Chapter 8: The laws pertinent to the congregation during the reading

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Chapter 8: The laws pertinent to the congregation during the reading

1. Paying attention to the blessings and reading, and following along in a Chumash:

A. The blessings:

Paying attention to the blessing:[1] It is an obligation upon the congregation to pay attention to the blessing while it is being said.

The congregation answering Barchu and Amen to the blessing:[2] The congregation is to pay attention to the blessings of the Torah and Haftorah and answer Amen afterwards. See Chapter 7 Halacha 5F-G for the full details of this subject!

Being Yotzei 100 blessings with listening to the blessings of the Torah and Haftorah:[3] Every Jew is obligated to recite one hundred blessings each day. On Shabbos, due to the loss of several blessings from Shemoneh Esrei, one needs to accumulate these blessings from other sources, such as by eating fruits and smelling spices. If one does not have enough fruits and spices to accumulate for the missing blessings, then one is to concentrate on the blessings of the Aliyos to the Torah by both Shacharis and Mincha, and the Haftorah, and answer Amen after them, and doing so counts towards accumulating one’s 100 blessing. [By doing so, one can accumulate 27 blessings, and easily reach a total of 100 blessings.[4]] Nevertheless, one does not fulfill his obligation of Meiah Brachos with such a blessing unless he heard the blessing from the person saying it.[5] [Thus, one is to place close attention, and try to be nearby the Olah when he says the blessings.] Furthermore, one can only fulfill his obligation of the 100 blessings with hearing the blessings of the Torah if he does not have enough fruits or spices to make blessings on.[6]

 

If one did not hear the entire blessing, may he answer Amen if it is a blessing that he is hearing in order to be Yotzei Meiah Brachos, such as the blessings of Maftir?[7]

Yes. One may thus answer Amen so long as he knows which blessing was said, even though he did not hear the blessing.[8] Nevertheless, one does not fulfill his obligation of Meiah Brachos with such a blessing unless he heard the blessing from the person saying it.

 

B. The reading:[9]

Paying attention to the reading:[10] It is an obligation upon everyone to listen and pay attention to the reading of the Parsha by Kerias Hatorah. [One must place due effort to not miss even one word or letter of the reading.[11] One is to have a Chumash open in front of him and follow the reading during Kerias Hatorah.[12]]

Reading along inside the Chumash: Some Poskim[13] rule that it is proper for every congregant to read along silently in the Chumash together with the Baal Korei, in order to help one’s concentration on the reading. Other Poskim[14], however, rule that one is to remain silent during the reading, and is to only read along in his mind. Those who read along inside are to read in a non-audible voice, making sure that even their own ears do not hear the words they are verbalizing.[15] It is forbidden for anyone to read the words out loud together with the Baal Korei.[16]

2. The law if one missed a word:[17]

One who did not hear all the words from the Baal Korei is nevertheless not required to make up the reading by another Minyan.[18] Even if a group of ten people in the Shul could not hear some of the words, nevertheless, they are not to have the Sefer Torah read again with an Aliyah to make up the missed words, and it is even forbidden to do so. [However, one is to read the missed areas to himself from a Chumash.[19] Furthermore, some are scrupulous if they miss a word to join the Minyan of another reading.[20] This, however, is only applicable to be done when a word was missed from a weekly Parsha Shabbos reading, and not by other times of Kerias Hatorah.[21]]

 

If one feels the need to use the bathroom during Kerias Hatorah, what is he to do?

See Halacha 9 in Q&A!

 

Bringing children to Shul:

Children who run around in Shul for fun, [and make noise and] disturb their parents [and others] during Kerias Hatorah are not to be brought to Shul at all.[22] [Bringing such children to Shul, asides for it disturbing the prayers and it being a desecration of the holy place, also educates them to treat a Shul improperly, and makes them continue their ways even when they become older.[23] Accordingly, children who are below the age of Chinuch and are unable to sit still in Shul without disrupting, are not to be brought to Shul at all. However, those children who are above the age of Chinuch are to be brought and educated to participate properly in the Minyan and act with the appropriate respect.[24]]

 

3. The prohibition of talking during Kerias Hatorah:[25]

Once the reader has begun to read the Torah it is forbidden for the congregants to speak.[26] [Furthermore, some Poskim[27] rule that even prior to the start of the reading, once the Sefer Torah is opened, it is forbidden to speak.]

Words of Torah:[28] It is even forbidden for them to speak words of Torah. This applies even if the congregant has already read the Parsha to himself [Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum[29]]. 

Between Aliyos:[30] It is forbidden to speak even between the Aliyos, [even when the Mi Shebeirach is recited[31], and hence from the commencing of the reading until the conclusion of the final reading, speech is prohibited[32]].[33] This applies even to words of Torah.[34] It is however permitted for one to be lenient to learn Torah quietly to himself in between the Aliyos.[35] However, once the blessings are recited he must be quiet and listen.[36]

Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum:[37] Some Poskim[38] rule that it is permitted to read Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum [to oneself[39]] during the reading of the Torah on Shabbos.[40] [Other Poskim[41], however forbid doing so. Practically one is not to do so, as it is proper to listen to the words being read by the Baal Korei.[42] One may however read along with the Baal Korei, and doing so is praiseworthy.[43] It is likewise allowed to read Shnayim Mikra between the Aliyos.[44]]

Halachic rulings: It is forbidden for a Rav to give Halachic ruling to an asker during the reading of the Torah[45], although he may do so between the Aliyos.[46] If however the matter involves stopping a person from currently doing a sin then it is allowed for him to answer even in middle of the reading.[47] Nevertheless one is to first try to stop the person through a hint, and only if he is unable to do so should he actually speak during the reading.[48]

 

Summary:

Once the reader has begun to read the Torah it is forbidden for the congregants to speak at all, even words of Torah, until the conclusion of the final reading. Some Poskim rule that even prior to the start of the reading, once the Sefer Torah is opened, it is forbidden to speak. It is forbidden to speak even between the Aliyos, and even when the Mi Shebeirach is recited. It is however permitted for one to be lenient to learn Torah quietly to himself between the Aliyos. However, once the blessings are recited he must be quiet and listen.

 

Q&A

May one speak during Kerias Hatorah if he already heard the reading in a different Minyan, or plans to hear it later on?

It is forbidden to speak to others during the reading even if one already heard Kerias Hatorah with a Minyan, being that this will disturb others. Furthermore, some Poskim[49] rule one may not even learn Torah quietly to himself during the reading and is thus required to listen to the reading a second time. Practically however, if there are ten people other than him listening to the reading then he may learn Torah quietly to himself during the reading. He should also make it apparent that he has already heard the Torah reading or plans to do so in a different Minyan.[50] 

 

May a Rav give a Drasha between Aliyos?[51]

A Rav may give a Drasha which involves the Mitzvah of Tzedakah in order to motivate the congregants to donate money to the Shul upon them receiving their Aliyah.

May one say a blessing over thunder or lightning during the Keriah?[52]

One who hears thunder or lightning during Kerias Hatorah is not obligated to stop to say the blessing, and seemingly is not to do so.

 

May people collect Tzedakah during Kerias Hatorah?[53] 

The Gabbaim of the Shul are to prevent people from collecting charity during Kerias Hatorah, due to it disturbing the congregation.

 

The severity of the sin of speaking during Kerias Hatorah:

Speaking during Kerias Hatorah is a very severe sin. It causes one’s prayer to be an abomination and not be accepted by Hashem.[54] It belittles the Torah and Hashem, and one’s punishment will be sure to come.[55] It banishes the Shechina from the Shul, and causes death and poverty r”l amongst the Jewish people.[56] On the other hand one who respects the Torah and its reading causes that the Torah arouses Divine mercy upon him and his family in both spiritual and material matters.[57]

 

Free Translation of the words of the Rebbe Rayatz on the severity of speaking during the Torah reading:[58]

It is thus incumbent upon the reader of the Torah to be well versed in all the laws of Kerias Hatorah, as this matter touches one’s very soul. On this the verse states that life and death is in the hands of the tongue. Just as the reward is very great for one who reads the Torah properly, according to law, so too is the great and immense retribution against one who belittles the reading of the Torah properly and does not place vast effort to know all the tunes of the reading. One who does not do so is Heaven forbid considered like one who causes the masses, which are the listeners of his incorrect reading, to sin. On this the verse states that life and death is in the hands of the tongue. Now, this likewise applies to those who listen to the reading of the Torah, that they need to listen to the reading from a Sefer that is in their hands, and they need to hear each and every word. It is known the great and immense consequences in this world and the next to those who are not careful in this. It is explained in Sefarim that listening to the Torah reading properly affects the blessings one receives in Baneiy/children; Chayaiy/Health; and Mezonei/Parnasa. One who demeans the listening of the Torah is a brazen person which expels the king from his own palace. One who speaks to a friend is causing the masses to sin and increases Heaven forbid and Heaven forefend, death and poverty amongst the Jewish people.

 

4. Not to say words out loud together with the Baal Korei:[59]

It is forbidden to read the words out loud together with the Baal Korei. [Hence, those who are accustomed to say different words and phrases aloud with the Baal Korei, such as the word Ka’eileh by the reading of the Maftir of Pesach, are to be protested.]

5. What is one to do if he is in middle of Davening while the Torah is being read?

A. Pesukei Dezimra and Birchas Shema or Shema:[60]

If the congregation began reading from the Torah while one is still in the midst of Davening, then if he will be unable to hear the reading from another Minyan then he is to stop and listen to the reading.

B. In middle of Shemoneh Esrei:

It is debated amongst the Rishonim and Poskim as to whether one is to stop and listen to a Davar Shebekedusha in the midst of Shemoneh Esrei, and practically we rule that one is to stop and listen silently.[61] However, some Poskim[62] write that this ruling does not apply to Kerias Hatorah, and it is thus better to continue with the Davening then to stop and listen to the Keriah in middle of Shemoneh Esrei.[63] This applies even if one will not be able to hear Kerias Hatorah again that day.[64] However, other Poskim[65] rule that one may [and should] stop and listen to the Keriah.[66] [Practically, it is best to avoid this situation and not begin Shemoneh Esrei at a time that it will conflict with Kerias Hatorah. However, Bedieved if one did so, or must do so due to the passing of Zman Tefilla, then those who stop and listen have upon whom to rely. This especially applies if one cannot properly concentrate on his Shemoneh Esrei in the midst of Kerias Hatorah.[67]]

Women: According to most Poskim[68], and the final ruling[69], women are not obligated to hear Kerias Hatorah and hence they may continue Shemoneh Esrei rather than to stop and listen to Keiras Hatorah. Nonetheless, if a woman cannot properly concentrate on her Shemoneh Esrei in the midst of Kerias Hatorah then she may stop and listen, as stated above.

6. Standing-Should one stand during Kerias Hatorah?[70]

The congregation is not required to stand during the Torah reading [and so is the widespread custom[71], and so is the ruling according to Kabbala[72]].[73] However, there are some who are stringent[74] to stand [during the actual Torah reading, although even they are allowed to sit between the Aliyos[75]].[76] [Practically, the Sephardi custom, and custom of many Ashkenazim and Chassidim, is not to stand during the reading, although some Ashkenazim and Chassidim are stringent to stand. This applies also according to the Chabad custom, that one may sit during the reading, although some are stringent to stand.[77] Regarding the Chabad custom in a Shul that does not have a Bima platform-see next.]

On the Bima and in a Shul without a Bima platform:[78] The above ruling [that one is not required to stand] applies even to those sitting on the Bima, that if there are benches on the elevated Bima platform on which the Torah is read, nevertheless even those who are sitting on the Bima do not need to stand. Likewise, even if there is no elevated platform in the Shul, known as the Bima, and the Torah is simply read on a table, [or reading table figuratively called a Bima] which is resting on equal floor level as the rest of the congregation, the congregation does not need to stand. [This applies even if the reading table of the Sefer Torah is not 4×4 Tefachim and is not 10 Tefachim high.[79] However, some Poskim[80], rule that if the Sefer Torah rests on a table and not on an elevated Bima platform, then from the letter of the law one is required to stand, and may only sit between the Aliyos. Practically, those who are weak and cannot concentrate properly on the reading, may sit even in such a case.[81]]

Standing during the blessings: Some Poskim[82] rule that everyone [even those who sit during the actual reading] is required to stand upon hearing the blessings of the Torah [i.e. Barchu[83], Birchas Hatorah before and after[84]], as is the rule by every Davar Shebekedusha.[85] Other Poskim[86], however, rule it is not necessary [for the listeners] to stand during the recital of Birchas Hatorah, or even Barchu. Practically, although in general it is proper to suspect for the stringent opinion and stand during a Davar Shebekedusha[87], the custom by Kerias Hatorah is like the latter opinion, not to stand for even Barchu or Birchas Hatorah.[88] Nonetheless, even according to the lenient opinion, in the event that one was already standing prior to the recital of Barchu or Birchas Hatorah, it is good/proper[89] to remain standing, and not sit down, until after it is completed.[90] [Accordingly, those who are stringent to remain standing during the reading, are to remain standing also during the blessings and are certainly to avoid sitting down prior to the blessings completion.]  

Standing during Aseres Hadibros:[91] It is an old custom amongst many communities to stand during the reading of Aseres Hadibros.[92] Some Poskim[93], however, rule one is not  allowed to stand during Aseres Hadibros.[94] Practically, the Chabad custom is to stand, facing the Sefer Torah.[95] If the entire congregation is standing then one is obligated to stand together with them, even if in general he is accustomed to sit.[96] 

Standing for Shiras Hayam:[97] Some communities are accustomed to stand during the reading of Shiras Hayam. Practically, the Chabad custom is to stand.[98]

Standing during the Haftorah-Haftorah of Shavuos:[99] Throughout all the Haftorahs of the year, the person reading the Haftorah aloud must initially stand when doing so out of honor for the congregation [however, the congregation itself is not required to stand]. However, [on the 1st day of Shavuos] some have the custom for all those who read the Haftorah of Merkavah Yechezkel along quietly with the reader, to stand during its reading.[100] [However, those who do not read along quietly with the reader, there is no custom for them to stand even by the Haftorah of Shavuos. Practically, the Chabad custom is to always read a Haftorah quietly along with the reader[101], although it is not necessarily our custom to stand even for the Haftorah of Shavuos. Each community is to follow the directive of their Rav regarding this matter.]

 

Summary:

The congregation is not required to stand during the reading, although some are stringent to stand. Some Poskim learn that if the Sefer Torah rests on a table and not on a Bima, then one is to stand during the reading, and may only sit between the Aliyos. However, those who are weak and cannot concentrate properly on the reading, may sit. From the letter of the law, it is best for the congregation to stand when the blessings before and after the Torah reading are recited, although the custom is to remain seated also during this time. Whatever the case, one who is accustomed to stand for Kerias Hatorah is not to sit down when the blessings are recited.

 

Q&A

May one be stringent to stand if the entire congregations are accustomed to sit?

Some Poskim[102] rule that if the entire congregation sits during the reading one may not be stringent to stand. Other Poskim[103], however, rule that one may stand even in such a case, and so is the custom of those who are stringent.

May one who is lenient to sit do so even if the entire congregation is accustomed to stand?

Some Poskim[104] rule it is permitted to do so. However, from other Poskim[105] it is implied that he must stand.

 

May one sit opposite the Olah or Baal Korei?[106]

One is not to sit, or even stand, opposite the Olah.

 

7. Covering one’s head with the Tallis:

It is the custom of those particular in Mitzvos, and of all the Chassidim[107], to cover their head with the Tallis Gadol throughout the entire period of time that they are wearing it, in order so their head is not uncovered for even one moment.[108] Doing so humbles ones heart and leads to fear of heaven.[109] One who removes his Tallis from his head is like one who passes over the chance to perform a Mitzvah.[110] One is not to uncover his head from the Tallis even if he is very hot.[111] The Tallis is to remain on one’s head from the beginning of Davening until the end.[112] Seemingly, this applies likewise during Kerias Hatorah. Nonetheless, the Rebbe Rashab was not accustomed to cover his head during the Keriah.[113]

8. Removing one’s Tefillin:[114]

One may not remove his [head[115]] Tefillin in front of a Sefer Torah, unless he turns away from the Sefer Torah [or covers his head with a Tallis]. [This applies even if it is already wrapped up and held.[116]] Furthermore, the custom is not to remove [any of the] Tefillin until the Sefer Torah is returned to the ark.[117] Thus, in those communities that return the Torah to the ark after the Kaddish of Uva Letzion, the custom is not to remove the Tefillin until the Torah is returned.[118] Nonetheless, if one needs to remove his Tefillin prior to the Torah being returned to the Ark, then he may do so if he turns away from the Torah scroll while removing the head Tefillin, as stated above.[119]

9. Leaving Shul:[120]

It is forbidden [for a man[121]] to leave the Shul [once] the Sefer Torah is opened [until the completion of the reading, and the recital of the after blessing by the Olah[122]]. [This applies even if there are another ten people in Shul and he already heard the reading.[123] This applies even if the reading has yet to begin, if the Sefer Torah has already been opened.[124]] However, once the reading is complete, it is permitted for an individual to leave the Shul even prior to the Sefer Torah being returned to the Aron.[125] Nonetheless, the [majority[126] of the] congregation may not leave the Shul until the Sefer Torah is returned.[127]

Between Aliyos:[128] [In a time of great need[129]] one may leave in-between the Aliyos. [Even this, however, is only permitted if he already heard Kerias Hatorah, or plans to immediately return, and only if a Minyan remains in the room.[130]]

 

Q&A

May a woman leave the Shul in middle of Kerias Hatorah?[131]

Yes.

May one who needs the bathroom leave in middle of Kerias Hatorah?

No, unless he cannot withhold himself until later. Some Poskim[132] rule that this receives the same law as Shemoneh Esrei, and thus he may not leave during the actual reading, unless it is an absolute bathroom emergency. Nonetheless, one who has an urge may leave in-between the Aliyos, as the prohibition applies only during the actual reading. Other Poskim[133], however, suggest that if one is able to hold himself in for 72 minutes, then he is not to leave the Shul in middle of the reading, and is to rather hold himself in. If, however, his urge is stronger than this, then he is to go.

If one entered the Shul without intent to participate in the Minyan, such as to speak to someone, or grab his Tefillin, may he exit during Kerias Hatorah?[134]

No. However, in such a case one may leave between the Aliyos.[135]

 

10. Reciting Chazak Chazak Vinischazeik after the reading:[136]

The custom is that after the completion of each of the five Chumashim, the congregation stands and recites Chazak Chazak Vinischazeik[137] prior to the concluding blessing being said. [Some Poskim[138] rule that Olah himself is not to recite Chazak and it is to only be said by the congregation. Practically, however, the Chabad custom is also for the Olah to recite it.[139]]

_______________________________________

[1] Admur 124:11; 284:7

[2] Admur 284:7

[3] Admur 46:1; 215:5; 284:7; 290:1; Michaber 284:3; M”A 46:8; Peri Chadash 46:3; Rosh Brachos 9:24; Shibulei Haleket 1; Yireim 255

[4] See Admur 46:1 that one is only lacking 13 blessings on Shabbos

[5] Admur 46:1; M”A 46:8; Peri Chadash 46:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one fulfills his obligation of Meiah Brachos with answering Amen over the blessing even if he did not hear the blessing, so long as he knows which blessing it was. [Beis Yosef 46; P”M 124 M”Z 4]

[6] Admur 46:1; 290:1; See Admur 215:4; 284:7; Michaber 290:1; Rif and Rosh Brachos 9:24

[7] Admur 46:1; M”A 46:8; Peri Chadash 46/3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one fulfills his obligation of Meiah Brachos with answering Amen over the blessing even if he did not hear the blessing, so long as he knows which blessing was. [Beis Yosef 46; P”M 124 M”Z 4]

[8] The reason: The reason for this is because the obligation of Meiah Brachos is different than the obligation of other blessings, and thus is permitted to answer Amen even if one did not hear the blessing, even according to the first opinion in 124/11. [P”M ibid]

[9] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:3; 146:5; Yalkut Dinei Kerias Hatorah p. 1374

[10] Admur 284:11; Beis Yosef 146; Rabbeinu Yerucham 2:3 in name of Maharam; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:3; 282:2

[11] See Hagah Yeish Nochlin Chapter 5; Sefer Chafetz Chaim Pesicha Ase 7 in Hagah; Igros Moshe 4:23; 40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135 footnote 14, 137 footnote 25

[12] See all Poskim in next footnote; Sefer Haminhagim p. 30 [English]

[13] M”A 146:5; Mateh Moshe; Levush; Derech Hachaim; Shulchan Eitzim;  M”B 146:15

[14] Shaareiy Efraim 4:12; Kitzur SHU”A 24:3; Gra in Maaseh Rav 131; Zohar in next footnote; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:5; 282:2

[15] See Michaber 141:2; Zohar Vayakhel 202

[16] Michaber ibid; P”M 146 A”A 5

[17] Mishneh Sachir 1:90; Minchas Shlomo 2:14; Tzitz Eliezer 18:5; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:148; 3:65; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:2 footnote 15; 137:3

[18] See Tzemach Tzedek 35-7 and all Poskim in in Chapter 1 Halacha 2 who rule that the obligation is on the congregation and not on the individual

[19] As the custom is to finish the entire Torah annually, aside for the obligation of Shnayim Mikra. See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 14 and all Poskim in Chapter 2 Halacha 6 regarding one who missed Kerias Hatorah

[20] Igros Moshe 4:23; 40 that it is proper to do so

[21] Igros Moshe ibid

[22] Admur 98:1 “Children who disturb their parents, are not to be brought to Shul at all” and 124:10 “Children who run around in Shul for fun it is better not to bring them to Shul at all”; M”A 98:1; Elya Raba 98:2; Shlah p. 256 in name of Derech Chaim; M”B 98:3; Kaf Hachaim 98:13

[23] Shlah ibid; M”B 98:3

[24] Machatzis Hashekel 98:1; M”B 98:3; Kaf Hachaim 98:13; See also Shlah ibid “Bottom line, one is not to bring very small children to Shul”

[25] Michaber 146:2; Sotah 39a; Zohar Vayakhel p. 206; Biur Halacha 146:2 “Vehanachon”; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:2-4; 282:2; Igros Kodesh 17:208; Shulchan Menachem 1:261; Rambam Chagiga 3:6 regarding Hakhel

[26] This prohibition applies according to all opinions regarding mundane words, as it is only regarding words of Torah in which there is a dispute.

[27] M”A 146:3 based on Gemara ibid; Gr”a; Soles Belula 146:3; M”B 146:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the prohibition of speech only begins from the time that the reading commences. [Michaber ibid as explained in Beis Yosef; Rashi on Gemara ibid; Elya Raba 146:3; Mateh Yehuda146:3; Derech Hachaim 3; Shaareiy Efraim 4:11; Kaf Hachaim 146:8]

[28] 1st opinion of Michaber ibid and his final ruling; Zohar Vayakhel p. 206; Peri Chadash; Shelah 77, brought in M”A 146:5; Gr”a in Maaseh Rav; Aruch Hashulchan 146:6; M”B 146:15; Achronim as brought in Kaf Hachaim 146:13; Rebbe Rashab in Modaah Raba [printed in Siddur Im Dach p. 644]

Background and other opinions in Michaber: The Michaber records five opinions regarding learning Torah during the reading. 1) It is forbidden to do so in any circumstance; 2) Some opinions [Rashi] permit one to learn quietly. 3) Some opinions [Bahag] rule that if there are ten other people listening to the reading, it is permitted for one to speak [words of Torah-Rama]. 4)  Some opinions [Rif] rule if one’s occupation is Torah learning he may learn Torah. 5) Some opinions [Talmidei Rabbeinu Yonah] rule that it is permitted for one to learn Torah during the reading if prior to the opening of the Torah he turned his face away from the Torah and made himself appear that he does not desire to hear the reading but rather to learn, and he began to learn. In the Beis Yosef 146 he concludes that it is valid to rely on all of the above Sages. However, the Michaber ibid concludes “The proper ruling to follow is that by all the Parshiyos it is befitting for a meticulous Jew to pay attention and listen to the reading.” The Rebbe Rashab in Modaah Raba [printed in Siddur Im Dach p. 644] explains that based on the Kelalei Haposkim it is evident that the Michaber rules like the first opinion. So is also the ruling of all the Achronim to be mentioned below that one may only be lenient to learn quietly between the Aliyos. [Kaf Hachaim 146:13] The Shelah ibid concludes that the Torah Scholars that learn Torah during the reading indirectly cause others to speak during the reading and will be punished for doing so.

Parshas Zachar and Parah: According to all opinions the reading of Zachar and Parah must be listened and heard by the congregants [even by one who desires to learn Torah based on one of the above allowances], as the reading of these Parshiyos with a Minyan are Biblical. [Michaber ibid]

[29] Olas Tamid 146:3; Beis Yosef in name of Rashba; Kaf Hachaim 146:12

[30] Michaber ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to speak even mundane words between the Aliyos. [Peri Chadash 146:2; Bach as brought in Beir Heiytiv 146:3; P”M 146 A”A 7]

[31] Maareh Yechezkel 26; Kaf Hachaim 146:15

A long Mi Shebeirach: In today’s times that the Mi Shebeirach can take quite some time, some justify those that are lenient to speak necessary words during this time, even if they are of mundane content. This however only applies to a short interjection that will not turn into a long conversation that will interfere with the reading. [See other opinions in previous footnote; Aruch Hashulchan 146:3; Shulchan Hatahor 146:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:3] The Kaf Hachaim 146:10 completely negates their opinion.

[32] Beis Yosef 146

[33] The reason: As we suspect the person will continue his conversation even after the reading resumes. [Beis Yosef; M”B 146:6]

[34] Drashos Maharil; Kneses Hagedola 146:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to speak words of Torah between the Aliyos, and that so is the custom. The reason for this is because the entire reason for the prohibition during the reading is in order not to disturb others, and hence in-between the reading there is nothing to suspect for. [Bach 146, brought in M”A146:3; M”B 146:6; Peri Chadash 146:2] According to this opinion it is permitted for one to learn even aloud. [Kaf Hachaim 146:10]

[35] Seder Hayom; Elya Raba 146:4; M”B 146:6; Chesed Lealafim 146:13; Kaf Hachaim 146:10 and 13

Other opinions: From the Maharil ibid it is implied that he forbids learning even quietly to oneself.

[36] Elya Raba ibid

[37] Admur 285:8; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:4

[38] Opinion in Admur ibid; Michaber 146:2; 285:5; Mordechai; Hagahos Ashriy; Reb Yehuda Hachasid; Terumas Hadeshen; Mateh Yehuda 146:7; Kaf Hachaim 146:16; The Elya Raba rules that not only is this allowed but it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar. However, the Mamar Mordechai argues on the ability to call this leniency a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar, See Biur Halacha 285 “Yachol”.

[39] So as not to disturb the listeners. [Peri Megadim, brought in M”B 146:11]

[40] It is permitted to read even a different section in that Parsha than the section which the Baal Korei is reading. The reason for this allowance is because at the end of the day the reader is involved within the same topic as is the Baal Korei. [Peri Megadim, brought in M”B 146:11] This allowance applies even if he is part of the 10 listeners. [Magen Avraham 146:5 in name of Terumas Hadeshen]

[41] Peri Chadash; Magen Avraham 146:5 in name of Shalah is stringent in this, brought in M”B 146:15

[42] Final ruling of Michaber 146:2 as explained in M”B 146:14 to be referring also to Shnayim Mikra; M”B 285:14

[43] Mateh Moshe; Magen Avraham 146:5; M”B 146:15

[44] Poskim ibid; M”B 146:15; 185:14

[45] M”A 146:4 in name of Rif; M”B 146:5

The reason: As one can delay the ruling until after the reading. [P”M 146 A”A 4]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to temporarily recite a Halacha or give a Halachic ruling during the reading. [Darkei Moshe 146:1]

[46] Elya Raba 146:4; Derech Hachaim 3; Shaareiy Efraim 4:11; M”B 146:6; Kaf Hachaim 146:9

[47] P”M 146 A”A 4; Levushei Serud ibid; Derech Hachaim ibid; Shaareiy Efraim ibid; M”B 146:5; Kaf Hachaim 146:9 and 11

[48] Shaareiy Efraim ibid; M”B 146:5;

[49] M”B 146:7 in name of P”M 146 and Gr”a

[50] Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:4 based on the lenient opinions in Michaber ibid

[51] Kaf Hachaim 146:11

[52] See Aruch Hashulchan 146:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 215:4; 227:5; See regarding answering Amen: that one is not required to answer while learning Torah: Ashel Avraham 215; Orchos Chaim 124:6; Toras Chaim Sofer 66:8 that one who is involved in a Mitzvah is exempt from a Mitzvah; Divrei David 41; Mayim Rabim 2, brought in Kaf Hachaim 124:25; Shevet Halevi 9:43; Tzitz Eliezer 11:4; Salmas Chaim 62; Kinyan Torah 2:36; 4:9; Pischa Zuta 5; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:73-74; Yabia Omer 9:3; Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 20:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 51:11 and 55:29 and 215:4

[53] P”M 566 M”Z 3; M”B 92:36

[54] Biur Halacha 146:2 “Vehanachon”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:2

[55] Shelah Hakadosh p. 132

[56] Rebbe Rayatz in translated Mamar brought next

[57] Rebbe Rashab in Modaah Raba [printed in Siddur Im Dach p. 644]; Igros Kodesh 17:208;

[58] Sefer Hamamarim 1937 p. 263

[59] Michaber 141:2; Gra in Maaseh Rav 131

[60] Leket Yosher p. 18 that one time the Terumos Hadeshen came late to Shul and stopped in the midst of Kerias Shema to hear the entire reading; Yabia Omer 7:9 that this only applies if another reading is not available; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:13

[61] Admur 104:5; Michaber 104:7; Tur 104:7 in name of Rabbeinu Chananel; Tosafos Brachos ibid that so is the custom; Rashi Sukkah 38b; Bahag Brachos ibid; Haeshkol p. 31 in name Rav Haiy Gaon; Ran 19b; Ravayah; Bach 104 in name of Mordechai and that so is custom; Levush 104; Soles Belula 104:2; Chayeh Adam 25:10; Beis Oved 57; Kitzur SHU”A 18:14; Ben Ish Chaiy Mishpatim 5; Kaf Hachaim 104:36

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to continue Davening, as hearing is like answering, and is considered a Hefsek. [2nd opinion in Tur ibid in name of Rabbeinu Tam and Ri; Tosafos Brachos ibid in name of Rabbeinu Tam and Ri and Geonim; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 10; The Rosh Brachos 18 and Rabbeinu Yona 13b bring both opinions and give no arbitration; See Beis Yosef 104:7] Other Poskim rule that although it is not considered a Hefsek, one is not Yotzei being that he is not allowed to speak, and hence there is no point of stopping to listen. [Darkei Moshe 104:1 in name of the Iggur that the custom of the Ashkenazi Rabbeim is not to stop and listen; Beis Yosef 25 in name of Rashba and Iggur; Shagas Aryeh 6 in name of Shivlei Haleket; Abudarham, brought in Erech Hashulchan 104:3 and 55:1; See P”M 104 A”A 7] Due to the above opinions. Kaf Hachaim ibid concludes that if stopping to listen will ruin one’s concentration of the prayer, or if he anyways cannot hear the Chazan properly, then one may continue his Davening and rely on the other opinions.

[62] Koveitz Mibeis Levi 12; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 104:15 and 135 footnote 13; See Orchos Rabbeinu 3:215 in name of Chazon Ish that if one went ahead and did so he is nevertheless Yotzei; See also Michaber 146:2 for the five opinions regarding learning Torah during the reading.

[63] The reason: As the above matter of stopping for a Davar Shebekedusha is debated amongst the Poskim and we are only lenient due to the custom. Now, regarding Kerias Hatorah, it was not mentioned in the above Poskim who say to stop and listen, and there was never a Minhag to stop and listen. Therefore, it is better to abstain and not stop to listen to suspect for the Poskim who rule it is an interval. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 104:15] Furthermore, most Poskim rule there is no obligation for every individual to hear Kerias Hatorah, and it is rather an obligation on the congregation. [See Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:2 footnote 12]

[64] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[65] Az Nidbaru 14:29

[66] The reason: As we rule that one should stop and listen for a Davar Shebekedusha, and if we rule this way regarding a matter that requires answering, certainly we should rule this way regarding a matter that does not require answering. [Az Nidbaru ibid] Furthermore, some Poskim rule it is an obligation upon every individual to hear every word of Kerias Hatorah [See Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:2 footnote 12], in contrast to Kaddish and Kedusha which is not an actual obligation for everyone to hear, and only if one is with a Minyan is he required to answer.

[67] See Admur 98:1 “If he gets a foreign thought during Davening [Shemoneh Esrei] he is to be quiet until the thought leaves him.”; Shaareiy Teshuva 104; Ketzos Hashulchan 20:20 regarding a child crying

[68] Maharsham 1:158 that so is explicitly ruled in Ran Megillah 4; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:5; Beir Moshe 8:86; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule women are obligated in Kerias Hatorah. [M”A 282:6, brought in M”B 282:12]

[69] M”B 282:12 that so is the custom

[70] Shulchan Aruch 146:4

[71] Beis Yosef 141:1; Tur 146:4; Peri Chadash 146:4; Mateh Yosef 146:9; Kaf Hachaim 146:20 that so is custom today amongst all Jewry, including Chassidim and Anshei Maaseh

[72] Shaar Hakavanos Derush 1 p. 48 that the Arizal was accustomed to sit throughout the entire Kerias Hatorah, unlike those accustomed to stand; Peri Eitz Chaim 14:1; Mishnas Chassidim Yom Sheiyni 5:8

According to Kabbalah must one sit down or is it optional? Some Poskim understand that accoridng to the custom of the Arizal, one is specifically to remain seated during the reading, and it not simply that he is not required to stand. [Mishnas Chassidim ibid “They are not to stand”; Pesach Hadvir 146:3; Chesed Lealafim 135:14; Ruach Chaim; Shulchan Hatahor 146:4; Kaf Hachaim 146:22] Others, however, negate this understanding and rule that even accoridng to Kabala one may stand if he chooses. [Sdei Chemed Mareches Beis Peas Hasadeh 29]

[73] Michaber 146:4; Beis Yosef 146:4 and 141:1 that so is implication of Rashi Megillah 21a and that so is the custom; Tur 146:4 in name of Sar Shalom [as explained in Bach ibid]; Seder Rav Amram Gaon 2:25 in name of Sar Shalom; Hamanhig Hilchos Shabbos 30 p. 158; Mordechai in Halachos Ketanos 968; Gloss of Rabbeinu Peretz on Tashbeitz 182; Implication of Yerushalmi Megillah 4:1; Implication of Teshuvas Harambam 46 regarding negation of standing by Aseres Hadibros; Perisha 141:1; Biur Hagr”a 146:4; Peri Chadash 146:4; Levush 146:3; Mateh Yosef 146:9; Pesach Hadvir 146:3; Chesed Lealafim 135:14; Ruach Chaim [Falagi]; Shulchan Hatahor 146:4; Shaareiy Efraim 4:9; Regarding that one is not required to stand while the Sefer Torah is on the Bima, see: Rama Y.D. 242:18 “When the Sefer Torah is on the Bima the congregation in Shul is not required to stand, as it is in a different Reshus; Taz 242:13 “The same applies on a Bima table which is ten Tefach high and four wide”

[74] Stringency or letter of law: Some Poskim learn that even according to those who are stringent, it is not due to that they view this matter as an obligation from the letter of the law, but rather simply as a proper act. [Bach 141:1] However, other Poskim seem to learn that it is required from the letter of the law. [See Taz 146:1; Lechem Chamudos Brachos 36; Rameh 91, brought in Elya Raba 146:4; Kaf Hachaim 146:20;]

[75] M”A 146:7; Bach 141:1 that between the Aliyos everyone agrees that one may sit; Peri Chadash 146:4; Kneses Hagedola 146; P”M 146 A”A 7; Kaf Hachaim 146:20

[76] Rama 146:4 and that so was the custom of the Maharam of Rothenburg; Teshuvos Upesakim of Maharam 503; Tashbeitz Katan 182 that so was custom of Maharam; Mordechai Shabbos 422 in name of Maharam and that so is custom of some German and French Jews; Besamim Rosh 290 in name of Maharam; Custom of some recorded [and negated] in Tur ibid in name of Sar Shalom; Taz 146:1 that the opinion of Maharam is correct and so is proper to be followed; Teshuvas Rav Ovadia Seforni 90, brought in Taz ibid, that one must stand; Makor Chaim 146 based on Even Ezra; Peri Chadash 146:4 concludes that one is allowed to be stringent like Maharam; Seder Hayom Kerias Hatorah Shabbos, brought in Kneses Hagedola 146, that he saw some meticulous people standing, and it is a good and proper custom; Lechem Chamudos Brachos 36; Rameh 91 that so is proper custom, brought in Elya Raba 146:4; Derech Chaim 76:1

The reason: As the verse in Nechemia 8:5 states “Ubepischo Amdu Kol Ha’am” which they interpret to mean that when the Sefer Torah is open one is to stand. However, in truth, the Talmud [Sotah 39a] itself states that the intent here of the word “stand” is to be silent and not speak, and hence the above reason is negated. [Hamanhig ibid; Mordechai in Halachos Ketanos ibid; Tur ibid; Beis Yosef ibid; Gr”a ibid] However, the Taz ibid defends this reason, saying the intent of the Talmud is to say that the standing must be done quietly, and it is not coming to exclude standing. Alternatively, the reason is because when we received the Torah on Sinai we stood [Devarim 5:5] and the Zohar states that when the Torah is read it is similar to receiving it on Sinai. Thus, when one hears the Torah reading, he must imagine as if he is standing by Sinai and this is what led some to stand during the reading, as it is fit and proper to stand just like we stood on Sinai. [Bach 141:1]

[77] The Chabad custom: When the Rebbe was addressed the question of whether one is to stand for Kerias Hatorah, he motioned the asker to look at the ruling of the Rebbe Rashab in the Siddur. [Igros Kodesh 24:120; Shulchan Menachem 1:261] There, the Rebbe Rashab records the custom of the Arizal to sit, although then mentions the need to be stringent if there isn’t an elevated Bima platform. In Hayom Yom [24th Shevat; 1st Shavuos; 13th Menachem Av] it says to stand by Shiras Hayam and Aseres Hadibros, implying that by other times one may sit. The custom of the Chabad Rabbeim: The Rebbe Rashab was almost always accustomed to stand during Kerias Hatorah. [Reply of Rebbe Rayatz to Rebbe, printed in Reshimos Hayoman p. 184] However, on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, he was accustomed to sit during the Keriah. [Reshimos Devarim 1:102] The Rebbe Rayatz even in Rostov was witnessed to sit during Kerias Hatorah of Shacharis and stand for the reading of Mincha. [Rav S.Z. Gourari, recorded in Chikrei Minhagim p. 176] The Rebbe until 1978 was accustomed to stand during the entire reading, including between the Aliyos. However, from Simchas Torah of 1978 and onwards [after the heart attack] the Rebbe began to sit and did so for all years thereafter. [See Yalkut Kerias Hatorah Lefi Minhag Chabad [Printed in Chazak Chumash] p. 1374; Chikrei Haminhagim 1:176-186]

[78] M”A 146:6 that even on the Bima platform itself only the reader must stand; Beis Yosef in name of Rashba; Tosafos Menachos 33; Taz Y.D. 242:13, brought in Machatzis Hashekel ibid, that a Bima table which is ten Tefach high and four Tefach wide is considered another Reshus; Kaf Hachaim 146:24; See Michaber 79:2, Admur 79:4 and Siddur Admur Hilchos Tefillin regarding praying, learning and wearing Tefillin near excrement that if it is on a table of ten Tefach it is permitted to do so, as it is considered another Reshus

[79] Machatzis Hashekel ibid in explanation of M”A ibid who says the reason they do not need to stand is because the Sefer Torah is in its set place and if he was referring to a case that the table is ten Tefach high, then the Bima is considered another Reshus and the people on the Bima have the same status as those off the Bima who certainly do not need to stand as they are in another Reshus.

[80] Siddur Rav Shabsi; Rebbe Rashab in Siddur Torah Or p. 488 printed in Siddur Im Dach p. 640; The Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 24:120 referenced the asker to look in the gloss of the Rebbe Rashab in response to whether one must stand by Kerias Hatorah; See Rama Y.D. 242:18 and Taz Y.D. 242:13 who implies that only if the Bima is 4×4 Amos and ten Tefach high do we say that one does not have to stand due to it being a different Reshus

[81] Rebbe Rashab in Siddur Torah Or p. 488 printed in Siddur Im Dach p. 640

[82] M”A 146:6; Taz 146:1; Masas Binyamin in end of Sefer in Chidushei Dinim Latur O.C. 1, brought in Shiyurei Kneses Hagedola 146:5; Rameh 91; Elya Raba 146:4; Magen Giborim 146:10; Soles Belula 146:7; P”M 146 M.Z. 1; Shaareiy Efraim 4:9; Aruch Hashulchan 146:8; M”B 146:18; So rule regarding all Devarim Shebekedusha: 2nd opinion in Admur 56:5; Rama 56:1; Hagahos Minhagim in name of Yerushalmi [Arizal ibid claims it is misprint in Yerushalmi]; Shiltei Giborim on Mordechai Birchas Hashachar 5; Reishis Chochmah Shaar Hayirah 15:59

[83] Taz ibid; Masas Binyamin in end of Sefer O.C. 1; Rameh 91; Elya Raba 146:4; Aruch Hashulchan 146:8; M”B 146:18; Yesod Veshoresh Havoda 5:8

[84] Implication of M”A ibid, in name of Masas Binyamin and Rameh; Shaareiy Efraim 4:9 “One is to be stringent to stand throughout all the blessings”

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not required to stand for Birchas Hatorah and is only required to stand during Barchu. He may sit after Barchu is answered by the congregation, even before the Olah repeats it. [Taz ibid as understands P”M 146 M.Z. 1; Implication of Masas Binyamin in end of Sefer O.C. 1 and Rameh 91; Elya Raba 146:4; M”B 146:18 and Shaar Hatziyon 146:20; Ishei Yisrael 38 footnote 54 in name of Rav Chaim Kanievsky; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:6 footnote 21]

[85] The reason: One can learn this as a Kal Vachomer from Eglon. The verse [Shoftim 3:20] states that Eglon , the king of Moav, stood up on his own from his throne, upon hearing the word of Hashem. [Now, if a gentile got up in honor of Hashem then] certainly we, Hashem’s nation, [should stand up in His honor]. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid] 

[86] So rule regarding even Barchu: Shiyurei Kneses Hagedola 146:5; Ledavid Emes [Chida] 7:4; Kaf Hachaim 146: 20-21 in implication of custom of Arizal and that so is the custom today even amongst Chassidim and Anshei Maaseh; See Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:142 and 3:64; So rule regarding Birchas Hatorah: Taz ibid as understands P”M 146 M.Z. 1; Implication of Masas Binyamin in end of Sefer O.C. 1 and Rameh 91; Elya Raba 146:4; M”B 146:18; Ishei Yisrael 38 footnote 54 in name of Rav Chaim Kanievsky; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:6 footnote 21; So rule regarding all Devarim Shebekedusha: 1st opinion in Admur ibid, brought also in 53:1; Maharil Tefilla 3, brought in Darkei Moshe 56:5; Arizal Shaar Hakavanos Kaddish; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Hakaddeishim 6; brought in M”A 56:4 and Taz 53:1 and 56:2;

[87] Admur ibid; M”A ibid “one is not to be lenient”; M”B 56:8; Aruch Hashulchan 56:9 that the custom is stand only for the necessary Kaddishim that must be said during the prayer

Other opinions: Many Poskim conclude like the ruling of the lenient opinion and custom of Arizal. [Kneses Hagedola 55:1; Yad Aaron; Shalmei Tzibur p. 81; Kesher Gudal 8:14; Siddur Beis Oved; Chesed Lealafim 56:7; Kaf Hachaim [Falagi] 13:7; Yifei Laleiv 56:3; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayechi 8; Kaf Hachaim 56:20 that so is custom]

[88] Shiyurei Kneses Hagedola 146:5; Ledavid Emes 7:4; Kaf Hachaim 146: 20-21; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:6

[89] Admur ibid; M”A ibid does not mention that it is merely “proper” to do so, but simply states that so was the custom of the Maharil; Many of the other Poskim ibid write that one must remain standing and the Kaf Hachaim 56:22 writes it is Mitzvah to remind one who is coming to sit down in middle of Kaddish that he may not sit.

[90] Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Darkei Moshe 56 that so was custom of Maharil; Shaar Hakavanos ibid that so was custom of Arizal; Chesed Lealafim ibid; Ben Ish Chaiy ibid; Many Achronim brought in footnote under lenient opinion

[91] See Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:6; Beit Maran [Rav Yitzchak Yosef]; Bayit Neman [Rav Meir Mazuz] No. 14; 51; 65; 100; 113

[92] Ledavid Emes 7:5; Tov Ayin 11; Shaar Efraim 7:37; Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22 that so is custom of world; Igros Moshe 4:22; Shemesh Umagen 57; Mishneh Halachos 11:118

[93] Teshuvas Rambam 46; Maharikash in Ohalei Yaakov 33; Machazik Bracha 146:8 based on Arizal, brought in Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Opinion in Ledavid Emes 7:5 [He originally writes that it is improper for the entire congregation to stand, and then brings from his Sefer Machazik Bracha that even individuals should not stand, and then concludes that in some communities everyone stands, and ends up defending the practice]; Yechaveh Daas 6:8 rules not to stand and that the custom to stand is to be abolished; Toldos Hair Kavna p. 229 that so ruled the Raavad, Rav Leib Shapiro, to abolish the custom; See Beir Moshe 8:60

[94] The reason: As it is forbidden to single out a section of Torah, such as the Aseres Hadibros, due to it leading people to believe that only it is the true part of the Torah. [Poskim ibid; See Admur Basra 1:9, Kama 1:10; Rama 1:5; Brachos 12a; Rashba 1:184] However, others negate this worry by stating that the worry is no longer applicable today and does not apply here as one anyways stands for more than just the ten commandments. [See Ulidavid Emes ibid; Shaareiy Rachamim on Shaar Efraim ibid based on Levush 494 and Machatzis Hashekel 429]

[95] Hayom Yom 24th Shevat; 1st day Chag Hashavuos; 13th Menachem Av; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 61; See Shulchan Menachem 1:262 footnote 11 and Chikrei Haminhagim 1:62

[96] Tov Ayin 11; Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22; See Kneses Hagedola E.H. 62; Ikarei Hadaat, and other Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid; Yechaveh Daas ibid concludes that in such a case he is to stand already from the beginning of the reading; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid [see there that the same applies vice versa, that if the entire congregation is accustomed to sit then one is not to stand, however, see Ledavid Emes and Kaf Hachaim ibid who write that individuals may stand and see Q&A below!];

[97] Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22 that so is the custom [he writes to stand from Vayoshe Hashem]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:6; To note from the custom o stand for Az Yashir in Pesukei Dezimra, recorded in Derech Hachaim

[98] Hayom Yom 17th Shevat regarding Shabbos Shira; 21st Nissan, regarding 7th day of Pesach; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 61; See Shulchan Menachem 1:262 footnote 11 that the Rebbe Rashab would likewise face the Sefer Torah by the Shira. This, however, was omitted from hayom Yom. See Chikrei Haminhagim 1:62

[99] Admur 494:6; Elya Zuta 494; Chok Yaakov 494:5; Brought in Luach Kolel Chabad

[100] The reason: This is done out of honor for the Haftorah of Merkava Yechezkel. [ibid]

[101] See Admur 284:11

[102] Kol Eliyahu 5; Ikarei Hadaat 6:15; Pischeiy Teshuvah 146:2; Orchos Chaim 146:2

[103] Pesach Hadvir 140:3; Kaf Hachaim 146:22; Imrei Bina 13:4; Dvar Yehoshua 2:15; Betzel Hachochma 5:1; Az Nidbaru 6:43; Piskeiy Teshuvah 146:6

[104] Betzel Hachochma 5:1; Piskeiy Teshuvah 146:6

[105] See regarding Aseres Hadibros: Tov Ayin 11; Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22; See Kneses Hagedola E.H. 62; Ikarei Hadaat, and other Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid

[106] Rebbe Rashab in Siddur Torah Or p. 488 printed in Siddur Im Dach p. 640

[107] Toras Menachem 18:106

[108] Bach 8; Taz 25:2; Olas Tamid 8:3; Matzos Shmurim p. 23b “The main purpose of the Tallis Gadol is to cover the head. Unlike those the few Shotim which only garb their body in the Tallis Gadol and not their head, and it is a great mistake in their hands, and they are saying a blessing in vain, as how can they say the blessing of Lihisateif, if they are not garbing their head”; Radbaz 1:343; Shaareiy Teshuvah 8:3; M”B 8:4; Ketzos Hashulchan 7:4; Toras Menachem 18:106 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 11:36]; See Shaareiy Teshuvah 8:3 and Kaf Hachaim 8:9 for different customs in this regard

[109] Bach ibid

[110] Taz ibid

[111] Magen Gibborim 91:3 in name of Meiri; Chavos Yair 53:1

[112] Elya Raba 8:4; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 8:10; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

[113] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Tishrei 211; Reshimos Devarim 2:102

[114] See Admur 25:39, 42; Piskeiy Teshuvos 25:26

[115] P”M 25 A”A 30; Kaf Hachaim 25:93

[116] Kitzur Shlah; Mishnas Yosef 5:12

Other opinions: Some Poskim are lenient to permit removing the Tefillin ion front of a wrapped Sefer Torah. [Od Yosef Chaiy Chayeh Sara 2]

[117] Admur 25:42; M”A 32:29; Mateh Moshe 25 in name of Rashal; Kneses Hagedola 38:12; Chesed Lealafim 25:13; Kaf Hachaim 25:93

The reason: As honor of the Torah scroll is like the honor of ones Rebbe. [Admur ibid]

[118] Admur 25:39; Rama 25:13

[119] Admur 25:42; M”A 32:29; Mateh Moshe 25 in name of Rashal

[120] Michaber 146:1; See also Michaber 149:1; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:1; 149:1

[121] Kaf Hachaim 146:2

[122] Biur Halacha 146 “Shapir Dami”; Kaf Hachaim 1464

[123] M”B 146:1

[124] Biur Halacha 146 “Keshehu”

[125] Rama 149:1

[126] M”A 149:2; M”B 149:2; See P”M 149 A”A 2

[127] Michaber 149:1

[128] Michaber ibid

[129] M”A 146:2; M”B 146:3; Kneses Hagedola 146; Seder Hayom; Kaf Hachaim 146:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:1

[130] M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 146:3

[131] Kaf Hachaim 146:2

[132] Aruch Hashulchan 146:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:1

[133] Halichos Shlomo 12:3 in name of Rav SZ”A; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:3

[134] Ruach Chaim 146:1; Kaf Hachaim 146:3; P”M 146 A”A 2 leaves this matter in question; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:1

[135] Kaf Hachaim 146:3

[136] Levush 669; Abudarham Seder Shacharis Shel Shabbos; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:13; See Rama ibid; Mahariy Mintz 85; Piskeiy Teshuvos 139:17; Sefer “Amiras Chazak Veyasher Koach” of Rav Yaakov Spiegel p. 344-371 for a thorough analysis on this subject with quotes of all the Poskim and Rishonim

[137] Poskim ibid

Other customs: Some say the Nussach is Chazak Chazak Chazak. [Aruch Hashulchan 139:15; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] Others say one simply says the word Chazak. [Mahariy Mintz 85; Possible interpretation of Rama ibid]

[138] Ketzos Hashulchan 84:13 footnote 22; Shevet Halevi 7:22; Beir Moshe 3:28; Mishneh Halachos 7:22; 8:18; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[139] Hayom Yom 23rd Tishreiy; Sefer Haminhagim p. 61 [English]; Igros Kodesh 4:14, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:93-94; Chikrei Haminhagim 2:208

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