Kitniyus-Full article

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Kitniyos:[1]

Eating:

The letter of the law:[2] Only the five grains which are 1) wheat, 2) barley; 3) rye, 4) spelt, 5) oats, can become leavened and become Chametz. All other grains/flours, such as flour made from rice or millet and all other legumes [and starches], cannot ever leaven and become Chametz. Although these flours also rise when kneaded with water, this rising is not a leavening but rather a spoiling [i.e. Sirchon]. For example, if one were to take rice flour and the like and knead it with boiling water and then cover it with a cloth until it rises like dough that has leavened, in truth, this act of rising is not leavening but rather a spoiling of the dough. The dough thus remains permitted to be eaten on Pesach.[3] From the letter of the law, it is likewise permitted to cook a dish of these legumes on Pesach.[4]

The custom:[5] The custom in these provinces [i.e. Ashkenazim] is not to eat a cooked dish of Kitniyos/legumes on Pesach, even on the last day of Yom Tov [even in the Diaspora].[6] This accustomed prohibition is a mere stringency.[7] [Nevertheless, as a result of the custom, these foods are forbidden to be eaten by all[8] Jews of Ashkenazi origin, and one may not swerve from this  custom.[9] The Maharil writes that one who goes against this custom transgresses the prohibition of Lo Sasur and is liable for death, as he has gone against a Rabbinical command.[10] The above only applies to Ashkenazi Jewry, however the majority of Sephardim never accepted such a custom upon themselves and it therefore remains permitted for a Sephardic to eat Kitniyos on Pesach and so is their custom.[11] However, there do exist Sephardic communities who likewise avoid Kitniyos, such as rice, and so is the custom of Moroccan Jewry, and the Yishuv Hayashan of Jerusalem Jewry.[12] Every person should follow the custom of his origin.[13] Those who are accustomed to eat legumes on Pesach must be careful to check the legumes for grains prior to cooking, as explained in Halacha 7C!]

 

Summary:

It is forbidden, due to custom, for Ashkenazim to eat Kitniyos throughout the entire Pesach.

 

General Q&A

May one eat Kitniyos on Erev Pesach until the night?[14]

Some Poskim[15] rule it is permitted to eat Kitniyos on Erev Pesach until the night on the condition that one checks the kernels for grains three times. However, other Poskim[16] rule that eating Kitniyos is forbidden starting from the 5th hour. Practically, the widespread custom is to be stringent.[17]

 

May one eat Kitniyos if there are no other foods available?[18]

A community Rav may allow Kitniyos foods to be eaten in the event that other foods are not available during Pesach. In such a case, it is better to eat other legumes if available rather than rice or millet. One must check the legumes for grains prior to cooking.

May an ill person eat Kitniyos?[19]

An ill person may eat Kitniyos on Pesach for medical reasons.

 

May an infant be fed Kitniyos?[20]

Infants may be given Kitniyos to eat in a time of need, even if there is no danger involved. Thus, an infant who is accustomed to eating Kitniyos based formula, may be fed such formulas during Pesach. When doing so, it is proper to designate pots which will be used for the Kitniyos.

 

If an Ashkenazi woman married a Sefardi may she eat Kitniyos?[21]

Yes. She is not required to perform Hataras Nedarim prior to doing so.

 

Is Kitniyos Muktzah on Yom Tov of Pesach?

No.[22]

 

May one eat Kitniyos on Shabbos which follows the last day of Yom Tov in Eretz Yisrael?[23]

It is permitted to eat edible Kitniyos on Shabbos which follows the last day of Pesach.[24] Thus, one may buy Chumus and Techina which are Kosher for Pesach during Chol Hamoed and eat it that Shabbos.

May one cook the Kitniyos on Friday which is Yom Tov?[25] Some Poskim[26] rule this is permitted to do so.[27] Other Poskim[28] rule it is forbidden to do so.[29]

 

The definition of Kitniyos:[30]

Cooked legumes versus raw or roasted: All cooked dishes of legumes are forbidden to be eaten due to Kitniyos.[31] Likewise, all legumes that have come into contact with water, are forbidden to be eaten.[32] [However, dry Kitniyos which has never gotten wet, such as roasted Kitniyos [i.e. pop corn], may be eaten.[33] Other Poskim[34] however, rule that all Kitniyos is forbidden, whether dry, roasted or cooked. Practically, the custom today is to be stringent with all forms of Kitniyos, even raw, dry or roasted.]

Seeds:[35] Only legumes are forbidden due to the custom, however, seeds are not forbidden according to the custom.[36] This, however, is with exception to mustard, being that it grows in stalks similar to legumes, and with exception to cumin which its kernels are similar to wheat. However, cumin kernels which is not similar to wheat, there is no custom to forbid. [Practically, many seeds today are avoided due to Kitniyos.] Those seeds which are not similar to wheat and are thus permitted, nevertheless must be checked very well to make sure that they do not contain any grain kernels in them. For this reason, one who is stringent to avoid eating cumin and sheaves will be blessed as it is very difficult to sift them from grains.[37]

Vegetables: All types of vegetables may be eaten on Pesach, as they are not similar to grains.

Kitniyos oil:[38] It is forbidden to consume oils produced from Kitniyos products. Other oils, however, are permitted in consumption.[39]

General Q&A on definition of Kitniyos

Kitniyos Shenishtana: The status of Kitniyos derivatives

Some learn from the prohibition of Kitniyos oil that all Kitniyos derivatives are forbidden in consumption on Pesach, and so is followed by the Mehadrin Hashgachas such as Rav Landau, and the Eida Hachariedis. This severely limits the amount of foods that can be Kosher for Pesach for Ashkenazim, as there are literally hundreds of corn derivative trace ingredients added to products, as listed below. However, others[40] learn that all Kitniyos that have gone through a change and hence no longer retain their original form are permitted in consumption. Accordingly, Kitniyos derivatives are permitted in consumption, and so is followed by non-Mehadrin Hashgacha’s such as the OU. A case example of this difference can be found in diet soda which includes a corn derivative named Aspartame which is used as a sweetener. The OU, in accordance to their policy, labels diet Cola as Kosher for Pesach while Rav Landau, following his policy, removes his Hashgacha over the product for Pesach.

 

A trace ingredient-Nullification in majority/60x:

Kitniyos that is intentionally added to a food, whether on Pesach or before Pesach, is not nullified, as explained in F. Thus, foods that contain trace Kitniyos derivative ingredients are not to be eaten on Pesach, according to those who invalidate Kitniyos derivatives.

 

Are forms of Kitniyos that were never known to be avoided forbidden to be eaten?

Some Poskim[41] rule that only foods that are known to be avoided due to Kitniyos are forbidden to be eaten. However, all products which are not known to be avoided according to tradition, may be eaten even if they carry similar characteristics to other Kitniyos. Thus, new seeds/grains that have never been marketed before, may be eaten on Pesach, as they do not have a tradition to prohibit. Practically, however, the custom is to be stringent in this matter.

Q&A on types of Kitniyos

Is pumpkin Kitniyos?

Pumpkin is not Kitniyos, and neither are its seeds. Nonetheless, we do not eat pumpkin seeds sold in stores unless it has been properly supervised for Pesach.

 

Are peanuts Kitniyos and may they be eaten?

Peanuts are not forbidden due to Kitniyos and so is the custom of some to eat peanuts and peanut derivatives on Pesach.[42] Nonetheless, all peanut products, such as peanut butter and peanut oil, may only be eaten if produced under proper supervision for Pesach.[43] Practically, many are accustomed not to eat peanuts on Pesach, and those who have this custom are to abide by it.[44] If there is no established custom in one’s family or community, one may be lenient.[45]

 

Is coffee and cocoa Kitniyos and may they be eaten?[46]

Coffee and cocoa grow on a tree and is hence not considered Kitniyos and is allowed to be consumed on Pesach.[47] However, some[48] are stringent not to eat it, in order to prevent confusion of others who may think that Kitniyos is also permitted to be eaten. Others[49] are particular to roast the coffee beans before Pesach, and to check them for grain and legumes prior to roasting. [One may certainly purchase ground coffee with a Kosher for Pesach Hashgacha on the packet. Instant coffee needs a Mehadrin Hashgacha both for Pesach and during the year.[50]]

The Chabad custom: The Chabad custom is not to use processed foods, or unpeelable products over Pesach. Nevertheless, seemingly coffee would follow the same accustomed ruling regarding sugar, of which the Rebbe stated that if one knows for certain that it does not contain Chametz then there is no reason to prohibit it. Accordingly, one may use Turkish coffee with a good Hashgacha over Pesach.[51] Those who are stringent can boil the coffee in water before Pesach. Rav Eli Landau Shlita related that he makes his own coffee for Pesach. He purchases the fresh green coffee beans in an area that does not sell Chametz products, and then roasts them and grinds them at home.

 

Is a potato or potato flour considered Kitniyos and may they be eaten?

Some Poskim[52] rule that potatoes are Kitniyos and are hence forbidden to be eaten.[53] The majority of Poskim[54], however, rule potatoes are not Kitniyos, and there is no need to be stringent in this matter. Practically, the custom is to allow eating both potato and potato flower products on Pesach. However, some communities are stringent not to eat potato flour, although actual potatoes are eaten.[55]

 

Is Quinoa seeds Kitniyos and may it be eaten?

Some rule quinoa is not Kitniyos and may be eaten over Pesach.[56] Others are accustomed to be stringent as is accustomed by all other foods that look similar to grains upon being cooked.

 

May mushrooms be eaten?[57]

Mushrooms are not considered Kitniyos, although many mushrooms grown off rye and wheat and thus may not be eaten unless under special Pesach supervision.

Q&A on oils

Is Canola [rapeseed] oil Kitniyos?[58]

Yes.

 

Is hemp oil Kitniyos?[59]

Yes. [However, see Poskim regarding cottonseed oil.]

 

Is sesame oil Kitniyos?[60]

Yes.

 

Is cottonseed oil Kitniyos and may it be eaten?

Some Poskim[61] rule cottonseed oil may be eaten on Pesach, so long as they were carefully checked prior to production. However, other Poskim[62] rule that one is not to eat cottonseed oil, or any oil produced from seeds, being that it is difficult to clean them from grains. Practically, many are accustomed to avoid cottonseed oil, especially in Israel. However, in the USA, cottonseed oil is accustomed to be eaten.[63] Rav Yaakov Landau permitted using cottonseed oil on Pesach.[64] Likewise, the Rebbe instructed that Anash eat Natala fat on Pesach, which was margarine made from cottonseed oil.[65]

 

Is flaxseed oil Kitniyos?

This seemingly follows the same law as sesame oil.

List of oils permitted according to all with proper Pesach supervision:

·         Coconut oil

·         Olive oil

·         Palm oil

·         Hazelnut oil

 

 

Kitniyos List:

The following foods are not considered a species of grain at all, but are rather considered a legume, of which from the letter of the law is permitted to be eaten on Pesach, although the custom is to be stringent. The Shulchan Aruch lists only a few examples of foods considered Kitniyos. This list will mention foods accustomed to be abstained from today due to Kitniyos. In some cases, as can be seen, the product is not in truth a legume, but a seed, although nonetheless the custom has become to avoid eating it as well. In other cases, the matter is under dispute, and was more thoroughly discussed in the Q&A section above.

  1. Anise; Ascorbic acid; Aspartame [see Q&A regarding Kitniyos Shenishtana].
  2. Beans[66] [all types, including soy]; Buckwheat
  3. Calcium ascorbate, canola (rapeseed) oil [see Q&A], caraway, cardamom; chickpeas, coriander; corn[67] [including corn oil, corn syrup, and the hundreds of corn derivatives brought in next list]; cumin[68]; citric acid [at times derives from Chametz]
  4. Dextrose
  5. Emulsifiers
  6. Fennel; fenugreek; flax seeds
  7. Glucose; green beans; guar gum,
  8. Hemp seeds
  9. N/A
  10. N/A
  11. Kimmel
  12. Lecithin[69]; lentils[70]; licorice; linseed; lucerne; lupine
  13. Millet[71]; mustard[72]; maltodextrin (sometimes Chametz); some forms of MSG,
  14. NutraSweet
  15. N/A
  16. Peas, poppy seeds, peanuts [see Q&A], polysorbates (sometimes Chametz), popcorn, poppy seeds
  17. Quinoa [See Q&A]
  18. Rice[73];
  19. Sesame seeds[74]; sun flour seeds, string beans, saffron, sesame seeds, snow peas, sodium citrate, sodium erythorbate, sorbitan, sorbitol (could be Chametz unless manufactured in the U.S.A), soybeans and soy oil, stabilizers, starch (possibly Chametz), string beans, sunflower seeds,
  20. Tofu,
  21. N/A
  22. Vitamin C (could be Chametz),
  23. Xanthan gum (may be Chametz).

List of products that may be derived from corn, as listed by the IRT corn allergen list:

*Most of these products fall under the dispute of Kitniyos Shenishtana, as explained in the Q&A!

 

  • Acetic acid • Alcohol • Alpha tocopherol • Artificial flavorings • Artificial sweeteners • Ascorbates • Ascorbic acid • Aspartame • Astaxanthin • Baking powder • Bleached flour • Blended sugar (sugaridextrose) • Calcium citrate • Calcium fumarate • Calcium gluconate • Calcium lactate • Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) • Calcium stearate • Calcium stearoyl lactylate • Caramel and caramel color • Carbon methylcellulose sodium • Cellulose microcrystalline • Cellulose, methyl • Cellulose, powdered • Cetearyl glucoside • Choline chloride • Citric acid • Citrus cloud emulsion (CCS) • Coco glycerides (cocoglycerides) • Confectioners’ sugar • Croscarmellose sodium • Crystalline dextrose • Crystalline fructose • Cyclodextrin • DATUM (a dough conditioner) • Decyl glucoside • Decyl polyglucose • Dextrin • Dextrose (also found in IV solutions) • Dextrose anything (such as monohydrate or anhydrous) d-Gluconic acid • Distilled white vinegar • Drying agent • Erythorbic acid • Erythritol • Ethanol • Ethocel 20 • Ethyl cellulose • Ethylene • Ethyl acetate • Ethyl alcohol • Ethyl lactate • Ethyl maltol • Fibersol-2 • Flavorings • Food starch • Fructose • Fruit juice concentrate • Fumaric acid • Germ/germ meal • Gluconate • Gluconic acid • Glucono delta-lactone • Gluconolactone • Glucosamine • Glucose • Glucose syrup (also found in IV solutions) Glutamate • Gluten • Glycerides • Glycerin • Glycerol • Golden syrup • High fructose corn syrup • Honey (Corn may extend its reach to honey either directly by being added to the end result, as an unlabeled ingredient in the form of HFCS, or because HFCS is sometimes fed directly to honey bees.) • Hydrolyzed corn • Hydrolyzed corn protein • Hydrolyzed vegetable protein • Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose • Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose pthalate (HPMCP) Inositol • Invert syrup or sugar • Iodized salt • Lactate • Lactic acid • Lauryl glucoside • Lecithin • Linoleic acid • Lysine • Magnesium citrate • Magnesium fumarate • Magnesium stearate • Maize • Malic acid • Malonic acid • Malt syrup from corn • Malt, malt extract • Maltitol • Maltodextrin • Maltol • Maltose • Mannitol • Methyl gluceth • Methyl glucose • Methyl glucoside • Methylcellulose • Microcrystalline cellulose • Modified cellulose gum • Modified food starch • Molasses (corn syrup may be present; know your product) • Mono- and di- glycerides • Monosodium glutamate • MSG • Natural flavorings • Olestra/Olean • Polenta • Polydextrose • Polylactic acid (PLA) • Polysorbates (e.g. Polysorbate 80) • Polyvinyl acetate • Potassium citrate • Potassium fumarate • Potassium gluconate • Powdered sugar • Pregelatinized starch • Prop ionic acid • Propylene glycol • Propylene glycol monostearate • Saccharin • Salt (iodized salt) • Semolina (unless from wheat) • Simethicone • Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose • Sodium citrate • Sodium erythorbate • Sodium fumarate • Sodium lactate • Sodium starch glycolate • Sodium stearoyl fumarate • Sorbate • Sorbic acid • Sorbitan • Sorbitol • Splenda • Starch (any kind that is not specified) • Stearic acid • Stearoyls • Sucralose • Sucrose • Sugar (not identified as cane or beet) • Sweet’N Low • Threonine • Tocopherol (vitamin E) • Treacle (aka golden syrup) • Triethyl citrate • Unmodified starch • Vanilla, natural flavoring • Vanilla, pure or extract • Vanillin • Vegetable anything that’s not specific • Vinegar, distilled white • Vinyl acetate • Vitamin C and Vitamin E • Vitamins • Xanthan gum • Xylitol • Yeast • Zea mays • Zein (used in time-release medications)

 

Checking seeds and Kitniyos for Chametz grains:[75]

Those seeds which are not similar to wheat and are thus permitted, nevertheless must be checked very well to make sure that they do not contain any grain kernels in them. Likewise, in all cases that Kitniyos may be eaten [such as for a sick person, child, or Sephardim] they are to be checked for Chametz grains beforehand.

 

Owning and benefiting from Kitniyos?[76]

It is permitted to own Kitniyos and benefit from it on Pesach even if it is cooked, [and there is no custom to forbid doing so even according to Ashkenazi Jewry]. Thus, one may light candles using Kitniyos based oils.

 

May one have Kitniyos products on ones table when one eats?[77]

One may have Kitniyos products on one’s eating table, such as to have a Kitniyos based oil candle lit on ones table during the meal.[78]

 

Taaruvos Kitniyos-Foods that contain Kitniyos ingredients:

Kitniyos accidently fell into one’s Pesach food:[79] Kitniyos is nullified in majority.[80] Accordingly if Kitniyos accidently fell into one’s food, it is permitted to be eaten so long as the majority of the food is of other ingredients. [Nevertheless, if possible, the Kitniyos is to be removed from the mixture.[81]]

Intentional ingredient:[82] If Kitniyos was intentionally added to a food it may not be eaten on Pesach, even if it is nullified in majority.[83] This applies even if the Kitniyos was added before Pesach. [Thus, foods that contain trace Kitniyos derivative ingredients are not to be eaten on Pesach, according to those who invalidate Kitniyos derivatives, as explained in B in the Q&A.]

 

Q&A on Kitniyos pots

May one cook Pesach foods in a pot that had Kitniyos cooked in it?[84]

After 24 hours have passed from cooking the Kitniyos, one may even initially cook Pesach foods in it. Within 24 hours, one may not do so, although if one accidently cooked Pesach foods in the pot the food remains is permitted.[85]

What does one do if he cooked Kitniyos on his stove and some of it spilled?

One is to clean it well prior to cooking on it Pesach foods. One does not need to wait 24 hours prior to cooking.

 

______________________________________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 453:3-6

[2] Admur 453:1; Michaber 453:1; Pesachim 35a

Other opinions: The Talmud [Pesachim 35a] records the opinions of Rav Yochanan Ben Nury who holds that rice and millet are considered a grain and its leavening is actual Chametz for which one is liable for Kareis, just like the five grains. The Mishneh in Pesachim 2:5 rules that only the five grains can become Chametz, and the Gemara ibid establishes that this Mishneh does not follow the opinion of Rebbe Yochanon Ben Nury, and so is the final ruling of the Talmud, and all Rishonim and Achronim.

[3] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 453:4; Rambam 5:1

[4] Admur 453:3

[5] Admur 453:3; Rama 453:1 “Some Poskim prohibit it and so is the custom”; Darkei Moshe 453:2; Beis Yosef 453; Tur 453:1 in name of Yeish Osrin although concludes the custom is not like this; Terumos Hadeshen 113; Hagahos Maimanis 5:1 in name of Semak 222 and Rav Shmuel of Uroyah; Mordechai Remez 588; Peri Chadash 453:1 brings a proof for this custom from Pesachim 40b; See Kaf Hachaim 453:9-10

Other opinions: Some Poskim negate the custom of Ashkenazi Jewry, and rule it is to be nullified. [Rabbeinu Yerucham 5:3 p. 41 [brought in Beis Yosef 453] “It is a Minhag Shtus not to eat cooked Kitniyos unless they do it as a mere stringency, and I don’t know why”; Hagahos Maimanis 5:1 that Rav Yechiel and other Gedolim permitted Kitniyos; See Chasam Sofer 122 regarding a certain Ashkenazi community whose leaders permitted eating Kitniyos on Yom Tov of Pesach; Mor Uketzia 453, brought in Machazik Bracha 453:1 and Kaf Hachaim 453:10, writes his father the Chacham Tzevi protested against this custom, as it leaves people without food to eat and they end up baking a lot of Matzah of which if they are not careful, they can transgress an Issur Kareis. “Therefore, if I had the power I would abolish this custom”; See however Sheilas Yaavetz 2:146, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 453:1; Bashamayim Rosh 348 “It is a mistaken custom”; See Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid that some Sages desired to nullify this custom and the leaders of the generation stopped them.]

[6] The reason: The reason behind this custom is because in the later generations the population of uneducated Jews who are not expert in the laws of Issur Viheter [i.e. Kashrus] increased. Now, if they were to see people eating a cooked dish of Kitniyos on Pesach, they will mistakenly come to permit cooking [and eating] even grains [such as heat/spelt/rye/oats/barley]. The reason for this is because the entire year it is common to make legume dishes just as it is common to make grain dishes, and they will thus assume that they have an equal law regarding Pesach. For this reason, it became accustomed to forbid everything. [Admur ibid; 1st reason in Hagahos Maimanis ibid, Semak 222, Mordechai Remez 588, Beis Yosef 453; 1st reason in Chok Yaakov 453:5; Peri Chadash 453:1 based on Pesachim 40b; 1st reason in Perisha 453:3; M”B 453:6 omits this reason and states cooked legumes is forbidden due to Lo Pelug]

Other reasons mentioned in Poskim: Some Poskim write the reason behind this custom is because wheat grains tend to get mixed into Kitniyos, and hence people may come to stumble and eat Chametz grains during Pesach, when eating their Kitniyos dish. [Tur 453:1; 1st reason in Taz 453:1; 2nd reason in Chok Yaakov 453:5; 3rd reason in Hagahos Maimanis ibid and Beis Yosef 453; 1st reason in M”B 453:6] Alternatively, the reason is because it is possible to make flour/dough out of legumes and thus one may come to confuse it with Chametz flour/dough and come to allow even Chametz flour/dough. [2nd reason brought in Taz 453:1; 2nd reason in Hagahos Maimanis ibid, Semak 222, Mordechai Remez 588, Beis Yosef 453; Bach 453; 2nd reason in Perisha 453:3; 2nd reason in M”B 453:6; See also Biur Halacha 453:1 “Veyeish Osrin”]

The practical ramifications between the reasons: 1) May an Ashkenazi eat dry Kitniyos [Permitted according to reason of Admur, forbidden according to 2nd reason] 2) May an Ashkenazi eat cooked Kitniyos if it was checked for grains. [Permitted according to 1st reason, forbidden according to Admur, 3rd reason] [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:3 that the custom is to be stringent like all the reasons]

[7] Admur 253:5; Taz 453:1; Chok Yaakov 453:5; Tur 453:1; See Rabbeinu Yerucham ibid

[8] Beis Yosef ibid writes “Ashkenazim”; Chayeh Adam 127:1 writes it applies to all Ashkenaz and Poland; See Chasam Sofer 122 regarding a certain Ashkenazi community whose leaders permitted eating Kitniyos on Yom Tov of Pesach;

[9] Rama 453:1; Darkei Moshe ibid; Taz 453:1; Chok Yaakov 453:5; Levush 453; Bach 453; Maharil in next footnote; Chida in Shiyurei Bracha 453 and Tov Ayin ibid, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 453:1 and Kaf Hachaim 453:11; Chayeh Adam 127:1; See Admur 453:3-5 who uses the term “forbidden” regarding the custom, although does not write the wording of the Rama ibid.

[10] Drashos Maharil 5 Hilchos Machalos Assuros Bepesach, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 453:1 and Kaf Hachaim 453:11

[11] Michaber 453:1 “It is permitted to cook and eat it” Beis Yosef 453 “Only the Ashkenazim suspect for this matter”; Peri Chadash ibid; Chida in Tov Ayin 9:6; Tur 453:1 that the custom is not to prohibit Kitniyos; Rabbeinu Yerucham 5:3 p. 41 “It is a Minhag Shtus not to eat cooked Kitniyos unless they do it as a mere stringency, and I don’t know why”; Shaareiy Teshuvah 453:1 that it is similar to Takanas Rabbeinu Gershom not to marry two wives, which depends on country

[12] See Peri Chadash ibid “It is not our custom to avoid Kitniyos, with exception to rice, being that we once checked it three times and we still found a wheat kernel in it afterwards, and from that day and onwards we stopped eating rice on Pesach.” This refers to Jerusalem Jewry, of which the Peri Chadash was its Rabbinical leader. So writes also Chida in Tov Ayin ibid and Pekudas Eliezer 51, brought in Kaf Hachaim 453:10, that Jerusalem Jewry forbids rice/Kitniyos on Pesach. Kaf Hachaim ibid concludes that today Yerushalayim is made up of many communities and each group is to follow their custom.

[13] Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; Kaf Hachaim 453:9-10

[14] Piskeiy Teshuvah

[15] P”M 444 A”A 2; The Peri Megadim allows it to be eaten until the night of the 15th if one checks the kernels three times; See Aruch Hashulchan 444:8

[16] Chok Yaakov 471:2; Daas Torah 453; Pesach Meubin; Chazon Ish Michtavim 1:188,

[17] Sheivet Halevi 3:31

[18] Aruch Hashulchan 453:5; M”B 453:7

[19] M”B 453:7

[20] Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:9

[21] Tashbatz 3:179; Igros Moshe O.C.  1:155; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 2 39:15

[22] See Admur 308:89; So is apparent from all the early and late Achronim mentioned in Minchas Yitzchak 7:33 who do not mention it as being Muktzah.

 The reason: As it is edible for Sephardim and is hence similar to wine of a Nazir.

Other Opinions: The Minchas Yitzchak ibid brings that according to some opinions Kitniyos is Muktzah on the Shabbos directly following Pesach being that it was set aside by Bein Hashmashos from being eaten.

[23] See Admur 310:4; Yechaveh Daas 2:64; So is apparent from all the early and late Achronim mentioned in Minchas Yitzchak 7:33 who do not mention it as being Muktzah.

Other Opinions: The Minchas Yitzchak 7:33 brings that according to some opinions Kitniyos is Muktzah on the Shabbos directly following Pesach being that it was set aside by Bein Hashmashos from being eaten.

[24] The reason it is not Muktza: 1) Edible Kitniyos is not Muktza on this Shabbos, despite it being inedible during Bein Hashmashos, as it is similar to a cow which was slaughtered, that as soon as its prohibition leaves it is permitted, and only by those things which were pushed away with one’s hands and thus became Muktza [such as candles/esrog/dried grapes] do they remain Muktza even after their reason of Muktza has left. [Admur ibid; M”B 318:8] 2) An item which was Muktza on Bein Hashmashos because of the previous day does not remain Muktza for the rest of Shabbos. [Michaber 665:1] 3) Even on Yom Tov itself Kitniyos is not Muktza as it is edible for Sephardim, and is hence similar to wine of a Nazir.

[25] See Minchas Yitzchak 7:33 for a thorough analyses on this topic

[26] Birkeiy Yosef; Sdei Chemed Chametz Umatzah 6:6; Luach Rav Tuchinsky

[27] The reason: As the Kitniyos is available for Sephardic guests to eat. This is similar to Challah in the Diaspora which may be baked on Yom Tov if there is a Tahor Kohen available. [Admur 467:20-21]

[28] Kneses Hagedola 62; Minchas Yitzchak ibid and other Poskim mentioned there

[29] The reason: 1) As it is similar to a person fasting who is forbidden in cooking anything even for others. 2) As one may come to eat it.

[30] Admur 453:4

[31] Admur 453:3 and 4

[32] Admur 453:5

The reason: As they are similar to grains which upon coming into contact with water become Chametz. [Admur ibid]

[33] Implication of Admur 453:5; Chayeh Adam 127:1; Maharsham 1:183; Beir Yitzchak 11; Marcheses 3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:3

[34] Mamar Mordechai 32; Forbidden according to alternative reasons for why Kitniyos is forbidden, as explained in A; See Avnei Nezer 373 and 533; Sdei Chemed 6:1-2; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[35] Admur 453:4

[36] The reason: Based on the reason mentioned above, only legumes are forbidden due to the custom, being that they are similar when cooked, to the cooking of the 5 grains. However, seeds are not forbidden according to the custom, being that they are not similar to grains. [Admur ibid]

[37] Admur 453:6

[38] Implication of Admur 453:5; Tzemach Tzedek O.C. 56; Terumos Hadeshen 113

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to eat Kitniyos oils. [Maharsham 1:183; Orach Mishpat O.C. 109]

[39] Admur ibid in parentheses

[40] See Maharsham and Orach Mishpat ibid regarding oil; Furthermore, one can compare this to musk [blood of the male dusk deer] of which many Rishonim and Poskim rule that it is permitted to be eaten due to “Panim Chadashos.” [See Admur in Seder Birchas Hanehenin 11:5 who records a dispute in this matter and concludes one is to be stringent by a Biblical prohibition; See Torah or Mamar Chayav Inish]

[41] Igros Moshe O.C. 3:73

[42] Igros Moshe 3:63 [writes that from the letter of the law peanuts are permitted to be eaten, although in places that the custom is to be stringent one may not permit them to eat it.]; Rav Yaakov Landau OBM, as heard from his son Rav Eli Landau, ruled that peanuts are not Kitniyos and may be eaten;

[43] Rav Landau used to give a Hashgacha for Pesach on cookies made with peanuts. [Heard from Rav Eli Landau]; See Mikraeiy Kodesh 2:60 and Chelkas Yaakov 1:96 who permit peanut derivatives, such as peanut oil

[44] Milameid Lehoil 88; Mikraeiy Kodesh 2:60; Chelkas Yaakov 1:96; Igros Moshe ibid; Nitei Gavriel 38:4

[45] Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:5

[46] Shaareiy Teshuvah 453:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:7

[47] Shaareiy Teshuvah 453:1 “In these areas the widespread custom is to eat coffee”; Madrich of Eida Hachareidis

[48] Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid in name of Tov Ayin of Chida “A certain Gadol wanted to prohibit coffee”

[49] Chida ibid that one who does so avoids any similarity to Kitniyos; Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid “This is a Chumra of Pesach, and one who does so is blessed”

[50] Madrich of Eida Hachariedis, as instant coffee is cooked/steamed, and at times is done in the same factory and machinery as non-Kosher animal products.

[51] Heard from Rav Eli Landau who stated that even instant coffee under a good Hashgacha is possibly ok to be used; This is similar to sugar of which the Rebbe writes that it may be used with a good Hashgacha.

[52] Chayeh Adam in Nishmas Adam Pesach 20

[53] The reason: As their flour looks similar to grain flour and an ignoramus may come to permit even flour of grains if it were to be allowed. [ibid]

[54] P”M 453 M”Z 1 with exception to areas who have accepted upon themselves to not eat it; Sheilas Yaavetz 2:147; Aruch Hashulchan 453:5; Divrei Malkiel 2:112; Orchos Chaim 467:5; Igros Moshe O.C. 3:63 that the custom was never to be stringent; Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:8

[55] Custom of some communities, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:8

[56] Rav Blumenkrantz writes that it is not considered Kitniyos, as would follow according to Igros Moshe regarding all products that do not have a prior tradition to prohibit; In addition, quinoa is a seed and not a legume.

[57] Rabbi Blumenkrants

[58] See Avnei Nezer 373 and 533; Maharsham 1:183; OU Kashrus; Heard from Rav Eli Landau;

[59] Terumos Hadeshen 113

[60] Terumos Hadeshen 113; Beis Shlomo Y.D. 177; Minchas Elazar 4:34; See however Maharsham 1:183; Orach Mishpat O.C. 109

[61] Mikraeiy Kodesh 2:60 in name of Rav Chaim Ozer; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:6

[62] Minchas Yitzchak 3:138-2; 4:114-3; Cheshev Haeifod 2:18; Implication of Terumos Hadeshen ibid regarding sesame oil and hemp oil

[63] Nitei Gavriel 38:5

[64] Heard from his son Rav Eli Landau, and that it was used in their home over Pesach.

[65] Igros Kodesh 21:96; See Shulchan Menachem 2:223

[66] Admur 453:3

[67] Admur 453:3; See P”M 453 A”A 1 that Turkish wheat is not a grain and cannot become Chametz. Some translate this to refer to corn, which mainly cultivated in Turkey; Aruch Hashulchan 453

[68] Admur 453:4

[69] All commercially produced lecithin is made from soy

[70] Admur 453:3

[71] Admur 453:3

[72] Admur 453:4

[73] Admur 453:3; See Chok Yaakov 453:5

[74] Admur 453:3

[75] Admur 453:6

[76] Admur 453:5; Rama 453:1; Terumos Hadeshen 113

[77] Admur 453:5

[78] The reason: The reason for this is because we do not suspect that the oil will fall into food, as even if it does it is nullified in majority. [Admur ibid]

[79] Admur 453:5; Peri Chadash 453:1; Chok Yaakov 453:6; M”B 453:9

[80] The reason: As this prohibition due to custom is a mere stringency [and hence does not require 60x]. [Admur ibid]

[81] See M”B 453:8; Sdei Chemed 6:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 453:6

[82] Admur 464:2; Terumos Hadeshen 113; Maharil p. 135; Chok Yaakov 464:3

[83] The reason: In some instances, the Kitniyos is the main ingredient, and is felt in the food. Furthermore, the Sages were only lenient if the mixture happened on its own and not for one who mixed it in intentionally with his hands in order to eat it on Pesach. [Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov]

[84] Kaf Hachaim 453:27 in name of Poskim

[85] The reason: As there is majority of Heter versus the Kitniyos taste. [ibid]

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