Chapter 2: The Torah portion that is to be read & The Law if it was not read

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Chapter 2: The Torah portion that is to be read & The Law if it was not read

1. The Shabbos morning reading:

*For the history and background of the divisions of the 53 Parshiyos of the Torah, see the addendum at the end of the Sefer.

A. Reading one Parsha per week:

Moshe Rabbeinu established for the Jewish people that they are to read from the Torah scroll on Shabbos and Holidays.[1] The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of the Torah that is read on each Yom Tov.[2] However, according to most approaches, they did not establish what portions should be read on each Shabbos, and hence in previous times two different customs existed regarding this matter.[3] The widespread custom even in previous times was to read one Parsha per week and arrange to finish the entire Chumash annually.[4] There were communities, however, who were accustomed to follow a triennial cycle and hence finish the entire Chumash every three years.[5] This was the custom of Jewry in Eretz Yisrael during Talmudic times.[6] Each Parsha was thus split up to three parts, with each part being read in one week. This minority custom became extinct several generations ago[7] and hence the custom amongst all Jewry dating back many generations is to read one Parsha per week and complete the reading of the entire Torah annually.[8] Practically, the weekly Torah portion for each Shabbos has the full backing of all Minhagei Yisrael, Jewish customs, and it is hence forbidden to switch the Parshiyos and change the custom.[9] Furthermore, the Parsha of each week has a special connection with the events and times of that week, and it is all arranged with Divine providence.[10]

B. The general order of the Parshiyos & The double Parshiyos:

The general order of the Parshiyos is to read one Parsha per Shabbos, beginning with Bereishis on the Shabbos after Simchas Torah, and concluding with Vezos Habracha on Simchas Torah. However, being that in non-leap years there exist more Parshiyos than available Torah reading weeks, therefore some Parshiyos are doubled.[11] Likewise, the sages established that certain Parshiyos be read by certain times, and this also effects the joining of the Parshiyos, as will be explained next. The set order of these Parshiyos, when to begin Bereishis, when to finish Zos Habracha, and which Parshiyos to connect, is based on the order suggested by Rav Sadia Gaon, as recorded in his Siddur Rassag.[12] [The Geonim and Rishonim, including the Rassag, Machzor Vitri, Eshkol, Sefer Hadibur, record various suggestions as to which Parshiyos should be connected.] Practically, the accepted custom today is to connect some or all of the following Parshiyos to facilitate the completion of the Torah reading cycle within one year. The exact number of Parshiyos that are connected in a given year, and their selection, is dependent on the factors mentioned above.

The list of potentially connected double Parshiyos:

  1. Vayakhel-Pekudei
  2. Tazria-Metzora
  3. Acharei-Kedoshim
  4. Behar-Bechukosaiy
  5. Matos-Maseiy
  6. Chukas-Balak
  7. Nitzavim-Vayeilech:[13] The Parsha of Nitzavim is always read the Shabbos prior to Rosh Hashanah. Thus, when Rosh Hashanah falls on Monday-Tuesday, since there are two Shabbosos between Rosh Hashanah and Sukkos, the Parshiyos of Nitzavim-Vayeilech must be split, with Nitzavim being read before Rosh Hashanah, and Vayeilech being read on Shabbos Shuva, which is the Shabbos before Yom Kippur. Haazinu is then read after Yom Kippur, on the Shabbos before Sukkos. The Siman for this is “Bag [i.e. Monday-Tuesday] Hamelech [i.e. Rosh Hashanah[14]] Pas Vayeilech [i.e. Split Nitzavim and Vayeilech[15]].” However, when Rosh Hashanah falls on Thursday-Friday, since there is only one Shabbos between Rosh Hashanah and Sukkos, in which the Parsha of Haazinu is read, therefore on the Shabbos before Rosh Hashanah Nitzavim-Vayeilech must be read together.

The order of connected Parshiyos in Eretz Yisrael when Pesach falls on Shabbos:[16] In non-leap years that Acharon Shel Pesach falls on Shabbos, the Diaspora splits from Eretz Yisrael by Parshas Shemini, and join back together only by Behar/Bechukosaiy [and not Tazria Metzora, or Acharei Mos/Kedoshim].[17] In leap years that Acharon Shel Pesach falls on Shabbos, the Diaspora splits from Eretz Yisrael by Parshas Acharei Mos, and joins back together only by Matos Maasei [and not Tazria Metzora, or Acharei Mos/Kedoshim, or Behar Bechukosaiy, or Chukas Balak].

The set order of the Parshiyos established by the Sages:[18]

The Shabbos before Pesach:[19] In a non-leap year the Parsha of Tzav is always read the Shabbos prior to Pesach.[20] In a leap year the Parsha of Metzora is always read the Shabbos prior to Pesach[21], with exception to years in which Rosh Hashanah falls on Thursday[22], in which case Parshas Acharei Mos is read the Shabbos before Pesach. The Siman for the order of the Parshiyos in a non-leap year is: Pakdu [i.e. Parshas Tzav] Paschu [i.e. before Pesach]. The Siman for the order of the Parshiyos in a leap year is: Sagru [i.e. Metzora] Upaschu.

The Shabbos before Shavuos:[23] The Parsha of Bamidbar is always read the Shabbos prior to Shavuos.[24] [This is with exception to Eretz Yisrael, in years that Acharon Shel Pesach falls on Shabbos, in which Parshas Naso is read in Eretz Yisrael the Shabbos before Shavuos.]

The Shabbos before/after Tisha Beav:[25] The Parsha of Vaeschanon is always read the Shabbos after Tisha Beav [which makes it that the Parsha of Devarim is always read the Shabbos before Tisha Beav].

The Shabbos before Rosh Hashanah:[26] The Parsha of Nitzavim is always read the Shabbos prior to Rosh Hashanah.[27]

Simanim for the order:[28] The Siman for the order of the Parshiyos in a non-leap year is: Pakdu [i.e. Parshas Tzav] Paschu [i.e. before Pesach]. The Siman for the order of the Parshiyos in a leap year is: Sagru [i.e. Metzora] Upaschu. In all years the Siman continues: Manu [i.e. Bamidbar] Veatzru [i.e. before Shavuos], Tzumu [i.e. Tisha Beav] Vetzulu [i.e. Vaeschanon], Kumu [i.e. Nitzavim] Vetuku [i.e. Rosh Hashanah].

C. The Maftir:

See Chapter 12 for the full details of this subject.

D. The four Parshiyos:

See Chapter 14 for the full details of this subject.

E. The law if a community missed the reading of that week’s Parsha-Making it up the next week:

See Halacha 6. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4B regarding reading it in the afternoon of that Shabbos.

F. The law if one read the wrong Parsha:

See Halacha 7!

G. What to do when traveling to and from Israel in years that Parshiyos are not aligned:

See Halacha 8!

2. The weekly reading of Shabbos Mincha, Mondays, and Thursday’s:[29]

The reading of Shabbos Mincha, and the weekday reading of Monday and Thursday, consists of the beginning of the Parsha that will be read that coming Shabbos, which is after the end of the Parsha that was read the previous Shabbos. The beginning section is thus read a total of three times, Shabbos Mincha, Monday and Thursday. In the event that a Holiday, Rosh Chodesh, or fast day falls out on Monday or Thursday, then the weekly reading is differed.

How many verses are read: Ezra established that they read every Shabbos by Mincha ten Pesukim or more from the coming weeks Parsha.[30] The same applies by the readings of Monday’s and Thursday’s.[31] This applies even by Parshas Haazinu.[32]

The Shabbos Mincha reading if Yom Tov, Rosh Chodesh, or Chanukah, coincides with Shabbos:[33] Even when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, the Parsha of the coming Shabbos is read by Mincha of Shabbos and not the Parsha of Yom Tov.[34]

The Monday, Thursday reading if Yom Tov, Rosh Chodesh, Purim, Chanukah, or a fast day coincides: When Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, the Parsha of the coming Shabbos is read by Mincha of Shabbos and not the Parsha of Yom Tov

The law if one missed the reading: See Halacha 7B. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4B regarding reading it in the afternoon.

The law if one read the wrong Parsha: See Halacha 8!

3. The Yom Tov reading, and reading of Chanukah & Purim:[35]

Moshe Rabbeinu established for the Jewish people that on every Yom Tov one is to read the Torah portion dealing with that Holiday.[36] The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of the Torah that is read on each holiday.[37]

The Pesach reading: See Chapter 15 Halacha’s 2-4 for the full details of this subject.

The Shavuos reading: See Chapter 15 Halacha 5 for the full details of this subject.

The Sukkos reading: See Chapter 15 Halacha’s 6-9 for the full details of this subject.

The Rosh Hashanah reading: See Chapter 16 Halacha 1 for the full details of this subject.

The Yom Kippur reading: See Chapter 16 Halacha 2 for the full details of this subject.

The Chanukah reading: See Chapter 17 Halacha 1 for the full details of this subject.

The Purim reading: See Chapter 17 Halacha 2 for the full details of this subject.

The law if one missed the reading: See Halacha 7. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4B regarding reading it in the afternoon.

The law if one read the wrong Parsha: See Halacha 8!

4. The Rosh Chodesh reading:

On Rosh Chodesh, the Parsha of the Rosh Chodesh Karbanos are read from Parshas Pinchus. See Chapter 13 for the full details of this subject.

The law if one missed the reading: See Halacha 7. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4B regarding reading it in the afternoon.

The law if one read the wrong Parsha: See Halacha 8!

5. The Fast day reading:

On a fast day, the Parsha of Vayichal is read by both Shacharis and Mincha. See Chapter 18 for the full details of this subject.

The law if one missed the reading: See Halacha 7. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4B regarding reading it in the afternoon.

The law if one read the wrong Parsha: See Halacha 8!

6. Missed Torah reading-Making up the reading if a community missed Kerias Hatorah:[38]

*This Halacha refers to a case that it is already Passed sunset of that day. Regarding if the Torah may be read later on in the same day if it was not read by Shacharis-See Chapter 1 Halacha 4B!

A. Missed weekly Shabbos reading of Shacharis:[39]

If a community [or the majority of a community[40]] did not read the weekly portion one Shabbos [from a Kosher Sefer Torah[41] due to reasons beyond their control[42]], then they are to make it up the next Shabbos by reading both the previous weeks Parsha, and the current weeks Parsha. [They are not to make it up on Monday or Thursday, and are to continue with the regular Monday and Thursday reading.[43] In such a case the first Aliyah of Kohen is to read the entire previous Parsha, plus the section of Rishon of the current weeks Parsha.[44] If the congregation began the previous weeks Parsha, but did not finish it for whatever reason, such as a dispute, then they are to make it up the next Shabbos by reading it together with that week’s Parsha.[45] In such a case, they are to restart from the beginning of the Parsha.[46] In a case that the previous weeks Parsha was not read then it is proper to make up the previous weeks Haftorah together with the current weeks Haftorah.[47]]

Missed two Parshiyos:[48] If the previous weeks Parsha was a double portion, such as Matos Maasei, then they are not to make up the previous weeks Parsha at all [neither the first or the second].[49] [Likewise, if the current weeks portion is a double Parsha then one is not to make up the previous weeks Parsha.[50]] If the congregation missed two weeks’ worth of Parshiyos, then they are to only make up the Parsha of the previous week, and not that of two weeks ago.[51]

Missed Parsha at end of Sefer:[52] If the congregation missed the Parsha at the end of a Sefer, such as Parshas Vayechi, then some Poskim rule that they cannot make it up the next Shabbos.[53] Other Poskim[54], however, rule that one is to read both Parshiyos the next Shabbos even if the previous Parsha is from the end of the previous Sefer and on that Shabbos they begin to read a new Sefer.

 

Q&A

If the Maftir/Haftorah of the previous week was not read, is it to be read the next week?[55]

If the congregation read the entire weekly portion the previous week but did not read that weeks Maftir or Haftorah, then it is not to be read the next week. Thus, for Maftir and Haftorah only the current weeks reading is read.

If a community missed a word or verse in the previous weeks Parsha, are they to re-read the Parsha the next Shabbos?[56]

Yes. If even one word or verse was not read in the previous weeks portion, then one is to make it up the next week, and read from the beginning of last week’s Parsha.

What is the law if by a double Parsha the Minyan only read the first Parsha, is the second Parsha to be made up the next Shabbos?[57]

Remembered that Shabbos: If the congregation remembered their mistake that Shabbos prior to sunset[58], then they are to make up the reading of the second Parsha that Shabbos. A single Aliyah is to be called up to read the entire second Parsha.

Remembered after Shabbos: If they only remembered after Shabbos, then they are to make up the skipped Parsha the next week. If the second Parsha is the end of a Sefer, then this is subject to the debate explained above.

What is the law if a congregation accidentally read two Parshiyos, thinking that week was a double Parsha?[59]

They do not need to re-read the Parsha of that week even though the seven Aliyos were not called up in the weekly Parsha. The next Shabbos, they are to repeat the reading of that weeks Parsha.

 

B. Missed reading of Shabbos Mincha, Monday or Thursday, Rosh Chodesh, or fast day:[60]

Some Poskim[61] rule that if a congregation missed the reading of Monday then they are to make it up on Tuesday.[62] Majority of Poskim[63], however, argue and rule that one is never to make up a Torah reading on another day, and so is the final ruling. The same applies to the reading of a fast day or Rosh Chodesh that it cannot be made up on another day.[64]

C. Missed reading of Yom Tov, Chanukah, Purim:[65]

If a community missed the previous weeks Yom Tov reading, it is not to be made up the next Shabbos, or any other day.

7. Wrong Torah reading-The law if one read the wrong Torah portion:[66]

A. Shabbos:[67]

If the wrong Torah portion was read on Shabbos, the correct Torah portion needs to be read with all its Aliyos. If they did not remember until after Shabbos, then the congregation is to make it up the next Shabbos, as explained in the previous Halacha.

Mincha of Shabbos:[68] If on Shabbos by Mincha the wrong Parsha was read, they fulfill their obligation and are not obligated to read three Aliyos from the correct portion.

B. Monday’s and Thursday:[69]

If the wrong Parsha was read on Monday or Thursday, the congregation nevertheless fulfills their obligation and are not obligated to read three Aliyos from the correct weekly portion.[70] [If, however, they remember prior to calling up the second or third Aliyah, then the remaining Aliyos are to read from that week’s Parsha.[71]]

C. Yom Tov, Chanukah, Purim, and Rosh Chodesh:[72]

If the wrong Torah portion was read on Yom Tov, Chanukah, Purim or on Rosh Chodesh, they do not fulfill their obligation and the correct Torah portion needs to be read with all its Aliyos.

D. Fast days:

If the wrong Torah portion was read on a fast day, they do not fulfill their obligation and the correct Torah portion needs to be read with all its Aliyos. However, if this occurred on a Monday or Thursday, then some Poskim[73] rule that if the weekly Parsha was read by Shacharis, they fulfill their obligation, and may continue the reading even if they remember prior to calling up all three Aliyos.

8. The correct Parsha when traveling to and from Israel in years that Parshiyos are not aligned:[74]

In years that the first day of Pesach falls on Shabbos, the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora likewise falls on Shabbos, although in Eretz Yisrael the last day falls on Friday. This causes there to be a misalignments in the weekly Parsha between Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora, as on that aforementioned Shabbos, Eretz Yisrael will be continuing with the reading of the weekly Parsha, while the Diaspora will differ the weekly Parsha and instead read the portion designated for Acharon Shel Pesach. This misalignment also occurs in years that the first day of Shavuos falls on Erev Shabbos. While this misalignment could potentially be remedied fairly quickly, by having the Diaspora read two Parshiyos in one of the coming Shabbosim, practically the traditional distribution of the Parshiyos only allows this to happen several weeks down the line, thus causing there to be a several week period of misalignment of Parshiyos between Israel and the Diaspora.[75] The question becomes raised as what a traveler is to do in the event that he is traveling to or from Israel. This will cause him to either miss a Parsha, or have the same Parsha read twice, depending on his direction of travel. Is there any way to make up the missed Parsha? What does one do regarding Shnayim Mikra, And the daily Chumash lesson of Chitas or Chok Leyisrael? The following will discuss these laws in the two scenarios of traveling to and from Israel.

9. Traveling to Israel:

Kerias Hatorah for Ben Chutz La’aretz in Eretz Yisrael when Parshiyos are not aligned: If one traveled from the Diaspora to Eretz Yisrael in a week that Eretz Yisrael is one Parsha ahead of the Diaspora, as occurs in certain years starting from the Shabbos after Pesach or the Shabbos after Shavuos, then one is to try and find a Minyan of Bnei Chutz La’aretz [with at least six Bnei Chutz La’aretz] who will read the weekly Parsha of the Diaspora.[76] If the Minyan plans to stay in Eretz Yisrael for some time, such as Yeshiva Bochurim, then they should begin the reading of Kohen from the previous Parsha and have him read until Levi of the current Parsha, thus catching up to Eretz Yisrael. If a Minyan of six Bnei Chutz La’aretz is not available, then one can ask the Baal Korei of the Eretz Yisrael Minyan to begin the reading of Kohen from the previous Parsha and have him read until Levi of the current Parsha.[77] Nonetheless, he is not obligated to do so, especially in face of objection from the congregation. If neither of the above options are possible, then due to lack of choice, one has lost the previous Parsha and is to join the reading of Bnei Eretz Yisrael for their current Parsha.

Shnayim Mikra:[78] If one traveled to Eretz Yisrael in a week that Eretz Yisrael is reading a different Parsha than the Diaspora[79] one is to read the Shnayim Mikra of both Parshiyos, the one which he is now missing in the Diaspora and the one which he will now hear in Eretz Yisrael. [If he returns to the Diaspora after Shabbos, he is not required to repeat the Shnayim Mikra of the Parsha that was read in Eretz Yisrael and is now being read in the Diaspora.] In the event that he finds a Minyan of Bnei Chutz La’aretz who will only be reading only the Parsha of Chutz La’aretz then he is to do Shnayim Mikra of only the Parsha of Chutz Laaretz.

Aliyos: There is no issue with a Ben Chutz La’aretz getting an Aliyah to the Torah, even though he is holding by the previous Parsha.

Chitas:[80] If one traveled to Eretz Yisrael in a week that Eretz Yisrael is reading a different Parsha than the Diaspora, then on the day of arrival he is to learn the Chumash with Rashi for the remainder of his Parsha, and study the Chumash with Rashi for the Parsha of Eretz Yisrael, until that days Aliyah.

10. Traveling from Israel:

Kerias Hatorah for Ben Eretz Yisrael in Chutz Laaretz when Parshiyos are not aligned:[81] If one traveled from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora in a week that Eretz Yisrael is one Parsha ahead of the Diaspora, as occurs in certain years starting from the Shabbos after Pesach or the Shabbos after Shavuos, and thus in the Diaspora they will repeat the reading that he heard in Eretz Yisrael, then he is obligated to hear the Parsha a second time.

Shnayim Mikra:[82] If one traveled from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora in a week that the Diaspora is reading the Parsha that was read the previous Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael[83] he is not required to repeat Shnayim Mikra of that Parsha[84], even though he is required to hear the reading of the Torah.

Aliyos:[85] There is no issue with a Ben Eretz Yisrael getting an Aliyah to the Torah, even though he is holding by the next Parsha.

Chitas:[86] If one traveled from Eretz Yisrael in a week that Eretz Yisrael is reading a different Parsha than the Diaspora, then on the day of arrival he is to stop learning the Chumash with Rashi for his Parsha, and study the Chumash with Rashi for the Parsha of Eretz Yisrael, until that days Aliyah.

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[1] Admur 282:1; 13; 488:5; M”A 135:1; Rambam Tefilla 12:1 “Moshe”; Rif Megillah 4; Bava Kama 82a that the prophets in the times of Moshe established it, See Kesef Mishneh ibid; Yerushalmi Megillah 4:1 “Moshe”; Miseches Sofrim 10:1; Mishneh Megillah 31a regarding Yom Tov; See P”M 135 A”A 1

[2] Admur ibid; Megillah ibid

[3] See Bach 685 “However, Moshe did not establish the order of what should be read on Shabbos until Ezra came along.” See Rambam 13:1-2 that the weekly Torah portion read on Shabbos is based on custom and not law, although Ezra established that certain Parshiyos are to be read at certain times, as brought in the Michaber 428 and 685. The fact that Ezra gave rules regarding certain Parshiyos and when they are to be read seems to prove that there was never an order of one set Parsha per week, and rather every community could choose their order, so long as they follow the rules of Ezra. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim write that Moshe established which Parsha is to be read each Shabbos for all the Parshiyos of the Torah. [See Admur 282:13 “The reading of the Parsha every Shabbos was a Takana of Moshe Rabbeinu A”H”; See Zohar Vayakhel p. 206b “It is forbidden to stop in a Parsha that Moshe did not stop, and it is forbidden to read a different weeks Parsha on that Shabbos.” M”A 282:1 explains that the intent of the Zohar is to say that one may not read another weeks Parsha on Shabbos, and each Shabbos must have its designated Parsha read. Thus, we see that Moshe himself handed us a tradition of the start and end of each weekly Parsha; Yeish Sechar Dinei Kerias Hatorah 6 [1600’s] writes that Ezra Hasofer established all seven Aliyos of each Parsha based on a tradition dating all the way back to Moshe; Aruch Hashulchan 282:2 “Moshe Rabbeinu established which Sedra should be read each Shabbos.”; Shulchan Hatahor 135:4 that even the double Parshiyos are a tradition of Moshe from Sinai; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:1]

[4] Rambam ibid

[5] Rambam ibid; Testimony of Rav Binyamin Tudela regarding the Egyptian community; Manuscripts in Cairo Geniza; Some sources state that they split the Torah to 155 Parshiyos. Others say they split it to 167 Parshiyos, while others say it was split to 141 Parshiyos.

[6] Megillah 29b

[7] Some historians claim that this custom became extinct in the Geonic period. However, see Rambam ibid from whom it is clear that it existed in his times, and so in truth we found historical manuscripts from the Geniza Kahir which clearly prove that in the Rambam’s time period there still existed Egyptian Jewish communities, known as Shamites, who followed the triennial cycle of Eretz Yisrael. According to the manuscript, pressure was placed on these communities to cease their practice although they did not heed the request and continued their practice, with some compromise at least until the 1600’s.

[8] Aruch Hashulchan 282:3

[9] Zohar Parshas Vayakhel p. 369 [206b], brought in M”A 282:1, “One may not read the Parsha of another week, this week.”; M”A 282:1 in explanation of Zohar ibid; Aruch Hashulchan ibid “Chalila to switch one Parsha for another”

[10] See Divrei Torah 9:93; Shlah Vayeishev; Rebbe in various Sichos

[11] While there are 53 Parshiyos in the Torah there are only 51 weeks in a Jewish [non-Leap] year. In addition, the weekly portion is not read on any Shabbosim that coincide with Holidays. This created a surplus of Parshiyos over the available weeks in a year, and necessitated the joining together of certain Parshiyos, so the cycle can be completed within a year.

[12] Siddur Rasag Hilchos Kerias Hatorah, printed by Mikitzei Nirdamim p. 363

[13] Michaber 428:4; Tur 428

[14] M”A 428:5

[15] M”A 428:5

[16] M”A 428:6; Kneses Hagedola on Tur 428 in name of Rit 2:4; Tikkun Yissachar 38b and p. 89

[17] See M”A 428:6 that in such a case, some are accustomed to split Tazria Metzora, and some split Behar Bechukosaiy. Practically the latter custom is what is followed today.

[18] Michaber 428:4; Tur 428

[19] Michaber 428:4; Tur 428

[20] The reason: As Parshas Tzav discusses the Koshering of the earthenware and metal vessels that absorbed Chatas meat gravy, and hence hints to the Kosher of vessels that is done before Shabbos. [Machatzis Hashekel 428:3]

[21] The reason: As Parshas Metzora discusses the destroying of earthenware vessels and immersion of metal vessels touched by the Zav, and hence hints to the Kosher of vessels that is done before Shabbos. [Machatzis Hashekel 428:3]

[22] See M”A 428:3 that when Rosh Hashanah falls on Thursday, Parshas Noach is read on Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan and it ends up that there is an extra Shabbos before Pesach

[23] Michaber 428:4; Tur 428

[24] The reason: As Shavuos is the day of Rosh Hashanah for the trees. Therefore, we make sure to read one Parsha after the curses of Bechukosaiy, in order to end the year and its curses. [M”A 428:4]

[25] Michaber 428:4; Tur 428

[26] Michaber 428:4; Tur 428

[27] The reason: As we make sure to read one Parsha after the curses of Ki Savo, in order to end the year and its curses. [M”A 428:4]

[28] Michaber 428:4; Tur 428

[29] Admur 292:2 regarding Shabbos Mincha “Ezra established that they read every Shabbos ten Pesukim or more from the coming weeks Parsha.”; Michaber 292:1; Rebbe Yehuda in Megillah 31b; Aruch Hashulchan 135:5

Other opinions in the Talmud: Rebbe Meir is of the opinion that one is to read the beginning of next week’s Parsha by Mincha of Shabbos and then continue from where one left off on Monday, and then continue from where one left off on Thursday. [Megillah ibid] Practically, we rule like Rebbe Yehuda. [Rebbe Zeira in Megillah ibid]

[30] Admur ibid

[31] Michaber 137:2

[32] Rama 428:5; Mordechai

[33] Admur 292:2; Michaber 292:1; Rokeiach 302

[34] The reason: As Yom Tov has no relevance at all to the Kerias Hatorah of Mincha, as if not for Shabbos there would be no Kerias Hatorah by Mincha of Yom Tov. [Admur ibid]

[35] Admur 488:5

[36] Admur ibid; M”A 135:1; 535; Rambam Tefilla 13:8; Mishneh Megillah 31a

The hint in scripture: The above institution is hinted to in the verse “Vayidaber Moshe Es Moadeiy Hashem El Bnei Yisrael”, from which we learn that Moshe established that each Parsha of the Moadim is to be read at its proper time. [Admur ibid]

[37] Admur ibid; Megillah ibid

[38] Rama 135:2; Or Zarua

[39] Rama 135:2; Or Zarua; See Kaf Hachaim 135:5-10; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:4-6

[40] Toras Chaim Sofer 135:4; M”B 135:7; Shaareiy Rachamim 7:16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:5

The law if majority of the congregation heard Kerias Hatorah: If majority of the congregation already heard Kerias Hatorah, then there is no requirement to make it up on behalf of minority of the congregation who could not hear it. [Poskim ibid] Nonetheless, if they are to make their own Minyan and read both Parshiyos. [See Toras Chaim ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

The law if there was no Minyan the previous Shabbos: If the reason that the Shul did not read the Torah the previous Shabbos is because there was not a Minyan present then they are not obligated to make it up the next Shabbos. [Shaareiy Efraim 7:39; Daas Torah 13; Toras Chaim Sofer 135:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 405]

The law if the other Shuls in the community read from the Sefer Torah: See Olas Tamid 282 in name of Mahram that they do not need to make it up; However, see Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 135:6 who negate this ruling; See Toras Chaim Sofer 135:4

[41] Meaning, that even if it was read from a Chumash, or Pasul Sefer Torah, due to lack of choice, it is considered that it was not read.

[42] Shaareiy Efraim 7:8; See Biur Halacha 135

[43] Digul Merivava 135; Shaareiy Efraim 7:39; Aruch Hashulchan 135:6; Kaf Hachaim 135:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:4

[44] HaShomer Emes 15:1; Pesach HaDvir 135:4; Kaf Hachaim 135:5; See M”A 135:4 that the end of the 1st Parsah and start of the second Parsha must be read in a single Aliyah. However, he does not mention that this must be done by the first Aliyah of Cohen; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to read three Aliyos in the previous Parsha, and then have the fourth Aliyah connect between the two Parshiyos, as is normally done by a double portion. [Shaareiy Efraim 7:9] Other Poskim rule that the first Aliyah is to read the previous Parsha and the coming Aliyos are to read from the current weeks Parsha. [Kerem Shlomo 133 in name of Sefer Lashon Chachamim, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[45] M”A 135:4; Maharam Mintz ibid; Shaareiy Efraim 7:11; Biur Halacha 135:2 “Kerias”; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim ibid

[46] Shaareiy Efraim 7:11; Biur Halacha 135:2 “Kerias”; Kaf Hachaim 135:6

[47] Aruch Hashulchan 135:7

[48] See Kaf Hachaim 135:5

[49] M”A 135:4; Shut Maharam Mintz 85; Ateres Zekeinim 135; Digul Merivava 135; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim ibid

The reason: As we never read three Parshiyos in one Shabbos, and there is no Takan to read only one of last week’s Parshiyos, which is only half the portion of the previous week’s portions. [M”A ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to read three Parshiyos the next Shabbos. [Hagahos Maimanis, brought and negated by M”A ibid]

[50] Kneses Hagedola 282

[51] Maharam Mintz 85; Ateres Zekeinim 135; P”M 135 A”A 4; See M”A 135:4; M”B 135:6 that so is implied from Gr”a

The reason: As we never read three Parshiyos in one Shabbos, and there is no precedent to do so. [See M”A ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to read three Parshiyos the next Shabbos. [Hagahos Maimanis, brought and negated by M”A ibid; Elya Raba 135, brought in P”M ibid; Shulchan Hatahor 135:3; Aruch Hashulchan 135:6; Mahram Shick 335 in name of Chasam Sofer that so did Rav Nasan Adler See M”B 135:6]

[52] M”A 135:4; Maharam Mintz 85; Digul Merivava 135; Opinion in M”B 135:7

[53] The reason: As the end of the 1st Parsha and start of the second Parsha must be read in a single Aliyah and it is improper to read from two different Chumashim in a single Aliyah. [M”A ibid]

[54] Shulchan Hatahor 135:3; Aruch Hashulchan 135:6; Opinion in M”B 135:7 who concludes in name of Atzei Shitim that one who does so is not to be protested

Vezos Habracha: If a congregation missed Vezos Habracha, it cannot be made up the next Shabbos, Shabbos Bereishis. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 135 footnote 34]

[55] Aruch Hashulchan 135:7

[56] Piskeiy Teshuvah 135:4

[57] Kaf Hachaim 135:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:6

[58] The Sephardic custom: According to the Sephardi custom, they do not make up the Torah reading once it is past midday.

[59] Emes Leyaakov Taus Kerias Sefer Torah 4 in name of Peri Ha’aretz; Ledavid Emes 9:4; Kaf Hachaim 135:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:6

[60] See Kaf Hachaim 135:8

[61] Ateres Zekeinim 135, brought in P”M 135 A”A 4 and many of the Poskim in next footnote

[62] The reason: In order to not go three days without the Torah reading. [P”M ibid]

[63] Masas Moshe 2:1; Maharikash; Emes Leyaakov 1; Elya Raba 135:2; Birkeiy Yosef 135:2; Aruch Hashulchan 135:7; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[64] Aruch Hashulchan 135:7

[65] Aruch Hashulchan 135:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:4

[66] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:7

[67] Aruch Hashulchan 135:5; See Michaber 137:3 that if even one verse is skipped one must re-read it

[68] Aruch Hashulchan 135:5

[69] Beis Oveid Kerias Hatorah 2; Yifei Laiev in Yosher Leivav 1; Emes Leyaakov Taus Kerias Sefer Torah 4 in name of Peri Ha’aretz; Ledavid Emes 9:4; Ikareiy Hadaat 46:2; Aruch Hashulchan 135:5; Kaf Hachaim 135:5 and 7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if the wrong Parsha was read on Monday or Thursday, then the proper portion is to be read. [Binyan Tziyon 1:8; Poskim in Pischeiy Teshuvah 135 and M”B 135:4]

[70] The reason: As in any event, they will read the Parsha that Shabbos and the main purpose of the weekday reading is to not go three days without Torah, and therefore it the content of what was read is not so crucial. [Aruch Hashulchan 135:5]

[71] Aruch Hashulchan 135:5

[72] Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:7; See M”B 137:11

[73] Shaareiy Efraim 8:107; Daas Torah 566; See Shut Rivad 1 that if they remember prior to finishing all three Aliyos then they are to switch back to Vayichal

[74] See M”A 428:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:9; Nitei Gavriel Pesach 3:40

[75] In non-leap years that Acharon Shel Pesach falls on Shabbos, the Diaspora splits from Eretz Yisrael by Parshas Shemini, and join back together only by Behar/Bechukosaiy [and not Tazria Metzora, or Acharei Mos/Kedoshim]. [See M”A 428:6 that in such a case, some are accustomed to split Tazria Metzora, and some split Behar Bechukosaiy. Practically the latter custom is what is followed today.] This occurred in year 5775, and 5778. In leap years that Acharon Shel Pesach falls on Shabbos, the Diaspora splits from Eretz Yisrael by Parshas Acharei Mos, and join back together only by Matos Maaseiy [and not Tazria Metzora, or Acharei Mos/Kedoshim, or Behar Bechukosaiy, or Chukas Balak]. [M”A 428:6; Kneses Hagedola on Tur 428 in name of Rit 2:4; Tikkun Yissachar 38b and p. 89]This occurred in year 5776, and 5779. In years that the first day of Shavuos falls on Erev Shabbos, the Diaspora splits from Eretz Yisrael by Parshas Naso, and join back together by Chukas Balak [which is the first opportunity]. This occurred in years 5762, 5763, 5766, and 5769. It will reoccur in 5780, 5783, 5786, 5787.

The reason for the delayed alignment: Seemingly this is because there are certain Parshiyos which contain a preferred joint status over others. Thus, for example, we prefer to join Matos Maaseiy together, than to join Behar Bechukosaiy. Thus, in a leap year when we are limited in the amount of Parshiyos that can be joined, we choose to join only Matos Maaseiy even though this will extend the misalignment between Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora for several months.

[76] See Chayeh Levi 4:26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:9

[77] Kinyan Torah 6:12; See Betzeil Hachachmah 1:2-8; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 135 footnote 40

[78] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:9

[79] Such as one traveled to Eretz Yisrael the week after a two-day Shavuos, or Pesach which coincided with Shabbos, in which case Eretz Yisrael is one Parsha ahead in its reading.

[80] See Sefer Haminhagim p. 19

[81] Lehoros Nasan 3:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:9

[82] Ikarei Hadaat 22:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:9

[83] This can occur when the 2nd day of Pesach or Shavuos falls on Shabbos in the Diaspora and hence no Parsha is read, while in Eretz Yisrael the regular weekly Parsha was read. If one travels that week to the Diaspora, he will be hearing the same Parsha that he heard the previous Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael.

[84] This ruling is evident from Admur 285:9 who does not require one to read Shnayim Mikra of the Yomim Tovim sections prior to each Yom Tov being that it was already read or will be read in its related Shabbos portion. Hence, the same logistics apply here and there is no need to repeat Shnayim Mikra.

[85] See Yalkut Kerias Hatorah [Chazak] p. 1322

[86] Suggestion of Rav Y.S. Ginzberg, printed in Sichat Hashavua Pinat Halacha

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