Chapter 12: The Maftir and Haftorah

This article is an excerpt from our Sefer

Buy me on Amazon.com

Chapter 12: The Maftir and Haftorah[1]

1. The Historical background of the Maftir and Haftorah:

A. The Haftorah:[2]

The reading of the weekly Haftorah from the Prophets was established by the Anshei Kneses Hagedola[3] as a continuation of the accustomed reading of the Prophets that began in the times of Antiochus due to a decree he initiated, prohibiting the reading of the Chumash in Shul. The following is the history of this decree:[4] One time [in the days of Antiochus and Yochanon Kohen Gadol Chasmonaiy[5]] there was a decree of religious persecution made against the Jewish people, that they should not read from the Torah. They thus read from the Prophets a subject similar to that of the Torah portion, and called up seven people corresponding to the seven people who need to be called up to read from the Torah on Shabbos. Now, they would not read less than three verses per person, just as we do not read less than three verses when reading from the Torah. Later on, when this decree was abolished, and they returned to reading from the Torah, the [Anshei Kneses Hagedola[6]] established that on Shabbos a person is to read 21 verses from the Prophets, from a subject similar to that week’s Parsha. Ever since that time, the reading of Haftorah has remained a part of the weekly Torah reading, being read directly after the weekly Parsha.

B. The Maftir-The obligation and why it is read:[7]

 [After instituting the reading of the Haftorah, the Sages established that] the person who recites the Maftir in Navi must first read a section from the Torah, and recite a blessing before and after the Aliyah [just as by any Aliyah], and only then recite the Haftorah. This is done in order so the respect given towards the Torah not be the same as the respect given to the Navi, and if a person would read from Navi alone, just as all the other Olim read from the Torah alone, [their respect would be equal].[8]

 

The name Maftir:

Maftir in truth refers to the reading of the portion from Navi formally known as the Haftorah. It comes from the word Petor which means finish, as the reading is completed with the Haftorah.[9] Nevertheless, in today’s times, it is customary to refer to the last Aliyah of the Torah, which is given to the person who recites the Haftorah, as Maftir.

 

2. The list of days when Maftir and Haftorah were established to be read?[10]

The Sages established for the Haftorah to be read on Shabbos and Yom Tov. The Sages did not establish for one to read the Haftorah on Monday’s Thursday’s, or on Shabbos by Mincha, and thus the Haftorah is not to be read on these days. The Haftorah is also read on Tishe Beav by Shacharis[11], and according to Ashkenazi custom, is also read by Mincha of every fast day.[12] [The Sephardi custom is not to read the Haftorah by Mincha of a regular fast day, although many Sephardic communities read the Haftorah by Mincha of Tishe Beav.[13]]

  1. Yom Tov
  2. Yom Kippur
  3. Tishe Beav by Shacharis and Mincha
  4. Fast days by Mincha

3. What is to be read for Maftir?

A. The reading on Shabbos:

The reading on Shabbos-Why do we not read the Korban Musaf in a second Sefer Torah:[14] Although the Geonim established that on Yom Tov one is to remove two Sifrei Torah and read in it the Parsha of the Musafim, on Shabbos they did not institute this to be done. The reason for this is because the verses of scripture discussing the Musaf sacrifice of Shabbos only contains two verses, and one is not allowed to read less than three verses from the Torah by an Aliyah.[15] Furthermore, since every Shabbos one is required to recite the Haftorah from the Navi, and the Haftorah has to be of similarity to the Parsha that was read by the Maftir, therefore we have the Maftir read from the end of the that week’s Parsha, in order so the Haftorah also have a similarity to the content of that week Parsha. As if he would read the Parsha of the Shabbos Musaf sacrifice, then on every Shabbos we would need to read a Haftorah that has similarity to the content of Shabbos, and it would end up that all the Haftorahs of the year surround one topic.[16]

The reading on Shabbos-Why do we repeat the last verses for Maftir:[17] Today it is customary for the Maftir on Shabbos to simply repeat the last few verses already read by the last Aliyah. The following is the historical background on this custom: Originally, in the time of the Talmudic Sages, the Maftir would not simply repeat a few verses from the reading of the seventh Aliyah, as is accustomed today, and rather the seventh Aliyah would [conclude his reading early and] leave a few verses remaining in the Parsha for the Maftir to read.[18] However, after the authoring of the Talmud, the Rabanan Savuraiy instituted for the half Kaddish to be recited after completing the number of Aliyos, prior to Maftir, and hence it became no longer possible for the Maftir to finish the reading of the Parsha.[19] Accordingly, they accustomed to have the seventh or last Aliyah finish the reading of the Parsha, say Kaddish, and then have the Maftir repeat the reading of at least three verses, from what was already read by the seventh or last Aliyah, (or from one of the other previous Aliyos).

B. The reading on Yom Tov:[20]

In the times of the Sages of the Mishneh and Talmud, the Maftir would read from the Torah as part of the five Aliyos that were read from the portion of that Holiday which was read from the first Torah scroll. [There was hence no second scroll taken out from the ark] However, in later generations, the Rabanan Savuraiy established, and so was accustomed by the Geonim which followed them, that the Maftir is to read [from a second scroll[21]] the portion of the Musaf sacrifice written in Parshas Pinchas.[22] This institution was based on the following teaching of the Sages: Avraham stated in front of Hashem “Master of the world when the Temple is not in existence the children of Israel do not have on what to find support. What will be with my children when they sin? Perhaps you will do to them as you did to the generation of the Mabul and Haflaga. Hashem answered “I have already established for them the order of the Karbanos. When the Karbanos are read, I consider it as if they sacrificed the Korban before me and I forgive all of their sins.” 

4. Calling up Maftir in addition to the other Aliyos-Does the Maftir count as one of the obligatory Aliyos [i.e. seven Aliyos of Shabbos, five Aliyos of Yom Tov, etc.]?[23]

The debate and letter of law: Some Poskim[24] rule that the Maftir counts as one of the seven Aliyos, and thus it suffices to call up six Aliyos and then call up the Maftir as the seventh Aliyah, and have the Haftorah read. Other Poskim[25], however, rule that the person who reads the Maftir does not count as part of the seven Aliyos [and hence seven Aliya’s must be called up prior to Maftir].[26] Practically, the main opinion follows the former approach.[27]

The custom on Shabbos, Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur:[28] Nevertheless, the custom of all Jewry dating back to previous generations, is that on Shabbos, Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur, the Maftir is not included as part of the obligatory number of Aliyos.[29] [However, Bedieved, if on Shabbos the Baal Korei read until the end of the Parsha for Shishi and the Kaddish was already recited, or if they realized after the reading that only six Aliyos were called up, then the seventh Aliyah counts as the Maftir Aliyah, and there is no need for an additional Aliyah to be called.[30] Likewise, if no one else knows how to read the Haftorah and the Kaddish has yet to be recited, then the Shevi’i counts as the Maftir, as explained in Halacha 6B.]

The custom on Tishe Beav, Fast days, and Yom Kippur by Mincha:[31] On Tishe Beav and all other public fast days by Mincha, and Yom Kippur by Mincha, the Maftir receives the third Aliyah [and is hence included in the minimum number of Aliyos].[32]

 

Summary of cases in which an additional Aliyah for Maftir is not called up on Shabbos:

There exist three cases in which an additional Aliyah for Maftir is not called up on a regular Shabbos:

1. If the Baal Korei accidentally read until the end of the Parsha for Shishi and the Kaddish was already recited.

2. If they realized after the reading that only six Aliyos were called up, then the Maftir Aliyah counts as the seventh Aliyah.

3. If no one else knows how to read the Haftorah, and the Kaddish has yet to be recited, then the Shevi’i counts as the Maftir, as explained in Halacha 6B.

5. The reading of Maftir when two or three Sifrei Torah are removed:

*For the full order when two or three Sifrei Torah are removed, see Chapter 11 Halacha 5!

Two Sifrei Torah:[33] Whenever two Sifrei Torah are removed on a day that Maftir/Haftorah are recited, such as on Yom Tov, Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, Shabbos of the four Parshiyos, it is customary to complete the required number of Aliyos [and any added Aliyos] in the first Sefer Torah, and have the Maftir read from the second Sefer Torah.[34] Nonetheless, if in some communities the custom is to have the last Aliyah read from the second Sefer Torah on Rosh Chodesh that falls on Shabbos, and by the four Parshiyos, and then have the Maftir repeat the reading again from the second Sefer Torah, then they are not to be protested.[35]

Three Sifrei Torah:[36] Whenever three Sifrei Torah are removed, such as on Rosh Chodesh Teves that falls on Shabbos, in which case one needs to read the weekly Parsha, the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh, and the Parsha of Chanukah, and such as on Simchas Torah when one needs to read the Parsha of Vezos Habracha, Bereishis, and Parshas Hamusafim, then the following order is to be followed: The Maftir alone is to read from the last Torah scroll and have all the obligatory and added Aliyos read from the previous two Torah scrolls.

6. Who is to receive the Aliyah of Maftir/Haftorah?

A. May one who already received an Aliyah receive the Aliyah of Maftir?[37]

One is not to be called up twice during the same Torah reading unless there is no one else who is able to be called up, as explained in B.[38] Thus, if there are other people available who know how to recite the Haftorah, then it is better that this person who did not yet receive an Aliyah be called up than to call up for Haftorah a person who already received an Aliyah (in this congregation). [However, if he received an Aliyah by a different Minyan, then there is no issue with him receiving a new Aliyah by this Minyan. Likewise, in a time of need some Poskim[39] rule that one may be lenient to give another Aliyah to one who already went up.[40]]

B. The law if no one knows to read the Haftorah, other than a person who already received an Aliyah:[41]

If there is no one in the Shul who knows to recite the Haftorah, with exception to an individual who already received an Aliyah, then he is to receive the Aliyah of Maftir, and we do not say that Maftir should be skipped [and have the Olah go straight to the Haftorah] simply because he already received an Aliyah.[42] This, however, is with exception to a case where the person who received the last Aliyah [i.e. Shevi’i/Chamishi] knows how to read the Maftir, as explained next.

The law if the last Olah [Shevi’i] knows how to read the Haftorah:[43] If there is no one in the Shul who knows to recite the Haftorah, with exception to individuals who already received an Aliyah, then if the half Kaddish was already recited by the Baal Korei after the last Aliyah [Shevi’i on Shabbos], and it only then became discovered that there is no one in Shul who knows how to say the Haftorah other than those who already received an Aliyah and the Baal Korei also already received an Aliyah, then one of the previous Ola’s is to receive the Aliyah of Maftir, as stated above. This applies even if the last Olah knows to read the Haftorah, nevertheless, a new Aliyah must be called up for Maftir. [It is permitted in such a case even for the Shevi’i to repeat the Aliyah of Maftir if he knows to read the Haftorah.]  If, however, this became discovered prior to the Kaddish being said, then the Kaddish is not to be said at this point, and rather the last Olah [of Shevi’i] is to go straight to the reading of the Haftorah, and he is not to be called up for a second Aliyah of the Maftir.[44] In such a case, the Kaddish is to be recited after the completion of the Haftorah with its blessings.[45] However, if the Shevi’i does not know to say the Haftorah, then in all cases the Chazan is to say the Kaddish after Shevi’i, and have one of the previous Ola’s receive the Aliyah of Maftir, and repeat the reading of the end of Shevi’i with a blessing before and after. [The above law that Maftir is to be skipped if the last Olah knows to say the Haftorah and Kaddish was not yet said, only applies on Shabbos when a single Sefer Torah is removed and the Maftir simply repeats from the last Aliyah. However, on Yom Tov when two Sifrei Torah are removed, or even Shabbos that contains a new reading for Maftir, such as Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, or the four Parshiyos, then Kaddish is to always be said and have the Maftir Aliyah called up even if the last Olah is the only one who knows to say the Haftorah.]

 

Summary:

If on a regular Shabbos when one Sefer Torah is removed there is no one in the Shul who knows to recite the Haftorah with exception to an individual who already received an Aliyah, then if the Shevi’i knows to read the Haftorah, Kaddish is not to be recited at this point, and he is to go straight to the Haftorah without having Maftir called up. If the Kaddish was already said, or the Shevi’i does not know to read the Haftorah, then the Maftir Aliyah is to be called up and given to one of the previous Olah’s.

 

C. Calling up someone for Maftir if he does not know how to read the Haftorah:[46]

Some Poskim[47] rule that it is permitted to call up for Maftir an individual who does not know to read the Haftorah, and then have another individual read the Haftorah [with its blessings] in his stead.[48] Other Poskim[49], however, rule that it is forbidden to do so, as the person who receives the Aliyah of Maftir is required to read the Haftorah. Practically, it is initially forbidden to call up for Maftir an individual who does not know how to read the Haftorah himself. However, Bedieved if he was already called up, he is to say the blessings and have another read the Haftorah, as rules the first opinion. [In such a case, another person may read the Haftorah with its blessings, even if he did not receive any Aliyah to the Torah that day. Some Poskim[50], however, rule that the above debate only applies in communities who do not read the Haftorah from a scroll. However, in communities which read the Haftorah from a scroll, it is permitted even initially for them to call up someone who does not know to read the Haftorah, have him say the blessings and have the Baal Korei read it from the scroll, just as is done by Kerias Hatorah. Furthermore, some Poskim[51] rule that in communities in which it is accustomed for all the congregants to read the Haftorah along silently with the reader, then it is permitted even initially for the person who received Maftir to recite the blessings, and read the Haftorah quietly having the Baal Korei read it aloud. Practically, this is the custom in many communities, and they are not particular to call up only someone who knows how to read the Haftorah.]

 

Summary:

Initially, only a person who knows to read the Haftorah properly is to be called up for Maftir. Nevertheless, many are accustomed to being lenient to call up even a person who cannot read the Haftorah properly, and have him say the blessing and have the Baal Korei read it aloud while he reads along to himself.

 

Q&A

May someone who is blind, or illiterate, be called up for Maftir/Haftorah?[52]

This follows the same law as a regular Aliyah, and thus practically in a time of need, such as Kavod Habriyos, he may receive the Aliyah and be Yotzei through hearing the Baal Korei read the Haftorah. However, he initially is not to be called up for the Maftir/Haftorah of the four Parshiyos, and Yom Tov. See Chapter 6 Halacha 1D and F for the full details of this subject!

 

D. Children-Calling up a child for Maftir/Haftorah: 

From the letter of the law a child who is of age of Chinuch may receive an Aliyah despite being below the age of Bar Mitzvah. Practically, however, it is no longer customary for children to be given Aliyos to the Torah with exception to Maftir by the Shabbos prior to the Bar Mitzvah. The Chabad custom is to be stringent in this matter at all times and to never call a child below the age of Mitzvos for any Aliyah. See Chapter 6 Halacha 1C for the full details of this subject!

 

E. Avel/Mourner reading the Maftir and Haftorah:[53]

It is customary for the Avel over a parent to recite the Maftir from the Navi [on Shabbos, Yom Tov, and fast days].[54] [Furthermore, just as some mourners take upon themselves to say the Kaddish for relatives other than a parent[55], so too they are to endeavor to say Maftir, and so was the custom of the Rebbe in 1988.[56] In the event that there is more than one mourner present, one is to follow the laws of precedence lineated earlier regarding Davening for the Amud. If applicable, one is to make more than one Minyan of Keriah for the various Aveilim.[57] There is no obligation for the Avel to Daven in a different Shul for the sake of Maftir, if he is able to Daven with greater concentration in his Shul.[58] In the event that the Avel cannot receive Maftir, he is to endeavor to receive a different Aliyah.[59]]

The time period: Ideally, the Maftir is meant to be recited throughout the 12 months, just like the law by Kaddish[60], however the custom is to only recite it for 11 months from the passing, just as is the custom regarding Kaddish.[61]

 

Q&A

Must the Gabbai give Maftir to the Avel?[62]

No. While it is proper and respectful to do so, a person who is an Avel is not considered an actual Chiyuv that he has to receive the Aliyah of Maftir. It is thus permitted for the Gabbai to sell the Aliyah.[63]

 

Who receives precedence if both an Avel and a Yahrzeit want Maftir?[64]

A person with a Yahrzeit that week receives precedence over an Avel within the year, even if he is within Shloshim.

Not to quarrel:[65]

One is not to quarrel over any Mitzvah, even if it is a Biblical command, and is certainly not to quarrel over the receiving of Maftir. Through avoiding dispute, one will cause a greater Iluiy Neshamah than even the Maftir itself.[66]

 

F. Yahrzeit:[67]

It is customary for one who has a Yahrzeit of a parent to receive the Aliyah of Maftir on the Shabbos prior to the Yahrzeit.[68] [This applies even if the Yahrzeit falls on a day of Torah reading, and even if it falls on, or after, a Yom Tov within that week.[69] The person is to prepare the Haftorah properly beforehand in order so he recite it accordingly.[70]]

Yahrzeit falls on Shabbos:[71] In the event that the Yahrzeit falls on Shabbos, he is to receive Maftir on that Shabbos and not on the Shabbos before. [If, however, it falls on a Yom Tov, he is to receive the Aliyah on the previous Shabbos, as stated above.]

Level of Chiyuv and precedence: If the Yahrzeit falls on Shabbos, then the person is considered a Chiyuv to receive an Aliyah, and follows the laws of precedence relevant to Chiyuvim of Aliyos.[72] Furthermore, even if the Yahrzeit falls during the week, it is customary to treat him like a Chiyuv.[73]

Yizkor/Hazkaras Neshamos:[74] It is no longer the widespread custom to say prayers for the deceased [i.e. Yizkor; Keil Malei Rachamim; Hashkava] on the Shabbos before the Yahrzeit. However, some are accustomed to do so. [It is not the Chabad custom to do so.]

 

Q&A

Must the Gabbai give Maftir to one who has a Yahrzeit that week?[75]

No. While it is proper and respectful to do so, a person with a Yahrzeit that week is not considered an actual Chiyuv that he has to receive the Aliyah of Maftir. Furthermore, even one who has a Yahrzeit on Shabbos, and is considered a Chiyuv, it is not an obligation to give him Maftir, even though it is proper to do so. It is thus permitted for the Gabbai to sell the Aliyah.[76]

 

Who receives precedence if both an Avel and a Yahrzeit are present?[77]

A person with a Yahrzeit that week receives precedence over an Avel within the year, even if he is within Shloshim.

Who receives precedence if there are two people present with a Yahrzeit?[78]

The Yahrzeits are on different days of the weeks: Some Poskim[79] rule that the person whose Yahrzeit falls earlier in the week receives precedence. Thus, if one person’s parent Yahrzeit is on Sunday while the other’s is on Monday, the person with the Sunday Yahrzeit receives the Maftir. Other Poskim[80], however, rule there is no such law of precedence.

Both Yahrzeits are on the same day of the week:[81] If both Yahrzeits are on the same day of the week, then a Yahrzeit of a father receives precedence over the Yahrzeit of a mother. If they both have a Yahrzeit for the same level parent, then a Torah scholar receives precedence. If they are both of equal stature, then a compromise is to be made.

Yahrzeit on Shabbos versus Yahrzeit during the week: One who has a Yahrzeit that Shabbos receives precedence over one who has a Yahrzeit during the week.[82] Nevertheless, some Poskim[83] rule that this only applies if only one Aliyah is available. If, however Maftir and another Aliyah is available, then the person with a Yahrzeit that week is to receive Maftir while the one with a Yahrzeit that day is to receive the other available Aliyah.

Not to quarrel:[84]

One is not to quarrel over any Mitzvah, even if it is a Biblical command, and is certainly not to quarrel over the receiving of Maftir. Through avoiding dispute, one will cause a greater Iluiy Neshamah than even the Maftir itself.[85]

 

G. Chasan by Ufruf:[86]

A Chasan by the Shabbos before his Chasuna [i.e. Ufruf] is considered a Chiyuv [as explained in Chapter 6 Halacha 8B] and it is customary to give him the Aliyah of Maftir.[87] Nonetheless, it is not a Chiyuv to give him specifically the Aliyah of Maftir and it is thus disputed if he comes before a Baal Yahrzeit for the Aliyah of Maftir, if other Aliyos are available.[88]

H. Bar Mitzvah boy: [89]

A boy on the Shabbos before his Bar Mitzvah, is not considered a Chiyuv for Maftir, although nevertheless some communities are accustomed to give him the Aliyah of Maftir, as explained in Chapter 6 Halacha 1C.[90] This is not the Chabad custom.

 

Q&A

If there are many Chiyuvim present by a Minyan who desire to receive Maftir, may they split up to different Minyanim?[91]

Yes. It is permitted for a large Minyan to split up to small Minyanim for the sake of calling up the various Chiyuvim for the Maftir and Haftorah. In such a case, each Minyan must read the Maftir from their own Sefer Torah, and not rely on the Maftir of the main Minyan.

 

7. Saying Half Kaddish before Maftir:

See Chapter 11 Halacha 1B!

8. Mistakes in the Maftir:

Read only two verses: See Chapter 9 Halacha 1B in Q&A.

Read the Maftir Aliyah prior to calling up the minimum number of Aliyos: See Chapter 9 Halacha 1F.

Forgot to recite the Maftir: See Chapter 9 Halacha 1G.

Read the wrong Maftir text: If the wrong text was read for Maftir, then on a regular Shabbos one is not required to repeat the reading, however on a day where a second Sefer Torah is removed to have a new Parsha read for Maftir, then it must be repeated. See Chapters 13-17 for the detailed cases by each Holiday!

The Haftorah-Laws relating to the reading of Haftorah:[92]

9. Under what circumstances may the Haftorah be recited [i.e. Minyan, Kosher Sefer Torah, area]:[93]

*For the list of days that the Haftorah is recited-See Halacha 2!

When: The Haftorah was established to be read by a Minyan[94], after the reading from the Sefer Torah.[95]

If there is no Kosher Sefer Torah:[96] If a Shul does not have a [Kosher] Sefer Torah, and thus they read the Parsha from a Chumash [or Pasul Sefer Torah] without its blessings[97], then they are not to read the Haftorah with its blessings. However, the Haftorah may be read without its blessings and one is even encouraged to do so, in order so the Mitzvah of the Haftorah not be forgotten.

If the Sefer Torah became Pasul during the reading:[98] If a Shul’s Sefer Torah was discovered to be Pasul during the reading, and thus they read the Parsha from a Pasul Sefer Torah [due to lack of having another Kosher Sefer Torah available to read from], then the Haftorah is to be read with its blessings. See Chapter 10 Halacha 3B for the full details of this subject!

If there is no Minyan:[99] The Haftorah may only be recited [with its blessing] if there is a Minyan present. One who is unable to arrange or join a Minyan to hear the Torah reading [i.e. Davening at home, or no Minyan in Shul, or community], is to read the Parsha to himself from within a Chumash.[100] Seemingly, the Haftorah is likewise to be read without a blessing.

May the Haftorah be read in a different area than the Kerias Hatorah:[101] In the event that there is no printed text of the Haftorah in the Shul, and it cannot be brought in from elsewhere such as due to lack of an Eiruv in the neighborhood, then ten men from this Shul are to go to an area which contains the Haftorah text and have the Maftir read it there [with its blessings]. [However, initially, it is to be read in the same area that the Kerias Hatorah took place.]

 

Q&A

If there are many Chiyuvim present by a Minyan who desire to receive Maftir, may they split up to different Minyanim?

See Halacha 6 in Q&A!

 

Q&A on lost Minyan in middle

See Chapter 1 Halacha 3b and in Q&A!

If one lost the Minyan in the midst of reading Maftir, may the Haftorah be recited with its blessings?

If one began reading the Maftir with ten men and then one of them left in middle, some Poskim[102] rule that the Haftorah is to be read without its before or after blessings. Other Poskim[103], however, rule the blessings are to be recited. According to all, a person who was not present during the reading of Maftir may join for the reading of the Haftorah, so long as six people who were there for the Maftir remain.[104]

 

If one lost the Minyan in the midst of reading the Haftorah, are the after blessings to be recited?[105]

If one began reading the Haftorah [or its before blessing] with ten men and one [or more] of them left in middle, the after blessings are nevertheless to be recited, [so long as six men remain].

 

10. From what should the Haftorah be read-A scroll, printed book, individual sheet?[106]

Although a Sefer Torah which is missing even one letter is [invalid and is thus] not to be read from[107], nevertheless, it is not necessary for the Haftorah to be read from a complete scroll that contains that entire book of Navi, and rather it suffices to simply read it from a print that contains only that Parsha of Haftorah.[108] It is valid even if this printout of the Haftorah is not written according to the scribal guidelines which were used when writing the books of prophets in the times of the Talmudic sages, which included writing it on Gevil or Kelaf parchment made from a Kosher animal’s skin, and rolled up similar to a Sefer Torah.[109] Thus, it is valid to simply print [from one’s computer] or write the weekly Haftorah [on a sheet of paper, and then read it in Shul]. [It does not need to be read from an actual published book of Navi, or Nach, and certainly is not required to be read from a handwritten scroll. Nonetheless, being that some Poskim[110] argue and rule that the Haftorah is to be read from a handwritten scroll of that entire Sefer of Navi, therefore, some are stringent to do so.[111] This is widespread amongst many Lithuanian Shuls who follow the customs of the Gra.[112] However, the widespread custom of the world, including Sephardim, Ashkenazim, and Chassidim is to be lenient in this matter and not read the Haftorah from a Kosher scroll, and rather suffice with a printed book.[113] However, being that some Poskim[114] rule that the Haftorah is to be read from a full Sefer of Navi, therefore some are accustomed to read it from a Tanach, or full Sefer of that Navi.[115] Practically, Admur ibid negates all these stringencies and thus the Chabad custom is to suffice with reading it from a Chumash or Sefer Haftoros, and so is the custom of other sects of Jewry and Gedolei Yisrael.[116]]

The law if the Haftorah is missing words or letters:[117] Even if the printed or handwritten Haftorah contains many missing words, the words may be read by heart, so long as doing so does not contain a prohibition of reciting words of scripture by heart. [Practically, if an entire verse is missing and must be said by heart, it is invalid. However, if only a word or two which does not have any independent understanding is missing and needs to be read by heart, then it is valid.[118]]

The law if there is no printed text available in Shul:[119] In the event that there is no printed text of the Haftorah in the Shul, and it cannot be brought in from elsewhere such as due to lack of an Eiruv in the neighborhood, then ten men from this Shul are to go to an area which contains the Haftorah text and have the Maftir read it there [with its blessings]. However, under no circumstances may it be read by heart in the Shul.[120]

 

Summary:

The Haftorah must be read from a written surface, as opposed to being said by heart. It suffices even if the individual Haftorah is printed on a sheet of paper, and thus it may be read from a Chumash or Sefer Haftorah’s, and so is the widespread custom of the world. Some, however, are stringent to read it from a book that contains that entire Navi printed. Others are stringent to read it from a handwritten scroll, which is written similar to a Sefer Torah.

 

11. What is to be read for the Haftorah:

A. The reading on Shabbos:[121]

On Shabbos, one is to read a portion of Navi that relates to the weekly Parsha.[122] The Sages did not establish which exact portion of Navi is to be read on each Shabbos [as opposed to Yom Tov, as explained in B], and rather any Parsha of Navi that has similarity to the weekly Parsha was valid, and so was done in the Talmudic era. It was only in later generations, in the times of the Rishonim, that specific sections were chosen for the Haftorah reading of each Shabbos.[123] Accordingly, there exist difference of customs between Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Chassidic, and Yemenite Jewry regarding the exact text of the weeks Haftorah, and each community is to follow his custom.[124] The list of Haftorahs according to Chabad custom is can be found in the various Chabad Chumashim, Chabad Siddurim, Sefer Haminhagim, and in our Sefer “The Weekly Parsha Summary” by each Parsha.

Which Haftorah is to be read by a double Parsha?[125] Whenever two Parshiyos are read from the Torah, the Haftorah of the second Parsha is read, as it is the Parsha that the reading concluded with. Likewise, the Maftir is to be read from that Parsha. This is with exception to the Parsha of Acharei Mos-Kedoshim, in which the Haftorah of Acharei Mos [i.e. Vehayu Kibinei Kushim] is recited.[126]

Shabbos Chasan:[127] On Shabbos Sheva Brachos the custom is to recite the Haftorah of Sos Assis [Yeshaya 61, and differ the weekly Shabbos Haftorah. Nevertheless, none of the special Haftorahs brought below are differed by Shabbos Sheva Brachos. [Practically, it is no longer customary to recite the Haftorah of Sos Assis by Shabbos Sheva Brachos and rather the regular Haftorah is recited.[128]]

Shlosha Deparanusa:[129] From the 17th of Tammuz until Tishe Beav, which includes three Shabbasos, the Haftorah of “Telasa Deparanusa/Three of retribution” is recited. These include: 1) Divrei Yermiyahu [Yermiyah 1:1]; 2) Shimu Dvar Hashem [Yermiyah 2:4] 3) Chazon Yeshayahu [Yeshaya 1:1].

Shiva Denechmasa:[130] For the first seven Shabbasos after Tishe Beav, the Haftorah of “Sheva Dinechmasa/Seven of comfort”, is recited. These include: 1) Nachamu [Yeshaya 40:1]; 2) Vatomar Tziyon. [Yeshaya 49:14] 3) Aniya Soeira [Yeshaya 54:11]; 4) Anochi [Yeshaya 51:12] 5) Rani Akara [Yeshaya 54:1] 6) Kumi Ori [Yeshaya 60:1]; 7) Sos Assis [Yeshaya 61:10] See Chapter 13 Halacha 3 regarding the order to be followed if Rosh Chodesh Elul falls on Shabbos.

Tarti Detiyuvta:[131] During the ten days of repentance, which follows the Haftora’s of seven weeks of comfort, two Haftoras of repentance are recited. These are the Haftorah of Dirshu [Yeshaya 55:6] on Mincha of Tzom Gedalia, and the Haftorah of Shuva [Hosheia 14:2] on Shabbos Shuva, which is the Shabbos between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.[132]

Shabbos Rosh Chodesh or Erev Rosh Chodesh: When Rosh Chodesh, or Erev Rosh Chodesh, falls on Shabbos, the weekly Haftorah is differed. See Chapter 13 Halacha 3 for the full details of this subject!

Four Parshiyos: The Shabbosim of the four Parshiyos of Shekalim, Zachar, Parah, and Hachodesh, the weekly Haftorah is differed. See Chapter 14 for the full details of this subject!

Yom Tov that falls on Shabbos: When Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, the weekly Haftorah is differed. See Chapter 15-16 for the full details of this subject!

Shabbos Chanukah:[133] On Shabbos Chanukah, the weekly Haftorah is differed. Rather, the Haftorah of “Rini Vesimchi” is read. In the event that there are two Shabbos Chanukah’s that year, then on the second Shabbos, the Haftorah of “Neiros Shlomo” is read. See Chapter 17 Halacha 1 for the full details of this subject!

Shabbos Hagadol that coincides with Erev Pesach:[134] The custom in these provinces is that when Shabbos Hagadol falls on Erev Pesach the Haftorah of “Veareiva..” is read from Malachi.[135]

Shabbos Chol Hamoed:[136] Both the Haftorah of Shabbos Chol Hamoed Pesach and Sukkos discuss the times of the redemption. On Pesach the Haftorah discusses the resurrection, being that the resurrection will take place in Nissan. On Sukkos the Haftorah discusses the battle of Gog and Magog, being that in Tishrei there will be the war of Gog and Magog.

B. The reading on Yom Tov:[137]

The Anshei Kneses Hagedola[138] instituted that one should read from Navi on every holiday from a portion that deals with the holiday events. The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of Navi that is read on each holiday. See Chapters 15-16 for the full details of this subject!

C. The reading on Fast days:

According to Ashkenazi custom, the Haftorah of Dirshu Hashem Behimatzo [Yeshaya 55:6] is read by Mincha of a fast day. [139] [The Sephardi custom is not to read a Haftorah for Mincha.[140]]

Tishe Beav: By Shacharis of Tishe Beav, the Haftorah is read from Yermiah [8:13] “Asuf Asifam.” By Mincha of Tishe Beav, regular fast day Haftorah of Dirshu is read. [However, the widespread custom amongst many Sephardic communities, is to read the Haftorah of Shuva Yisrael by Mincha of Tishe Beav.[141]]

D. Skipping verses:[142]

The verses of the Haftorah do not have to be read consecutively, and it is permitted to read different segments within the same Haftorah [so long as the main subject of the Haftorah is not jeopardized]. Nevertheless, one may not read from two different books of Navi. [Practically, the set verses of all the Haftorah are printed in the Chumashim, following these guidelines.]

E. The law if the wrong Haftorah was recited:[143]

Remembered in middle:[144] If one read the wrong weeks Haftorah and remembered his mistake in the middle, prior to saying the concluding blessings, he is to stop and read the correct Haftorah without repeating the initial blessing.

Remembered after the reading:[145] If the Haftorah of a different week’s Parsha was read instead of the correct Haftorah, one does not fulfill his obligation, and is to read the correct Haftorah with the blessings. If, however, the Haftorah that one read [on Shabbos] makes mention of the topics of that week’s Parsha, then he is to read the correct Haftorah without the blessings.[146] [However, on Yom Tov, seemingly the correct Haftorah is to be re-read with a blessing even if a similar Haftorah was read, as the Sages instituted exactly what is to be read for Haftorah on Yom Tov, as stated in B.]

12. How many verses are to be read during the Haftorah:[147]

Shabbos:[148] On Shabbos, the person who reads the Maftir from the Navi is to read no less than 21 verses.[149] Nonetheless, if the entire subject of the chosen Parsha in Navi contains less than 21 verses, such as the Parsha of [Haftorah for Shabbos] Shuva [Hosheia 14] which is small, or the Parsha of [the Haftorah for Parshas Tzav which is] Oloseichem Safu Al Zivcheichem [Yirmiya 7:21], then it is not necessary to read more verses from elsewhere (neither before or after the Parsha) in order to complete the reading of 21 verses. 

Yom Tov:[150] On Yom Tov, the person who reads the Maftir from the Navi is to read no less than 15 verses.[151] Nonetheless, if the entire subject of the chosen Parsha in Navi contains less than 15 verses, then it is not necessary to read more verses from elsewhere (neither before or after the Parsha) in order to complete the reading of 15 verses.

Fast day:[152] On a fast day, the person who reads the Maftir from the Navi is to read no less than 9 verses.

 

Q&A

Bedieved, what is the law if less than the above amount of verses was read?[153]

So long as three verses were read the Haftorah remains valid, although nevertheless one is to make up the missed verses without a blessing. If less than three verses were read, then it is to be re-read with its blessings.

 

Practically, how many Haftorahs are read on Shabbos that contain less than 21 verses?

Practically, according to Chabad custom, the following Haftorahs are less than 21 verses, and some even less than 15 verses:

Sefer Bereishis: Bereishis, Noach, Vayeitzei, Vayeishev, Mikeitz, Vayigash, Vayechi.

Sefer Shemos: Bo, Yisro, Mishpatim, Teruma, Tetzaveh, Ki Sisa, Vayakhel.

Sefer Vayikra: Shabbos Hagadol of Shabbos Erev Pesach, Tzav, Shemini, Metzora, Acharei Mos, Kedoshim, Emor, Behar, Bechukosaiy.

Sefer Bamidbar: Balak.

Sefer Devarim: Re’eh, Ki Seitzei [if it does not fall on the 14th of Elul, in which case Rini Vesimchi is made up], Shabbos Shuva, Vezos Habracha.

Other times: Shabbos Chol Hamoed Pesach, The second Shabbos Chanukah [when applicable].  

 

13. Who is to read the Haftorah:

The person who received the Aliyah of Maftir is afterwards to recite the Haftorah.[154] It is not initially to be read by another person.[155] See Halacha 6 for the full details of this matter and the law regarding who may/should receive the Aliyah of Maftir.

If the Maftir is unable to read the Haftorah:[156] If a person was called up for Maftir and after he read from the Torah it was discovered that he cannot say the Haftorah, then another individual may say it [with its blessings]. See Halacha 6C for the full details of this matter!

14. Switching the reader in middle of the Haftorah:[157]

If in middle of the reading of the Haftorah, the person becomes unable to continue the reading [such as he lost his voice or had a coughing attack or medical emergency], then another person is to take him over. From where to continue reading:[158] The new reader must restart the reading from the beginning of the Haftorah, and is not to continue from where he left off.[159]

Is a new blessing recited by the new reader: It is disputed whether the new reader is to repeat the before blessing, as explained in Chapter 7 Halacha 6D.[160] Practically, the new reader is to repeat it.[161] [However, some Poskim[162] rule that this only applies in congregations where only the reader alone recites the Haftorah. However, in those congregations where everyone reads along silently together with the reader, then the before blessing is not to be repeated.

15. Standing during the reading of the Haftorah:[163]

The reader: Throughout all the Haftorahs of the year, the person reading the Haftorah aloud must initially stand when doing so out of honor for the congregation.

The congregation: [Throughout all the Haftorahs of the year, the congregation is not required to stand during the reading of the Haftorah.[164] However], on the 1st day of Shavuos, some have the custom for all those who read the Haftorah of Merkavah Yechezkel, along quietly with the reader, to stand during its reading.[165] [However, those who do not read along quietly with the reader, there is no custom for them to stand. Practically, the Chabad custom is to always read a Haftorah quietly along with the reader[166], although it is not necessarily our custom to stand even for the Haftorah of Shavuos. Each community is to follow the directive of their Rav regarding this matter.]

16. The blessings of the Haftorah:[167]

The Sages established for the Maftir to recite a total of seven blessings, corresponding to the seven Aliyos called up to the Torah. He recites two blessings over the Torah reading of Maftir which he reads prior to the Haftorah, and recites five blessings over the Haftorah, one beforehand, and four afterwards. [This applies on Shabbos and Yom Tov, however on a fast day only three after blessings are recited.[168] There exist different Nusschaos of the blessings, and each community is to follow their accustomed Nussach as printed in their Siddur.[169]]

Not to answer Amen by the first after blessing of the Haftorah:[170] One is not to answer Amen after the words Emes Vatzedek [recited in the first after blessing of the Haftorah], as these words are not the end of the blessing. Now, since many people mistakenly answer Amen to it, therefore it is proper for the Maftir not to make any interval at all by these words, in order so everyone knows that it is not the end of the blessing.[171]

Not to make an interval:[172] It is forbidden to make an interval during the reading, between the blessing and the reading, and between the reading and the after blessing. If an interval was made after the before blessing, prior to the reading, the blessing is not to be repeated. Likewise, if an interval was made prior to the after blessing, it may nevertheless be said.

The Nussach of the fourth after blessing:[173] On Shabbos one concludes the last blessing with Mikadesh Hashabbos. On Yom Tov one concludes the last blessing with Mikadesh Yisrael Vehazmanim. On Yom Tov that falls on Shabbos, one concludes the last blessing Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim. On Shabbos Chol Hamoed Pesach one concludes with only “Mikadesh Hashabbos”.[174] However, on Shabbos Chol Hamoed Sukkos one concludes with “Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim”.[175] On Shabbos Rosh Chodesh one concludes with only Mikadesh Hashabbos.[176] On a fast day, one does not recite the fourth after blessing and concludes with Magen David.

 

Q&A

What is the law if the three/four after blessings were not said in the right order, such as one said the second after blessing before the first one?[177]

A change in the written order of the blessings do not invalidate their fulfillment, and hence if one said the second after blessing before the first one, then he is to continue with the first blessing and then say the third one. The second blessing is not to be repeated.

What is the law if the first after blessing was accidentally recited before the Haftorah?[178]

If one remembered prior to beginning the Haftorah then the following is the law: Some Poskim[179] rule that in such a case the before blessing does not need to be said before the Haftorah, and instead is to be said of the first after blessing, after the Haftorah. Other Poskim[180], however, rule that the before blessing must be said before the Haftorah, and thus in such case he is to say the before blessing before the Haftorah, and after the Haftorah he is to begin with the second blessing.

 

17. When is the reader to begin the Haftorah:[181]

The Maftir is not to begin [the blessing and] reading the Haftorah until the person performing Gelila to the Sefer Torah completes his job [of tying it and returned it into its Meil[182]].[183] [Nevertheless, the widespread custom is to be lenient in this matter and not wait to start the Haftorah until the Gelila is complete.[184] Practically, one is to be stringent in this matter, and so is the Chabad custom.[185] This certainly applies in those communities where only one person says the Haftorah aloud and everyone else listens.[186]]

Haftorah open in front of him:[187] One is not to begin the Haftorah until the correct Haftorah is open before him.

 

What is the law if after the first blessing was recited the reader realized that he had the wrong Haftorah open in front of him?[188]

In such a case, he is to turn to the correct Haftorah and does not repeat the before blessing.

18. Laws applicable to the congregation:

A. Paying attention to the Haftorah:[189]

It is an obligation upon everyone to listen and pay attention to the Haftorah, just as they must listen to the reading of the Parsha by Kerias Hatorah.

B. Reading the Haftorah to oneself:[190]

Two people may not read the Haftorah together, out loud, as two simultaneous voices cannot be [properly] heard.[191] [Therefore, ideally the congregation is to remain silent and listen to the reading of the Maftir.] Nonetheless, some are accustomed due to reasons known to them [i.e. Kabbalah], to not rely on the hearing of the Haftorah alone, and rather they read it as well to themselves, and listen to the blessings from the Maftir.[192] Whatever the case, they must be careful not to read the Haftorah aloud but rather quietly.[193] (They are also to be careful to read it word for word with the Maftir.[194]) [Practically, the Chabad custom is to read the Haftorah along silently together with the Baal Korei, word by word, in an inaudible voice.[195] However, the custom of many Chassidic communities is to have everyone read it together aloud in the same tone, hence not having any main reader, and have everyone listen to the before and after blessings of the main reader.[196] The custom in Ashkenazi communities who read from a scroll, is for only the Baal Korei to read the Haftorah and everyone else looks long silently, just like by Kerias Hatorah.[197]]

C. Standing:

See Halacha 14!

D. Talking:[198]

It is forbidden to talk during the Haftorah just as is the rule regarding Kerias Hatorah.

E. The blessings:

Concentrating on the blessings of the Haftorah and answering Amen:[199] The congregation is to pay attention to the blessings of the Torah and Haftorah and answer [Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo[200] and] Amen afterwards. Every individual is to concentrate on the words of the blessing of the Haftorah in order so it count towards the 100 daily blessings. See Chapter 8 Halacha 1A!

Not to answer Amen by the first after blessing of the Haftorah: See above Halacha 16.

Being Yotzei 100 blessings with listening to the blessings of the Torah and Haftorah: See Chapter 8 Halacha 1A!

19. Leaving the Haftorah open until the concluding blessings are recited:[201]

The Sefer Neviim [i.e. Haftorah; Chumash[202]] is not to be removed from before the Maftir until after he completes the recital of the after blessings in order so he sees [the Haftorah] and says the blessing over the [words that he read for] Haftorah.[203] [Nevertheless, Bedieved, if the Sefer was already removed the after blessing may still be said.[204]]

 

Q&A

May one close the Haftorah book prior to reading the after blessings?

It is permitted to close the Sefer Haftorah prior to the blessings, so long as one does not remove the Sefer from the area.[205] However, some Poskim[206] rule it is initially best to leave the Sefer open to the Haftorah until after the blessings are recited.[207]

 

_____________________________________

[1] See Shulchan Aruch and Piskeiy Teshuvos Chapters 282-284; Encyclopedia Talmudit Vol. 10 Erech Haftorah

[2] See Admur 284:1; 488:6; Encyclopedia Talmudit Vol. 10 Erech Haftorah

Other reasons for the institution of reading the Haftorah: See Hapardes p. 396; Shibulei Haleket 44; Encyclopedia Talmudit Vol. 10 Erech Haftorah

[3] Admur 488:6; Sefer Hamachria 31 in name of Rabbeinu Tam that it was instituted by Ezra

[4] Admur 488:6; Taz 284:1; Bach 284; Levush 284:1; Tosafos Yom Tov Megillah 3:4 in name of Sefer Hatishbi

[5] See Tosafos Yom Tov on Mishneh Megillah 3:4 in name of Sefer Hatishbi

[6] Admur 488:6; Sefer Hamachria 31 in name of Rabbeinu Tam that it was instituted by Ezra

[7] Admur 282:10; 488:6; Michaber 282:5; Rambam Tefilla 12:13; Yehoshua Ben Levi Sotah 39b

[8] Admur ibid; Bach 282; Ula Megillah 23a

[9] See Michaber 144:2; Admur 282:10 “One who is Maftir in Navi”

[10] Michaber 135:1; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[11] Michaber 559:4

[12] Rama 566:1

[13] See Beis Yosef 575; Yechaveh Daas 5:40; Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 546 and 585-586

[14] Admur 283:1; Michaber 283:1; Tosfos Megillah 23a; Rosh Megillah 3:5; See Tur 283; Elya Raba 283:1 in name of Tanya 16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 283:1

[15] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid

[16] Admur ibid; Levush 283; Beis Yosef 283; Tosfos Megillah ibid

[17] Admur 282:12; Mordechai Megillah Remez 809; Ran Megillah 13a; Rosh Megillah 3:5; Tosfos Megillah 23a

[18] Did this apply even according to the opinion above who holds that the Maftir does not count as part of the seven Aliyos? This applied even according to those Poskim who hold that the Maftir does not count as one of the seven Aliyos, and thus the minimum number of Aliyos had to be completed before Maftir, nevertheless, in previous times, he would not simply repeat the end of the reading of the previous Olah and would read new verses. Now, although the Maftir only reads these verses out of respect for the Torah, and these remaining verses are part of the days reading obligation, as they are obligated to be read that day, nonetheless, the Maftir is able to read them. As although regarding the seven minimum Aliyos the Maftir cannot be counted as one of them being that he is only reading out of respect for the Torah, nevertheless, regarding the obligation to read the entire Parsha we are not particular on this matter. [Admur ibid; See Ran Megillah 13a]

[19] The reason: The Rabanon Savuraiy instituted the half Kaddish to be said in order to make an interval between the obligatory reading and the reading of the Maftir. This interval of the half Kaddish was done in order to proclaim that the Maftir is not part of the minimum number of Aliyos. Accordingly, it became no longer possible for the seventh Aliyah to leave a few verses remaining in the Parsha without being read on behalf of the Maftir, as one may not stop with Kaddish in the middle of a Parsha which did not have its obligatory reading completed. [Admur ibid; Tosfos ibid; Rosh ibid]

[20] Admur 488:6 and 11; M”A 488:3; Beis Yosef 488; Tosfos Megillah 30b; Rosh Megillah 2:10

[21] Admur 283:1

[22] Admur 488:6; 283:1

[23] Admur 282:11

[24] 1st and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Tur 282; Rosh Megillah 3:5; Tosfos Megillah 23a; Rambam Tefilla 12:17; Rif Megillah 13a; 1st opinion in Megillah 23a

[25] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 12 Pei; Rabbeinu Chananel Megillah 23b; Bahag Tzarchei Tzibur 46a; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; 2nd opinion in Megillah 23a

[26] The reason: As the entire reading of Maftir is only done out of honor for the Torah, so that it be superior to that of Navi [and hence it cannot be part of the seven required Aliyos]. [Admur ibid]

[27] Admur ibid

[28] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Tur ibid; Mordechai Megillah Remez 809; Rosh ibid; Tosfos ibid

[29] The reason: As it is permitted for one to add to the number of Aliyos on Shabbos, Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur, and hence the custom became to not count the Maftir as one of the obligatory Aliyos in order to fulfill one’s obligation accoridng to all. As even according to the opinion who states that the Maftir counts towards the minimum obligatory Aliyos, they agree that he can also be called up as an additional Aliyah to the minimum amount. [Admur ibid]

[30] See Chapter 5 Halacha 3!

[31] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Tur ibid; Mordechai Megillah Remez 809; Rosh Megillah 3:5; Tosfos Megillah 23a

[32] The reason: As it is forbidden on these days to add to the three Aliyos. [Admur ibid]

[33] Admur 282:13; Rama 282:4; Rosh Megillah 3:5; Ran Megillah 13a in name of Rashba

[34] The reason: It goes without saying that when the reading of the second Sefer is merely a Takana of the Geonim, such as on every Yom Tov when we read the Korban Musafim of that Yom Tov in the second Sefer Torah, and the reading of this Parsha is from the Takana of the Geonim, as explained in 488:5, that it suffices for the Maftir to read the Parsha from the second Sefer Torah even though the Maftir only reads from the Torah for the sake of the respect of the Torah. However, furthermore, even on those days that the reading in the second scroll is from the Takana of the Anshei Kneses Hagedola, such as Rosh Chodesh that falls on Shabbos, or the four Parshiyos in Chodesh Adar, nevertheless, the Maftir can read it even though the Maftir only reads from the Torah for the sake of the respect of the Torah. The reason for this is because the reading of the Parsha every Shabbos was a Takana of Moshe Rabbeinu A”H, and nevertheless the Maftir would complete it the days of the Talmudic Sages. [Admur ibid; Rosh ibid; Ran ibid] The reason it is not accustomed for the last Aliyah of the minimum Aliyos [i.e. Shevi’i on Shabbos and Chamishi on Yom Tov] to read from the second Sefer Torah, and have the Maftir then repeat the same reading as the last Aliyah, is because they did not desire to have the same Parsha read twice and have two sets of blessings said over it without need, being that it is possible to finish the minimum Aliyos in the first Sefer, and have the Maftir alone read from the second Sefer Torah. Now, the reason why on a regular Shabbos this is not done [to have the last Olah leave some Pesukim for the Maftir], is because when only a single Sefer Torah is removed, one is forced to have the last Olah read until the end of the Parsha due to the Kaddish, as one cannot say the Kaddish prior to finishing the Parsha. However, when reading two different subjects in two Sefarim, the Kaddish can be recited after finishing the reading in the first Sefer Torah, prior to reading the Maftir in the second Sefer, and thus we have no need to have the second Torah be read by one of the required Aliyos and then repeated by the Maftir. [Admur 282:14]

[35] Admur 282:15; Beis Yosef 282; See Halachos Ketanos 2:172

[36] Admur 282:15; Rama 282:4

[37] Admur 282:18; Rama 282:5; Or Zarua Shabbos 43; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:9

[38] See Michaber 143:5 “A Shul which only contains one person who knows to read is to have him receive all the Aliyos, and say a blessing before and after each Aliyah” and 144:4; Rama 282:5; Admur 282:18; Bach 143

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted for one person to be called up twice during the same reading so long as another person was called up in between, and his Aliyos are not back to back. [M”A 143:9; Chut Hameshulash that so was custom of Rav Nassan Adler to receive Shelishi and Maftir; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[39] Elya Raba ibid; Avnei Tzedek 27; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

Other opinion: Some Poskim rule that one is not to receive two Aliyos even in a time of need, such as communities that give the Rav Shelishi and Maftir by Shabbos Chazon. [M”A 282; M”B 282:31]

[40] Definition of time of need: Such as 1) In communities accustomed for the Rav to receive Shelishi and Maftir on Shabbos Chazon [Elya Raba ibid; Malbushei Yom Tov 282:2, negated by M”A 282] 2) A Kohen or Levi who were already called up for Kohen or Levi may receive Maftir if they have a Yahrzeit. [Yabia Omer 6:25; Beir Shearim 1:14] 3) One who purchased Maftir and was accidentally called up for another Aliyah may still receive Maftir. [See Lev Shlomo 4, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 282; Kaf Hachaim 282:59 however negates this] 4) On Simchas Torah some are accustomed to call up the Chasan Torah and Chasan Bereishis also for a regular Aliyah. [See M”B 143:17; 699:2] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:9 for the full details of this subject!

[41] Admur ibid; Michaber 282:5; Rivash 112

[42] The reason: Although he already received an Aliyah to the Torah, this does not suffice to be able to read the Maftir, and prior to reading the Haftorah he must be called up again for the Aliyah of Maftir and say a blessing before and after, due to Kavod Hatorah. [Admur ibid]

[43] Admur ibid; Rama 282:5; Darkei Moshe 282:5; Or Zarua Shabbos 43

[44] The reason: As it suffices that he received the Aliyah of Shevi’i [to be able to rea the Haftorah] being that after his reading no interval was made with the Kaddish. [Admur ibid]

[45] Admur ibid; M”A 282:18

[46] Admur 284:9; Rama 284:4; M”A 284:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 88:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:9

[47] 1st and Stam opinion in Admur ibid “If a child was called up for Maftir and after he read from the Torah it was discovered that he cannot say the Haftorah, and the same applies if this occurred with an adult, then another individual may say it.”; Beis Yosef 282, brought in M”A ibid, that this may even initially be done and so is done in some communities to call up a child for Maftir and then have another read the Haftorah

[48] The reason: It is not necessary in such a case to have the person who will now read the Haftorah, receive an Aliyah, as the first reading of Maftir suffices. Now, although the Sages instituted that the person who says Maftir must first read from the Torah out of respect for the Torah so that the Torah be read before the prophets, as explained in 282:10, nevertheless, even when a child or another individual read Maftir from the Torah beforehand the Torah has received its honor. The reason for this is because when a person goes up for Maftir it is evident to all that he is doing so in order so the haftorah be read after the reading of the Torah, as certainly no one will say that he is reading it on his own behalf and not for the sake of the Haftorah, as the obligatory Aliyos have already been read, and Kaddish was recited after them. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[49] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Rivash 326; See M”A ibid

[50] M”B 284:8

[51] Yakil Avid 7:14; Minchas Yitzchak 9:22; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

Opinion of Admur: On the one had Admur ibid makes no differentiation in this matter between a community in which they are accustomed to read the haftorah along with the reader, and a community that does not. This is despite the fact that the custom of reading along is mentioned elsewhere in Admur. However, it is also unclear if the intent of Admur in the debate above is referring to a case where the Maftir does not know how to read at all, or even to a case that he can read it quietly to himself but cannot read aloud being that he does not know to read it correctly. Likewise, it is unclear if Admur only refers to a case where a second person is asked to read the Haftorah with its blessings, or even to a case where the Maftir will say the blessings and have the reader read it for him. Vetzaruch Iyun as why the Takana for Haftorah should be more severe than Kerias Hatorah, in which the custom today is for the Olah to read the blessings, read along silently, and have the Baal Korei read aloud.

[52] See Biur Halacha 282 “O Bedaled Parshiyos”; Minchas Yitzchak 3:12; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:9

[53] Rama Y.D. 376:4; Levush 376:4; Beis Yosef and Darkei Moshe 376; Kol Bo 114; Rivash 115; Maaseh Derebbe Akiva recorded in Midrash Zohar Chadash Acharei p. 49b that a Niftar came to Rebbe Akiva in a  dream and told him that the Maftir helped elevate his soul from Gehenom throughout the 12 months; Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 4; Igros Kodesh 3:7; 17:271 that so was the directive of the Rebbe Rayatz; Igros Kodesh Rayatz 12:394 that so was the custom of the Rashab; See Pnei Baruch 35:14; Nitei Gavriel 65:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:18; 282:1

[54] The reason: As the blessings of the Haftorah discuss the redemption of Klal Yisrael [Seder Hayom] and hence help elevate the Neshamah similar to Kaddish. [Pnei Baruch ibid footnote 32] Additionally, the congregation answers Amen to his blessings which also helps elevate the Neshamah similar to the Amen’s of Kaddish. [Nimukei Orach Chaim 284:3]

[55] See Chapter ?? Halacha 2

[56] So replied to me also Rav Y.S. Ginzberg and Rav Garelik in a written correspondence.

[57] Igros Kodesh Rayatz 12:394 that by the Rebbe Rashab, during his year of Aveilus, there were three Minyanim for Kerias Hatorah.

[58] Nitei Gavriel 65:10

[59] As here too one merits the congregation with the saying of Amen; See Igros Kodesh 3:7

[60] See Rama 376:4 who implies that also Maftir is ideally to be said for the 12-month period, similar to Kaddish

[61] Rama ibid regarding Kaddish and being a Chazan and the same seemingly implies to the Haftorah, and so writes: Igros Kodesh 3:7 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:308]; Nitei Gavriel ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:1 footnote 5

Other opinions: Some are accustomed to recite Maftir throughout the 12 months. [Rivash ibid, brought in Kaf Hachaim 284:6; Mateh Efraim 4:2; Levushei Mordechai Tinyana 164; Pnei Baruch ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:1 footnote 5]

[62] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:1; M”A 282:18; Levush 282; Biur Halacha 136 “Shabbos” who all omit this Chiyuv

[63] Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 4

[64] As is the law regarding Kaddish and leading the prayers, in which a Yahrzeit receives precedence; Az Nidbaru 2:72 that so is the custom even though receiving Maftir for an Avel is brought in the Rama while receiving Maftir for a Yahrzeit is only a custom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284 footnote 8

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that an Avel within the 12 months receives precedence over a Yahrzeit regarding Maftir. [Maaseh Eliyahu 294, brought in Pnei Baruch 35 footnote 32]

[65] Admur 53:29; M”A 53:26; Kaf Hachaim 284:6

[66] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[67] Birkeiy Yosef 284:1; Shaareiy Ephraim 9:42; Kitzur SHU”A 78:11; Kaf Hachaim 284:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 88:1; Sefer Haminhagim p. 181 [English]; See Rama 376:4 and Chapter 25 Halacha 7C regarding the first year of Aveilus; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:9 and 284:1 footnote 8 and 12; Nitei Gavriel Vol. 2 69:6

Other customs: Some are accustomed to receiving one of the seven Aliyos on the Shabbos before the Yahrzeit. [See Nitei Gavriel ibid]

Child under Bar Mitzvah: See Nitei Gavriel 697 regarding giving a son Maftir on the Shabbos before his father’s Yahrzeit.

[68] The reason: As according to the Zohar the main elevation of the Neshamah occurs on the Shabbos before the Yahrzeit. [Alef Hamagen on Mateh Ephraim 3] the blessings of the Haftorah discuss the redemption of Klal Yisrael [Seder Hayom] and hence help elevate the Neshamah similar to Kaddish. [Pnei Baruch ibid footnote 32] Additionally, the congregation answers Amen to his blessings which also helps elevate the Neshamah similar to the Amen’s of Kaddish. [Nimukei Orach Chaim 284:3]

[69] Sefer Hasichos 5748 1:221; Nitei Gavriel 69:9-10; Piskeiy Teshuvos 136 footnote 86

[70] See Chesed Lealafim 134:25 regarding the need to be careful in the reading

[71] Sefer Haminhagim ibid; Shaareiy Ephraim 9:42; Darkei Chaim 34:12; Nimukei Orach Chaim 282; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 210; Gesher Hachaim 32:2; Orchos Rabbeinu in name of Chazon Ish; Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:9 footnotes 81-82 and 284 footnote 13; Nitei Gavriel 69:8

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to receive an Aliyah for Maftir on the preceding Shabbos even in such a case, and on the Shabbos of the Yahrzeit he is to get one of the seven Aliyos. [Nishmas Kol Chaiy Y.D. 72; Maaseh Avraham 56; Chasam Sofer 6:103; Orchos Chaim 282:15 in name of Rav Chaim Falagi; Koveitz Mibeis Levi 12; See Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:9 footnotes 81-82 and 284 footnote 13; Nitei Gavriel 69:8]

[72] M”A 283:18; Levush 282; Biur Halacha 136; See M”A ibid and Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:5 for the order of precedence of Chiyuvim; See also Nitei Gavriel 74:9-11

[73] Poskim ibid; Kitzur SHU”A 78:11 lists day of Yahrzeit as Chiyuv number 8 while Shabbos before Yahrzeit as Chiyuv number 10; See Nitei Gavriel 69:5

[74] See Rama 284:7 and Admur 284:14 who mention this custom; Ketzos Hashulchan 83 footnote 12 writes the custom is no longer to do so within the first year but does remain to do so on the Shabbos before the Yahrzeit; However, other Poskim record that even this is no longer accustomed today. [See Nimukei Orach Chaim 284:2; Maharam Bris 2:52; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:14; Nitei Gavriel 69:13 “Majority of places no longer do so”] However, see Igros Moshe 2:74 who mentions this custom as still being intact.

[75] Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:1; See M”A 282:18; Levush 282; Biur Halacha 136 “Shabbos” who all omit the Shabbos before a Yahrzeit as a Chiyuv

[76] Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 4

[77] As is the law regarding Kaddish and leading the prayers, in which a Yahrzeit receives precedence; Az Nidbaru 2:72 that so is the custom even though receiving Maftir for an Avel is brought in the Rama while receiving Maftir for a Yahrzeit is only a custom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284 footnote 8

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that an Avel within the 12 months receives precedence over a Yahrzeit regarding Maftir. [Maaseh Eliyahu 294, brought in Pnei Baruch 35 footnote 32]

[78] See Birkeiy Yosef 284:1; Shaareiy Ephraim 9:42; Kaf Hachaim 284:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:9; Nitei Gavriel 69:11-12 and 74:2-11 for various scenarios of Kadima

[79] Moed Lekol Chaiy 8; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[80] Shaareiy Ephraim ibid; Nitei Gavriel 74:7

[81] Birkeiy Yosef 284:1; Shaareiy Ephraim 9:42; Kaf Hachaim 284:6

[82] Pashut, as one with a Yahrzeit on Shabbos is an actual Chiyuv, in contrast to one with a Yahrzeit that week, as brought in M”A 282:18 and Poskim ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[83] Likkutei Teshuvos Minchas Yitzchak 12; Mishneh Halachos 4:153; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 136 footnote 82

The reason: As many hold that one with a Yahrzeit on Shabbos is to get one of the seven Aliyos and not Maftir and hence one with a Yahrzeit that week receives precedence of Maftir.

[84] Admur 53:29; M”A 53:26; Kaf Hachaim 284:6

[85] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[86] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:9; 284:2

[87] Shulchan Haezer 6; Tzitz Eliezer 21:20; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:2 and Poskim in footnote 16

[88] See Nimukei Orach Chaim 282:1; Koveitz Teshuvos of Rav Elyashiv 1:23; Tzitz Eliezer ibid; [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[89] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:9; 284:2 [See there regarding him pushing off a Baal Yahrzeit]

[90] Levushei Mordechai 1:37; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid and 284:2 and Poskim in footnote 16

[91] Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:4

[92] See Shulchan Aruch Chapter 284; Ketzos Hashulchan 88; Encyclopedia Talmudit Vol. 10 Erech Haftorah

[93] Admur 284:3; Rama 284:1

[94] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Rambam Tefilla 4; Mishneh Megillah 23b

[95] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Rashba 1:487; Meyuchas Leramban199

[96] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; M”A 284:1

[97] See Chapter 1 Halacha 6!

[98] Admur ibid

[99] See Admur ibid; Rama 284:1; Rambam Tefilla 4; Mishneh Megillah 23b

[100] P”M 143 A”A 2; Rav Poalim 1:52; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:14; Mishmeres Shalom Kudinaov 13:2; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 135 footnote 14; 143:5

[101] Admur 284:5; M”A 284:6; Miseches Sofrim 11:2; Mordechai Eiruvin Remez 513; Mayim Amukim 2:73

[102] Shaareiy Efraim 9; M”B 143:6; Shaar Hatziyon 143:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:2; 284:6

[103] Aruch Hashulchan 143:1

[104] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:6

[105] Shaareiy Efraim 9; Aruch Hashulchan 143:1; M”B 143:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:6

[106] Admur 284:4; Kuntrus Achron 284:1 in length; Taz 284:2; M”A 284 in introduction; Rashba 1:487; Kol Bo 20; See Divrei Yatziv 1:129; Chazon Ish 60:11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:5; Encyclopedia Talmudit ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the Haftorah must be read from a full Sefer of Navi, even if it is printed. [M”A ibid, unlike his ruling in 334; See Taz and Kuntrus Achron ibid for negation of this opinion; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:34] Furthermore, other Poskim rule that the Haftorah must be read from a Kosher scroll which contains the entire Sefer of Navi written according to the laws of a valid Sefer Torah. [Levush 284:1, brought in M”B 284:1; Gr”a, brought in Chayeh Adam 31:40; Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair; See Aruch Hashulchan 284:6]

[107] See Chapter 10 Halacha 4B!

[108] The reason: The only reason that a printout of the Haftorah is required is in order so one does not read the words of the written Torah by heart, which is forbidden to be done. [Admur ibid in parentheses]

[109] See Michaber Y.D. 271:1; 4; Admur 334:12

The reason: Even in the Talmudic times, when the books of Navi were transcribed on scrolls similar to a Sefer Torah, it was permitted to read the Haftorah from a text that did not follow these guidelines. [Admur ibid; Taz 284:2 based on Gittin 60a] The reason for this is because the Haftorah was never established to be recited over a Kosher scroll, as was instituted regarding Kerias Hatorah in which case a Kosher Sefer Torah must be used. The only reason that even a printout of the Haftorah is required it is forbidden to read the written Torah by heart. Now, although back then it was forbidden to write individual paragraphs of Navi without writing a full Sefer, and this prohibition applied to the entire written Torah of the five books of Moshe, as well the Nevi’im and Kesuvim [See Michaber Y.D. 283:2; Gittin ibid], nevertheless they permitted the writing of the Haftorahs due to “Eis Lasos LaHashem, Heifaru Torasecha”, as the congregation did not have the budget to purchase a scribal work of the entire book of Navi, and thus mandating this would cause the Haftorah reading to be nullified altogether. Now, although today after the innovation of the printing industry, books can be bought for very cheep, nevertheless, it remains permitted to print or write the Haftorahs alone. The reason for this is because even if one were to print an entire book of Navi on a paper, it would still only be permitted to be read on the basis of the verse “Eis Lasos LaHashem,” being that it has not been written on parchment made from Kosher animal skin, and is not made as a rolled scroll. [Admur ibid]

[110] See other opinions in previous footnotes.

[111] M”B 284:1 that so is proper to be followed Lechatchila, for every Minyan to have the Nevi’im written on a scroll, and that so was the custom of the Gr”a and so is done today in many communities; See Aruch Hashulchan 284:6; Kaf Hachaim 284:3; Yechaveh Daas 5:26 that one may suffice with writing a single Haftorah on the scroll, or a scroll of all the Haftorah’s and not the entire book. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284 footnote 34 regarding this matter and footnote 35 regarding how many Amudim the scroll should have

[112] Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:5 that so is the custom of the Yishuv Hayashan in Yerushalayim and their descendants

[113] Kesav Sofer O.C. 51 that so was done by his father the Chasam Sofer

[114] See other opinions in previous footnotes.

[115] However, even according to this opinion there is no need for it to be a full Sefer of Tanach, or Nevi’im and a full Sefer of that book of Navi [i.e. book of Shmuel 1 and 2] suffices. This negates the misconception that one should read the Haftorah from a full book of Tanach according to this opinion. [See wording in Admur ibid who clearly emphasizes one book of Navi; Elya Raba 284:3; Menorah Hatehora 284; Shaar Hatziyon 284:2 in clarification of wording in P”M 284 A”A 1 and M”Z 2; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:5 footnotes 33-34]

[116] Kesav Sofer O.C. 51 that so was done by his father the Chasam Sofer; Divrei Yatziv 1:129; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:5

[117] Admur ibid

[118] Bach 143; M”A 143:4; Machatzis Hashekel ibid; Birkeiy Yosef 49:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 139:5

[119] Admur 284:5; M”A 284:6; Miseches Sofrim 11:2; Mordechai Eiruvin Remez 513; Mayim Amukim 2:73

[120] Admur ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that in a time of need one may read the Haftorah by heart. [Initial opinion in M”A 284:6; Shaareiy Efraim 9:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:5]

[121] See Encyclopedia Talmudit Vol. 10 Erech Haftorah

[122] Rama 428:8; Admur 284:1

[123] Haeshkol 1:171; Sefer Haitim; Kesef Mishneh Tefilla 12:12

[124] Kesef Mishneh ibid

[125] Admur 284:13; Michaber 284:7; Rama 428:8; Rambam end of Seder Tefilos; Mordechai Megillah Remez 831; Hagahos Maimanis Tefila 13

[126] Admur ibid; Rama 428:8; M”A 428:10; Bach 428 that so is custom of all communities; Agudah; Mateh Moshe

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to recite the Haftorah of the Kedoshim even by these two Parshiyos. [Levush 428, brought and negated in M”A ibid]

[127] Rama 425:3; 428:8; Minhagei Tirana p. 72; Terumas Hadeshen Pesakim Ukesavim 94; P”M 425 A”A 5; See Nitei Gavriel Nessuin 2 73:1

Other opinions-Sephardim: Some Poskim rule that the custom is for one to recite the regular weekly Haftorah and simply add two to three verses of Sos Asis after the weekly Haftorah. [Michaber O.C. 144:2]

[128] Shaareiy Efraim 9:26; Aruch Hashulchan 144:5; Sefer Chaim 7:15; Eretz Chaim 144; Keser Shem Tov [Gagin] p. 300; Nitei Gavriel ibid

[129] Michaber 428:8

[130] Michaber 428:8

[131] Michaber 428:8

[132] See Michaber ibid for two opinions regarding if the Haftorah of Shuva is read on the Shabbos between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, when Rosh Hashanah falls on Monday, Tuesday. The Rama ibid concludes that the custom is like the first opinion, that the Haftorah of Shuva is read.

[133] Michaber 684:2-3

[134] Admur 430:3; Beir Heiytiv 430:1; Or Zarua 2:393; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 430:1

[135] The reason: As this Parsha discusses the bringing of the tithes to the storehouses, which is similar to what occurs on Erev Pesach, being that on Erev Pesach is the time of Biur. As on every Erev Pesach of the 4th and 7th year of the Shemitah it is an obligation upon every person to remove from his house all of the Maaseros of grains that he tithed in the past three years of Shemitah and that have remained in his house. On this Erev Pesach, he is obligated to remove it from his house and bring it to the house of the Levites. (Now, although there are those [Rambam Maaser Sheiyni 11:7; Sifri Devarim 14:28] who say that the time for this obligation is not on Erev Pesach but rather on Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach, and so is the main Halachic ruling as brought in Y.D. 331:144, nevertheless, the widespread custom is like the former opinion.) [Admur ibid]

[136] Admur 490:16

[137] Admur 488:5

[138] Admur ibid; Sefer Hamachria 31 in name of Rabbeinu Tam that it was instituted by Ezra

[139] Rama ibid; Michaber 428:8 regarding Tzom Gedalia

[140] See Beis Yosef 575; Yechaveh Daas 5:40; Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 546

[141] See Beis Yosef 575; Yechaveh Daas 5:40; Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 546 and 585-586

[142] Rama 425:3; 428:8

[143] See Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 16; Nimukei Orach Chaim 284:1; Shaareiy Efraim 9:19 in Pischeiy Shearim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:3

[144] See Shaareiy Efraim 9:31 that if he was shown the wrong Haftorah he is not to repeat the blessing, and seemingly the same should apply if he began reading the wrong Haftorah [as writes Shaareiy Rachamim ibid] especially according to the custom for the entire congregation to read the Haftorah to themselves quietly, as writes Kaf Hachaim 284:25; This certainly applies if the Haftorah accidentally read has a connection to that week’s Parsha.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if he was shown the wrong Haftorah he is required to repeat the blessing. [Igros Moshe 1:36]

[145] Nimukei Orach Chaim 284:1; Implication of Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 88:5 footnote 16 leaves this matter in question if he should repeat the blessings if the Haftorah of another Parsha was said; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:3

[146] The reason: As aside for the short list of Haftorahs recorded in Michaber 428:8, the Sages never established which Haftorah is to be read, and hence so long as it has connection with the Parsha it is valid. [See Encyclopedia Talmudit Vol. 10 Erech Haftorah p. 9; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[147] Admur 284:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:3

[148] Admur ibid; Michaber and Rama 284:1; Tur 284; Megillah 23a; Maharam Paduva 78; Abudarham Seder Shacharis  

[149] The reason: As there are seven Olim called up to read from the Torah on Shabbos, and one is required to recite three verses corresponding to each Olah, for a total of 21. The reason why this is done is because one time there was a decree of religious persecution was made against the Jewish people, that they should not read from the Torah. They thus read from the Prophets a subject similar to that of the Parsha, and called up seven people corresponding to the seven people who need to be called up to read from the Torah. Now, they would not read less than three verses per person, just as we do not read less than three verses when reading from the Torah. Altogether, there were 21 verses read. Later on, when this decree was abolished, and they returned to reading from the Torah, they established that on Shabbos a person is to read 21 verses from the Prophets, from a subject similar to that week’s Parsha. [Admur ibid; See Tosfos Yom Tov Megillah 3:4 in name of Sefer Hatishbi; Abudarham ibid; Taz 284:1; Bach 284; Levush 284:1]

[150] Admur ibid; Rama 284:1; Maharam Paduva 78

[151] The reason: On Yom Tov, it suffices for 15 verses to be read, corresponding to the five Aliyos called up to the Torah. [Admur ibid]

[152] Kneses Hagedola 284:1; Olas Tamid 284:1; Kaf Hachaim 284:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[153] Ashel Avraham Butchach 284; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[154] Admur 282:10; 488:6; Michaber 282:5; Rambam Tefila 12:13; Yehoshua Ben Levi Sotah 39b

[155] 2nd opinion in and final initial ruling in Admur 484:9

[156] Admur 484:9 “If a child was called up for Maftir and after he read from the Torah it was discovered that he cannot say the Haftorah, and the same applies if this occurred with an adult, then another individual may say it.”

[157] Admur 284:10 “If the Maftir became unable to continue reading in the middle of the Haftorah, then the law follows the same law as Kerias Haftorah, in which case we rule that the person who switches him is not to begin from the area where the previous reader stopped, but rather he must return and re-read from the beginning of that Aliyah.”; Michaber 284:5; Rivash 40; See Michaber 140:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:10; Chapter 7 Halacha 6D!

[158] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Poskim ibid

[159] The reason: As if the new reader begins from where the previous reader stepped down, then it ends up that what was read by the previous reader did not contain an after blessing. [M”A 140:1; Taz 140:1; Beis Yosef 140; Tur 140 in name of Yerushalmi; Kaf Hachaim 140:1]

[160] See Admur ibid who references to 140:1 where a dispute is brought; M”A 284:4 explains this same dispute applies here as well

[161] Elya Raba 140:1; Chayeh Adam 31:23; M”B 140:4 [unlike 184:9 in name of Peri Megadim]; Kaf Hachaim 140:5

[162] Kaf Hachaim 284:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[163] Admur 494:6; Brought in Luach Kolel Chabad; Elya Zuta 494; Chok Yaakov 494:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:4

[164] Implication of Admur ibid; P”M 494 M”Z 1

[165] The reason: This is done out of honor for the Haftorah of Merkava Yechezkel. [ibid]

[166] See Admur 284:11

[167] Admur 284:2; Tur 284; Levush 284:1; Miseches Sofrim 14:1; Tosfos Pesachim 104b; See Seder Hayom Seder Kerias Shabbos; Yalkut Avraham 376; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:1; 7-8

[168] See Encyclopedia Talmudit ibid

[169] See M”A 284:6; Siddur Admur regarding Toshia Utisamach; See regarding adding Melech Rachaman: Shaareiy Efraim 9:36; Shaar Hakolel 25:3; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 441; Aruch Hashulchan 284:11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:8 and footnote 61

[170] Admur ibid; Taz 284:1; Levush ibid; M”B 284:6; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:8

[171] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid that the reason it was accustomed to make a stop at this point is because it states in Miseches Sofrim 13:10 that the congregation is to recite some verses at this point. The Yaavetz in his Siddur Seder Haftorah 35 bemoans the fact that this custom has become obsolete.

[172] See Kaf Hachaim 284:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos 184:13

[173] See Siddur Admur; Michaber 284:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:7

[174] Admur 490:16; Rama 490:9

[175] Admur 490:16; Darkei Moshe 663:2; Bach 490; Levush 663; M”B 663:9; Kaf Hachaim 490:78; Glosses of Rebbe Rashab on Siddur in name of Tzemach Tzedek; Yechaveh Daas 1:70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:7 that so is custom of all Jewry

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to conclude Mikadesh Hashabbos also on Shabbos Chol Hamoed Sukkos. [Birkeiy Yosef 424:2; Maaseh Rav 226, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 663:6; Shaar Hakolel 25:4 that so is opinion of Admur in Siddur]

[176] Admur 188:14; 284:6; Michaber 284:2; M”A 188:12; Megillah 24a

The reason: As there is never a Haftorah on Rosh Chodesh alone and there is hence no connection at all between the Haftorah and Rosh Chodesh. [Admur ibid; M”A 188:12; M”B 284:4]

[177] Siddur Beis Menucha Haftorah 12; Shomer Emes 24:11; See Kneses Hagedola E.H. 62 regarding Sheva Brachos; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:8

[178] See Kaf Hachaim 284:20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:8

[179] Ashel Avraham Butchach 284; Orchos Chaim 284:3; See Michaber 139:12; Chapter 7 Halacha 5B!

[180] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[181] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:6; 284:12

[182] Pashut according to reason of Admur ibid; M”B 284:23 based on Rashi

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that as soon as the Torah is rolled, the Haftorah may begin, even prior to its belt or Meil being garbed on it. [P”M 147 A”A 10, brought in M”B 147:23; Ashel Avraham Butchach 147 regarding Meil; Implication of Mateh Efraim 584:20; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:12]

[183] Admur 284:11; Michaber 147:6; 284:6; Sotah 39b; See Shevach Hayakar p. 133, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:95

The reason: This is done in order so also the Golel be able to listen and pay attention to the Haftorah, as it is an obligation upon all to listen to the Haftorah, just as they must listen to the reading of the Parsha by Kerias Hatorah. [Admur ibid; M”B ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because it is considered offensive to the Torah to begin the Haftorah before the Torah is put away. [Shibulei Haleket 80, brought and negated in Beis Yosef 147] Alternatively, the reason is because we do not do Mitzvos Chavilos. [Biur Hagr”a 147:12] See also Beir Sheva Sotah 39b

[184] Shaareiy Efraim 9:9; 10:25; Implication of Mateh Efraim 584:2

The reason: As the custom today in many places is for the entire congregation to read the Haftorah to themselves and they don’t pay any attention to the reader. [Pischeiy Shearim ibid]

[185] Reply of Rebbe in Shevach Hayakar p. 133 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:95]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147

[186] Rebbe ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 17

[187] Shaareiy Efraim 9:34; See Admur 284:12; Halacha 18!

[188] Shaareiy Efraim 9:31; This especially according to the custom for the entire congregation to read the Haftorah to themselves quietly, as writes Kaf Hachaim 284:25; This certainly applies if the Haftorah accidentally read has a connection to that week’s Parsha; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if he was shown the wrong Haftorah he is required to repeat the blessing. [Igros Moshe 1:36]

[189] Admur 284:11; Michaber 146:3 regarding talking; Beis Yosef 146; Rabbeinu Yerucham 2:3 in name of Maharam; See Likkutei Sichos 33:20 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:95]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not obligated to pay attention to the reading of the Haftorah. [Levush 284:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:1 footnote 1]

[190] Admur 284:11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:11

[191] Admur ibid; Rama 284:5; Rivash 36; Megillah 21b; M”A 284:5

[192] Admur ibid; M”A 284:5 in name of Kesavim; Arizal in Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Hashabbos 19; Shaar Hamitzvos Parshas Vaeschanon; Aruch Hashulchan 284:14; See Chasam Sofer 68 [brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:5 and 11] that those who read from a printed Chumash [as opposed to a scroll] are required to read along with the reader in order so it not be considered a prohibition of saying the written Torah by heart

[193] Admur ibid; M”B 284:11 that if they read aloud, the blessings are in vain; See Shaareiy Efraim 9:33, brought in Biur Halacha 284 “Detrei”, that if everyone says it aloud there isn’t a Minyan listening to the Haftorah and it’s not considered to have been said with a Minyan; The Shaareiy Efraim ibid negates the custom of those who say it aloud

Other opinions: See coming footnotes regarding the custom of some Chassidic communities

[194] Admur ibid in parentheses; See Admur 183:10; M”B 284:12 in name of P”M

[195] Sefer Haminhagim p. 61 [English]

[196] Chasam Sofer 68 that so is the custom in all his provinces and they should be left with their custom; Shaareiy Efraim 9:33 and 10:25 that so is custom in his communities [although he negates it and requests for it to be abolished]; Minchas Yitzchak 3:12; 9:22; See Yachin Boaz 26, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 284; Divrei Yatziv 129; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 4:74; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid;

[197] Maaseh Rav 136, brought in M”B 284:11

[198] Michaber 146:3

[199] Admur 284:7

[200] Alef Hamagen 622:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:7

[201] Admur 284:12; M”A 284:6; M”B 284:12; Shivlei Haleket 80 in name of Geonim; Tanya 16; Mateh Moshe 455; Hagahos Maimanis; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:13

[202] M”B ibid

[203] The reason: This is similar to the reading of the Torah in which case we rule the Sefer Torah may not be removed until the after blessing [Mateh Moshe ibid]

[204] Tefilla Kehilchasa 21:157 in name of Rav Elyashiv; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:13

[205] Elya Raba 284:10 based on implication of M”A and Admur ibid; Kaf Hachaim 284:34

The reason: As even by a Sefer Torah, one may close the Sefer prior to the after blessing, and the prohibition is only against removing it. [Elya Raba ibid]

[206] Shaareiy Efraim 9:34; See “The Laws of Purim” Chapter 7 Halacha 9 regarding a dispute in when the Megillah is to be rolled up, after or before the blessing of Harav Es Riveinu

[207] The reason: As when reading from a Chumash, it is not recognizable that one is saying the blessing over the Haftorah if he closes it. [Pischei Shearim 9:14]

Was this article helpful?

Related Articles

Leave A Comment?