Chapter 5: The status of Pareve & Charif foods cut with a meat/dairy knife

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Chapter 5:

The status of Pareve & Charif foods cut with a meat/dairy knife

Introduction:

This chapter, in continuation of the theme of the previous chapter, deals with the status of Pareve foods that have been cut with a meat or dairy knife. Does the food still remain Pareve? May the food still be cooked and eaten with meat or dairy? This subject leads us to the famous topic of a Davar Charif, or sharp foods, and their Halachic status.

A word of advice:

Due to the complex Halachic issues that a Charif vegetable poses if it is cut with a meat or dairy knife [and then gets used with the opposite food or vessel], it is highly recommended that every kitchen establishes a rule that all Charif vegetables be cut with a Pareve knife and Pareve cutting board. Experience has shown that leaving a meat or dairy cut Charif vegetable around the fridge is bound to create problems, as people forget its status and can come to use it for the opposite food.

 

1. If one cut a Pareve food with a meat knife may one eat the food with dairy?

One who cut a Pareve food with a meat knife at times the food remains Pareve and may be eaten with dairy, while at other times it becomes meaty and cannot be eaten with dairy. This law is dependent on the following factors:

  1. Was the Pareve food hot? [Halacha 2 in Q&A]
  2. Was the Pareve food a Davar Charif? [Halacha 3]
  3. Is the knife Ben Yomo? [Halacha 2-3]
  4. Is the knife clean or dirty? [Halacha 2-3]
  5. Did one cut a Lefes or other vegetable of the like prior to the cutting the Charif food? [Halacha 9]

 

2. The status of a cold non-Charif food which was cut with a meat/dairy knife:

Dirty knife:[1] If one cut cucumbers, [melons[2], vegetables[3], or any other moist food[4]] with a [dirty[5]] meat knife [that has been used in the past to cut hot meat/cheese[6]], then one may eat the food with dairy if one grates [i.e. Greida] the area of the cut from the food.[7] If, however, the Pareve food is [dry like] a turnip, a mere washing suffices to be allowed to use it with milk products. [In general, a knife is assumed to be dirty unless one knows for certain that it was cleaned.[8] However, if the knife has passed through a good wash with soap and water, then it is considered clean [if it is not serrated[9]].[10] The above law only applies towards knives that have been used in the past for cutting hot meat or hot cheese. If, however, the knife was only used to cut cold meat/cheese, then the food requires a mere rinsing in all cases, even if the knife was visibly dirty with fat.[11] If the knife was used to cut a Lefes prior to cutting the Pareve food, then see Halacha 4 that a mere rinsing is required in all cases, even if the food was moist.]

Clean knife: If the knife has indeed been cleaned [but has been used in the past to cut hot meat/cheese[12]], then some Poskim[13] rule the Pareve food does not even require a mere rinsing. Other Poskim[14] rule that if the knife is clean, then although Greida is not required even if the food is moist, nevertheless, one needs to wash the food [as a mere stringency[15]]. Other Poskim[16] rule that a moist food always requires grating if it was cut with a Ben Yomo[17] meat knife, and one desires to use it for dairy, even if the knife was clean. However, if the knife was clean and not Ben Yomo, then the food is permitted[18], [and does not require even a mere rinsing[19]]. [Bedieved, if one cooked the food without rinsing, it remains Kosher according to all.[20]]

Initially using a clean meat knife to cut Pareve with intent to use for the opposite food: Some Poskim[21] rule one may even initially cut Pareve with a clean meat knife with intent to eat the Pareve food with dairy products. Other Poskim[22], however, rule that it is initially forbidden to use a clean meat knife to cut foods which will be eaten with dairy. Practically, the custom of the world is not to cut Pareve foods that will be eaten with dairy with a meat knife even if clean, however in a time of need one may be lenient to do so.[23]

Summary and Final Ruling:

Knife is dirty: If a moist Pareve food, like a cucumber, was cut with a meat/dairy knife that contained meat/dairy residue and has been used in the past to cut hot meat/cheese, then one must grate the area of the cut from the food if one desires to eat the Pareve food with the opposite food of meat/milk. If the food is dry, then a mere rinsing suffices. If the knife was only used to cut cold meat/cheese, then the food requires a mere rinsing in all cases

Knife is clean but Ben Yomo: If a Pareve food was cut with a clean Ben Yomo meat/dairy knife that has been used in the past to cut hot meat/cheese, then it is disputed amongst Poskim as to whether rinsing, grating, or nothing is required if one desires to eat the Pareve food with the opposite food of meat/milk. [Practically, one may suffice with a simple rinsing, and Bedieved everything remains permitted even if a rinsing was not done.] Initially, one is not to use even a clean meat knife to cut Pareve foods with intent to eat the food with dairy.

Knife is clean and not Ben Yomo: If a Pareve food was cut with a clean non-Ben Yomo meat/dairy knife then it is disputed amongst Poskim as to whether rinsing, or nothing is required if one desires to eat the Pareve food with the opposite food of meat/milk.

Q&A

If one cut bread with a dirty meat knife, may it be used for dairy?[24]

One is to grate off the area of contact of the bread and the remaining bread may then be used for dairy. The same applies if the bread was cut with an Issur knife.

Q&A on cleanliness

Are typical knives today considered clean after a wash?[25]

Some Poskim[26] rule that a typical knife today which sits in the drawer or dish rack after dish washing is considered clean from fat. [Thus, if it was used to cut a non-Charif Pareve food, the food may be eaten with the opposite food of meat/milk without requiring to cut off any of its substance. However, some require it to be rinsed, as stated above.] If, however, one is not particular to clean the knife well, or used it for the Pareve food prior to it being cleaned, then it is considered dirty with fat, and the Pareve food would require grating in its area of cut. [Seemingly, one should not rely on the above opinion regarding serrated knives, unless they were properly inspected for cleanliness prior to cutting.[27]]

 

Q&A on other vessels

What is the law if one used a meat spoon/fork for a Pareve food and one now desires to use the food for dairy?

If the spoon/fork was clean, then the food may be used for dairy and does not require even a mere rinsing.[28]

 

Q&A on used meat knife for cheese

What is the law of the cheese if one cut it with a meat knife?

If the knife was washed and cleaned prior to cutting the cheese, then the cheese may be [washed[29] and] eaten the way it is even if Neitza was not performed to the knife.[30] If, however, the knife was dirty from meat then one is to remove a peel[31] worth from the cheese.[32]

 

What is the law of a meat knife if one used it to cut cheese?[33]

If a meat knife was accidently used to cut cold hard cheese [or cold dry meat], it suffices to perform Neitza to the knife and then return it to its designated use. [Furthermore, some Poskim[34] rule it suffices to simply wash the knife well and even Neitza is not required.] If it was used to cut regular cold meat [which is soft, or soft cheese], then a mere rinse suffices.[35]   

 

What is the law if one used a meat knife to spread cream cheese or a meat spoon to eat a dairy yogurt?[36]

If both the knife/spoon and cheese/yogurt were cold, and the knife was clean, the food remains permitted while the vessel is to be rinsed off from the cheese using cold water. [It should be rinsed in the dairy sink.] If the knife/spoon was dirty, then the area of cheese that came into contact with the knife must be discarded.

 

Q&A on hot food

What is the status of a hot non-Charif Pareve food that was cut with a meat or dairy knife?

Ø  Example: One cut a hot Yad Soledes Keli Rishon[37] potato with a dairy knife. May the potato be eaten with meat?

If one cut a hot Keli Rishon non-Charif Pareve food with a dairy knife, then some Poskim[38] rule that if the knife was not Ben Yomo and was clean, the Pareve food remains Pareve and may be eaten with meat. [If, however, the knife was dirty from dairy residue, then the Pareve food becomes the same status as the knife, and cannot be eaten with meat.[39] If the knife was clean but Ben Yomo of dairy use, then it is subject to the dispute between the Michaber and Rama regarding Nat Bar Nat, as explained in chapter 95 Halacha 1C. Practically, the Ashkenazi custom is to initially treat it as the status of the knife [i.e. dairy].] However, other Poskim[40] rule that when a hot food is cut with a knife, it retains the same ruling as a Davar Charif, even if in truth the food is not sharp. Accordingly, in all cases [even if the knife was clean and not Ben Yomo] the food may not be eaten with meat, and if one mixed it together 60x is required versus the Netila area. Practically, one is initially to be stringent, although Bedieved if one already mixed it with the opposite food one may be lenient[41], especially if the knife was clean and not Ben Yomo.[42]

3. The status of a Charif/sharp food which was cut with a meat or dairy knife:[43]

Background: The Gemara in Avoda Zara[44] states one may not eat a Kurt Shel Chalatis [Asafetida][45] which was cut with a Treif knife, even if it is not Ben Yomo, due to it absorbing the Treif taste absorbed within the knife. The reason it absorbs the taste is because this spice is very sharp and has ability to extract and enhance the spoiled Issur taste within a vessel’s mass. This root is so sharp that the Talmud[46] states that if one were to eat it on an empty stomach it could puncture the intestines. There is a dispute amongst Rishonim as to whether other sharp foods have the same law as does the Asafetida.[47] Some[48] say it has the same law and hence if one cuts any sharp food with a knife, the entire food absorbs the taste found within that knife even if it is not Ben Yomo. Others[49] rule that only the Asafetida has this ability while other sharp foods are less strict. Amongst these Rishonim who hold of the latter opinion, there is a further dispute amongst them in regard to how much taste within the knife is absorbed into the sharp food, and if it absorbs even if the knife is not Ben Yomo. The following is the final ruling:

The law:[50] If a Charif [i.e. sharp] food, such as onions and garlic[51], was cut with a meat or dairy knife [that has been used in the past to cut hot meat/cheese[52]], then the entire[53] food becomes meaty/dairy and is forbidden from being eaten/cooked with the opposite food.[54] This applies even if the knife was clean and was not Ben Yomo [i.e. had not cut hot meat or cheese within the past 24 hours] at its time of use.[55] [Thus, if an onion was cut with a meat knife that has been used in the past to cut hot meat, the entire onion absorbs the meat taste and becomes meaty.]

Bedieved if the cut Charif was cooked with the opposite food:[56] Bedieved, if one sliced a Charif food in half with a meat/dairy knife [that has been used in the past to cut hot meat/cheese] and then cooked the sharp food with the opposite food [i.e. cheese/meat], then everything [i.e. food and pot] is forbidden unless it contains 60x versus the Netila/finger area of the Charif food [i.e. 2 cm of each side of the slice[57]], or 60x versus the blade of the knife.[58] [The Sephardic custom is to be lenient in a case of great loss if the knife was clean and not Ben Yomo.[59]] If, however, the spicy food was cut into small pieces [less than a Netila worth-2 cm-each[60]] then according to all opinions if one went ahead and cooked it with the opposite food, one requires 60x versus the entire spicy food.[61] [Alternatively, one can measure 60x versus the blade of the knife, if it is of smaller size.[62]] If there is 60x in the mixture versus the sharp food, then the sharp food itself is also allowed to be eaten and one is not required to remove even a Netila’s worth from it.[63]

If one cut a bulk amount of Charif with a meat/dairy knife: See our corresponding Sefer “A Semicha Aid for learning the laws of Basar Bechalav” Chapter 96 Halacha 9!

Tasting the spicy food to see if it absorbed taste: See our corresponding Sefer “A Semicha Aid for learning the laws of Basar Bechalav” Chapter 96 Halacha 3!

Placed spicy food on meat or milk plate:[64] According to all opinions, spicy foods which were placed on a meat or dairy plate may be used with the opposite food, as only through the pressure of the cutting of a knife is actual taste absorbed into a food. [However, some Poskim[65] are initially stringent regarding a Charif food that contains moisture.]

 Summary and Final Ruling:

If one cut a sharp food with a meat knife, the food may not be eaten with dairy. If one cooked it with dairy one requires 60x a Netila worth [2 cm] of the food, or 60x the area of the blade of the knife. If one diced the spicy food to small pieces, one must measure 60x versus that entire food, or 60x versus the blade of the knife. If the food does not contain 60x, the food and vessels are forbidden.

Q&A on knife status

If a meat or dairy knife which has never been used for cutting hot meat/dairy, was used to cut Charif, what is the law?[66]

The above law that a knife penetrates taste into a Charif food only applies towards knives that have been used in the past for cutting hot meat or hot cheese. If, however, it was only used to cut cold meat/cheese, then it does not penetrate taste into the Charif, and the Charif requires a mere rinsing. This applies even if the knife was visibly dirty with fat.[67] Thus, if a meat knife which is only used for cold meat was used to cut an onion, it suffices to merely rinse the food and then eat it with milk.[68]

If the knife’s majority usage is with cold: It is disputed amongst Poskim[69] if by a non-Ben Yomo vessel we follow its majority usage regarding its Kashrus status.[70] According to the lenient approach, some Poskim[71] learn that even if a knife has been used in the past for hot meat/dairy, if its majority usage is with cold foods, then if it is not Ben Yomo, the knife is considered Pareve and cannot prohibit a Charif food, or deem it dairy/meaty. However, other Poskim[72] learn that even according to the lenient opinion, regarding a Davar Charif, we follow even minority usage, and hence if a knife was ever used for hot meat/milk/Issur, it penetrates taste into the Charif and prohibits it or deems it meaty/dairy.

One used a meat peeler for a Charif food and it was then cooked with dairy: Seemingly, the food remains permitted.[73]

 

What is the status of a Davar Charif that was cut with a knife that had Neitza[74] performed to it?[75]

Serrated knife: A non-Kosher knife that is serrated must be Koshered through Libun or sharpened, in order to be allowed to be used. Neitza alone does not suffice. [Accordingly, a Charif food which was cut with a serrated meat knife that had Neitza performed to it, is nonetheless considered meaty and may not be eaten with dairy.]

Non-serrated knife: If one performed Neitza to a non-serrated non-Kosher knife, then it may even initially be used to cut Kosher foods, including radishes and other Davar Charifs.[76] Nonetheless, it may only be used on occasion, such as if one has no other knife available, and not on a steady basis. [However, some Poskim[77] argue that Neitza does not Kosher even a non-serrated knife to cut with it a Davar Charif. Practically, the main ruling is like the lenient opinion, although a Baal Nefesh is to be stringent. Thus, if a Charif food was cut with a non-serrated meat knife that had Neitza performed to it, it is considered Pareve and may be eaten with dairy, although a Baal Nefesh is to avoid doing so.] 

Q&A on other vessels

If one grated a Charif food in a meat or dairy grater or food processor, what is its status?[78]

A grater or food processor blade which is used to grate meat or milk, or was washed with hot meat or milk, has a meat/dairy status. Thus, if one used it to grate a Charif food [i.e. onions] those onions receive the same status as the grater and may not be used for the opposite food.

 

If one used a meat/dairy/Issur fork or spoon to cut through a Davar Charif, what is its status?[79]

The food remains Pareve and requires a mere rinsing or scraping, as explained in Halacha 1. However, some Poskim[80] are initially stringent regarding a Charif food that contains moisture.

If one grated Charif using a Pareve grater into a meat/dairy plate, what is its status?[81]

If one grated horseradish and the like over a meat or dairy plate [i.e. the food fell onto the plate after being grated] then it remains Pareve.[82] However, some Poskim[83] are initially stringent regarding a Charif food that contains moisture.

If one cut Charif with a Pareve knife on a meat/milk cutting board, what is its status?

Some Poskim[84] rule that if a Charif food was cut with a Pareve knife on a meat or dairy cutting board, the Charif food remains Pareve. This applies even if the cutting board was Ben Yomo of hot meat/cheese use. Other Poskim[85], however, rule that if a Charif food was cut with a Pareve knife on a meat or dairy cutting board [that has been used with hot meat/dairy[86], even if not Ben Yomo] then it is as if the Charif food was cut with a meat/cheese knife and it may not be eaten with the opposite food.[87] [Thus, if one cut an onion with a Pareve knife on a dairy cutting board that has been used for hot dairy, the onion is forbidden to be eaten with meat. The knife, however, remains Pareve in such a case.[88] If the cutting board has never been used with hot meat or dairy, then according to all the Charif remains Pareve, and suffices with a mere rinse.[89] Furthermore, some Poskim[90] rule that we follow majority usage, and hence if the cutting board is not Ben Yomo of hot meat/dairy and is majority used for cold foods, one may certainly be lenient.]

What is the law if one cut Charif with a meat/dairy knife on a milk/meat cutting board?

If a Charif food was cut with a meat knife on a dairy cutting board [that has been used with hot meat/dairy[91]] or vice versa then this follows the same dispute as mentioned above. Some Poskim[92] rule that it is considered that the sharp food has absorbed both milk and meat and the Charif is thus forbidden to be eaten due to Basar Bechalav. Possibly, even the vessels need to be Koshered.[93] Other Poskim[94], however, rule that everything remains permitted and the Charif is the same status as the knife. [Practically, one may be lenient Bedieved.[95] This especially applies if one of the vessels was not Ben Yomo and its majority usage is with cold foods.[96] If the cutting board has never been used with hot meat or dairy, then according to all the Charif remains Kosher, and suffices with a mere rinse.[97]]

 

General Q&A

Is the concept of a Davar Charif of Biblical or Rabbinical status?[98]

Some Poskim[99] rule that the concept of a Davar Charif is Biblical, and hence when cooking a Davar Charif in a non-Ben Yomo meat pot [or cutting with a non-Ben Yomo knife] the food is Biblically considered to have meat taste.[100] Accordingly, in a case of doubt, the rule of Safek Derabanan Lekula would not apply to a Davar Charif. Other Poskim[101], however, rule the concept of a Davar Charif is Rabbinical, and hence when cooking a Davar Charif in a non-Ben Yomo meat pot [or cutting with a Ben Yomo knife] the food is only Rabbinically considered to have meat taste. Accordingly, in a case of doubt, the rule of Safek Derabanan Lekula would apply. Other Poskim[102] leave this matter in question. 

What is the law if one cut onions with a meat knife and cooked them in a dairy pot?

Everything [onion and pot] is forbidden. If one cooked the onions together with other foods in the dairy pot, then if that food contains 60x the onion, everything is permitted. Furthermore, even if it does not contain 60x, if the onion is a minority ingredient everything is permitted, as the general food is not considered sharp.[103]

What is the law if one baked Charif [i.e. onions] that was cut with a dairy knife in a meat oven?

Initially, one may not bake Charif foods that were cut with a dairy knife in a meat oven. If one already did so, then seemingly this follows the same law as one who cooked the Charif in a meat pot, and hence the food is forbidden. The oven is to be Koshered as explained in Chapter 7 Halacha 2 under the section of “Ovens.”

If one cut a Charif with a meat knife and then cut the same Charif with a dairy knife, what is the status of the Charif and dairy knife?

The status of the onion: If the onion that was cut with a meat knife was then cut with a dairy knife [that have been used in the past to cut hot meat/dairy] then the onion is forbidden, as it has absorbed from both meat and dairy. This applies even if both knives were clean and not Ben Yomo.[104] [However, if the meat or dairy knife have never been used to cut hot meat/cheese, and have not been washed with hot meat or cheese, then the onion remains Kosher, and requires a mere rinsing.[105]]

The status of the dairy knife: If the meat knife has been used in the past for cutting hot meat, or being washed with hot meat, then the following is the law regarding the dairy knife: Some Poskim[106] rule the dairy knife is forbidden and must be Koshered.[107] Other Poskim[108], however, rule the knife remains Kosher.[109] [Seemingly, one may be lenient if the original knife was not Ben Yomo, or if the Charif was cut on its other side, beyond the Netila area of the original cut, to permit the knife without Koshering.[110] Nonetheless, it is best to Kosher it being that doing so is so easily attainable. One can simply place the knife over a flame and have it Koshered through Libun Kal.]

May one place onions that were cut with a dairy knife in a salad which contains onions cut with a meat knife?[111]

No.

If one cut an onion using a Pareve knife over a steaming chicken soup what is the law of the onion?[112]

The onion is considered meaty.

What is the status of a Charif food if one is unsure as to what knife he used to cut it?

Seemingly one must be stringent and suspect that perhaps it was cut with a meat or dairy knife and hence not eat it with neither meat nor dairy.[113] If one went ahead and already cooked the food with meat or dairy, then one would need 60x versus a Netila worth of the food, or against the blade.

May one cook onions that are cut with a meat knife together with fish?

Some Poskim[114] rule that Lechatchilah one is to be stringent not to cook onions that have been cut with a meat knife together with fish.[115] However, the widespread custom of the world is to be lenient regarding this.[116]

 

4. A meat/dairy knife that was used to cut a Lefes:[117]

Meat knife cut a Lefes and then cut a non-Charif:[118] If a meat knife was used to cut a Lefes and one then used it to cut a moist Pareve food, then the food does not require grating [i.e. Greida] and suffices with a mere rinse [as a stringency[119]] in order to be used for the opposite food.[120]

Meat knife cut a Lefes and then cut a Charif:[121] Furthermore, if a meat knife was used to cut a Lefes and one then used it to cut a sharp food, the sharp food remains Pareve and requires a mere rinse [as a stringency[122]] in order to be used for the opposite food.[123] [However, initially, some Poskim[124] rule it is forbidden to use a meat knife which was used to cut a Lefes, to cut a sharp food which one plans to eat with milk. Other Poskim[125], however, are lenient and rule that it is even initially permitted to cut the sharp food with a knife used to cut a Lefes. Certainly, however, it is forbidden to initially cut the Lefes in order to then cut the sharp food with the meat knife with intent to eat it with dairy.[126]]

Meat knife cut a Lefes and then cut two Charifs:[127] Only the first sharp food that is cut after the cutting of a Lefes remains Pareve, however, any subsequent Charif food cut after the first Charif food becomes meaty.[128] Thus, sharp foods that are cut with a meat knife will only remain Pareve if prior to cutting each individual food the meat knife cut a Lefes.

Meat knife cut other foods and then cut a Charif:[129] If one used a meat knife to cut foods other than a Lefes [i.e. bread, vegetables, fruits] prior to cutting the sharp food, the knife remains meaty and the sharp food which was subsequently cut become meaty.

What is the definition of a Lefes?

In modern day Hebrew a turnip is called a Lefes.[130] Admur[131] writes that there are a number of different foods that are referred to as a Lefes, such as “Rivin” and Mehrin”. The Poskim[132] write that also “Merek” and any white root that is raw is considered a Lefes. Likewise, any sweet food is called a Lefes.[133] If any of these foods were cut with a meat or dairy knife, then the subsequent Pareve food cut [even if Charif] requires a mere rinse.

 

5. List of foods that are defined as sharp:

  1. Alcohol[134]
  2. Asafetida [Kurt Shel Chalatis][135]
  3. Beet/Silka[136]
  4. Cooked food which contains sharp ingredients:[137] A food mixture which contains Charif ingredients is viewed in accordance to the majority ingredient of the mixture to determine its Charif status. If the majority of the food is not made up of sharp ingredients, then it is not considered sharp. [Regarding the status of a Charif after it has been cooked-See Q&A!]
  5. Dry Charif foods: Some Poskim[138] rule that Charif foods that are dried lose their Charif status. Other Poskim[139] rule that they remain Charif, and so is the final ruling.
  6. Garlic[140]
  7. Ginger:[141] Ginger is considered a Charif food. [This applies even if the ginger is dry.[142] However, some Poskim[143] rule that one may be lenient if the ginger was cut with a non-Ben Yomo Treif knife. Practically, it is forbidden even in such a case.[144]]
  8. Unripe Grapes: Some Poskim[145] rule that it is questionable as to whether unripe sour grapes are Charif. [If, however, they are very sour, then they are deemed as Charif.[146]] Other Poskim[147], however, rules that unripe grapes are considered Charif.
  9. Horseradish[148]
  10. Jalapeño peppers.[149]
  11. Kerishin [Leek][150]
  12. Lemon[151] and lemon juice and Esrogim.[152] [However, some Poskim[153] rule Esrogim are not Charif.]
  13. Raw Olives[154]
  14. Onion[155] [However, small onions which are not yet ripe and are not very sharp one may be lenient to permit if the knife was not Ben Yomo.[156]]
  15. Pickled fruits:[157] Pickled fruits [such as pickled apples[158]] are considered Charif. [However, some Poskim[159] rule that pickled apples are not considered Charif. Some Poskim[160] conclude that one may be lenient in a case of loss to permit pickled apples that were cut with an Issur knife. Other Poskim[161], however, conclude it is forbidden even in a case of great loss.]
  16. Pickles and olives:[162] If the pickles and olives have been pickled to the point that they can only be eaten with bread, then they are considered a sharp food.[163] If they are not this sharp then although Lechatchilah one is to consider them sharp, Bedieved if it was cut with a non-Ben Yomo knife one may be lenient to consider them a non-sharp food.
  17. Radish[164]
  18. Salt[165]
  19. Salted fish:[166] Salted fish [i.e. herring[167]] is considered a sharp food. [This, however, only refers to heavily salted fish to the point of inedibility.[168] If, however, it is only slightly salted, then it is not considered sharp.[169] Thus, if it was cut with a meat knife it needs a mere grating to be permitted with the opposite food.[170] This, however, only applies if a clean Issur knife was used, or if one does not know for certain that it was dirty. If, however, one knows for certain that the knife was dirty with non-Kosher residue, then even a slightly slated fish becomes completely forbidden.[171] The above only applies if the fish was cut after the salting. If, however, it was cut prior to the salting then everything remains permitted with a mere scrubbing and washing.[172]]
  20. Spices made from a sharp food:[173] All spices made from a sharp food are considered sharp. When added to a food, if the spicy taste is felt within the dish it is considered spicy even if it is the minority of the food.
  21. Stalk of a sharp food: The tail of a radish is not sharp.[174] Similarly the tail of an onion and garlic is not sharp.[175]
  22. Vinegar[176]

Q&A

What is the status of a cooked Davar Charif:

Some Poskim[177] rule that all sharp foods [such as onions[178] or garlic] which are cooked, lose their Charif status. Thus, if after cooking onions and garlic in a Pareve pot one cut them with a meat knife, one may still eat the onions with milk [so long as he scrapes off the cut area]. However, other Poskim[179] rule that many sharp foods retain their Charif status even after they are cooked, as can be readily tasted, and hence in the above example, it is forbidden to eat the onions with dairy. [Practically, every sharp food is to be individually judged as to whether its sharpness has dissipated after the cooking.[180] Thus, Jalapeño peppers are considered sharp even after they are cooked, while onions and beets are not considered sharp after they are cooked.[181] In all cases, if the sharp food was cooked in a dairy or meat pot, they have already attained a  dairy or meat status due to the cooking, and do not lose that status even after they are fully cooked.]

What is the law if one placed olives which were cut with a meat knife on his Pizza?[182]

If the olives were cut with a knife which was not Ben Yomo one may be lenient and eat the Pizza, although the olives are to be removed.

What is the law of onion powder and garlic powder?

Onion and garlic powder fall under the dispute of dry Charif foods regarding whether they are considered sharp. Practically, the final ruling follows that they are considered sharp.

If vegetable soup that contains onions was cooked in a meat pot, does the soup become meaty?

If the onion is minority of the soup, then the soup remains Pareve, as explained above regarding cooked foods that contain Charif ingredients. However, if the onions were first sautéed [with or without other vegetables], then the soup is meaty.

6. Charif foods used in grinders:

A. Sharp foods ground in a meat grinder:[183]

If spices [or salt or any other sharp food[184]] was ground in a meat grinder [that has been used to grind hot meat, or meat with spices[185]], then if the grinder was dirty with meat residue, or was Ben Yomo, then the spices are forbidden to be eaten with milk. If the grinder was clean and not Ben Yomo, then some Poskim[186] rule the spices remain Pareve. Other Poskim[187] rule that even if the grinder was not Ben Yomo and is clean, the spices are meaty and are forbidden to be used with milk products. Practically, the final ruling follows the latter opinion and so is the custom.[188] [Thus if they were used with dairy products, the food requires 60x versus the spices.[189] If the grinder was never used to grind hot meat, or meat with spices, then if the grinder was clean, the spices remain Pareve.[190]]

 

B. Status of a grinder used with meat or dairy together with Charif:[191]

If a Pareve grinder was used to grind a Charif food [i.e. garlic, onions, jalapeno] together with meat, or milk, then the grinder becomes meaty/dairy. [Thus, if one later ground species in it, those spices are considered meaty/dairy and if one entered them into the opposite food, one requires 60x versus the spices.[192]]

 

C. Pareve spice grinder which became meaty or dairy:

A Pareve spice grinder which is used to grind spices which are subsequently used for meat and dairy foods, must remain Pareve. If the grinder became dairy or meaty, such as if one ground in it garlic with meat gravy, or with milk, then some Poskim[193] rule that the grinder is forbidden to be used for spice grinding unless it is Koshered.[194] Furthermore, if one transgressed and used the grinder to grind spices, the spices are forbidden to be eaten even with Pareve. Other Poskim[195], however, rule that the grinder now becomes meaty/dairy and may be used to grind spices for eating with that type of food, although not the opposite food.[196]

 Q&A

What is the law if one cut garlic with a meat knife and then crushed it in a grinder?[197]

Some Poskim[198] rule the grinder becomes meaty, and thus from now on all sharp foods which are ground in it may not be used for dairy products.[199] Other Poskim[200], however, rule the grinder remains Pareve.[201]

What is the law if one cut onions with a meat knife and then crushed it in a grinder/blender and then later cut garlic with a milk knife and crushed it in this same grinder/blender? What is the law of the garlic and what is the law of the grinder/blender?

This matter is subject to the same debate as in the previous Q&A. Some Poskim[202] rule the garlic and grinder is forbidden.[203] Other Poskim[204], however, rule the grinder and garlic remains Kosher.[205]

Does a blender become meaty or dairy if it was never used with hot meat or dairy?

A blender does not become meaty or dairy unless it was used [or washed] with hot Keli Rishon meat or milk or with spicy meat or dairy.

___________________________________

[1] Michaber 96:5; Admur 447:58 regarding Chametz knife “One is to wash it well in the area it was cut, although see Y.D. 96 that by Kishuin one is to grate off the cut are.”

[2] Beis Yosef 96 in name of Rambam; Levush 96; Minchas Yaakov 61:30; Rif; Mordechai; Hagahos Shaareiy Dura; Beis David Y.D. p. 18; Kaf Hachaim 96:58

[3] Aruch Hashulchan 96:21; Kaf Hachaim 96:58

[4] Chochmas Adam 49:9; See Shach 96:21; Taz 96:14; Kaf Hachaim 96:58

[5] Taz 89:7 [that if clean may use]; Shach 96:6 [regarding if clean and not Ben Yomo]; Beis David Y.D. p. 18; Yad Yehuda Aruch 96:4 and 34; Katzar 96:35; Peri Megadim 96 A”A 21; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:40; Kaf Hachaim 96:59

[6] Beis Yosef 96 in name of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

[7] The reason washing does not suffice: The reason it does not suffice to simply wash the food, and one must grate off some of its substance is because a moist food upon being washed becomes even stickier and hence the residue does not come off unless it is grated. [Shach 96:21; Taz 96:14; Beis Yosef 96 in name of Ran 41a; Peri Chadash 96:19; Lechem Hapanim 96:31; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:25; Chavas Daas 96:16; Beis Yitzchak 96:43; Aruch Hashulchan 96:21; Kaf Hachaim 96:21 ]

How much is Greida? Greida is less than the amount of a peels worth. A peel must be thick enough to remain a single sliver upon removal, while grating is simply a removal of the area of contact no matter the size. [Shach 96:21; Taz 96:14]

[8] Beis David Y.D. p. 18; Yad Yehuda Aruch 96:4 and 34; Katzar 96:35; Peri Megadim 96 A”A 21; Darkei Teshuvah 96:4; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:40; Kaf Hachaim 96:59; So also rule regarding if a Charif was cut: Shach 96:3; Minchas Yaakov 58:17; 61:13; Peri Toar 96:3; P”M 96 S.D. 3; Chavas Daas 96:1; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:3; Kaf Hachaim 96:3; See Peri Chadash 96:2

[9] See Michaber 121:7 who differentiates between serrated and non-serrated knives; See next footnote and Q&A!

[10] Darkei Teshuvah 96:4, in name of  Perach Mateh Aron; See Hakashrus 10:87 and footnote 222 who writes that today we consider a knife to be clean when washed with soap, and thus if the knife is clean; See Q&A! Vetzaruch Iyun, as I checked various knives at home that were washed and cleaned with soap and after analyzation I found many to still contain particles of residue. This certainly applies to serrated knives, and hence seemingly one should not rely on this by a serrated knife, unless it was inspected. 

[11] Beis Yosef 96 in explanation of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

The reason: As the fat of cold meat does not get so stuck to the blade. [Poskim ibid]

[12] Beis Yosef 96 in name of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

[13] Implication of Taz 89:6 and 89:7 [no differentiation is made regarding Ben Yomo or not]; Implication of Shach 96:21 that the entire problem is the fat on the knife, and so learns Peri Megadim 96 S.D. 21 that if it is clean, according to the Shach, it is completely permitted; See Shach 96:23 that many Rishonim omit the need to wash the food if the knife was first used to cut a Lefes, and the same would apply if it was cleaned; Implication of Beis Yosef 89 in name of Orchos Chaim in name of Rabbeinu Shimshon; Halacha Pesuka 89; Chochmas Adam 40:14; Aruch Hashulchan 89:16; See Hakashrus 10:87 that today we consider a knife to be clean when washed with soap, and thus if the knife is clean, a Pareve food which was cut with that knife may be eaten with the opposite food even if the knife did not have Neitza done. One is not even required to wash the Pareve food.

[14] Beis David Y.D. p. 18; Yad Yehuda Aruch 96:4 and 34; Katzar 96:35; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:40; Kaf Hachaim 96:59; See Michaber 96:5 regarding one who cut a Lefes and then cut a food that the food needs washing and seemingly the same would apply here, as the effect of the Lefes is the same as the effect of the cleaning [see also beis Yosef 96 in end]

The reason rinsing is required: This is a mere stringency,  and is not required from the letter of the law. [Shach 96:23]

[15] Shach 96:23 regarding Lefes case

[16] Implication of Shach 96:6 that the food is only permitted if the knife was clean and not Ben Yomo; Peri Megadim 96 A”A 21 that even if clean, if the knife is Ben Yomo, the food still needs Greida [one must grate the area] as is the second Pirush of Rashi

Contradiction in Shach between 96:6 and 96:21: The Shach 96:21 seems to learn [as learns the Peri Megadim 96 S.D. 21 on Shach-and thus questions Shach] that even if the knife is Ben Yomo, if it is clean it is all permitted. However, from Shach 96:6 it is implied that only if the knife is clean and not Ben Yomo is it permitted without washing or removing Greida. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[17] This refers to a knife that has been used to cut hot meat/cheese. [Beis Yosef 96 in name of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48]

[18] Shach 96:6; P”M ibid

Contradiction in Shach between 96:6 and 89:22: Vetzaruch Iyun from Shach 89:22 who writes that the knife must have Neitza done to it for it to be used with the opposite food even without washing it. However, in truth, there is no contradiction at all as the entire law here is going on Bedieved if one may use a clean meat knife to cut Pareve that that one intends to use for dairy and on this the Shach rules that it may be used. However, Lechatchilah, the Shach holds that one may never cut the Pareve food with a meat knife with intent to eat with dairy even if the knife was clean. [See Beis David Y.D. 35; Shulchan Gavoa 1; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:45; Kaf Hachaim 89:68]

[19] Kaf Hachaim ibid in understanding of P”M ibid

[20] See Shach 96:23 that the rinsing is a mere Chumra

[21] Taz 89:6 “However, regarding cutting bread, only a cleansing of the knife is required” and 89:7 “According to the custom, one may not use the knife to cut cheese even if Neitza is performed, however in my opinion, he may use it to cut bread if it is cleaned”; [no differentiation is made regarding Ben Yomo or not]; Implication of Beis Yosef 89 in name of Orchos Chaim in name of Rabbeinu Shimshon; Halacha Pesuka 89; Chochmas Adam 40:14; Aruch Hashulchan 89:16

Serrated knife: See Michaber 121:7 who differentiates between serrated and non-serrated knives and that a non-serrated knife requires sharpening or Libun to be allowed to be used with cold foods; Vetzaruch Iyun on Poskim ibid who make no mention of any differentiation.

[22] Shach 89:22; Nekudas Hakesef ibid “Even to cut bread to eat with cheese requires Neitza”; Toras Chatas 76:6; P”M 89 S.D. 22; Kneses Hagedola 89:16; Toras Yekusiel; Beis Yitzchak 89:7

[23] P”M 89 M.Z. 7; Kaf Hachaim 89:72 if can’t do Neitza; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 46:12 rules one may not initially use even a clean knife to cut bread [i.e. Shach], although in a time of need one may be lenient to do so [i.e. Taz]; Hakashrus 10:18 writes that in a time of need one may clean the knife to use it to cut bread.

[24] Kol Bo in name of Raavad; Toras Chatas 61:11; Minchas Yaakov 61:36; Beis David Y.D. p. 18; P”M 96 M.Z. 14; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:41; Kaf Hachaim 96:60

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it suffices to simply wash the bread. [Perisha 96:8]

[25] Darkei Teshuvah 96:4

[26] Perach Mateh Aron, brought in Darkei Teshuvah ibid; Hakashrus 10 footnote 222; Vetzaruch Iyun, as I checked various knives at home that were washed and cleaned with soap and after analyzation I found many to still contain particles of residue. This certainly applies to serrated knives, and hence seemingly one should not rely on this by a serrated knife, unless it was inspected. 

[27] See Michaber 121:7 who differentiates between serrated and non-serrated knives; Vetzaruch Iyun on Poskim ibid who make no mention of any differentiation.

[28] So seems Pashut that the entire stringency of some Poskim to require rinsing by a clean knife is because of Duchka Desakina, which is not applicable to other utensils, and hence even a rinsing is not required.

[29] The following Poskim rule that if Pareve was cut with a clean meat knife, and one desires to eat the Pareve with dairy, rinsing is required: Beis David Y.D. p. 18; Yad Yehuda Aruch 96:4 and 34; Katzar 96:35; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:40; Kaf Hachaim 96:59; Likewise, the following Poskim rule that if one cut meat using a clean Cheilev knife, nevertheless, washing is required: Chavas Daas 91:2; Erech Hashulchan 91:1; Pischeiy Teshuvah 91:1; Beis Yitzchak ibid; Zivcheiy Tzedek 91:3; Kaf Hachaim 91:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim imply that even rinsing is not required, being that the knife was clean. [Implication of Taz 89:6 and 89:7; Hakashrus 10:87]

[30] Beis David Y.D. 35; Shulchan Gavoa 1; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:45; Kaf Hachaim 89:68; See Shach 96:6 and 22; See Hakashrus 10:87 that today we consider a knife to be clean when washed with soap, and thus if the knife is clean, a Pareve food which was cut with that knife may be eaten with the opposite food even if knife did not have Neitza done. One is not required to even wash the Pareve food.

[31] See Rama 94:7 regarding meat of a Keli Sheiyni that was cut with a dairy knife that it requires a slight Kelipa to be removed due to the fat that is on the knife. [Vetzaruch Iyun on Rama who agrees to the ruling in 96:5 that if a Pareve food was cut with a dirty meat knife it at most only needs Greida, and not a Kelipa.]; However, the Poskim in next footnote write that Kdei Netila is to be removed. On the other hand, other Poskim rule that if one cut meat using a dirty Cheilev knife, only washing and rubbing is required, and not even Greida or Kelipa. [Chavas Daas 91:2; Erech Hashulchan 91:1; Pischeiy Vetzaruch Teshuvah 91:1; Beis Yitzchak ibid; Zivcheiy Tzedek 91:3; Kaf Hachaim 91:3; See 91:1 where we rule that when cheese and meet contact each other they require a mere washing and the above Poskim explain that when there is Duchka Desakina, rubbing is also required.] Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol on the above two opinions as the Rama rules in 94:7 that even if the meat was hot, but a Keli Sheiyni, only a Kelipa’s worth needs to be removed.! [Greida is less than a Kelipa, while Netila is more than a Kelipa. See Shach 96:21; Kaf Hachaim 91:17] Practically, as evident from all the above sources there is no need to remove a Kdei Netila, and rather at the very most a Kelipa is to be removed. 

[32] Shulchan Gavoa 1; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:45; Kaf Hachaim 89:69

[33] Shach 94:31; Issur Viheter 58:4; Kreisi 94:23; Halacha Pesuka 94:7; Erech Hashulchan 94:15; Chochmas Adam 47:4; Beis Yitzchak 3:18; Zivcheiy Tzedek 94:53; Kaf Hachaim 94:76; Hakashrus 10:88

[34] See Shulchan Gavoa 1; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89:45; Kaf Hachaim 89:69 “One cleans the knife and returns it to its designated use”

[35] Implication of Shach and Poskim ibid; Erech Hashulchan ibid; Zivcheiy Tzedek 94:53; Kaf Hachaim 94:76; However, See Rama 94:7 regarding meat of a Keli Sheiyni that was cut with a milk knife that the knife requires Neitza, however, seemingly this is because the meat was hot, while if cold the Poskim ibid explain that a mere rinse suffices; See Rashal Kol Habasar 8, brought in Shach 89:22 that Neitza is always required

[36] Hakashrus 10:67

[37] If however the hot Pareve food was a Keli Sheiyni then its status is disputed in Poskim, as explained in chapter 94 Halacha 9B!

[38] See P”M 96 M.Z. 3

[39] See Michaber 94:7; Chapter 94 Halacha 8

[40] Damesek Eliezer p. 372; Kneses Hagedola 96:5, brought in P”M ibid

[41] See P”M ibid who after negating the ruling of the Kneses Hagedola ibid concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun regarding Bedieved

[42] Kaf Hachaim 96:15 is lenient if knife was clean and not Ben Yomo.

[43] Michaber and Rama 96:1-2

[44] Avoda Zara 39a

[45] Asafetida (Ferula assafoetida), [also known as devil’s dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, giant fennel, Jowani badian, hing and ting] is the dried latex (gum oleoresin) exuded from the living underground rhizome or tap root of several species of Ferula, which is a perennial herb (1 to 1.5 m high). The species is native to the mountains of Afghanistan, and is mainly cultivated in nearby India. Asafetida has a pungent, unpleasant smell when raw, but in cooked dishes, it delivers a smooth flavor, reminiscent of leek. This spice is used as a digestive aid, in food as a condiment, and in pickles. It typically works as a flavor enhancer and, used along with turmeric, is a standard component of Indian cuisine, particularly in lentil curries, such as dal, as well as in numerous vegetable dishes. It is especially widely used in Gujarati cuisine, which is mainly vegetarian, and is often used to harmonize sweet, sour, salty and spicy components in food. In its pure form, its odor is so strong the aroma will contaminate other spices stored nearby if it is not stored in an airtight container: many commercial preparations of asafetida utilize the resin ground up and mixed with a larger volume of wheat flour. The mixture is sold in sealed plastic containers with a small hole at the top, allowing the diluted spice to be dusted lightly over the food being cooked. However, its odor and flavor become much milder and more pleasant upon heating in oil or ghee, acquiring a taste and aroma reminiscent of sautéed onion and garlic.

[46] Chulin 58b that it has the ability to deem a cow a Treifa if it ate it.

[47] See Tur 96:1 for opinions

[48] Rashba Toras Habayis Hearuch 4:1, brought in Tur ibid, that it is completely forbidden as by a Kurt Shel Chalatis; Sefer Hateruma 60, brought in Tur 96:1, that even non-Ben Yomo is forbidden just like a Kurt Shel Chalatis

[49] Maharam Teshuvos Upesakim 22, brought in Tur 96:2 and Rosh Avoda Zara 38

[50] Michaber and Rama 96:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if a Davar Charif was used with a clean Ben Yomo knife it remains Pareve due to the rule of Nat Bar Nat, as if we rule that a Pareve food which was cooked in a Ben Yomo pot remains Pareve, certainly if it was merely cut with a knife. [Peri Chadash 96:2] The Poskim, however, all negate this approach and rule as Michaber. [Shach 96:2; Kreisi 96:1 [however is lenient in a case of another doubt]; Peri Toar 96:1; P”M 96 S.D.2 “Chalila to swerve from the words of the Shulchan Aruch”; Chavas Daas 96:1; Chochmas Adam 49:1; Beis Yitzchak 96:2; Aruch Hashulchan 96:5; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:1; Kaf Hachaim 96:1]

[51] Michaber 96:2; Admur 447:40

[52] Beis Yosef 96 in name of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48; See Q&A!

[53] Rama 96:1 in final ruling that so is the Lechatchilah custom; Peri Toar 96; Rashba Toras Habayis Hearuch 4:1, brought in Tur ibid; Ran Chulin 41a

The reason: The reason behind this opinion is because they hold that all spicy foods have the same status as a Kurt Shel Chalatis for all matters and hence they absorb the taste of the knife throughout their entire mass. [Taz 96:7; Lechem Hapanim 96:11; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:9; Kaf Hachaim 96:25]

Other opinions who hold only Netila is required: Some Poskim rule that one is only required to remove a Netila’s worth from the Charif and the remainder is Pareve. [Michaber ibid; Raavad Avoda Zara 76a, brought in Rashba ibid; Semag Lavin 140; Reah in Bedek Habayis 4:1, brought in Ran Chulin 41a; See Beis Yosef 96:1]

The Sephardic custom: The Sephardim follow the ruling of Michaber that a Davar Charif only absorbs a Netila worth even when used with a dirty Ben Yomo knife. [Erech Hashulchan 96:2 that so rule majority of Poskim; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:4 and 21; Kaf Hachaim 96:4 and 27] However, the Peri Toar rules to be stringent like the Rama to forbid the entire Charif.

[54] The reason even a clean knife transfers taste: As the sharpness of the food and the pressure of the knife together causes the Ben Yomo taste that is absorbed within the knife to get extracted and absorbed within the food to the point of a thumbs width. This absorption is of such good quality that it is considered as if it became directly absorbed from the actual meat and is hence not defined as Nat Bar Nat. [Shach 96:2; Kreisi 96:1; Peri Toar 96:1; P”M 96 S.D.2; Chavas Daas 96:1; Chochmas Adam 49:1; Beis Yitzchak 96:2; Aruch Hashulchan 96:5; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:1; Kaf Hachaim 96:1] Now, if the knife is not Ben Yomo but is dirty with fat, then the fat becomes absorbed into the food due to its sharpness and pressure of the knife. [Taz 96:1]

[55] 2nd opinion in Michaber 96:1 regarding forbidding Netila [omitted from 96:3, 103:6, 114:8]; Sefer Hateruma 60, brought in Tur 96:1; Shach 96:6 and 19 “So is the custom, and so rule all the Achronim”; Admur 447:40 and 55 and 59; Daas Torah 96

The reason: The reason behind this opinion is because they hold that all spicy foods have the same status as a Kurt Shel Chalatis and hence have the ability to extract and enhance the spoiled non-Ben Yomo taste absorbed within a knife. This absorption of such good quality that it is considered as if it became directly absorbed from the actual meat and is hence not defined as Nat Bar Nat. The reason that the quality of taste absorbed is so great is because a) knives commonly have fat residue on them and b) The sharpness of the Charif and pressure of the knife cause a greater quality of taste to be absorbed. [Taz 96:3; Shach 96:6; Admur 447:59; Kaf Hachaim 96:9]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if the knife was not Ben Yomo, and is clean, then one may use the spicy food for the opposite food.  [Stam opinion in Michaber 96:1; 3; 103:6; 114:8; Maharam Teshuvos Upesakim 22, brought in Tur 96:2 and Rosh Avoda Zara 38] The reason behind this opinion is because they hold that only a Kurt Shel Chalatis is a true Charif, as it can puncture the intestines of a cow which eats it, and hence even when cut with a clean and non-Ben Yomo knife, it has ability to extract and enhance the taste. However, other sharp foods, are not sharp enough to extract and enhance non-Ben Yomo taste. [Taz 96:1]

Custom of Sephardim: The Michaber ibid does not arbitrate between the two opinions that he records. According to the Kelalim of ruling of the Shulchan Aruch, whenever the Michaber writes like one opinion and then brings a second stringent opinion, his intent is to rule that one is initially to be stringent like the second opinion, although one may be lenient in a case of great loss. Hence, if the Charif was cut with a clean non-Ben Yomo knife, a Netila worth must be removed and 60x is required, although in a time of great need or loss one may permit the food even if it does not contain 60x. The reason the Michaber omitted this stringency from other areas [see 103:6; 114:8] is because he relied on the fact that he already recorded their opinion here. [Kaf Hachaim 96:10, 11, 50; See Shach 96:19; Taz 96:10] However, other Poskim learn that the Michaber in truth is lenient. [P”M 10 S.D. “Gimmel Middos Besakin”]

[56] Michaber 96:1; Rama ibid that Bedieved we are lenient like Michaber; Peri Toar 96; Raavad Avoda Zara 76a, brought in Rashba ibid; Semag Lavin 140; Reah in Bedek Habayis 4:1, brought in Ran Chulin 41a; See Beis Yosef 96:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one requires 60x versus the entire Charif food. [Opinion in Rama ibid; Rashba Toras Habayis Hearuch 4:1, brought in Tur ibid; Ran Chulin 41a]

[57] See Michaber 96:1 and 105:4; Reah in Mishmeres Habayis, brought in Hakashrus 10 footnote 268; Kaf Hachaim 96:5; 46:54; 53:19

[58] Bedieved, does one measure against the blade or the food? If one cut a sharp food with a meat knife and cooked it together with milk, one needs to measure 60x in the dairy food versus the Netila area of the food, or versus the knife which he used to cut with. One can choose to measure against whichever amount is less; if the area of the blade is less than the Netila area, he may measure versus the blade; if the Netila area of the food is less than the blade one may measure versus the Netila. [Michaber 96:1; This applies even according to the Rama as the food has absorbed Heter and not become Chanan.; Taz 96:6; Shach 96:9; Lechem Hapanim 96:9; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:7; Chavas Daas 96:5 Biurim 1; P”M 96 M.Z. 6; Kaf Hachaim 96:21] If one is unsure how much of the blade was used to cut with, one is to measure 60x against the entire blade. [Shach 96:8 Taz 96:4; Rashal Gid Hanashe 42; Kol Habasar 62; Kneses Hagedola 96:33; Minchas Yaakov 61:7; Lechem Hapanim 96:7; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:5; Chavas Daas 96:4; Chochmas Adam 49:2; Kaf Hachaim 96:17] In all cases that one is aware of the amount of hot meat that the knife was used for cutting since its purchase, then one may measure versus the meat if it is a smaller amount than the blade or food. [Bach 96; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:19; Kaf Hachaim 96:124]

[59] Kaf Hachaim 96:4 and 10 and 27 as brought in previous footnotes

[60] Shach 96:9; Kneses Hagedola 96:34; Peri Chadash 96:8; Kreisi 96:6; Lechem Hapanim 96:10; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:8; Chochmas Adam 49:3; Kaf Hachaim 96:22

[61] Rama ibid

[62] Shach 96:9; Kneses Hagedola 96:34; Peri Chadash 96:8; Kreisi 96:6; Lechem Hapanim 96:10; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:8; Chochmas Adam 49:3; Kaf Hachaim 96:22

[63] Taz 96:5; Shach 94:23; Maharam Melublin 28; Admur 447:60; M”A 447:38; Kneses Hagedola 96:2; Peri Chadash 94:21; Minchas Yaakov 61:6; Beis David Y.D. p. 16; Lechem Hapanim 96:7; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:5; Chavas Daas 96:5 Biurim 1; Erech Hashulchan 96:5;Kaf Hachaim 94:60; 96:19

The reason: As the food only absorbed Heter, and this Heter has become nullified in 60x. [Poskim ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim  rule that the food is forbidden even if there is 60x against it or its absorbed meat, as we suspect that the food retains some taste of meat, and thus becomes Neveila upon it absorbing the milk. [Pleisi 94:8; Kreisi 94:16; P”M 94 S.D. 23]

[64] Taz 96:3 Kneses Hagedola 96:4; Lechem Hapanim 96:6; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:4; P”M 96 M.Z. 3 [although writes that possibly Lechatchilah one is not to use it with the opposite food]; Halacha Pesuka 96:1; Kaf Hachaim 96:6

[65] P”M ibid; See Shach 91:3 and 121:10; P”M 91 S.D. 3

[66] Beis Yosef 96 in explanation of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

[67] The reason: As the fat of cold meat does not get so stuck to the blade. [Poskim ibid]

[68] If the knives were washed in hot water with meat: Vetzaruch Iyun regarding if the wives are washed with meat dishes in hot Yad Soledes water, as perhaps a) The absorption is only problematic when it comes as a result of Duchka Desakina, when cutting hot meat, and b) perhaps the soap deems everything Pagum.

[69] See Admur 451:26-31

[70] Background: Some Poskim rule that we follow the main usage of a vessel and hence if the majority usage is only for cold Issur or Keli Sheiyni Issur, then all one needs to do is to wash it spotlessly clean, and it may then be used for even hot foods. [1st opinion in Admur 451:26; Rif; Rambam] The reason for this is because in any event a non-Ben Yomo item is only Rabbinically forbidden, and hence the Sages decided to be lenient to follow the majority usage by non-Ben Yomo vessels. [Admur 451:31] However, other Poskim rule that one must do Hagala to all vessels that were used even one time with hot Chametz, as even after a single usage the taste absorbs into the pot, and the Sages forbade even non-Ben Yomo vessels. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Machzor Vitri; Tosfos; Ravaya; Hagahos Maimanis] Practically, we are initially stringent to require Koshering for any food used even one time for hot Issur.  However, Bedieved, if the vessel was already used for hot Pesach foods, then we are lenient to follow the majority usage of the vessel , if the vessel is no longer Ben Yomo. [Admur ibid]

[71] Beis Meir 96:3; Daas Torah 96 p. 258 and 260 “So I heard from a Sage, and so is correct and see Beis Meir who hinted to this”; This, however, would only apply according to those Poskim who rule that a Davar Charif is Rabbinical, as if it is Biblical, the reason for leniency to follow Rov Tashmisho does not apply, and the non-Ben Yomo taste is considered Beiyn Biblically. Nonetheless, one can apply here a Sfek Sfeika, as perhaps indeed Charif is Rabbinical, and even if Biblical, many Poskim rule non-Ben Yomo does not prohibit Charif. So can also be proven from the fact that the Poskim who are lenient to follow Rov Tashmisho never qualified their ruling to only non-Charif food use. [Daas Torah ibid]

[72] Beis Shlomo O.C. 55, brought in Daas Torah 96 p. 260 and that so would apply according to all Poskim who hold Charif is Biblical, as explained in the previous footnote.

[73] The reason: As people do not usually peel hot meat/dairy with a peeler, and even if they did some Poskim allow to follow Rov Tashmisho, hence in a case that one does not recall using the peeler for peeling hot meat/dairy one may certainly be lenient, especially after 24 hours.

[74] Neitza is a form of cold Koshering usable for knives which entails stabbing the knife ten times into hard ground, in ten different areas. [Michaber Y.D. 121:7]

[75] Michaber 121:7; Avoda Zara 76b

[76] Michaber ibid; Avoda Zara 76b; Reah Bedek Habayis 4:1; Rashba Toras Habayis 4:4; Shach 121:19; Levush 121:7; Peri Chadash 10:7; Biur Hagr”a 122:22; Chochmas Adam 47:8; See in length gloss of son of Daas Torah in 96 p. 262-264 who concludes like above; See Hakashrus 10:108

The reason: As the Neitza helps clean the knife, and removes a Kelipa worth of its absorbed taste. [Shach 6:6; P”M 6 S.D. 6; P”M 10 S.D. “Gimmel Middos Besakin” based on Shach; Yad Yehuda 10 Aruch 3; Gloss of Rav Akiva Eiger 96 on Shach 9; Daas Torah 96 p. 258]

[77] Bechor Shur on Chulin 11 in name of Tosfos, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 121:9 [Bechor Shur ibid concludes that a Baal Nefesh is to be stringent]; Hagahos Yad Shaul 96 questions Michaber ibid as Neitza simply cleans the knife and does not remove its absorbed taste, so what use is the Neitza to permit cutting Charif according to us who rule that Charif absorbs from even a non-Ben Yomo; See Daas Torah 96 p. 258 and 262-264; Gloss of Rav Akiva Eiger 96 on Shach 9 who questions this ruling based on our ruling like the Rashba that Charif absorbs fully; Chochmas Shlomo 96 that Neitza does not help for Charif

[78] P”M 96 M.Z. 3; Kaf Hachaim 96:14

[79] See Poskim in next Q&A!

[80] P”M ibid; See Shach 91:3 and 121:10; P”M 91 S.D. 3

[81] Taz 96:3; Kneses Hagedola 96:4; Lechem Hapanim 96:6; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:4; P”M 96 M.Z. 3 [although writes that possibly Lechatchilah one is not to use it with the opposite food]; Halacha Pesuka 96:1; Kaf Hachaim 96:6

[82] The reason: As the plate does not contain the pressure of a knife or fat residue which is the cause of the stringency by a knife. [Poskim ibid]

[83] P”M ibid; See Shach 91:3 and 121:10; P”M 91 S.D. 3

[84] Lenient approach mentioned in Chochmas Adam 56:2; Sefer Yehoshua Pesakim Ukesavim 122, brought in Daas Torah 96 [p. 260]; See Sefer Hakashrus 10:110; Sefer Davar Charif 1:13

[85] Chochmas Adam 56:2; Tuv Taam Vadaas 3:215; Daas Torah 96 regarding a metal, wood [or plastic] cutting board

[86] Pashut as otherwise it has never absorbed any taste; See Beis Yosef 96 in explanation of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

[87] The reason: As the sharpness of the food and pressure of the knife cause the taste in the cutting board to become absorbed within the food. [Chochmas Adam ibid]

[88] Sefer Hakashrus 10 footnote 290

The status of the knife: Some Poskim rule that the taste of a Charif is always like Guf Hadavar and there is no concept of Nat Bar Nat. Accordingly, even the knife in this case would become meaty. [Magen Avraham 451:31; Chochmas Adam 49:10; See Admur 447:55 regarding a Chametz grinder] Nevertheless, practically, since regarding the cutting board itself there is a dispute as to whether it gives off taste or not [as brought above], and as well there are Poskim who argue on the M”A and Admur is [i.e. Even Haezer], therefore one may be lenient regarding the knife, and so rules Sefer Hakashrus ibid.

[89] See Beis Yosef 96 in explanation of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

[90] See Admur 451:31; Beis Meir 96:3; Daas Torah 96 p. 258 and 260

[91] Pashut as otherwise it has never absorbed any taste; See Beis Yosef 96 in explanation of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

[92] Chochmas Adam 56:2; Tuv Taam Vadaas 3:215; Daas Torah 96 regarding a metal, wood [or plastic] cutting board; Hakashrus 2:12

[93] Following the ruling of the Magen Avraham 451:31 and Chochmas Adam 49:10 that even the vessel absorbs from Charif; See Sefer Davar Charif 1:13 footnote 58; Sefer Hakashrus 2:12 forbids even the vessels, however in 10 footnote 290 he is lenient with the vessel; See footnote in previous Q&A!

[94] Lenient approach mentioned in Chochmas Adam 56:2; Sefer Yehoshua Pesakim Ukesavim 122, brought in Daas Torah 96 [p. 260]; See Sefer Davar Charif 1:13; Sefer Hakashrus 10:110

[95] Rav Elyashiv, brought in Sefer Davar Charif 1:13 footnote 57

[96] As some Poskim always permit Charif with non-Ben Yomo and some Poskim rule that even according to those who are stringent with non-Ben Yomo, that is only if the majority usage is with hot foods. [See Beis Meir 96:3; Daas Torah 96 p. 258 and 260]

[97] See Beis Yosef 96 in explanation of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

[98] See Pischeiy Teshuvah 95:4; P”M 96 M”Z 1

[99] Panim Meiros 1:64; P”M 96 M”Z 1 based on Rashba 496; Shivas Tziyon 32; Rav Akiva Eiger, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid

[100] The reason: As Taam Keikur Deoraiysa, and hence if one tastes meat in the Charif it is Biblical. [Shivas Tziyon ibid]

[101] Kneses Yechezkal 24, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid

[102] Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid

[103] See Chapter 4 Halacha 1A

[104] If the onion was cut from opposite sides: If the onion was cut from opposite sides, two Netila’s distances [4 cm] from each other, then seemingly, Bedieved the onion remains Kosher, and each half [Netila area by each side] becomes dairy or meaty. Furthermore, even if one cut the onion on the Netila side, seemingly past the Netila area remains Kosher as we rule Bedieved like the opinion who rules that Charif does not absorb more than Kdei Netila. [See Rama 96:1] This certainly applies according to the Sephardim who never prohibit more than a Netila. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[105] Beis Yosef 96 in explanation of Rambam; Beis David Y.D. 38; 39; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:34; Kaf Hachaim 96:48

[106] Magen Avraham 451:31; Chochmas Adam 49:10; Implication of Admur 451:54 that Charif transfers taste to the knife; See also Even Haezer 96:3

[107] The reason: As the Charif has power to absorb the meat taste into the dairy knife.

[108] P”M 447 M.Z. 13; Daas Torah 96 p. 258

[109] The reason: As a knife which cut a Charif only has ability to transfer taste to the Charif and does not have ability to extract its absorbed taste into itself. [P”M ibid]

[110] The reason: As this is a case of Sfek Sfeika, as some Poskim rule non-Ben Yomo knives do not prohibit a Charif, and other Poskim rule that knives do not absorb from the Charif. Certainly, if one cut the onion from opposite ends, in which case we rule that Bedeived the onion did not absorb past its Netila worth, that the knife does not need to be Koshered.

[111] Hakashrus 10:114

[112] Rav Yaakov Bloy brought in Hakashrus 10:110 footnote 289

[113] See Chaim Sheol 2:38 regarding one who is unsure if a new vessel bought from a gentile was previously used for non-Kosher; Admur 451:5 regarding one who is unsure of a vessels Chametz status

The reason: As it is a case of doubt to which we rule stringently. Now, although if the pot is no longer Ben Yomo it is a case of Rabbinical doubt, nevertheless, since this doubt is due to ignorance, it is not considered a doubt at all and one cannot apply the rule of Safek Derabanan Lihakel. [See Michaber Y.D. 98:3, Shach 98:9 and Taz 98:6 regarding Daas Shotim that it is not considered a Safek even by a Rabbinical case] Furthermore, one may come to use the pot with a Davar Charif and the opposite dish, which according to many Poskim makes it Biblically considered like the taste of the pot even when not Ben Yomo. [See Panim Meiros 1:64; P”M 96 M”Z 1 based on Rashba 496; Shivas Tziyon 32; Rav Akiva Eiger, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 95:4]

[114] Darkei Teshuvah 116:27 in name of Megadim Chadashim 116:3 to initially be stringent; See Poskim in Darkei Teshuvah ibid regarding cooking a Davar Charif in a meat pot with fish; Hakashrus 1:67; 10:111 [page 425]

[115] The reason: As a Davar Charif that is cut with a knife carries the actual taste of the meat, and the meat is considered Beiyn.

[116] Sheivet Halevi ibid; Darkei Teshuvah ibid in name of Megadim Chadashim that from the letter of the law one may be lenient like the opinion who does not consider onions Charif

The reason: As only the actual taste from a piece of meat is a Sakana o eat with fish, however, the taste of meat that is carried in a Davar Charif, even though its Beiyn, is not problematic regarding Sakana. [ibid]

[117] 96:5       

[118] Michaber 96:5

[119] However from the letter of the law even washing is not required. [Shach 96:23] Thus, Bedieved, if one cooked the food without rinsing, it remains Kosher according to all.

[120] The reason: As the turnip destroys the fat that is on the meat knife.

[121] Michaber 96:5

[122] However from the letter of the law even washing is not required. [Shach 96:23] Thus, Bedieved, if one cooked the food without rinsing, it remains Kosher according to all.

[123] The reason: As the turnip destroys the taste absorbed within the meat knife.

[124] Shach 96:23 that so is implication of Michaber; Toras Chatas 61:36 in name of Issur Viheter

[125] Rashal  brought in Shach 96:23; Kneses Hagedola 96:6; Minchas Yaakov 61:33; Peri Chadash 96:20; Lechem Hapanim 96:33; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:27; Chavas Daas 96:17; P”M 96 S.D. 23; Beis David Y.D. 38; Erech Hashulchan 96:17; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:43; Kaf Hachaim 96:62

[126] Shach 96:23 [This applies even according to the Maharshal]; Kneses Hagedola 96:6; Peri Chadash 96:20; Lechem Hapanim 96:33; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:27; Chavas Daas 96:17; P”M 96 S.D. 23; Beis David Y.D. 38; Aruch Hashulchan 96:21; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:44; Kaf Hachaim 96:63

[127] Rama 96:5

[128] The reason: As the Lefes only has temporary power to blemish the taste within the knife.

[129] Rama 96:5; Levush 96; Kaf Hachaim 96:66

[130] What is a turnip? The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulboustap root. Small, tender varieties are grown for human consumption, while larger varieties are grown as feed for livestock. The most common type is mostly white-skinned apart from the upper 1–6 centimeters, which protrude above the ground and are purple, red, or greenish wherever sunlight has fallen. This above-ground part develops from stem tissue, but is fused with the root. The interior flesh is entirely white. The entire root is roughly conical, but can be occasionally global, about 5–20 centimeters in diameter, and lacks side roots. The taproot (the normal root below the swollen storage root) is thin and 10 centimeters or more in length; it is trimmed off before marketing. The leaves grow directly from the above-ground shoulder of the root, with little or no visible crown or neck (as found in rutabagas

[131] Admur 205:3

[132] Lechem Hapanim 96:32; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:26; P”M 96 S.D. 22; Chochmas Adam 49:9; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:42; Hachaim 96:61

[133] Lechem Hapanim ibid; Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid; Peri Megadim ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[134] Admur 447:46; Hakashrus 10

[135] Avoda Zara 39a; This is the sharpest of sharp foods and is considered sharp by all.

[136] Michaber 96:1

Why is a beet considered Charif?  Raw beets are considered bitter when raw.

[137] Rama 95:2; Taz 103:9

[138] Shach 96:17; Minchas Yaakov 61:25 in name of Shach

[139] P”M 96 S.D. 17 that in truth even the Shach agrees to be stringent

[140] Michaber 96:2; Admur 447:40

[141] Rama 96:2;; Elya Raba 451:33; Erech Hashulchan 96:11; Chavas Daas 96:11; Chochmas Adam 49:10; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:33; Kaf Hachaim 96:47

[142] Toras Chatas 61:7; Minchas Yaakov 61:25

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that dry Charif loses its Charif status. [Shach 96:17; See P”M 96 S.D. 17]

[143] Shach 96:17 rules that if ginger was cut with a non-Ben Yomo Treif knife, it is permitted as many Poskim hold that ginger does not have the same status as other Charif foods

[144] Toras Chatas ibid; Minchas Yaakov ibid; Kaf Hachaim 96:47

[145] Beis David Y.D. 38; Erech Hashulchan 96:15; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:28; Kaf Hachaim 96:41

[146] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[147] Admur 447:46

[148] Rama 96:2; Admur 447:54

[149] Admur 455:32; Kaf Hachaim 96:12 [Is considered Charif even after cooking]

[150] Michaber 96:2

[151] Michaber 96:4; Shach 96:20

The opinion of Rama: It is implied from the Rama 96:4 that lemons are not as sharp as radishes and other sharp foods, as it is merely due to the fat of the knife that the Rama rules the first few lemons require nullification. However, the lemons are not sharp enough to remove or enhance the taste absorbed within the knife itself. [See Shach 96:20 who explains this to be the opinion of Rama] However Shach 96:20 rules lemons are a sharp food.

[152] Beis Yosef 121 based on Rashba and Avoda Zara 76a; Rashba Toras Habayis 4:4; M”A 447:33; Daas Torah 96:2

[153] See in length gloss of son of Daas Torah in 96 p. 262-264 who concludes like above

[154] Admur 447:60 “Olives, due to their bitterness, are sharp”; Shach 96:20

[155] Michaber 96:2; Admur 447:40

[156] Pischeiy Teshuvah 96:3 in name of Kisvei Rav Daniel; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:26; Kaf Hachaim 96:39

[157] Michaber 96:2

[158] Beis Yosef 96 in name of Orchos Chaim; Toras Chatas 61:5 that so is custom; Minchas Yaakov 61:17

[159] Toras Chatas 61:5 in implication of Issur Viheter, brought in Taz 96:9

[160] Taz 96:9

[161] Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:27; Kaf Hachaim 96:40

[162] Hakashrus 10:101

[163] Daas Torah 96:2

[164] Michaber 96:2; See Shach 96:12 that some Poskim learn that radishes are more sharp than other vegetables.

[165] Michaber 96:4 regarding salted fish; Shach 96:18

[166] Michaber 96:2; Admur 447:27-28

[167] Peri Megadim 96 S.D. 15; Kaf Hachaim 96:36

[168] See Admur ibid who defines this “as is done when salting for preservation.” However, he refers to salted fish that is sitting in liquid, in which we are more lenient.

[169] Shach 96:16; Admur 447:28 regarding salted fish in water; Peri Chadash 96:13; Minchas Yaakov 61:32; Lechem Hapanim 96:22; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:15; Chavas Daas 96:10; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:29; Kaf Hachaim 96:42

The reason: Although the Rama is stringent that even slightly salted foods are considered hot, in this case the water nullifies the salt, and hence it is not considered sharp unless there is a lot of salt in the mixture. [See Admur 447:28]

Regarding salted fish that is not inside water: See Admur ibid who implies that even if it is not very salted it would be considered Charif. See Piskeiy Admur p. 213

[170] Peri Chadash ibid; Lechem Hapanim ibid; Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid; Kaf Hachaim 96:43

[171] P”M 96 S.D. 16; Chavas Daas 96:10; Kaf Hachaim 96:44

[172] Issur Viheter 38:13; Toras Chatas 61:9; Kneses Hagedola 96:23; Beis David Y.D. 38; Erech Hashulchan 96:10; Zivcheiy Tzedek 96:31; Kaf Hachaim 96:45

[173] Taz 103:9; Darkei Teshuvah 95:41

[174] Rama 96:1

[175] Shach 96:11; Issur Viheter 38:10; Toras Chatas 61:6; Darkei Moshe 96:4; Kneses Hagedola 96:26; Peri Chadash 96:9; Lechem Hapanim 96:15; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:11; Halacha Pesuka 96:1; Kreisi 96:7; Chavas Daas 96:7; P”M 96 S.D. 11; Chochmas Adam 49:5; Kaf Hachaim 96:29

[176] Hakashrus 10

[177] Nachalas Shiva 68; Panim Meiros 1:64; Minchas Yaakov 36:8; Beir Heiytiv 96:4; Lechem Hapanim 96:7; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:5; Halacha Pesuka 96:1; Makom Shmuel 90; Agura Beohalecha Y.D. 29; P”M 108 S.D. 9; Darkei Teshuvah 95:39; Opinions brought in Pischei Teshuvah 96:4 and Kaf Hachaim 96:12

[178] Makom Shmuel ibid in name of Chachmei Prague; Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid

[179] Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid; Erech Hashulchan 96:6 based on Rashab 497; Beir Yaakov 103 in name of Rav Yosef, brought in Pischei Teshuvah 96:4

[180] Kaf Hachaim 96:12

[181] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[182] Hakashrus 10:101

[183] 96:3

[184] Shach 96:18; Peri Chadash 96:15; Lechem Hapanim 96:24; Beis Lechem Yehuda 96:17; Shulchan Gavoa 96:10; Chavas Daas 96:12; P”M 96 18; Kaf Hachaim 96:49

[185] Beis David Y.D. p. 17; Erech Hashulchan 96:14; Kaf Hachaim 96:51

How much spices? Some Poskim rule that even if the meat was ground with a minute amount of spices, it is possible that the grater absorbs the meat. [Beis David ibid; Erech Hashulchan ibid] Other Poskim, however, rule that a minute amount of spices is meaningless. [Chochmas Adam Shaar Issur Viheter Binas Adam 48] Kaf Hachaim 96:51 concludes to be stringent Lechatchilah, although one may be lenient Bedieved.

[186] Stam opinion in Michaber 96:1; 3; 103:6; 114:8; Maharam Teshuvos Upesakim 22, brought in Tur 96:2 and Rosh Avoda Zara 38

Question on opinion of Michaber: Vetzaruch Iyun, as earlier the Michaber brought an opinion who is stringent even if the utensil was not Ben Yomo, and in chapter 103 the Michaber rules this way Bepashtus. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol. [Shach 96:19; Taz 96:10] However, see Kaf Hachaim 96:10, 11, 50 that the Michaber omitted the opinion being that he relied on the fact he brought it earlier and he only suspects for it unless it is a case of great loss or great need. However, other Poskim learn that the Michaber in truth is lenient. [P”M 10 S.D. “Gimmel Middos Besakin”]

[187] Opinion in Michaber 96:1 [omitted from 96:3, 103:6, 114:8]; Rama 96:3; Shach 96:6 and 19; Admur 447:55 and 40; Sefer Hateruma 60, brought in Tur 96:1

Custom of Sephardim: The Michaber ibid does not arbitrate between the two opinions that he records. According to the Kelalim of ruling of the Shulchan Aruch, whenever the Michaber writes like one opinion and then brings a second stringent opinion, his intent is to rule that one is initially to be stringent like the second opinion, although one may be lenient in a case of great loss. Hence, if the Charif was cut with a clean non-Ben Yomo knife, a Netila worth must be removed and 60x is required, although in a time of great need or loss one may permit the food even if it does not contain 60x. The reason the Michaber omitted this stringency from other areas [see 103:6; 114:8] is because he relied on the fact that he already recorded their opinion here. [Kaf Hachaim 96:10, 11, 50; See Shach 96:19; Taz 96:10] However, other Poskim learn that the Michaber in truth is lenient. [P”M 10 S.D. “Gimmel Middos Besakin”]

[188] Shach ibid, as rules Admur ibid

[189] Kaf Hachaim 96:52

[190] Beis David Y.D. p. 17; Erech Hashulchan 96:14; Kaf Hachaim 96:51

[191] Taz 97:1; Admur 451:45 regarding Chametz; Peri Chadash 97:1; Kneses Hagedola 97:2; Peri Toar 97:1; Minchas Yaakov 60:3; Beis Lechem Yehuda 97:1; Lechem Hapanim 97:1; Chavas Daas 97:1; Beis David Y.D. p. 17; Shulchan Gavoa 97:3; P”M 97 M.Z. 1; Erech Hashulchan 96:14 and 97:2; Chochmas Adam 50:7; Aruch Hashulchan 97:2;  Kaf Hachaim 96:51 and 97:2

[192] Kaf Hachaim 96:52

[193] Taz 97:1; Kneses Hagedola 97:2; Peri Toar 97:1; Beis Lechem Yehuda 97:1; P”M 97 M.Z. 1; Erech Hashulchan 97:2

[194] The reason: As spices are commonly used for meat and dairy foods, and if we allow it to be continued to be used, one may come to use it for the opposite food. This is similar to the decree of the Sages to prohibit kneading bread with meat or milk due to worry, and if one does so the bread is forbidden. [Poskim ibid]

[195] Peri Chadash 97:1; Minchas Yaakov 60:3; Lechem Hapanim 97:1; Chavas Daas 97:1; Shulchan Gavoa 97:3; Birkeiy Yosef 97 Shiyurei Bracha 3; Chochmas Adam 50:7; Aruch Hashulchan 97:2;  Kaf Hachaim 97:2

[196] The reason: As even if there is room to suspect that the spice may get eaten with the opposite food, we cannot create new decrees on our own, and the Sages only made their decree regarding bread which is the staple of a meal, and not with other foods. [Peri Chadash ibid]

[197] The question here is regarding if a sharp food has the ability to transfer taste to a vessel. Everyone agrees that sharp foods can extract taste from a vessel and absorb it, although can it transfer taste into a vessel, and if so of what quality; Is it Beiyn taste or Nat Bar Nat taste?

[198] Magen Avraham 451:31; Chochmas Adam 49:10; Implication of Admur 551:54; See Minchas Yaakov 61:26; P”M 96 S.D. 20; Mateh Yehonason 96 in name of Shelah

[199] The reason: As the onions have power to absorb the meat taste into the grinder.

[200] Even Haezer 96:3; P”M 447 M.Z. 13; Daas Torah 96 p. 258; See however P”M 96 S.D. 20

Opinion of Admur: Admur in 451:45 rules that sharp foods ground with Chametz cause the grinder to become Chametz and it cannot be used over Pesach. This does not contradict the explanation of the Even Haezer, as everyone agrees that if spices were ground together with Chametz/meat/milk, and hence the food is Beiyn, that it becomes absorbed for when ground. However, the case discussed above is that no actual meat was ground and rather onions which absorbed meat were ground. In such a case we find no precedence in Admur as to how he would rule. The same applies for the opinion of the Mishneh Berurah. Nonetheless, in 551:54 Admur rules that a grinder is considered Chametz if it was used with horseradish that was cut with a Chametz knife, thus proving that Admur rules like the M”A ibid!

[201] The reason: As only a minute amount of taste is absorbed into the grinder and this taste is considered like Nat Bar Nat Diheteira, and thus cannot prohibit another food. This is similar to the ruling of Shach 122 that when one cooks dairy in a non-Ben Yomo meat pot that had meaty Charif cooked in it the food is Kosher, as only a minute amount of taste enters into the pot and it is not strong enough to then effect the milk. [Even Hazer ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because a knife which cut a Charif only has ability to transfer taste to the Charif and does not have ability to extract its absorbed taste into itself. [P”M ibid]

[202] Magen Avraham 451:31; Chochmas Adam 49:10; Implication of Admur 551:54; See Minchas Yaakov 61:26; P”M 96 S.D. 20; Mateh Yehonason 96 in name of Shelah

Opinion of Admur: Although in 451:45 Admur rules that sharp foods absorb into a grinder this does not contradict the explanation of the Even Haozer, as there Admur is referring to spices which are ground together with Chametz, hence the Chametz is Beiyn and becomes absorb for the first time when ground. However the case discussed above is that no actual meat was ground and rather onions which absorbed meat were ground. In such a case we find no precedence in Admur as to how he would rule. The same applies for the opinion of the Mishneh Berurah. Nonetheless, in 551:54 Admur rules that a grinder is considered Chametz if it was used with horseradish that was cut with a Chametz knife, thus proving that Admur rules like the M”A ibid!

[203] The reason: As the original onions sent Beiyn meat taste to the grinder and the grinder now received dairy taste from the garlic and hence became forbidden, and it then transferred that taste to the garlic.

[204] Even Haozer 96:3; P”M 447 M.Z. 13; Daas Torah 96 p. 258

[205] The reason: As only a minute amount of taste is absorbed into the grinder and this taste is considered like Nat Bar Nat Diheteira, and thus cannot prohibit another food. This is similar to the ruling of Shach 122 that when one cooks dairy in a non-Ben Yomo meat pot that had meaty Charif cooked in it the food is Kosher, as only a minute amount of taste enters into the pot and it is not strong enough to then effect milk. [Even Haozer ibid] Alternatively, as a knife which cut a Charif only has ability to transfer taste to the Charif and does not have ability to extract its absorbed taste into itself. [P”M ibid]

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