the hands applies even during the day.[204] This requirement applies even if he plans to eat a poultry dish, such as chicken soup.[205]]

 

B. The definition of hard cheese:

The definition of hard cheese in this regard is disputed as to whether it is dependent only on the cheeses fat quality and content[206], or is alternatively also dependent on its dryness and toughness of the cheese which causes it to get stuck between the teeth.[207] Some Poskim[208] rule like the former approach and conclude that hard cheese is defined as maggot cheese[209] [i.e. Casu Marzu] or pungent cheese produced from a very sharp enzyme, such as the stomach[210], which makes its fat content be extremely potent. It, however, does not apply to cheese that is simply aged.[211] [This fat quality is measured not by the percentage of fat in the cheese but by the quality and sharpness of the fat found in the cheese.[212]] Other Poskim[213], however, rule like the latter approach and conclude that also cheese which has aged approximately six[214] months is considered hard cheese and requires a six hour wait.[215] [Practically, the final ruling follows the latter opinion that any cheese which is either aged six months, produced with worms or a very strong enzyme which makes it pungent, requires a six hour wait according to the custom.[216] Thus, certain Swiss and Holland cheeses require a six hour wait.[217]

Summary:

The Ashkenazi custom is to be stringent and wait six hours after eating hard cheese, prior to eating meat. Hard cheese includes all cheese that is either aged six months, produced with worms, or a produced with very strong enzyme which makes it pungent.

The practical application by today’s cheeses:

Aged or pungent cheese: All cheeses which are aged six months or are pungent, require a six hour wait, in accordance to the ruling and custom stated above. A partial list of such cheeses can be found below. An extensive list of these cheeses can be found on the OU website.[218]

All other hard cheeses: Hard cheeses which have not aged 6 months and are not pungent, such as typical yellow cheese[219] and the majority of forms of hard cheeses sold today on the market, do not fall under the hard cheese definition and thus do not require a 6 hour wait.[220] However, some of today’s Poskim[221] are stringent to require a 6 hour wait by all hard cheeses sold today, including yellow cheese [i.e. pizza cheese].[222] Practically, the widespread custom is to be lenient, although some follow the stringent opinion.

Soft cheeses: All soft cheese such as cream cheese, sour cream, yogurts, cottage cheese are all considered soft cheese which [from the letter of the law] one does not need to wait at all before eating meat. One must however wash his hands and clean and wash his mouth prior to eating meat.

 

Q&A

Must one wait six hours after eating aged cheese which is melted?

Some Poskim[223] rule that aged [non-pungent] cheese [i.e. 6 months] which is melted does not require one to wait six hours.[224]

Must one wait six hours if he eats cheese which is questionably defined as hard [i.e. six-hour] cheese?[225]

No.

List of cheeses and their status:

List of hard 6 month or pungent cheeses that require 6 hour wait:

* Provided on the OU website. See there for extensive listing.

  1. Appenzeller Extra (Swiss-made)
  2. Appenzeller Surchoix (Swiss-made)
  3. Asiago d´Allevo/Mezzano (Aged)
  4. Asiago d´Allevo/Stravecchio
  5. Asiago d´Allevo/Vecchio
  6. Blue/bleu cheese [pungent][226]
  7. Brick (pungent cheese)
  8. Caciocavallo (Aged)
  9. Caciocavallo (Semi-aged)
  10. Caciotta Alpina
  11. Cheddar (Medium, Sharp, Aged)
  12. Chevre/ Goat Cheese (Aged)
  13. Dry Monterey Jack
  14. Emmental/ Swiss Cheese-Switzerland
  15. Fiore Sardo
  16. Fontina (Aged)
  17. Gorgonzola [not found in OU listing]
  18. Havarti (Aged)
  19. Fiore Sardo
  20. Fontina (Aged)
  21. Kashkaval (Aged)
  22. Kashkaval (Young)
  23. Maggot cheese or Casu Marzu[227]
  24. Marble Cheese (Aged)
  25. Mochego Curado
  26. Montasio (Aged)
  27. Parmesan[228]
  28. Pecorino Romano
  29. Pecorino Sardo
  30. Pepper Jack (Foreign Market)
  31. Piccante Provolone
  32. Provola dei Nebrodi
  33. Provolone, Piccante
  34. Reggianito
  35. Romano
  36. Speedy Piccante
  37. Stravecchio

 

List of soft cheeses that do not require 6 hour wait

  1. Milk
  2. Leben
  3. Sour cream
  4. Yogurt
  5. Pudding
  6. Cream cheese
  7. Cottage cheese
  8. Ricotta

List of unaged hard cheeses under Rabbinical debate if they require 6 hours:

  1. Yellow-American cheese[229]
  2. Appenzeller Classic (Swiss-made)
  3. Asiago d´Allevo/Mezzano (Young)
  4. Asiago Pressato (Fresh)
  5. Bastardo del Grappa
  6. Brie
  7. Caciocavallo (Fresh)
  8. Caciotta al Tartufo
  9. Caciotta di Pecora
  10. Colby
  11. Edam
  12. Feta (Goat or Sheep Milk)
  13. Fontina (Young)
  14. Golden Jack
  15. Gouda (Baby)
  16. Gouda (Regular)
  17. Havarti (Regular)
  18. Kashkaval (Young)
  19. Leyden
  20. Montaggio

 

_____________________________________

[1] Rav Chisda in Chulin 105a

[2] Michaber 89/1; Rambam Machalos Assuros 9/28; Ran Chulin 37b that so is opinion of Rif; Rabbeinu Chananel; Baal Haitur 2/13Tur O.C. 173 in name of Rosh; Tur Y.D. 89; Rosh Chulin 5 that so is custom; Shut Min Hashamayim 55 that so is opinion of majority of Poskim, and in Heaven there is no dispute in this, as everyone now agrees its forbidden; Taz 89/2 in name of Shaareiy Dura that custom is like Rambam and not like Tosfos; Rashal Kol Habasar 70 wonders why Ashkenazi Jewry became accustomed to be lenient against the Rambam and Rif

Custom of Arizal and father of Mar Ukva: The father of Mar Ukva would not eat dairy until the next day. [Chulin ibid]The Arizal was accustomed to wait until the night [next Halachic day] until he would eat meat/dairy. [Shaar Hamitzvos Parshas Mishpatim; Kaf Hachaim 89/10]

[3] Opinion in Rama ibid; Tosfos Chulin 104b and 105a [however does not mention the need to clean mouth and hands]; Ravaya; Bahag Brachos 6/9; Rosh Chulin 5 in name of Rabbeinu Tam

[4] The reason: The basis of this dispute is in the words of the Talmud which requires one to wait from meal to meal between eating meat and milk. The first opinion rules “from meal to meal” refers to from the morning meal to the evening meal, which is 6 hours. The second opinion rules it simply refers to two different meals separated by an after blessing. [Shach 89/5]

[5] So was the custom in Holland. In many other European countries, the custom was to wait three hours between meat and milk.

[6] Rama ibid

The reason: This hour wait is not required from the letter of the law according to any Posek, as it does not suffice for the first opinion who requires a six hour wait and is not required by the second opinion. Nonetheless, it became widespread as a form of compromise between the two opinions. [Taz 89/2 in name of Mahariy]

[7] Rama ibid

[8] Shach 89/8 in name of Rashal; Taz 89/2 in name of Terumos Hadeshen and Shaareiy Dura; Rashal Kol Habasar 70 wonders why Ashkenazi Jewry became accustomed to be lenient against the Rambam and Rif

[9] P”M 89 S.D. 5 and 8; Chochmas Adam 40/13; Aruch Hashulchan 89/7; Kaf Hachaim 89/20; See Shut Min Hashamayim 55 in Heaven there is no dispute in this, as everyone now agrees one must wait six hours

[10] Taz ibid in name of Shaarei Dura

[11] Aruch Hashulchan ibid

[12] Darkei Teshuvah 89:1

[13] Shach 89:7; Peri Chadash 89:7; See Taz 89:2; Rashal Kol Habasar 9; Kneses Hagedola 89:10; Lechem Hapanim 89:8; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:5; Kaf Hachaim 89:26; 89:15 that there is no need to be Choshesh for meat if he waited six hours;

[14] Chasam Sofer Chulin 105a; See Kaf Hachaim ibid

[15] Darkei Teshuvah 89:11; Maharsham 1:197; Kaf Hachaim 89:22; Yabia Omer 3:24

[16] Although metal is able to absorb, nevertheless, we usually do not place Yad Soledes food in their mouth.

[17] See Darkei Teshuvah 89:11; Kaf Hachaim 89:22; Hakashrus 10 footnote 78

[18] Maharsham 1:197; Sheilas Shalom Tinyana 195 “There is no need to be stringent”; See Darkei Teshuvah ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid

The reason: As the materials used to make the dentures are non-absorbent, similar to glass, as otherwise they would cause spoilage and illness within the teeth. In addition, food which is not Yad Soledes does not have power to transfer taste, and hence since people do not place hot Yad Soledes food into their mouths, therefore, the dentures do not absorb irrelevant of the material that they are made from. Furthermore, even those who may once in a while accidently place Yad Soledes food into the mouth, it is only a Keli Sheiyni which according to many Poskim cannot transfer taste. [Poskim ibid]

[19] Darkei Teshuvah 89:11 “I tell those who ask me that it is proper for every Yirei Shamayim to do so, and so I have seen done by some G-d fearing Jews..”; Kaf Hachaim ibid “One may rely on the above leniencies if he cannot attain two sets of dentures.”

The custom of the Rebbe Rashab: It has been claimed that the Rebbe Rashab had two sets of dentures, one for meat and the other for milk. However, Rav Yaakov Landau has vehemently denied this claim. [See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Nissan p. 65]

[20] Michaber and Rama 89:1

[21] Michaber 89:1

[22] Shach 89:4; Peri Chadash 89:7; Lechem Hapanim 89:8; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:5; Kaf Hachaim 89:26

[23] Rama 89:1

[24] Shach 89:3; Beis Yosef O.C. 173 in name of Ran; Rashal Kol Habasar 9; Toras Chatas 77:1; Kneses Hagedola 89:8; Peri Chadash 89:3; Lechem Hapanim 89:3; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:1; Kreisi 89:3; P”M 89 S.D. 3; Chochmas Adam 40:12; Beis Yitzchak 89:4; Mikdash Me’at 89:3; Aruch Hashulchan 89:5; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:6; Kaf Hachaim 89:12

[25] See Hakashrus 10 footnote 78

[26] See Halacha 2B that if one ate a food that was cooked in a pot that had meat leftovers he does not need to wait 6 hours as he had no intent to eat the meat, and seemingly the same applies here.

[27] Rama 89:1:” It does not make a difference if one waits the hour before or after he bentches”; Degul Merivava on Shach 89:3; Darkei Teshuvah 89:4; Kaf Hachaim 89:9

[28] Aruch Hashulchan 89:4

[29] The reason: As the Gemara ibid emphasizes a wait between meals, and hence so long as the meal has not concluded, the six hours cannot begin. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

[30] Hakashrus 10 footnote 69 based on Poskim ibid that we follow the end of eating the actual meat

[31] Aruch Hashulchan 89:4; See also wording in Degul Mirivava ibid “From the end of eating the meat until the start of the dairy meal

[32] The reason: As the Gemara ibid emphasizes a wait between meals, and hence so long as the six hours have not concluded a meal in which one eats dairy may not be eaten. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

[33] Shach 87:5; Rashal, brought in Shach 89:5, “Many people are lenient in this and it is a mistake in their hands”; Rashal Kol Habasar 9; Kneses Hagedola 89:3; Peri Chadash 89:5; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:3; ; Halacha Pesuka 89:1; P”M 89 S.D. 5; Birkeiy Yosef Shiyurei Bracha 89:9; Erech Hashulchan 89:3; Chochmas Adam 40:13; Beis Yitzchak 89:8; Mikdash Me’at 89:5; Kaf Hachaim 89:15

[34] Shach 89:6; Peri Chadash 89:3; Lechem Hapanim 89:6; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:4; Kreisi 89:5; P”M 89 S.D. 6; Chochmas Adam 40:13; Beis Yitzchak 89:9; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:10; Kaf Hachaim 89:23

[35] One may not recite any after blessing [after eating a food or drinking a liquid] unless the food/liquid has yet to be digested by the abdomen. One who ate bread or meat [or other food] to the point of satiation [i.e. to the point that he no longer desires to eat anymore] may recite an after blessing so long as he has not yet begun to become hungry due to eating that food. This applies even if many hours have passed, as there is no 72-minute limitation applicable to a meal that one ate to satiation. However, from the moment that he has begun to become hungry, he may no longer say the after blessing. [See Seder 5:9; Admur 184:3] If, however, he did not eat a satiating meal, then an after blessing is to be said within 10 minutes from finishing the food, and if one did not do so then if 96 minutes have not yet passed he is to eat another food and say an after blessing. If 96 minutes have passed, he may no longer say an after blessing. [See Admur ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 60 footnote 20]

[36] Kaf Hachaim 89:19

[37] Yabia Omer 1:4; 3:3; Mishneh Halachos 5:97

[38] Rav Elyashiv, brought in Hakashrus 10 footnote 76, based on wording of Meiri 5-6 hours.

[39] Kneses Hagedola 89:6; P”M 89 M”Z 1; Beis Lechem Yehuda 3; Kreisy 89:6; Perech Shushan 89:1; Gan Hamelech 154; Shulchan Gavoa 89:3; Birkeiy Yosef 89:4 [Shiyurei Bracha]; Erech Hashulchan 89:2; Chochmas Adam 40:12; Pischeiy Teshuvah 89:3; Mikdash Me’at 89:1; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:2; Kaf Hachaim 89:5

[40] See Kaf Hachaim 89:5

[41] Peri Chadash

[42] Daas Kedoshim Butchach 89:2; It is told of the Chasam Sofer that he ruled this way as well and after twice having tried to drink milk after awakening to only have the milk spill, he retracted his ruling. [Hakashrus 10 footnote 77]

[43] Darkei Teshuvah 89:5

[44] Yad Yehuda 89

[45] The reason: As this is consider a Davar Sheyeish Lo Matirin. [ibid]

[46] Darkei Teshuvah 89 based on that we do not say the concept of Davar Sheyeish Lo Matirin regarding a matter that one can do both today and tomorrow.

[47] Mishneh Halachos 5:97; Hakashrus 10:33

[48] 89:3

[49] Michaber 89:2

[50] Rama ibid; Beis Yosef O.C. 173; Peri Chadash 89:18; Kneses Hagedola 89:42; Lechem Hapanim 89:23; Birkeiy Yosef 89:30; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:31; Kaf Hachaim 89:50, 52, 53, 55, 58

[51] See Michaber 95:2 that an egg absorbs even when it is within its shell

[52] Rama 89:3; Darkei Moshe 89:6; Beis Yosef O.C. 173

[53] Pashut as otherwise there is no novelty in the Rama, and so is evident from Shach 89:19.

[54] Elya Raba 173:4; Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 34; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:38; Kaf Hachaim 89:61

[55] See Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 24; Zechor Leavraham 3 Y.D. 54:2; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:39; Kaf Hachaim 89:62

[56] Shach 89:19; Bach 89; Minchas Yaakov on Toras Chatas 77:13; Peri Chadash 89:19; Beir Heiytiv 89:11; Lechem Hapanim 89:24; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:15; Orach Mishar on Darkei Moshe ibid, brought in Darkei Teshuvah 89:42; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:36; P”M 89 S.D. 19; Pischeiy Teshuvah 89:7; Chochmas Adam 40:13; Aruch Hashulchan 89:13; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 46:10; Kaf Hachaim 89:59; Igros Moshe Y.D. 2:26; Kitzur Yalkut Yosef 89:37 [Yalkut Yosef p. 426]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that if the pot had leftover meat, one is required to wait [a full 6 hours] prior to eating dairy. [Elya Raba O.C. 173:4; Elya Zuta 173:3]

[57] See Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 89:61-62

[58] The reason: As since there is a very minute amount of meaty leftover inside, and one has no intent to eat and simply does not want to bother to clean it, therefore the Sages did not decree that one must wait six hours. [Yad Yehuda Pirush Haruch 89:5, brought in Darkei Teshuvah ibid]

The proof: The Rama states that one does not have to wait 6 hours after eating Pareve foods cooked in a meat pot. The source of this statement is in the Beis Yosef ibid. Now, if the Rama and Beis Yosef were referring to a case that the pot is clean, there is no novelty at all in this ruling, as according to the Beis Yosef it is even permitted to eat it with actual dairy. Hence, one must conclude that the case refers to a dirty pot, in which case the food may not be eaten with dairy, but nevertheless one does not need to wait six hours. [See Shach ibid; P”M 89 S.D. 19; Yad Avraham 89]

[59] Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:15; brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah and Darkei Teshuvah ibid; Megadim Chadashim 89:5; Yad Yehuda Pirush Haruch 89:5; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:36; Ben Ish Chaiy Shelach 2:12 [rules to wait one hour if there isn’t 60x and one who waits 6 hours is blessed]; Kaf Hachaim 89:59

[60] Yad Avraham 89 and 95; Pischeiy Teshuvah 89:7; Aruch Hashulchan 89:13

[61] The reason: As otherwise what would be the novelty of the ruling of the Rama. [ibid] As the entire issue of waiting six hours according to Ashkenazi ruling is a Minhag, and there is no custom to wait six hours after such a case. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid; See Darkei Moshe ibid]

[62] Orach Mishur ibid, and Yad Yehuda ibid, brought in Darkei Teshuvah; See there that it is implied that only when there remains a little bit of fat in the pot did the Shach/Bach rule that waiting is not required, while if there is a large amount of fat/gravy, or actual meat, then one must wait.

[63] So seems Pashut; See Darkei Teshuvah ibid

[64] Yad Yehuda ibid, brought in Darkei Teshuvah ibid

[65] Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid

[66] Ben Ish Chaiy ibid

[67] Such a food is considered a Tavshil Shel Basar and hence requires one to wait if chewed or swallowed.

[68] See Hakashrus 10 footnote 96

[69] Hakashrus 10:34

[70] Hakashrus 10:35 and 36

[71] Yad Yehudah 89 regarding cooking; Rav Akiva Eiger on Shach 89:19 regarding cooking. Hakashrus learns the same applies for if the Davar Charif was cut with a knife. However, see Darkei Teshuvah 89:42 that the Yad Yehudah differentiates between the two.

[72] See Darkei Teshuvah 89:42

[73] See Darkei Teshuvah ibid that the custom is to be lenient.

[74] Peri Megadim 494 A”A 6

[75] Yad Yehuda 89; Daas Torah 89

[76] Michaber Y.D. 89:1; Tur 89:1; Following reason of Rambam Machalos Assuros 9:28, brought in Tur ibid, Taz 89:1 and Shach 89:2; Levush 89 and Issur Viheter 40:7 that so applies even according to Rashi; P”M 89 S.D. 2; Kitzur SHU”A 9

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is not required to wait six hours after simply chewing the meat if one did not swallow it, as the main reason for the wait is not due to the meaty getting stuck between one’s teeth but rather due to that after meat is swallowed it has the ability to give off a fatty taste for up to six hours after consumption. [First reason and opinion in Tur ibid, Taz ibid and Shach ibid, which follows the opinion of Rashi in his reasoning behind waiting six hours; However, the Levush 89 and Issur Viheter 40:7 rule that even according to Rashi one must wait six hours after chewing, although the Shach ibid negates this approach] We follow the stringent opinion in this matter. [Tur ibid; Poskim ibid]

[77] Beis Yitzchak 89:1; Kaf Hachaim 89:11

[78] The reason: As some Poskim rule that the entire reason for waiting six hours is due to the meat stuck between the teeth, and hence it makes no difference regarding this matter whether one goes ahead and swallows it afterwards. [Taz 89:1 and Shach 89:2 in understanding of Rambam ibid]

[79] Rama 89:3 that the custom is to wait six hours after Tavshil Shel Basar just like after meat itself; P”M 89 M”Z 1 that this applies even if one only chewed the food; Pischeiy Teshuvah 89:1 in name of Peri Megadim ibid; Levush 89 and Issur Viheter 40:7 in their understanding of Rashi that even chewing releases fat; Birkeiy Yosef Shiyurei Bracha 89:12; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:4; Kaf Hachaim 89:3

The reason: Although in such a case that one did not chew actual meat and did not swallow it, neither the reason of Rashi or the Rambam behind the waiting of six hours is applicable, and hence one should not need to wait, nevertheless, one is to be stringent to wait six hours. This is due to a “Lo Pelug” [a non-negotiable status] and due to that so is the custom of the Jewish people who are holy and therefore one is to be stringent and not be Poretz Geder. [P”M ibid; Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; Poskim ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one who ate a “Tavshil Shel Basar is not required to wait 6 hours prior to eating dairy, even if he chewed and swallowed it. [Michaber 89:3; Rav Nachman in Chulin 105] Practically, the custom today of even Sephardic Jewry is to be stringent like the Rama to wait 6 hours. [Beis Yosef 173; Peri Chadash 89:18; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:31; Birkeiy Yosef 89:30; Lechem Hapanim 89:33; Kaf Hachaim 89:50 and 55] See however Peri Chadash 89:18 and Aruch Hashulchan 89:14 that tasting a Tavshil Shel Basar does not require waiting, and he does not differentiate between chewing and not chewing, Vetzaruch Iyun

[80] Following reason of Rashi, brought in Tur 89:1; Taz 89:1, Shach 89:2, that if one ate [i.e. swallowed] the meat, he must wait.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is not required to wait six hours after swallowing the meat without chewing it, as the main reason for the wait is not due to its ability to give off a fatty taste for up to six hours after consumption but rather due to that the meat gets stuck between one’s teeth. [So is implied from the reason of Rambam, brought in Tur ibid, Taz 89:1 and Shach 89:2] We follow the stringent opinion in this matter. [Tur ibid; Poskim ibid]

[81] Rama 89:3 regarding Tavshil Shel Basar that so is the custom; Aruch; Beis Yosef 173; Opinion of Rashi, Vetzaruch Iyun why the Poskim ibid [Shach, Taz, P”M 89 M”Z 1,] omit this ramification between the reason of Rashi and the Rambam

Other opinions: See previous footnotes.

[82] Hagahos Maharshak on P”M 89 M”Z 1; Peri Chadash 89:18 “Tasting a Tavshil is nothing”; Lechem hapanim 89:23; Ben Ish Chaiy Shlach 9; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:5; Darkei Teshuvah 89:22; Aruch Hashulchan 89:14; Kaf Hachaim 89:4 and 56; Kapei Aaron 30

[83] The reason: As in such a case that one did not chew anything and did not swallow it, neither the reason of Rashi or the Rambam behind the waiting of six hours is applicable, and hence one does not need to wait. Now, although we ruled that one is to be stringent to wait six hours even if he simply chews a Tavshil Shel Basar. This is due to a “Lo Pelug” [a non-negotiable status] and due to that so is the custom of the Jewish people who are holy and therefore one is to be stringent and not be Poretz Geder. However, in this case that one did not even chew it, the Lo Plug and custom does not apply.

[84] Michaber 89:2 regarding eating meat after cheese and the same would apply here; Darkei Teshuvah 89:31 and Hakashrus 10:48 regarding one who drank milk that only Hadacha is required; Aruch Hashulchan ibid in name of Peri Chadash 89:18 that both Kinuach and Hadacha is required, however seemingly the case there is referring to one who chewed the food.

[85] See Topics in Practical Halacha Volume 1 Halacha 33 for the full details of this subject.

[86] See Beir Moshe 8:36; Sheivet Haleivi 4:84; Hakashrus 10:44

The ruling of Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin [Koveitz Zalman Shimon p. 62]: Those who are very young and weak may be lenient to wait one hour after cleaning and washing the mouth. Those which are a bit older, but are under Bar and Bas Mitzvah can wait 3-4 hours if there is difficulty for them to wait 6 hours. The reason for this leniency is because there are opinions which hold that in the winter when the days are short the number of hours between meals is 3-4 hours. Now although we do not rule like this opinion, nevertheless for children one may be lenient.

[87] See Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 89:1 for a dispute between the Rambam/Michaber [Rabbinical] and Tosfos/Rama [Custom].

[88] See Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 343

[89] Aruch Hashulchan 89:6; Chochmas Adam 40:11; Igros Kodesh Rashab Halacha 35; Sheivet Haleivi 4:84

[90] See Admur 328:22

[91] Meiri Chulin 105

[92] Opinion in Meiri Chulin 105 regarding all meat, and in his conclusion at least regarding poultry; Chelkas Yaakov 2:88 until age 12 there is no need to wait; Poskim brought in Bier Moshe 8:36 that there is no need to wait until age nine

[93] Beir Moshe 8:36; Sheivet Haleivi 4:84; Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin in Koveitz Zalman Shimon p. 62

[94] Beir Moshe 8:36; Sheivet Haleivi 4:84 that by very young children there is no need at all to be Machmir; Rav Zalman Shimon ibid writes that the very young may be lenient to wait one hour after Kinuach and Hadacha. It is unclear if he refers here even to a child below age three.

[95] The reason: As below age three the custom was not to be particular in this matter, even regarding giving the child dairy immediately after eating meat. Nevertheless, the mouth is to be rinsed out, at the very least to follow the opinion of Tosfos in this matter. [Beir Moshe ibid]

[96] Beir Moshe 8:36; Sheivet Haleivi 4:84 that all children who still receive the status of Choleh Sheiyn Bo Sakana may be lenient after a short amount of time; Rav Zalman Shimon ibid writes that the very young may be lenient to wait one hour after Kinuach and Hadacha. It is unclear until what age a child is considered “very young”

[97] Beir Moshe 8:36; Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin ibid that all children who are somewhat older are ideally to wait six hours; Sheivet Haleivi 4:84 writes that all children who still receive the status of Choleh Sheiyn Bo Sakana may be lenient after a short amount of time. There are various opinions in Poskim in this matter and some say that until age nine a child has a status of a Choleh Sheiyn Bo Sakana; Accordingly, some state that from 5-10 the child is to wait up to 3 hours, while from 10 he is to wait 6 hours.

[98] Beir Moshe 8:36

[99] Hakashrus 10:44 partially based on Sheivet Haleivi 4:84 that all children which are still considered a Choleh Sheiyn Bo Sakana regarding Shabbos are likewise able to be lenient to not wait 6 hours.

[100] Rav Zalman Shimon ibid

[101] The reason for this leniency is because there are opinions which hold that in the winter when the days are short the number of hours between meals is 3-4 hours. Now, although we do not rule like this opinion, nevertheless for children one may be lenient.

[102] Meiri ibid; Sheivet Haleivi 4:84

[103] Rav Zalman Shimon ibid; Poskim ibid

[104] Chochmas Adam 40:11; Igros Kodesh Rashab Halacha 35; Aruch Hashulchan 89:6; Amudei Hashulchan on Kitzur SHU”A 4; Ben Ish Chaiy Shelach 11; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:11; Darkei Teshuvah 89:20; Kaf Hachaim 87:7 and 21 and 26; So rule regarding Meiy Chalav: Chasam Sofer Y.D. 73; Pischeiy Teshuvah 87:3

[105] Aruch Hashulchan ibid

[106] Based on above Q&A. See also Sheivet Haleivi 7:118

[107] As we are stringent like the opinion of the Rambam that the wait is due to the chewing. [Michaber/Taz/Shach 89:1]

[108] Zechor Leavraham Y.D .2; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:3; Kaf Hachaim 89:6

[109] One is to swallow the food and not merely taste it and spit it out. [Zechor Leavraham ibid; Zivcheiy Tzedek ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid; See Admur 167:9; Seder Birchas Hanehnin 9:1 that one must swallow the food when saying a blessing. This is unlike the ruling of Mur Uketzia 210; Shut Kol Gadol 72 who rule so long as one had intent to eat it, if he spits it out it is not a blessing in vain. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 210:9; Vetzaruch Iyun on his omitting the ruling of Admur brought above. See Topics in Practical Halacha Volume 1 Halacha 33 for the full details of this subject.]

[110] See Poskim ibid who depends the allowance on the opinions who rule it is permitted to eat dairy so long as one has recited Birchas Hamazon

[111] Daas Kedoshim 89:2; Mikdash Me’at 87:2; Kaf Hachaim 89:7;

[112] Vetzaruch Iyun if this allowance applies even prior to one saying a Bracha Acharona on the meat meal. Seemingly it does not.

[113] Hakashrus 10:43 in name of Rav Moshe Halbershtam.

[114] Michaber 89:2

[115] Michaber Y.D. 89:2 “One may eat meat products immediately after eating milk products so long as he verifies that his hands are clean and he does Kinuach and Hadacha to his mouth.”; See Rama ibid in next footnote that it is only a custom to be stringent, and one is not to protest against those who are lenient

The reason: As neither reason behind the six hour wait is applicable by cheese, as a) it does not get stuck between one’s teeth and b) it is not that fatty. [Levush 89; Kaf Hachaim 89:29

[116] Shach 89:16 in name of Mitzareif Lechochma “One meal and one hour”; Shelah Tractate Shavuos p. 30 “One hour”; Beis Yosef 173; Toras Chatas of Rama; Levush 173; P”M 89 S.D. 6; Darkei Teshuvah 89:19; Kaf Hachaim 89:10; O.C. 173:2

[117] Zohar Mishpatim p. 125a

[118] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[119] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[120] Shlah ibid; Taz 89:2; Darkei Teshuvah 89; Piskeiy Teshuvos 494 footnote 67; Shevach Hamoadim p. 241 writes one is to wash out the mouth.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that there is no need to perform Kinuach and Hadacha once one has waited an hour. [Shach 89:7; Hakashrus 10:48 write even according to the Taz. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as the Shlah explicitly writes to do so despite his ruling of waiting an hour, and so quotes Darkei Teshuvah 89.]

Opinion of Rebbe: In Igros Kodesh 20 p. 28 the Rebbe mentions the commentary of the Peri Megadim SD 89:7 that the Shach holds the delay of an hour takes the place of needing to clean the mouth. Vetzaruch Iyun if the intent of the Rebbe here is to rule that one who waits an hour does not need to clean his mouth, or is simply showing another source to the asker for the idea of waiting an hour, although in truth we also clean our mouth afterwards. To note the Peri Megadim himself on Taz 89:2 explains as the Taz that one is required to wash the mouth even after waiting one hour. Hence, one cannot deduce the opinion of the Peri Megadim from his commentary on the Shach.

[121] Yabia Omer 6:7

[122] Kaf Hachaim 89:10 concludes every G-d fearing Jew is to be stringent; Ruling of Rav Aba Shaul, brought in Hakashrus 10:49

[123] Ben Ish Chaiy Shlach 15 states this is the custom in Bagdad

[124] Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 20 p. 289; In the above letter the Rebbe mentions he is unsure if this custom of waiting an hour is meant for all to follow or only for select individuals. However, it is told the Rebbe mentioned this as a classical Chabad custom to the Bochurim learning Semicha in 1953. [See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Sivan]

[125] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:12 footnote 68; Hakashrus 10:47

[126] M”A 494:6; Levush 89; M”B 494:16; Kaf Hachaim 89:29; See Keren Ledavid 140; Mishneh Sachir 1:59

[127] Shelah Tractate Shavuos p. 30; Kneses Hagedola 89; Minchas Yaakov 76:5; Beir Heiytiv 89:2; P”M 89 S.D. 6 that so is custom on Shavuos, and so applies according to Zohar who requires one to wait between dairy and meat; Darkeiy Teshuvah 89:14 and 19; Beir Mayim Chaim Vayeira; Kaf Hachaim 89:10 and 24; See Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:4; Mikdash Me’at 89:6

[128] Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:4; Mikdash Me’at 89:6; Kaf Hachaim 89: 24; Shach 89:6 regarding eating dairy after meat outside of a meal

[129] Hakashrus 10 footnote 69; So rule regarding dairy after meat: Rama 89:1:” It does not make a difference if one waits the hour before or after he recites Birchas Hamazon”; Degul Merivava on Shach 89:3; Darkei Teshuvah 89:4; Kaf Hachaim 89:9

[130] Implication of Shelah Miseches Shavuos p. 30 and Darkei Teshuvah 89:19 “Say Birchas Hamazon, and then wait an hour and then eat the meat meal”; Olas Reiyah 59; Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:12; Aruch Hashulchan 89:4 rules one is to wait six hours from the end of the meat meal to the dairy meal. Seemingly here too he would hold that one needs to wait an hour from after he recites Birchas Hamazon until he washes for the meat meal.

[131] Hakashrus 10:51

[132] Rav Chisda in Chulin 105a

[133] Michaber 89:1; Rambam Machalos Assuros 9:28; Ran Chulin 37b that so is opinion of Rif; Rabbeinu Chananel; Baal Haitur 2:13; Tur O.C. 173 in name of Rosh; Tur Y.D. 89; Rosh Chulin 5 that so is custom; Shut Min Hashamayim 55 that so is opinion of majority of Poskim, and in Heaven there is no dispute in this, as everyone now agrees its forbidden; Taz 89:2 in name of Shaareiy Dura that custom is like Rambam and not like Tosfos; Rashal Kol Habasar 70 wonders why Ashkenazi Jewry became accustomed to be lenient against the Rambam and Rif; Rama ibid that those meticulous are to wait six hours; Shach 89:8; P”M 89 S.D. 5 and 8; Chochmas Adam 40:13; Aruch Hashulchan 89:7; Kaf Hachaim 89:20

[134] Michaber Y.D. 89:2

[135] Some, however, wait one hour, and so is the Chabad custom. See Shach 89:16; Beis Yosef 173; Toras Chatas of Rama; Shlah Tractate Shavuos p. 30; Levush 173; P”M 89 S.D. 6; Darkei Teshuvah 89:19; Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 20 p. 289

[136] See Rama Y.D. 89:2

[137] See Tur 89; Taz 89:1 and Shach 89:2

[138] Sefer Pardes Haaretz [Horowitz] Vol. 3 p. 548 in footnote

[139] See Beir Heiytiv 494:8 [towards end]; Toras Menachem 5743 3:1579 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 3:41]

[140] Midrash Raba Yisro 28

[141] Midrash Tehilim 8; Daas Zekeinim on Vayeira ibid

[142] Vayeira 18:8

[143] Beir Heiytiv 494:8 [towards end] “I heard that we eat dairy and then meat, unlike what the angels did by Avraham in which they ate meat and milk, as due to this the Torah was given to the Jewish people”; Toras Menachem 5743 3:1579 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 3:41]

[144] Brought in Sefer Pardes Haaretz [Horowitz] Vol. 3 p. 548 in footnote

[145] See Michaber Y.D. Chapter 89

[146] Kneses Hagedola 89:42; Ben Ish Chaiy Shlach 14; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:26 and 34; Kaf Hachaim 89:45 and 57

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the requirement to wash the hands and perform Kinuach and Hadacha only apply if one desires to eat animal meat after eating dairy. However, if one desires to eat poultry, then there is no need to wash the hands or do Kinuach and Hadacha. [Michaber ibid; Peri Chadash 89:1 and Peri Megadim]

[147] Michaber 89:3

[148] Shach 89:20 that this applies according to all opinions; Toras Chatas 77:3; Kaf Hachaim 89:63

The reason: As a Tavshil of Gevina gets more stuck on one’s hands then other foods.

[149] Kneses Hagedola 89:42; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:34; Kaf Hachaim 89:57

[150] Michaber 89:2

[151] Rama 89:2-3; Shach 89:9; Tur 89 in name of Rabbeinu Peretz; Achronim; Levush 89; Kneses Hagedola 89:22 in name of many Poskim; Peri Chadash 89:9; Lechem Hapanim 89:11; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:8; Shulchan Gavoa 89:8; P”M 89 S.D. 9; Erech Hashulchan 89:5; Beis Yitzchak 89:3; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:16 that so is our custom to wash the hands even by daytime; Kaf Hachaim 89:32

[152] Michaber ibid; Peri Chadash 89:1 and Peri Megadim; This ruling of the Michaber that no washing is needed between cheese and chicken is not argued by the Rama or any of the Nosei Keilim. It is hence a conclusive ruling that after soft cheeses [as rules Rama] one does not even need to wash his hands in order to eat chicken.

[153] Kneses Hagedola 89:42; Ben Ish Chaiy Shlach 14; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:26, 34; Kaf Hachaim 89:45, 57

[154] Shach 89:10 in name of Beis Yosef O.C. 173 in name of Orchos Chaim and Raavad; Toras Chatas 77:6; Lechem Hapanim 89:13; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:9; Kreisi 89:10; Chochmas Adam 40:12; Beis Yitzchak 89:4; Mikdash Me’at 89:3; Aruch Hashulchan 89:5; Ben Ish Chaiy Shelach 11; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:6; Kaf Hachaim 89:12

[155] The reason: For the sake of this washing of the hands between dairy and meat, one may only use water, as only water is capable of properly removing the fat of the cheese. Other liquids, however, are sticky and hence do not properly clean. [Shach ibid; Beis Yosef in name of Poskim ibid]

[156] Rashal Kol Habasar 10 [brought in Shach ibid]; Kneses Hagedola 89:19 in name of Damesek Eliezer; Peri Chadash 89:10 that so is implied from Rashba; Implication of Michaber 181 who rules that other liquids are valid for Mayim Acharonim and in 1763 ruled that the washing of Mayim Emtzaim and Achronim are identical

[157] The reason: This is proven from the fact that we rule other liquids may be used for Mayim Achronim, as if we hold that other liquids can wash off the salt for Mayim Achronim then certainly it is valid to wash off the fat of the cheese. [Rashal ibid]

[158] Shach ibid negates the allowance of Rashal claiming it is easily attainable to wash with water, and hence one should not be lenient against the Raavad simply based on his argument.

[159] Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 18; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:18 and O.C. 173:20; Kaf Hachaim 89:35

[160] Admur 181:3 and Michaber 181:3 regarding Mayim Achronim; Peri Chadash 89:10; P”M 89 S.D. 13; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:19; Kaf Hachaim 89:36

[161] Admur ibid records a dispute regarding this matter and concludes that one may be lenient by a Rabbinical matter to wash with water that is warm, but less than Yad Soledes

[162] The reason: As hot water swells the hand and does not remove the filth. [Admur ibid]

[163] Beis Yosef O.C. 173 in name of Orchos Chaim

[164] Raavad; Rashba; Implication of Michaber 173; Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 19; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:20; Kaf Hachaim 89:37

[165] Rashal; Peri Chadash; See Kaf Hachaim ibid

[166] Admur 181:5 in parentheses; M”A 181:1; Rashal Chulin 8:10

[167] Kneses Hagedola 89:23; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:15; Kaf Hachaim 89:31

[168] See B regarding the valid liquids

[169] Peri Megadim 89 S.D. 9; Beis Yitzchak 89:18; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:16; Kaf Hachaim 89:33

[170] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[171] Peri Chadash 89:9; Beir Heiytiv 89:5; Lechem Hapanim 89:11; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:8; Shulchan Gavoa 89:8; Kaf Hachaim 89:34

[172] Peri Megadim S.D. 89:20; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[173] Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 15

[174] Toras Yekusiel; Birkeiy Yosef 89:36; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:42; Kaf Hachaim 89:66

[175] Michaber 89:2

[176] Michaber ibid

[177] Shach 89:12; Kneses Hagedola 89:27; Peri Chadash 89:12; Minchas Yaakov 77:6; P”M 89 S.D. 12; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:22; Kaf Hachaim 89:40

[178] Opinion brought in Kneses Hagedola ibid and Pischeiy Teshuvah 89:6

[179] Kneses Hagedola 89:28; P”M 89 S.D. 12; Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 17; Pischeiy Teshuvah 89:6; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:23; Kaf Hachaim 89:41

[180] Michaber 89:2

[181] Damesek Eliezer; Kneses Hagedola 89:29; Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 21; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:25; Kaf Hachaim 89:43

[182] Shach 89:11 and 13; Peri Chadash 89:11 and 13; Lechem Hapanim 89:14-15; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:10; Minchas Yaakov 77:7; Chochmas Adam 40:12; Beis Yitzchak 89:4; Biur Hagr”a 89; Kaf Hachaim 89:38 and 42; Michaber 89:2 first lists the cleaning and only then the rinsing, however, the Poskim ibid explain that this to not be taken literally and rather one may do either one first.

[183] Kneses Hagedola 89:29; Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 20; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:24; Kaf Hachaim 89:38

[184] The reason: As it is possible that the food used for the Kinuach will remain stuck in one’s mouth [with its cheese remnant], and will thus need to be rinsed down. [Poskim ibid]

[185] Peri Toar 89:7; Pischeiy Teshuvah 89:5

[186] P”M 89 S.D. 12; Darkeiy Teshuvah 89:30

[187] Peri Toar 89:5; Kaf Hachaim 89:39

The reason: As aside for the stringent opinion, there is also a prohibition against destroying food.

[188] Beir Moshe brought in end of Sefer Pischeiy Halacha

[189] Darkei Teshuvah 89:31; Hakashrus 10:48

[190] Kneses Hagedola 89:23; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:15; Kaf Hachaim 89:31

[191] Vikuach Mayim Chaim; Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 23; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:28; Kaf Hachaim 89:49

[192] Michaber Y.D. 89:2 “One may eat meat products immediately after eating milk products so long as he verifies that his hands are clean and he does Kinuach and Hadacha to his mouth.”; See Rama ibid in next footnote that it is only a custom to be stringent, and one is not to protest against those who are lenient

[193] Rama 89:2

[194] Opinion in Rama ibid; Mordechai in name of Maharam; See Kneses Hagedola 89:18 that some are accustomed to wait one hour after cheese, while others wait six hours after cheese; Kneses Hagedola 89:42 that so is his personal custom to always wait 6 hours; See Birkeiy Yosef 89 Shiyurei Bracha 13 and Zivcheiy 89:12 that some wait three hours after cheese; See Kaf Hachaim 89:30 that all these Chumros are specifically for one who ate actual cheese and not just milk

[195] The Sephardic Custom: Some Sephardim are accustomed to wait one hour between hard cheese and meat. [Ruling of Rav Aba Shaul, brought in Hakashrus 10:49] Others are accustomed to wait one hour per month of its age. [Ben Ish Chaiy Shlach 15 states this is the custom in Bagdad] Others rule it is not required to wait at all, as is the ruling of the Michaber. [Yabia Omer 6:7]

[196] Taz 89:4; P”M 89 S.D. 16 and M”Z  3; Lechem Hapanim 89:18; Beis Lechem Yehuda 89:11; Kneses Hagedola 89:18 that so was accustomed many Gedolei Yisrael; Aruch Hashulchan 89:11; Kaf Hachaim 89:46

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that according to the original Ashkenazi custom and Zohar there is no need to wait six hours after hard cheese, but rather only one hour. [Sefer Mitzaref Lechochma p. 27a; Implication of Shach 89:16; Minhag brought in Kneses Hagedola 89:18]

[197] Rama ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one who is stringent is doing an act of heresy. [Rashal, brought in Shach 89:17] The Shach 89:17 negates this opinion.

[198] P”M 89 S.D. 16

[199] Kneses Hagedola 89:42 that he would eat rice with meat gravy after eating cheese even though he generally waited 6 hours; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:35; Kaf Hachaim 89:58

[200] Rama 89:3; See

[201] See Kneses Hagedola 89:42; Kaf Hachaim 89:58;

[202] See Kneses Hagedola 89:42; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:35; Kaf Hachaim 89:58 that a Tavshil Shel Gevina refers to a dish that does not contain any Beiyn Cheese, and simply contains the gravy of the cheese, otherwise it is defined as actual cheese.

[203] Kneses Hagedola 89:42; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:34; Kaf Hachaim 89:57

[204] Shach 89:20 that this applies according to all opinions

The reason: As a Tavshil of Gevina gets more stuck on one’s hands then other foods.

[205] Kneses Hagedola 89:42; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:34; Kaf Hachaim 89:57

[206] Taz 89:4 “Due to the reason of fat”; P”M 89 M”Z  4; Aruch Hashulchan 89:11 that certain hard cheeses have a lot of fat content and this is the reason for the six hour wait; This follows the first reason and opinion in Tur ibid, Taz ibid and Shach ibid, which follows the opinion of Rashi in his reasoning behind waiting six hours, that it is due to the fat

[207] Peri Chadash 89; P”M 89 S.D. 15 and M”Z 4 that according to Shach 89:15 and Issur Viheter who hold aged cheese is a problem because it gets stuck between the teeth; Aruch Hashulchan 89:11; This follows the reason of Rambam Machalos Assuros 9:28, brought in Tur ibid, Taz 89:1 and Shach 89:2; See however Taz 89:4 who negates this issue according to Rambam and says it only applies regarding meat.

[208] Taz 89:4; Issur Viheter brought in Taz 89:4; This follows the first reason and opinion in Tur ibid, Taz ibid and Shach ibid, which follows the opinion of Rashi in his reasoning behind waiting six hours, that it is due to the fat

[209] See P”M 89 M.Z. 4 that the eating of the worms which is considered like meat gives off a taste of fat for 6 hours just like meat. [See Darkeiy Halacha 89]

[210] See Taz ibid; P”M ibid; Aruch Hashulchan ibid

[211] Taz ibid “In my opinion one is to only be stringent by maggot cheese, however cheese which is aged but not wormy is not considered hard cheese and there is thus no need to delay eating meat after eating this cheese, and rather it suffices to wash one’s hands and perform Kinuach/Hadacha, unless one desires to be extra scrupulous and holy.”

The reason: As even cheese which has aged does not have a very sharp fat content and hence there is no need to wait between it and meat, as rules the Rosh and Tur. Now, although the Rambam rules that if the food gets stuck in between the teeth one must wait, and hard cheese does get stuck in between one’s teeth, nevertheless this only applied by meat as there is a verse brought in the Gemara which teaches us that meat in between one’s teeth is still considered meat. However, other foods are not considered food when they are in one’s teeth. [Taz 89:4]

[212] Pashut! Butter contains 80% fat and all agree it is part of the soft cheese list which does not require a six hour wait. Hence we see it is the fat quality and not quantity that matters.

[213] Shach 89:15; Toras Chatas 77:2 [p. 12]; Issur Viheter 40:8, brought in Taz 89:4 [however the Taz himself negates this definition, as stated above]; Peri Chadash 89:16; P”M 89 S.D. 15 and M”Z 4; Beis Lechem yehuda 89:12; Chochmas Adam 40:12; Beis Yitzchak 89:22; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:27; Kaf Hachaim 89:47; This follows the reason of Rambam Machalos Assuros 9:28, brought in Tur ibid, Taz 89:1 and Shach 89:2

[214] So writes Shach ibid; See Sheivet Haleivi 2:35 that some Achronim rule all hard cheeses require a 6 hour wait

[215] The reason: As hard cheese of this nature gets stuck between the teeth. [P”M 89 S.D. 15 and M”Z 4]

[216] Aruch Hashulchan 89:11

[217] Aruch Hashulchan ibid; See P”M 89 M”Z 4

[218] https://oukosher.org/blog/consumer-kosher/aged-cheese-list/

[219] These take approximately 1-2 months to be prepared. [Hakashrus 10 footnote 120]

[220] Hiskashrus 931 “Majority, if not all, cheeses on the Mehadrin market today are not hard, and one does not need to wait 6 hours after them.” Rav Y. Farkash rules one may be lenient by all hard cheese unless one knows it is aged six months. This is likewise the position of many Kashrus agencies.

The reason: As a) They are not as hard as 6 month aged cheese; b) Their fat content is not pungent; c) The widespread custom is to be lenient.

[221] See Sheivet Haleivi 2:35 that he is personally stringent; Rav Elyashiv; Rav S.Z. Labkowsky; Rav Eli Landau; See Hakashrus 10 footnote 125]

[222] The reason: Some are stringent being that although these cheeses are not wormy and have not aged 6 months, nevertheless they maintain a hard cheese quality due their ingredients, and high fat content which is result of the new technology in cheese processing. [See Hakashrus 10 footnote 120, 125 and 126. I heard this also from Rav S.Z. Labkowsky, and so he rules to be stringent by all hard cheeses.] Others are stringent because it is not written on the cheese as to how many months they have been aged and hence, due to doubt, one is to be stringent by all hard cheeses. [See Shevet Halevi ibid]

[223] Yad Yehuda 89:30

[224] The reason: As it does not get stuck between one’s teeth once it is melted.

[225] Daas Kedoshim 89:2; Mikdash Me’at 89:9; Kaf Hachaim 89:48

[226] Blue cheese is a general classification of cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, or goat’s milk cheeses that have had cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, blue-gray or blue-green mold, and carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria. Some blue cheeses are injected with spores before the curds form and others have spores mixed in with the curds after they form. Blue cheeses are typically aged in a temperature-controlled environment such as a cave. Blue cheese can be eaten by itself or can be crumbled or melted over foods.

[227] i.e. Casu marzu cheese. This cheese is created by leaving whole Pecorino cheeses outside with part of the rind removed to allow the eggs of the cheese fly Piophila casei to be laid in the cheese. A female Piophila casei can lay more than five hundred eggs at one time. The eggs hatch and the larvae begin to eat through the cheese. The acid from the maggots’ digestive system breaks down the cheese’s fats, making the texture of the cheese very soft. By the time it is ready for consumption, a typical casu marzu will contain thousands of these maggots. There are several other regional varieties of cheese with fly larvae in Europe. For example, goat-milk cheese is left to the open air until Piophila casei larvae are naturally laid in the cheese. Then it is aged in white wine, with grapes and honey, preventing the larvae from emerging, giving the cheese a strong flavor. In addition, other regions in Europe have traditional cheeses that rely on live arthropods for ageing and flavoring, such as the German Milbenkäse and French Mimolette, both of which rely on cheese mites.

[228] It takes a minimum of 12 months of aging to make Parmesan cheese. The Vecchio takes 18-24 months, while the Starvecchio takes 24-36 months.

[229] Made from cheddar that is aged 2-3 months

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