Chapter 10: Mistakes in the reading & Invalidations found in the Sefer Torah

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Chapter 10: Mistakes in the reading & Invalidations found in the Sefer Torah

1. Mistakes in the reading:[1]

*This Halacha only discusses mispronunciations and mistakes in the Taamim. For missed words or letters-See Halacha 2!

A. Mispronunciations: The law of invalidating mistakes and correcting the Baal Korei:

Mistake in vowelization or tune; Mistakes that change the meaning of the word:[2] If the Baal Korei mispronounced a letter or word, then [the Ashkenazi custom[3] is that] if it changes the meaning of the word, he must repeat it. [This applies even by the weekday readings.[4]] If it does not change the meaning of the word, he is not to repeat it. The same applies if he read the word in the wrong tune [i.e. Trup], he is not required to repeat it [even according to the Sephardim[5]]. Nonetheless, he is to be [quietly[6]] reprimanded [and be made aware of his mistake].[7] [Practically, some are accustomed to have the Baal Korei go back and even for a slight mispronunciation, or change of tune, and so was the custom of the Alter Rebbe.[8] This, however, is not a directive to the public.[9] According to all, if the Baal Korei realizes, or is made aware, of the mistake right away, then he may repeat it correctly even if it was a mistake in mere vowelization or tune, and the above law only applies if he already continued reading and would be required to go back and repeat.[10]]

 

Summary:

If the Baal Korei mispronounced a letter or word, then if it changes the meaning of the word, then he must repeat it and thus be made aware of the mistake. If it does not change the meaning of the word, then he is not to repeat it, and is not to be publicly reprimanded. If the Baal Korei realizes, or is made aware, of the mistake right away, then he may repeat it correctly in all cases.]

Examples of invalidating mistakes [i.e. must repeat]:[11]

· One said Chalav instead of Cheilev.

· One said Yaaseh instead of Yeiaseh.

· One said Yosheiv instead of Yashav.

· If the Baal Korei read the Kesiv instead of the Keri he is to be corrected.[12]

 

Examples of non-invalidating mistakes [i.e. not required to repeat]:[13]

·  One said Eis instead of Es.

·  One said Mitzruyim [Kamatz] instead of Mitzrayim [Patach].

·  One read a Hei without the Mapik Hei.

·  Read a Sheva Nach instead of a Sheva Nah.

 

Read Milira instead of Mili’il or vice versa:

If one read Milira [emphasis on end of word] instead of Mili’il [emphasis on beginning of word], or vice versa, he does not need to be corrected if it simply changed the tense from future to pastor vice versa.[14] However, if it changed the actual meaning of the word, then it is to be repeated.[15]

 

Q&A

May one who is in the midst of Davening correct the Baal Korei if no one else did?[16]

One who is in middle of Davening [excluding Shemoneh Esrei] may stop to correct the Baal Korei if the congregation did not pay attention to the mistake, and it is a mistake that changes the meaning of the word. If possible, however, it is better to simply grunt at the Baal Korei and then show him the mistake in the Chumash, rather than to talk.

 

From where is one to repeat the mispronounced word? Must one repeat from the start of that verse? What is the law if one did not remember right away?

Whenever a word needs to be repeated, then if the Baal Korei remembered right away, he is only to repeat the word which was mispronounced and continue reading from there.[17] If he did not remember right away, then he must go back to the start of that verse, and continue reading from there.[18] If he only remembered many Aliyos later, then by the next Aliyah he is to read from the start of that verse until the end of the current Aliyah.[19]

Mistake in verse with Hashem’s name: If he mentioned Hashem’s name in the verse that contain the mistaken word, then he is to repeat from the start of that verse.[20] Many are accustomed in such a case to first finish the verse and then repeat it from the beginning.[21]

 

If one only remembered the mispronounced word after finishing Kerias Hatorah, must the Sefer Torah be removed and have the mistaken verse be re-read?

If the mispronounced word was only discovered after Kerias Hatorah, then some Poskim[22] rule that it is not necessary to take out the Sefer Torah again and repeat the reading for the mistaken verse.[23] Other Poskim[24] rule that one is to remove the Sefer Torah and repeat the verse with the mistake, together with another two verses, without a blessing.

 

Not to embarrass the Baal Korei and shout across the room:[25]

If the Baal Korei makes an inconsequential mistake [i.e. vowelization or Trup], only those who are near him, and can inconspicuously correct him, are to do so. However, to scream at him across the Shul is to put him to shame in public and is not to be done.[26]

 

How is the name Yissachar to be pronounced?[27]

Some are accustomed to reciting Yisaschar, emphasizing the two Shins. Practically, however, the widespread custom of the world is to say Yissachar with one Shin, and so is the Chabad custom.[28]

 

B. Read only two verses for an Aliya:[29]

Every Aliya must have at least three Pesukim read for it to be valid.[30] If only two[31] Pesukim were read [and the after blessing for that Aliyah was already recited[32]], the reading for that Aliyah is invalid, and one must repeat the reading and Aliya, making sure to read at least three verses.[33] [One is to start again from the beginning of the two verses that were read.[34] One is to repeat the Aliyah together with its before and after blessing.[35] Some Poskim[36], however, rule that if one remembered prior to the next Olah beginning the blessing of his Aliyah, then only the after blessing is recited, and only one verse needs to be read. If one only remembered after the blessing of the next Olah, then he is to start his reading from the start of the two verses, and read another three verses, and say the blessing. The Olah who had two verses read is then to receive a new Aliyah, if he is not a Kohen or Levi.[37] If they remembered only later on, then the next Olah is to read from the area of the two verses, all the way to the end of his Aliyah.[38] If they only membered after the Sefer Torah was returned to the ark, then it is to be removed and an Aliyah is to be called up to read those two verses plus another verse.[39] If the Maftir only read two verses then by a Yom Tov reading, or Shabbos reading with second Sefer Torah read for Maftir, one is to repeat his Aliyah with its blessings.[40] Regarding, however, Maftir of a regular Shabbos-see Q&A.]

 

Q&A

What is the law if by Maftir of Shabbos, only two verses were read?[41]

Some Poskim[42] rule that the Aliyah of Maftir must be repeated with its blessings. Other Poskim[43], however, rule that by Maftir of Shabbos when the reading is a repetition of the Parsha, the Maftir is to be repeated without a blessing. Practically, Safek Brachos Lehakel, and it is thus not to be repeated with its blessings.[44] According to all, if one only remembered after the Haftorah was already begun, then by the Maftir of a regular Shabbos, there is no need to repeat the Aliyah of Maftir at all, even without its blessings.[45]

 

C. Repeated the same Aliyah:[46]

If the Baal Korei repeated the same verses for the next Aliya, the Aliya is invalid unless three new verses were read. If three new verses were not read, then another Aliyah must be called up in its place. Nonetheless, in a case where it is not possible to add three new verses, then the Aliyah is valid. See Chapter 9 Halacha 1B for the full details of this matter!

If by the second to last Aliyah [i.e. Shishi on Shabbos] the Baal Korei mistakenly read until the end of the Parsha, what should be read by the last Aliyah [i.e. Shevi’i]? See Halacha F!

If mistakes were made in the reading of Rosh Chodesh: See Chapter 13 Halacha 1 in Q&A!

D. Ended within three verses of a Pesucha/Setuma:

An Aliyah may not begin or end within three verses from a Parsha Pesucha or Setuma.[47] If this was already done, and the previous Olah ended within three verses of a Pesucha or Setuma, then the next Olah is to begin from the area that the previous Olah ended, even though it is within three verses of a Pesucha/Setuma, and is not to repeat any of the verses that were already read.[48] [If this occurred at the end of the weekly Parsha, then the Shevi’i is to repeat one verse from the previous reading and read the last two verses.[49]]

E. Ended before or after end of Aliyah:

Although initially, one is to stop by the end points of each Aliyah as written in the Chumash, nonetheless, Bedieved, if one stopped the Aliyah in other permitted areas [see Chapter 9 Halacha 1C], then this is not disqualifying and the Baal Korei is to continue from where he left off. There is no need to reprimands him in public for doing so.

F. Read less Aliyos than required:[50]

Days without Maftir [i.e. Monday, Thursday, Rosh Chodesh, Fast Day, Chanukah, Purim, Chol Hamoed]:[51] If less than the required number of Aliyos were called up on a day without an extra Aliyah for Maftir [i.e. Monday, Thursday, Rosh Chodesh, Fast Day, Chanukah, Purim, Chol Hamoed], then even if all the required text was read, the Sefer Torah must be removed and have a new Aliyah called up. [In a case that all the required text was already read with the Aliyos called up, then on Monday and Thursday, he is to read a new text for the Aliyah and not repeat his intended section that was read with the previous Olah. However, on other days in which there is an exact text to be read, then he is to repeat the intended section that was read with the last Aliyah.[52] The Kaddish is to be repeated after the reading is complete.[53]]

Day with Maftir-If by the second to last Aliyah [i.e. Shishi on Shabbos] the Baal Korei mistakenly read until the end of the Parsha, what should be read by the last Aliyah [i.e. Shevi’i]?[54] If the Baal Korei mistakenly read for Shishi until the end of the Parsha, then if he already said Kaddish, then the Maftir who repeats the last verses of the Parsha which was already read by the sixth Aliyah, counts as the seventh Aliyah, and it is not necessary to call up another seventh Olah in addition to the Maftir.[55] [The Kaddish is not to be repeated after this Aliyah is read.[56]] (However, if Kaddish was not yet recited, then a seventh Olah is to be called in addition to the Maftir [and have his intended portion re-read, even though it was already read by the previous Olah].[57]) [The same applies on Yom Tov, if they accidentally finished the reading with the fourth Aliyah, and Kaddish was recited, that the Maftir counts as the fifth Aliyah.[58]]

Day with Maftir-If by the third to last Aliyah [i.e. Chamishi on Shabbos] the Baal Korei mistakenly read until the end of the Parsha, what should be read by the last two Aliyos [i.e. Shishi/Shevi’i]?[59] If the Baal Korei mistakenly read for Chamishi until the end of the Parsha [as can mistakenly occur on Yom Tov that falls on Shabbos], then if he already said Kaddish, then one more Aliyah is to be called up for Shishi and repeat the reading of Shishi, and have the Maftir count for the seventh Aliyah. However, on Yom Tov that falls on Shabbos, or any Shabbos that a second Sefer Torah is removed, the Shishi is to read until the end of the Parsha, and have the Maftir which is read from the second Sefer Torah count for Shevi’i. On a regular Yom Tov, if the Baal Korei read until the end of the Parsha with Shelishi, and already said Kaddish, then the fifth Aliyah is called up to repeat his intended section, and the Maftir read from the second Sefer Torah counts for Chamishi. In all cases that a second Sefer Torah is removed, then the Kaddish is to be repeated before Maftir.[60] In all the above cases, if one desires to repeat two more Aliyos [Shishi and Shevi’i] aside for Maftir, he may. In all the above cases, if Kaddish was not yet recited, then one must call up two more Aliyos aside for the Maftir [and have his intended portion re-read, even though it was already read by the previous Olah].[61]

Day with Maftir-If after the reading was over the congregation realized that they called up less Aliyos than required [i.e. six on Shabbos, 4 on Yom Tov] what is to be done?[62] If they read the entire Torah portion for that day, then if they only called up one less Aliyah the required, then the Maftir counts for that missing Aliyah, and nothing must be repeated. If, however, they called up two less Aliyos then required, then they are to remove the Sefer Torah and repeat three verses of reading on behalf of the last Aliyah. [The Kaddish is to be repeated in such a case.[63]]

G. Did not read all the required text of reading:

* See the next Halacha for the full details of this subject!

Shabbos: If one did not read all the required text on Shabbos, then even if the minimum number of Aliyos were called up, another Aliyah is to be called up to read the text that was not read. This applies even if the Sefer Torah was already returned to the Ark. [The Kaddish is to be repeated in such a case.[64]] See Halacha 2A!

Yom Tov and all other days of reading: If one did not read all the required text on Yom Tov, or other day, then if the minimum number of Aliyos were called up, it is not necessary to call up another Aliyah to complete the reading, unless one skipped the main subject of the reading of that day. See Halacha 2C and see Chapters 13-18 for the full details of this subject relevant to each Holiday and day of reading!

Skipped Maftir: On any day that a second Sefer Torah is meant to be removed for the reading a new Parsha for Maftir, then if the Maftir was not read, the Sefer Torah is to be removed again and be read. See however Chapter 13 Halacha 1 regarding if this occurred on Rosh Chodesh Chanukah.

 

Q&A

What is the law if by a double Parsha the Minyan only read the first Parsha, is the second Parsha to be made up the next Shabbos?

See Chapter 2 Halacha 6A in Q&A!

 

H. Wrong Torah reading-The law if one read the wrong Torah portion

See Chapter 2 Halacha 7!

I. The Baal Korei or Olah has a medical emergency and needs to be switched in middle:

See Chapter 4 Halacha 5 regarding the Baal Korei and Chapter 7 Halacha 6D regarding the Olah.

2. Skipped a word in Keriah:

A. Shabbos Shacharis:[65]

If the Baal Korei skipped [a verse[66] or] even one word[67], or even one letter, in the Shabbos Torah reading of Shacharis he is required to go back and read the verse that contains the skipped part. [This applies even if the skipped word or letter does not change the meaning of the verse.[68] This applies even if seven Aliyos were called up prior to the skipped verse, in those communities who add Aliyos on Shabbos.[69] If the Oleh did not yet say the after blessing, the Baal Korei is to go back to the skipped area and read again from there until the end of that Aliyah.[70] He is to begin from the beginning of the verse that contains the skipped part.[71]] If the Oleh already said the after blessing, then the Baal Korei is to read the verse that contains the skipped part in addition to two other verses that are in proximity to it.[72] An Oleh is to say a blessing before and after [thus adding an additional Aliyah].[73] [Alternatively, the next Aliyah is to begin from the skipped area and read onwards until the end of his Aliyah.[74] If a word was skipped in Shevi, then the Maftir is to begin from the skipped area and read until the end of the Parsha.[75] If a word was skipped by Maftir, it is not required to be repeated so long as three verses were read in total, excluding the skipped area.[76]]

Finished the Keriah: Even if the Parsha was already completed and [seven Aliyos were called up[77], and Kaddish recited[78] and] the Haftorah was recited and Musaf was Davened and only then was the mistake realized, nevertheless, the Baal Korei or another person needs to go back and read the three verses that contains the skipped part, in front of the congregation.[79] A blessing is to be recited before and after this reading, just like a regular Aliyah.[80]   

 

Q&A

If a verse/word/letter was skipped in the first Aliyah, must the Baal Korei go back and read it?

Some Poskim[81] rule it is not required to be read.[82] Other Poskim[83] leave this matter in question. Practically, it is to be read without a blessing.[84]

If a verse/word/letter was skipped in an Aliyah that will be read during Yom Tov, must the Baal Korei go back and read it?

Some Poskim[85] leave this matter in question. Other Poskim[86] however rule it is to be repeated with a blessing, and so is the final ruling.

 

 

The law if the Baal Korei added a word:[87]

If the Baal Korei added a word, then if it does not change the meaning of the verse, he is not required to repeat it. If, however, the meaning of the verse is changed, then he is to repeat that verse from the beginning. If he repeated the same word twice, he is not required to repeat the verse.

 

B. Weekday, Shabbos Mincha:[88]

If the Baal Korei skipped a verse [or even one word[89], or even one letter[90]], in the Shabbos reading of Mincha or the weekday reading of Monday/Thursday [or fast day], then if he read ten verses in total without the skipped verse, he is not required to go back and read. If, however he did not read ten verses in total [irrelevant of order[91]], he must go back and read the verse that contains the skipped part. [If, however he read nine verses in order and then made a mistake in the tenth verse, he is not required to go back and repeat the Aliyah.[92] When required to return, if the Oleh did not yet say the after blessing, the Baal Korei is to go back to the skipped area and read again from there until the end of that Aliyah.[93] If the Oleh already said the after blessing, then the Baal Korei is to read the verse that contains the skipped part in addition to two other verses that are in proximity to it.[94] An Oleh is to say a blessing before and after, thus adding an additional Aliyah.[95] Alternatively, the next Aliyah is to begin from the skipped area and read onwards until the end of his Aliyah.[96]]

 

Q&A

What is the law if one of the Aliyos did not read three whole verses due to the mistake?[97]

If one of the Aliyos did not read three whole verses then that Aliya must be repeated, irrelevant of whether ten verses were read in total or not.

C. Yom Tov/Rosh Chodesh/Chol Hamoed/Chanukah/Fast day:[98]

The reading of Yom Tov [including the Parshas Hakarbanos[99], and Rosh Chodesh reading] follow the same law as the weekday reading regarding a skipped verse/word/letter.[100] [Hence, if a total of three verses per Aliyah were read, which is a total of 15 verses for five Aliyos on Yom Tov and a total of 12 verses in four Aliyos of Rosh Chodesh, then he is not required to go back and call up another Aliyah.[101] If, however less than this amount of verses was read then he must go back and read the verse that contains the skipped part, as stated above. Likewise, if one skipped the main reading of that day, such as on the third day of Sukkos he did not read Ubeyom Hashlishi, then he must go back and read the skipped area with a blessing even if he read 15 verses in total, in the same order explained above.[102]]

3. The law if one found a mistake in the Sefer Torah during the reading:[103]

A. The General Law:[104]

One is required to have a Kosher Sefer Torah in order to be able to perform Kerias Hatorah, as explained in Chapter 1 Halacha 7 [see there for full details!]. Thus, the question rises as to what should be done in the event that an invalidation was found in midst of the reading; is one to continue the reading on the basis that he already started it, or is the Sefer Torah to be put away? The following is the law regarding this matter:

Stop the reading and bring a new Sefer Torah:[105] If an invalidating mistake was found in the Torah, then it is to be closed [and have a Gartel wrapped on its outside, and returned to the Ark[106]] and a new Sefer Torah is to be brought.[107] One never continues the reading in the invalid Sefer Torah once the mistake is found, and thus whether the mistake was found between the Aliyos or in middle of an Aliyah one stops [even in middle of a verse[108]] and brings out a new Sefer Torah, [unless there is no other Kosher Sefer Torah available, as will be explained in D].[109] [This law applies even if a mistake was found in the last Aliyah [i.e. Shevi’i], nevertheless the reading is to stop until a new Sefer Torah is brought. [If, however, the mistake was found in Shelishi of a Monday and Thursday reading, then see B!] The exact order to be followed upon finding a mistake in the Sefer Torah in middle of an Aliyah will be explained in B-C

Discovered after the reading was finished:[110] If the invalidating mistake was discovered in the Sefer Torah only after the reading was complete, nevertheless, the congregation is Yotzei and a new Sefer Torah does not need to be removed to have the reading repeated. [Furthermore, even if the mistake was already known before the reading, and it was accidentally used, one is Yotzei.[111] However, if this occurred by Parshas Zachar or Parah, and it was discovered that Shabbos, then it is to be repeated in a Kosher Sefer Torah.[112]]

If there is no Kosher Sefer Torah available:  See Halacha D!

What mistakes deem a Sefer Torah invalid? See Halacha 4!

B. The order followed when a mistake is found in middle of the reading?[113]

Background of opinions:[114] Although, as stated above, if an invalidating mistake was found in the Sefer Torah we discontinue the reading of that Aliyah even in middle of a verse, nevertheless it is debated as to the order that should be followed in such a case. Should the reading of this Aliyah continue in the Kosher Sefer Torah and have the Olah then say an after blessing, or should the Olah immediately end his Aliyah and recite an after blessing upon discovering the mistake in the Sefer Torah, and have the reading in the new Sefer Torah begin with a new Aliyah? While this matter is under great debate amongst the Poskim[115], and there thus exists various customs amongst communities, each having upon whom to rely, nonetheless the following is the final ruling on the issue that is followed by majority of Ashkenazim, and is to be followed by all Ashkenazi communities absent of a known custom to do otherwise.[116] This approach is viewed as a compromise between the two opposite extremes of opinions.[117] [See footnotes below for custom of Sephardim and other communities]:

Mistake found in area permitted to end Aliyah-End Aliyah:[118] [According to the accepted Ashkenazi custom] if an invalidating mistake was found in the Sefer Torah in area that it is permitted to end the Aliyah, then one is to discontinue the reading of that Aliyah, and the Olah immediately recites the after blessing. Thus, if when the mistake was found they already read three verses in that Aliya, and are not within three verses from the start or end of a Parsha Setuma/Pesucha, then the Olah is to say the after blessing on the Pasul Sefer Torah, prior to bringing the new Sefer Torah.[119] The next Aliya is then continued from the Kosher Sefer Torah, from the beginning of the verse that contained the mistake. In all cases, all the previous Aliyos read in the invalid Sefer Torah, remain valid and do not have to be repeated in the Kosher Sefer Torah.[120]

Mistake found in area forbidden to end Aliyah-Continue Aliyah:[121] [According to the accepted custom amongst Ashkenazim, Chassidim, and Sephardim] if an invalidating mistake was found in the Sefer Torah in an area that it is forbidden to end the Aliyah, then we discontinue the reading from that Sefer Torah, and have a new Sefer Torah removed to have the reading, and after blessing recited over it. Thus, if when the mistake was found they did not yet read three verses, or are within three verse of the start or end of a Parsha[122] Pesucha/Setuma[123] [or are within a paragraph that the custom is not to stop in middle of, such as Shiras Hayam, Aseres Hadibros, curses, Haazinu, etc.[124]], then the after blessing is not to be said on the invalid scroll, and rather a Kosher Sefer Torah is to be removed and one is to read from the beginning of the verse that they are holding by and then say the after blessing. [One is to read at least three verses in the Kosher Sefer Torah until an area that one may stop, and is then to end the Aliyah.[125]] A before blessing is not repeated even in such a case.[126] In all cases, all the previous Aliyos read in the invalid Sefer Torah, remain valid.[127] Likewise, all the verses read by the Aliyah in which the mistake was found remain valid, and the reading only continues from the verse of the mistake.[128]

Mistake found in last Aliyah [Shevi’i of Shabbos; Shelishi of Monday or Thursday]:[129] If the mistake was found in the last Aliyah of a Monday or Thursday reading, and is in an area in which it is permitted to conclude an Aliyah [i.e. read three verses in this Aliyah, read a total of ten verses with all Aliyos combined, not within three verses of Pesucha/Setuma], then according to Ashkenazi custom[130], the after blessing is to be immediately recited and have the reading conclude for that day. A new Sefer Torah is not to be removed for the remaining reading.[131] If this occurred on Shabbos, then the Aliyah is to conclude with its after blessing, and a new Sefer Torah is to be removed and have another 8th Aliyah called up for the remaining reading. If this occurred on Rosh Chodesh, or on any other day of reading in which it is forbidden to add to the Aliya’s, then the Baal Korei is to continue reading until the end of the portion, and have the Olah say his after blessing on the Pasul Sefer Torah, and a new Sefer Torah is not to be removed. In all the above cases, if the mistake was found in an area in which it is forbidden to conclude an Aliyah, then a new Sefer Torah must be removed to conclude the reading, as stated above.

C. Mistake found in Maftir & the law if the Haftorah is to be recited:[132]

Mistake found in Maftir of Yom Tov, Rosh Chodesh, Four Parshiyos, etc.:[133] If a mistake was found in middle of the reading of Maftir of Yom Tov, Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, or any other day in which a new reading is read for Maftir as an obligatory reading of that day, then a new Sefer Torah is to be removed and have the reading and after blessing conclude over it.

Mistake found in Maftir of regular Shabbos-before Kaddish:[134] If a mistake was found in the section of Maftir of Shabbos, which merely repeats the end of Shevi’i, then if the mistake was found prior to the saying of Kaddish after Shevi’i [i.e. it was discovered after Shevi’i, before Kaddish] then Maftir is to be canceled, and the person who read Shevi’i is to immediately read the Haftorah with its blessings.

Mistake found in Maftir of regular Shabbos-after Kaddish before Maftir: If a mistake was found in the section of Maftir of Shabbos, which merely repeats the end of Shevi’i, then if the mistake was found after the saying of Kaddish but before the start of Maftir then some Poskim[135] rule a new Sefer Torah is to be brought for Maftir and have its blessings recited, while other Poskim[136] rule that Maftir is to be read without its blessings from the Pasul Sefer Torah. Whatever the case, the Haftorah is read with its blessings.[137]

Mistake found in middle of Maftir of regular Shabbos:  If a mistake was found in middle of the reading of Maftir of Shabbos, which merely repeats the end of Shevi’i, then some Poskim[138] rule that the reading is to finish in the Pasul Sefer Torah, without an after blessing being said. Other Poskim[139] rule that an after blessing is to be said. Other Poskim[140] rule that a new Sefer Torah is to be removed and have the reading and after blessing conclude over it. Whatever the case, the Haftorah is read with its blessings.[141]

 

Summary:

If an invalidating mistake was found in the Sefer Torah we discontinue the reading of that Aliyah even in middle of a verse, and following order is to be followed depending on the scenario:

Mistake found in area permitted to end Aliyah-End Aliyah:  According to the accepted Ashkenazi custom, if they already read three verses in that Aliya, and are not within three verses from the start or end of a Parsha Setuma/Pesucha, then the Olah is to immediately say the after blessing on the Pasul Sefer Torah. 

Mistake found in area forbidden to end Aliyah-Continue Aliyah: According to the accepted custom amongst Ashkenazim, Chassidim, and Sephardim, if they did not yet read three verses, or are within three verse of the start or end of a Parsha  Pesucha/Setuma [or are within a paragraph that the custom is not to stop in middle of, such as Shiras Hayam, Aseres Hadibros, curses, Haazinu, etc. ], then a Kosher Sefer Torah is to be removed and one is to read from the beginning of the verse that they are holding by and then say the after blessing.

Mistake found in last Aliyah [Shevi’i of Shabbos; Shelishi of Monday or Thursday]: If the mistake was found in the last Aliyah of a Monday or Thursday reading, and is in an area in which it is permitted to conclude an Aliyah, then according to Ashkenazi custom , the after blessing is to be immediately recited and have the reading conclude for that day. If this occurred on Shabbos, then the Aliyah is to conclude with its after blessing, and a new Sefer Torah is to be removed and have another 8th Aliyah called up for the remaining reading. If this occurred on a day of reading in which it is forbidden to add to the Aliya’s, then the Baal Korei is to continue reading until the end of the portion, and have the Olah say his after blessing on the Pasul Sefer Torah, and a new Sefer Torah is not to be removed. In all the above cases, if the mistake was found in an area in which it is forbidden to conclude an Aliyah, then a new Sefer Torah must be removed to conclude the reading, as stated above.

Mistake found in Maftir: See above!

Q&A

If after the conclusion of an Aliyah, the Olah or Baal Korei verified the invalidation of a mistake that he noticed during the reading, from where are they to begin in the next Sefer Torah?

At times it happens that the Baal Korei sees an error but continues the reading due to being unsure if it is an issue. The following is to be done in such a case, if the issue was later verified to be invalidating: All the verses read in the invalid Sefer Torah remain valid, and they are thus to simply read from the next Aliyah.[142] Nevertheless, initially, if a suspected mistake is found, the Baal Korei is to stop the reading and inquire. 

May the invalidation found in the Sefer Torah be fixed in middle of a weekday reading?[143]

Any form of invalidation which is easy to fix by a Sofer who is present by the Minyan [such as to erase the ink that is causing two letters to touch, or to quickly fix a letter], may be done even in middle of the reading, by a weekday reading of the Torah. The Baal Korei is then to continue the reading from there, after the Sefer Torah has been repaired. [It is not necessary to wait until the ink dries.[144]] If, however, the fixing will take time, either due to lack of an expert present, or due to the quality of the mistake, then a delay is not to be made and a new Sefer Torah is to be taken out, as explained above.

 

D. The law if a mistake was found and there is no Kosher Sefer Torah available:[145]

If an invalidating mistake was found in a Sefer Torah and there is no Kosher Sefer Torah available with which to switch it with at this time [see Q&A regarding bringing from another Shul], then they are to complete the reading of the Aliyos in the current Sefer Torah. [The following is to be done in such a case:[146] The current Olah in which a mistake was found in his Aliyah is to have his Aliyah read until the end, although he is not to recite an after blessing at this time. The remaining Aliyos are then called up and read without any blessings. Meaning that they are to be called up to the Torah, but do not recite any blessings upon the reading. All this while, the Olah with whom the mistake was originally found is to remain by the side of the Sefer Torah, and read along silently in the Sefer Torah together with Baal Korei, and current Olah. After all the Aliyos are complete, and the reading has ended, this Olah is then to say his after blessing. The half Kaddish is not said until after the Haftorah, as explained next. Hagbah is not performed on the Pasul Sefer Torah.[147]]

The Haftorah:[148] In the above case that the reading was complete in a Pasul Sefer Torah, the Haftorah, together with its blessings, is nevertheless to be read as usual. [It is read by the Olah who said the after blessing at the end of the reading, which is the same Olah with whom the original mistake was found by. The half Kaddish is then said after the Haftorah.[149] Some Poskim[150], however, rule that the Haftorah may only be read with its blessings if at least three Aliyos were already read within the Sefer Torah prior to finding the mistake. Furthermore, they rule that the blessings are only said if the mistake was found prior to the last Olah saying his after blessing, and hence the after blessing was delayed until the end of the reading. However, from other Poskim it is evident that the Haftorah is to be recited with its blessings even if the entire reading was done in the invalid Sefer Torah.[151]]

 

May one bring a Sefer Torah from another Shul if a mistake was found during the reading, and there is no other Kosher Sefer Torah available in one’s Shul?

Although in general it is forbidden to bring a Sefer Torah from one Shul to another, as explained in Chapter 1 Halacha 8A, nevertheless, if a set Shul Minyan is stuck without a Sefer Torah such as if their only Sefer Torah was found to be Pasul in middle of the reading, then it is permitted to have a Sefer Torah brought to them, even if it is possible for them to move the Minyan to another Shul.[152] Furthermore, they are required to do so rather than to continue the reading in the invalid Sefer Torah.[153] Nonetheless, if doing so entails a great Tircha Detzibura, and delay of time, then it is not necessary to do so.[154]

 

4. List of invalidating mistakes:

It is beyond the scope of this book to delineate and analyze the full breadth of possible invalidations subject to a Sefer Torah, as such a matter would require a full work of its own, to properly justify.[155] The following Halacha is a mere synopsis of invalidations as recorded in in the sources mentioned in the footnotes.

A. General rule:[156]

A Sefer Torah is to only be switched upon finding a mistake during the reading, if the mistake is considered a full fledge error which invalidates the Sefer Torah. [Meaning, that the mistake is ruled as definitively invalid in the Poskim. However, if a mistake is found which is under debate in the Poskim, one is not required to switch the Sefer Torah.[157]]

Mistake is found in a different Chumash of the Sefer: If the area of invalidation in the Pasul Sefer Torah is not found in the Sefer of the Parsha that one is set to read from, then there is more leniency attributed to allowing one to read from it. See Chapter 1 Halacha 7 for the full details of this subject!

Sefer Torah written according to different tradition [Sephardi, Ashkenazi, Chabad]:[158] All Sifrei Torah written according to an established tradition or script are even initially valid for all Jews, even though it contains changes from the Sefer Torah one uses according to his tradition, and it is forbidden to be stringent in this matter. Thus, and Ashkenazi may receive an Aliyah by a Sephardi Sefer Torah, and the same applies vice versa. The same applies regarding the Sifrei Torah of all other accepted dominations of Jewry.

The following is a list of errors and their corresponding law:

B. List of errors:[159]

*In all cases that a child is required to read the word/letter in the Sefer Torah, see Halacha C for the full details of how this is to be done!

Made Pesucha instead of Setuma or vice versa:[160] If a Parsha which needs to be written as a Pesucha was instead written as a Setuma, or vice versa, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah is to be removed. [Likewise, if a Parsha which is not to be written with a Pesucha or Setuma contains spacing which makes it into a Pesucha or Setuma, then it is invalid.[161]]

Margins:[162] At times, lines that have been written out of the margin can invalidate a Sefer Torah.

Miswritten letters:[163] Any letter that was miswritten as another letter, such as if a Reish was written as a Daled, or Beis was miswritten as a Chaf, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah is to be removed.

Letter not written long enough, short enough, wide enough:[164] If a letter which is meant to have a long leg was written with a short leg, such as a Vav, or Zayin or Langa Nun which was written short and appears like a Yud, then it is invalid. So too, if a letter which is meant to have a short leg was written with a long leg, such as a Yud which was written long and appears like a Vav, then it is invalid. Likewise, if a letter which is meant to have a wide stretch was written thin, such as a Reish which appears like a Yud, then the letter is invalid. If, one is in unsure as to whether its length meets the requirement, then a child is to be asked to read it, and if the letter can be read properly, it remains valid.[165]

Misspelled word:[166] If a word in the Sefer Torah is misspelled, such as the word Keves was written Kesev, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah is to be removed. This applies even if only one letter was missing. This applies even if the Kesiv was written as the Keri. This does not apply to a Chaser and Yaser misspelling, as explained next.

Missing or extra letter-Chaser and Yaser:[167] Although a misspelling of Chaser and Yasir [added letter or missing letter] invalidates a Sefer Torah[168], nevertheless [according to Ashkenazi Custom] a new Sefer Torah is not to be removed if found during the reading.[169] [This, however, only applies so long as the pronunciation remains the same, such as if a Vav or Alef is missing from a word which is anyways pronounced the same way. If, however, the pronunciation of the word is affected due to the Chaser or Yaser, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah is to be removed.[170]]

Letters of Mesorah:[171] All special scribal letters or punctuation that are traditionally written in a Sefer Torah, such as the large or small letters, or opposite letters, do not invalidate the Sefer Torah if they were not written.

Patzua Daka written with a Hei or Alef: A Sefer Torah remains Kosher whether the word Daka is written with an Alef or with a Hei. See Halacha D!

A repeated letter or word:[172] If a word [or letter[173]] in the Sefer Torah was repeated, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and it is customary to remove a new Sefer Torah.  

Letters touching:[174] A letter that is touching another letter is invalid, if it is touching it throughout its entire length, or is illegible due to the touching, and a new Sefer Torah is to be removed. Likewise, a letter that is touching another letter in its beginning or middle area of writing is invalid. If, however, it is only touching another letter at its end [and thus majority of it was written properly], then a new Sefer Torah does not have to be removed if the letter remains legible.[175] [If the Taggin of a letter touches a letter next to it, a new Sefer Torah does not need to be removed.[176]]

Leg of letter touching its roof:[177] If the leg of a Hei or Kuf is even slightly touching its roof, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah is to be removed. This applies even if a child is able to read the letter properly

Letter split in two:[178] If a letter has split in two, such as the Yud of the Alef, Ayin, or Shin, is not touching, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah must be removed. This applies even a child is able to read the letter properly, and applies irrelevant as to how this occurred. If, however, the leg of a long letter, such as a Vav or Zayin, or Langa Nun, is split, then if a child is able to read the letter properly, it remains valid.[179] This is done by covering the split part of the letter and asking him to identify it.[180] See Halacha C for the exact age of the child, and as to how his reading is to be done.

Faded letter:[181] If a letter has faded, then if some color of the black ink still remains, and a child is able to read the letter properly, then it is valid. If, however, if the blackness has faded and a red color has remained from the rust of the dye, then it is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah must be removed.

Words written in close approximation:[182] If two words are written in close approximation, then if a child reads it as one word, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah must be removed. If he reads it as two words, then it remains valid. [Nonetheless, some are lenient in a case that there is an end letter [i.e. Mem sofit, Nun sofit, Tzadik sofit, Pei sofit, Chaf sofit] between the two words.[183]]

Letters are far apart:[184] If the letters of a word are far apart, then if a child reads it as two words, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah must be removed. If he reads it as one word, then it remains valid.

Blotches of food or wax covering a letter:[185] If there is wax [or other blotch] on a letter and the letter is not recognizable due to this then the Sefer is invalid until the wax is removed, and the letter becomes visible once again. See Q&A regarding what to do if this occurs on Shabbos.

The sewing of the pages tore:[186] If the sewing of the pages tore to the point that there are less than five stitches remaining, then the Sefer Torah is invalid, and a new Sefer Torah must be removed.

C. The child reading test-Having a child read the word to verify its Kashrus or invalidation:

In certain instances, explained above, we stated that a child is to be shown the letter and read it in order to verify whether it is legible or not. In such cases, the following detailed laws are to be kept:

The age of the child:[187] The child is required to be of a level of intelligence in which he is neither considered wise, nor stupid. This means that the child is not yet old enough to understand the content and meaning of the words that he is shown [i.e. not wise], but is old enough to properly read and recognize letters [i.e. not stupid]. [This is approximately between ages 5-7.[188] It is valid whether the child is a male or female.[189] If one is unsure if the child is already past the correct age of intelligence, then one may cover over the previous letters and have him read only the letter in question.[190]]

Covering the other words/letters:[191] Upon showing a child a letter to deem its eligibility, there is no need to cover over any of the previous words or letters, despite the fact that this is accustomed to being done. However, when showing a child a split letter, then the other half of the letter is to be covered.

 

Summary

List of invalidating errors:

1. A Pesucha was done in place of a Setuma, or vice versa, or was done in an area where there is no end of Parsha.

2. Any letter that was miswritten as another letter.

3. A letter that was not written long enough, short enough, wide enough.

4. A misspelled word, including if the Kesiv was written as the Keri, however, not of Chaser Viyaser if pronunciation does not change. Mistakes in Chaser and Yasir which change the pronunciation of the word are invalid.

5. A repeated word or letter.

6. A letter that is touching another letter in its top or middle, or in a way that it is illegible.

7. The leg of a letter is touching its roof, such as if the leg of a Hei or Kuf is touching its roof.

8. A letter that is touching another letter in its beginning or middle area of writing.

9. A letter that is split in two.

10. A faded letter which a child cannot read, or has lost all black ink.

11. Two words written in such close approximation that a child reads it as one word.

12. The letters of a word are so far apart that a child reads it as two words.

13. Wax [or another blotch] on a letter and the letter is not recognizable.

14. The sewing of the pages tore, and less than five stitches remain.

 

List on non-invalidating errors:

1. Mistakes in Chaser and Yasir which do not change the pronunciation of the word.

2. If one is in unsure as to whether the length of a letter meets the requirement, then if a child reads it properly, it remains valid.

3. If the letters of Mesorah [large/small] were not written.

4. Patzua Daka written with a Hei or Alef.

5. Letters touching each other only by their ends, and remain legible.

6. Faded letters which still contain black ink and can be read by a child.

7. Two words written in close approximation which can still be read by a child as two words.

8. One word written with its letters far apart which can still be read by a child as one word.

9. Wax [or another blotch] on a letter and the letter remains recognizable.

 

Q&A

On Shabbos, may one remove wax blotches [as well as other forms of blotches] from letters of a Sefer Torah and does it invalidate the Torah?[192]

If there is wax [or other blotch] on a letter and the letter is not recognizable due to this then the Sefer is invalid and another Sefer Torah must be taken out.[193] However if the wax is dry enough that folding the parchment between the wax will cause the wax to flick off, then this may be done, and one may continue reading from this Sefer.[194] However, one may not remove the wax with his hands due to the Mimachek/smoothening prohibition.[195] Other Poskim[196], however, rule that one should never remove the wax in any case and should rather read that letter orally and continue with the reading.

What is the law if a mistake was found in a new Sefer Torah on the first time that it is being read?[197]

Some Poskim rule that a Sefer Torah is not to be disqualified in its first reading, and hence one may continue reading from it until the end. Practically, one is to be stringent.

 

Fixing an invalid Sefer Torah:[198]

A Sefer Torah found to contain a mistake must be fixed within thirty days of the finding. [Many, however, are accustomed to being lenient in this matter and leave a Pasul Sefer Torah for months and years in the Aron with the Gartel placed around its Meil as a sign that it is invalid. Practically, while some Poskim have learned merit onto the custom[199], one is to abide by the law and fix the Sifrei Torah within thirty days.[200]]

Must one perform a computer check on Sifrei Torah to verify their Kashrus status?[201]

Statistics show that the vast majority of Sifrei Torah [close to 80%!] contain
invalidating errors even after being edited by a professional Magiah.[202] This is due to the fact that a Sefer Torah contains over 300,000 letters [304,805 to be exact] and the margin of human error is quite high when requiring a 100% accuracy of a work of this quantity. Accordingly, some Poskim[203] rule that it is an absolute obligation in today’s times for one to also have the Sifrei Torah periodically pass through a computer editing in the available Safrus editing programs, which contains 99% accuracy for spelling errors. Other Poskim[204], however, rule that while it is definitely something that should be done, it is not an obligation. Whatever the case, every Shul is to endeavor have a computer check performed to their Sifrei Torah in order to do all that is physically possible to ensure that they have a most Kosher and Mehudar Sefer. Some suggest having it go through also second computer check after all its errors are corrected, which reduces the chance of invalidation to less than 1%.[205] All the above is only in addition to having a physical Magiah personally check the Sefer Torah himself, as the computer program is only accurate in detecting spelling errors, and not in detecting other invalidations, such as split words/letters, touching letters, and a myriad of other issues.[206]

May a Sefer Torah contain a marking for identification purposes in case of it being stolen?[207]

Some Poskim[208] rule that any marking on the pages of the Sefer Torah renders it invalid. Other Poskim[209], however, rule that it does not invalidate the Sefer Torah, although is nevertheless not to be done. Practically, the best advice is to create a digital image of the pages of the Sefer Torah, and have it logged in a central database with organizations who track these matters.

 

D. The Daka controversy: Is Patzua Daka written with a Hei or Alef?[210]

Introduction: Every word and letter in a Sefer Torah must be exact, and follow the Halachic tradition. If even one letter is missing, or written incorrectly, or is added and not meant to be there, the entire Torah is Pasul.[211] Quite amazingly, and as a sign of open Divine providence, all the Jewish people within all their sects, have an exact tradition of how all 304,805 letters of the Torah are to be written, with a few exceptions. One of the major exceptions to the universal tradition is regarding how the word “Petzua Daka” [Devarim 23:2] is to be spelled. Some are accustomed to spell it with an Alef at its end [i.e. פצוע דכא] while others spell it with a Hei at its end [i.e. פצוע דכה]. We will now analyze the background and sources of the two traditions and any Halachic question that come as a result.

The law: Some Poskim[212] rule the word Daka is to be written with an Alef, and so was the formally[213] widespread Ashkenazi custom, and is the old age Yemenite custom, and the traditional Chabad custom.[214] A number of very old Sifrei Torah and Chumashim have been found written this way, with an Alef at the end of the word Daka.[215] Other Poskim[216], however, rule the word Daka is to be written with a Hei, and so is the current widespread Ashkenazi custom, is the old age Sephardi custom.[217] A number of very old Sifrei Torah have been found written in this way with a Hei at the end of the word Daka.[218] Practically, each community is to follow their tradition and make sure that  the word Daka is written accordingly, in the Sifrei Torah of their Shul’s. Thus, the Chabad Rabbeim directed that Chabad Sifrei Torah are to be written with an Alef, and if it was written with a Hei it is to be edited and changed to an Alef.[219] This, however, should be done in a way that will not arouse dispute.[220]

Being Yotzei with a Sefer Torah written the opposite tradition:[221] Although, in general, we rule that even one missing or mistaken letter in a Sefer Torah invalidates it, nevertheless regarding the difference of tradition in the word Daka, both options are Halachically acceptable, and thus a Sefer Torah remains Kosher whether the word Daka is written with an Alef or with a Hei. Thus, it is permitted for those who are accustomed to write Daka with an Alef to hear Kerias Hatorah and receive an Aliya with a Sefer Torah in which the word Daka is written with a Hei, and it is likewise permitted for those who are accustomed to write Daka with a Hei to hear Kerias Hatorah and receive an Aliya with a Sefer Torah in which the word Daka is written with an Alef.

__________________________________________

[1] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:1-6; Yalkut Dinei Kerias Hatorah p. 1339; Hiskashrus 340 p. 18; 566 p. 16 and 570 p. 14

[2] Rama 142:1; Admur 64:2; Terumos Hadeshen 181; Peri Chadash 142:1; Emes Leyaakov and Ledavid Emes 7:1; Chayeh Adam 31:31; Kaf Hachaim 142:5; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:9; See Besamim Rosh 321; Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:1 footnote 1

Other opinions-Custom of Sephardim: Some Poskim rule that if the Baal Korei mispronounced even one letter, he is to repeat it even if the meaning does not change as a result. [Michaber 142:1; Beis Yosef 142; Rambam Tefilla 12:6, brought in Tur 142; Yalkut Yosef 142:1 that so is the Sephardi custom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:3; See Peri Chadash ibid and Kaf Hachaim ibid that even according to this opinion, a mere mistake in Taamim or Nekudos does not require repetition. Vetzaruch Iyun as to what then is the exact dispute between the Michaber and Rama, if a mere mistake in Nekudos one does not repeat for.] Other Poskim rule that even if one made a complete mispronunciation, such as he said Haran instead of Aaron, he is not required to repeat it. [Tur 142 in name of Baal HaManhig; Bach 142; Brought in Chayeh Adam 31:31; Kaf Hachaim 142:5]

[3] Sephardi custom: See previous footnote!

[4] Setimas Haposkim; See Biur Halacha 142:1 “Machzirin” who debates this matter and concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun; See Halacha 2b for the law regarding if a verse was skipped, that by weekdays we do not require repetition.

[5] Peri Chadash 142:1; Emes Leyaakov and Ledavid Emes 7:1; Kaf Hachaim 142:5

[6] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:147; Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:2

[7] Rama ibid; Some understand this to mean that one is to mention this to him only after the reading, in order not to shame him in public. [Hiskashrus 566 p. 16] However, the simple understanding of the Rama and Terumos Hadeshen ibid is to mention this during the reading, and so understands Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:147; Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:2. However, see Hiskashrus 570 that one time the Rebbe Rashab reprimanded Rav Yaakov Landau who was the Baal Korei only after the reading, even though his mistake caused a change of the meaning.

[8] Sefer Hasichos 5696 p. 52, Likkutei Dibburim 2:456 that the Alter Rebbe would correct and make the Baal Korei repeat the word even for the wrong Trup; Sichas 5704 p. 25 that the Tzemach Tzedek directed the Baal Korei to repeat the word due to the Taamim; Custom of Rav Yaakov Landa and Rav Marlow [see Hiskashrus 566 p. 16 and 570 p. 14]

[9] Hiskashrus 340 p. 18

[10] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:147; Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:2

[11] M”B 142:4

[12] See Michaber 141:8

[13] See Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 142; Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:2, 4-5

[14] Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 142; Rav SZ”A in Halichos Shlomo; Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:5; Article of Rav Asher Weiss

[15] Hiskashrus 566

[16] Lev Chaim 3:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135 footnote 84

[17] So is proven from the custom to simply repeat the word Zeicher, Zecher, and not return to the start of the verse; See Hiskashrus 340

[18] See Admur 64:2 “From the start of that verse”; Poskim in next footnote; See Kaf Hachaim 64:7

[19] M”B 142:2; Kaf Hachaim 142:5; However, from the letter of the law, one only needs to repeat that verse plus another two verses with it, and may then skip to the area of the current Aliyah. [Shaar Hatziyon 142:3; Implication of Chayeh Adam 31:31; See also Admur 282:20; Michaber 137:3; 282:7 regarding a skipped word.

[20] Chayeh Adam 5:2; Chesed Lealafim 215:10; Shaarei Rachamim 3:18; Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:1

[21] Tzitz Eliezer 12:40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:1

[22] Chayeh Adam 31:31; Kaf Hachaim 142:5

[23] The reason: As some Poskim rule that Bedieved one is always Yotzei even with a completely mispronounced word. [See Poskim in previous footnotes]

[24] Implication of Biur Halacha 142:1 “Machzirin” in how he learns the Chayeh Adam ibid, to only negate saying a blessing

[25] Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:2-3; See Hiskashrus 566 who argues that no one should correct him, as its all considered “in public”

[26] See Tur 142 in name of Manhig

[27] See Efraim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:7; Toras Menachem 4:156, 5712 9th Kisleiv, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:93

[28] See Rebbe ibid

[29] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:4-5

[30] Michaber 137:2; Admur 283:1; Michaber 283:1; Rambam Tefilla 12:3; Megillah 22a

[31] If two and a half Pesukim were read: Some Poskim rule that if two and a half verses were read then it is valid, and the next Olah should begin from the start of the 3rd verse. [Imrei Yosher 1:143; Har Tzevi 1:66; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:5]

[32] M”B 137:13; If the after blessing was yet to be said, then one is to simply read one more verse, and say the after blessing. [M”B ibid]

[33] Michaber 137:4; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 137:19

[34] Olas Shabbos 137; Elya Raba 137:7; M”B 137:13; Kaf Hachaim 137:20

[35] M”A 137:8; Elya Raba 137:7; Birkeiy Yosef 137:3; Ledavid Emes 6:64; Shaareiy Efraim 7:4; Derech Hachaim; Kitzur SHU”A 23:23; M”B 137:13; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:15

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one remembered prior to the start of the next Aliyah, then it is not necessary to repeat the before blessing, and one simply reads one more blessing and the Olah repeats the after blessing. [Taz 137:4; P”M 137; Chayeh Adam, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 137:13; Kneses Hagedola 282; Aruch Hashulchan 137:5; Toras Chaim Sofer 137; See Kaf Hachaim 13720; Minchas Yitzchak 5:99; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:2]

[36] See previous footnote!

[37] M”B 137:13; See Igros Moshe 1:35; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137 footnote 37

[38] Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:4 based on Shaar Hatziyon 142:3

[39] Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:4

[40] Elya Raba 137:7; P”M 137 M”Z 7; Chayeh Adam 31:27; Biur Halacha 137; See Kaf Hachaim 137:23

[41] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:11

[42] Elya Raba 137:7; P”M 137 M”Z 7; Chayeh Adam 31:27; Biur Halacha 137; See Kaf Hachaim 137:23

[43] Zera Emes 1:16; Machazik Bracha 282; Shaareiy Efraim 9:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 46

[44] Melameid Lehoil 1:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[45] Kaf Hachaim ibid based on Poskim in Halacha F regarding if the Shishi read until the end of the Parsha that the Shevi’i counts for the Maftir

[46] Michaber 137:6; Admur 282:4; M”A 282:3

[47] Michaber 138:1; Rama ibid that this applies whether to a Pesucha or Setuma; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 138:1-2

The reason: One may not end within three verses of a Parsha, as one who leaves then may think that the next Olah will only read two verses. Likewise, one may not begin an Aliyah within three verses of a Parsha, as one who enters then will think that the previous Olah only read two verses. [Michaber ibid]

[48] M”A 138 in name of Hagahos Ashri and Tosafos; Taz 423:1; Elya Raba 138; Derech Hachaim; Shaareiy Efraim 7:29; P”M 138 A”A 1; Ledavid Emes 7:15; M”B 138:1, 3; See Kaf Hachaim 138:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the next Olah is to go back and read it in a way that he does not begin within three verses of a Pesucha/Setuma. Thus, if the previous Olah ended within three verses prior to a Pesucha/Setuma, then the next Olah begins from three verses before the Pesucha/Setuma, if the previous Olah ended within three verses after a Pesucha/Setuma, then the next Olah begins from the beginning of the Pesucha/Setuma. [Agudah, brought in M”A ibid; Hagahos Reb Akiva Eiger 138; Daas Torah 138; Shulchan Hatahor 138:2; Aruch Hashulchan 138:3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] Practically, the main opinion follows the former approach.

[49] See Chapter 9 Halacha 1B-C; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:6 footnote 50

[50] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:10

[51] See Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 8; Kaf Hachaim 282:67 in name of Keser Kehuna 3; Orchos Chaim Spinka 282:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:10

[52] See Shaareiy Efraim 8:12; Tehila Ledavid 282:44; Piskeiy Teshuvos 282 footnote 114

[53] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282 footnote 117

[54] Admur 282:19; Michaber 282:6; Tur 282 in name of Maharam Merothenberg; Shivlei Haleket 77; Miseches Sofrim 11:4; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:3

[55] The reason: As the main opinion follows that the Maftir counts as one of the seven. [Admur ibid]

[56] P”M 282 A”A 17; M”B 282:34 in name of Levush; Vetzaruch Iyun as to the to be followed if the Kaddish was recited after Shishi, and he did not read the portion of Shevi’i.

[57] Admur ibid in parentheses; Implication of Darkei Moshe 282:7; Kneses Hagedola 282:10

The reason: This is to be done in order to fulfill one’s obligation even according to those who rule that the Maftir does not count as part of the seven Aliyos, as we are accustomed, and thus be Yotzei accoridng to all. [Admur ibid in parentheses]

[58] Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:10 footnote 112

[59] See M”B 668:13 [gives option of calling two aside for Maftir, or one aside for Maftir]; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid [says to call two aside for Maftir]; We summarized here like the second approach in the M”B ibid which includes the Maftir as the last Aliyah

[60] M”B ibid; See Kaf Hachaim 282:69 in name of Ikareiy Hadat for a dispute in this matter; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid 282 footnote 115

[61] Admur ibid in parentheses [regarding if one Aliyah was not called]; Implication of Darkei Moshe 282:7; Kneses Hagedola 282:10; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:8 regarding also if two Aliyos were not called up; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

The reason: This is to be done in order to fulfill one’s obligation even according to those who rule that the Maftir does not count as part of the seven Aliyos, as we are accustomed, and thus be Yotzei according to all. [Admur ibid in parentheses]

[62] Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 8; Kaf Hachaim 282:67 in name of Keser Kehuna 3; Orchos Chaim Spinka 282:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:10

[63] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282 footnote 117

[64] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282 footnote 117

[65] Admur 282:20; Michaber 137:3; 282:7; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 12 Mem; Miseches Sofrim 11:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:1-2; 282:11

[66] Michaber ibid

[67] Admur ibid; M”A 282:18; Elya Raba 137:4; Gan Hamelech 10; Rav Akiva Eiger 137:3; Chayeh Adam 31:25; Derech Hachaim 3; Shaareiy Efraim 7:7; M”B 137:8; Kaf Hachaim 137:5 and 7

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that if only one word was skipped, and not an entire verse, it is valid. [Olas Tamid 282:6]

[68] Biur Halacha 142:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:2

[69] M”A 137:5; Terumas Hadeshen 24; Elya Raba 137:5; Peri Chadash 137:3; Shaareiy Efraim 7:6; M”B 137:9; Kaf Hachaim 137:9

[70] Implication of Admur ibid

[71] Kaf Hachaim 137:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it suffices to begin from the word that was skipped. [Elya Raba 137:4]

[72] The reason: As an Oleh may not read less than three verses when called to the Torah. [M”A 137:12]

[73] Admur ibid; M”A 137:5; Taz 137:3; Kneses Hagedola 137:3; Elya Raba 137:5; Peri Chadash 137:3; Mamar Mordechai 137:1; Chayeh Adam 31:25; Derech Hachaim 4; Shaareiy Efraim 7:6; M”B 137:9; Kaf Hachaim 137:8

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a blessing is not to be recited. [Maharam Merothenberg 85, brought in Kneses Hagedola and Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[74] Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:2; See Elya Raba 137:4; Kaf Hachaim 137:7; M”B 142:2; regarding next Aliyah beginning from skipped area; See Shaar Hatziyon 142:3 regarding reading just that verse and then continuing with current Aliyah; Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as to why this option was not mentioned in Admur or Michaber ibid, or any other Poskim; On the contrary, it is implied from Admur ibid, as well as M”B 137:10 that whenever the mistake was before Shevi, a new Aliyah must be called up to read until that point.

[75] M”B 137; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 17; Kaf Hachaim 137:11

[76] Piskeiy Teshuvos 137 footnote 5

[77] M”A 137:5; Terumas Hadeshen 24; Elya Raba 137:5; Peri Chadash 137:3; Shaareiy Efraim 7:6; M”B 137:9; Kaf Hachaim 137:9

[78] Michaber 137:3

[79] Admur 282:20; Michaber 137:3; 282:7; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 12 Mem; Miseches Sofrim 11:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10

[80] Admur ibid; M”A 137:5; Taz 137:3

[81] Mamar Mordechai 137:2; Kaf Hachaim 137:16; brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 17; See Shaareiy Efraim 8:59 for a similar ruling

[82] The reason: As it was already read in public by the weekday reading of Monday and Thursday, and the previous Shabbos by Mincha. [ibid]

[83] Shaareiy Efraim 7 Pischei Shearim 5, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

[84] Daas Torah 137 in name of Poskim; Sefer Chaim 13; See Mamar Mordechai ibid that one who desire to be stringent may read it without the blessings; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:2

[85] P”M 137 A”A 6, brought in Shaareiy Efraim 7 Pischei Shearim 6 and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; Sefer Hachaim ibid

[86] Yosef Ometz 12; Kaf Hachaim 137:17; See Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:2

[87] Piskeiy Teshuvos 142:3

[88] Michaber 137:3; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 12 Mem; Miseches Sofrim 11:6

[89] Admur 282:20 and M”A 282:18 regarding the Shabbos reading; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:1

[90] Admur 282:20 regarding Shabbos reading; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:1

[91] Setimas Hamichaber ibid; M”A 137:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if ten verses were not read straight without a skip, it is invalid. [Or Zarua Shabbos 44; See Mishneh Halachos 7:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[92] M”A 137:4; Elya Raba 137:2; Levush 137:5; Kaf Hachaim 137:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even if he did not read nine verses in order, he is not required to retract. [Olas Tamid 137:5; Peri Chadash 137:3]

[93] Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:1

[94] Setimas Michaber ibid, as brought in P”M 137 M”Z 3; Kaf Hachaim 137:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one must recall up all three Aliyos. [Miseches Sofrim 11:6, brought in P”M 137 M”Z 3]

[95] So rule regarding Shabbos: Admur 282:20; M”A 137:5; Taz 137:3; Kneses Hagedola 137:3; Elya Raba 137:5; Peri Chadash 137:3; Mamar Mordechai 137:1; Chayeh Adam 31:25; Derech Hachaim 4; Shaareiy Efraim 7:6; M”B 137:9; Kaf Hachaim 137:8

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a blessing is not to be recited. [Maharam Merothenberg 85, brought in Kneses Hagedola and Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[96] Birchas Habayis 44:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:2; See Elya Raba 137:4; Kaf Hachaim 137:7; M”B 142:2; regarding next Aliyah beginning from skipped area; See Shaar Hatziyon 142:3 regarding reading just that verse and then continuing with current Aliyah; Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as to why this option was not mentioned in Admur or Michaber ibid, or any other Poskim; On the contrary, it is implied from Admur ibid, as well as M”B 137:10 that whenever the mistake was before Shevi, a new Aliyah must be called up to read until that point.

[97] M”B 137:5 as brought in Michaber 137:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:1

[98] Michaber ibid; M”A 137:3; Miseches Sofrim ibid; Kneses Hagedola 137; Peri Chadash 137:3; Kaf Hachaim 137:14

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the Yom Tov Torah reading has the same status as the Shabbos day reading. [Tikkun Yisachar, brought in M”A 137:7] Practically, we do not rule this way. [M”A ibid; Kneses Hagedola 137]

[99] Kaf Hachaim 137:14

[100] The reason: The Parshiyos Hamoadim have the same status as the weekday reading of Mondays and Thursdays being that the Parshiyos were already read on their respective Shabbosim. [Michaber ibid]

[101] See Beis David 60; M”B 137:11; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 137:15

[102] M”A 137:6 regarding Parshas Hamusafim of Maftir Shabbos Sukkos; Elya Raba 137 regarding if skipped main verse by Maftir of Pesach; Shaareiy Efraim; 8:39; M”B 137:11; Biur Halacha 137:3 “Parshiyos Hamoadim”; Kaf Hachaim 137:13

[103] See Michaber O.C. 143:4; Y.D. 279:2; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:1-4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:6-12; 16-17

[104] Michaber ibid

Other opinions: See other opinion in footnotes on Chapter 1 Halacha 7 who hold that it is permitted to read from a Pasul Sefer Torah.

[105] Michaber ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is never necessary to switch Sifrei Torah when a mistake is found, as there is no guarantee that the second Sefer Torah will be any better. [Iggur, brought in Rama 143:4, M”B 143:28; See other opinion in footnotes on Chapter 1 Halacha 7 who hold that it is permitted to read from a Pasul Sefer Torah]

[106] Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 38; However, see Kaf Hachaim 143:45 that the Sephardi custom is to only return it to the ark later with the Kosher Sefer Torah

[107] If a second scroll was already removed for Maftir: Even if a second Sefer Torah was already removed for Maftir, nevertheless a new Sefer Torah is to be brought, if available, and not have the Maftir Sefer Torah be used for the continuation of the reading. [Beir Heiytiv 143:9; P”M 143 A”A 9 in name of Elya Raba; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:8]

[108] Shaareiy Efraim 5:1; Kitzur SHU”A 24:8

[109] Michaber ibid; However, see second opinion in footnotes below that at time some may need to continue to read a few more verses until he reaches an area that he may stop. Furthermore, according to those who rule that one may read from a Pasul Sefer Torah, it would be permitted to continue and finish the reading in it, and so did the Maharal of Prague. Practically, however, we do not rule like this approach. [See M”A 143:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 69

[110] Poskim in next footnote; M”B 143:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:10

[111] Ledavid Emes 1:8; Kneses Hagedola 282:9; Yabia Omer 8:15-12

[112] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[113] See Michaber O.C. 143:4; Y.D. 279:2; Shaareiy Efraim 6; M”B 143:13; Biur Halacha 143:4 “Im Nimtza” Kaf Hachaim 143:17-31; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:1-4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:8

[114] Detailed Background of opinions: See M”B and Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:8 for full summary

Opinion 1-Always continue Aliyah in new Sefer Torah, and recite the after blessing of the Aliyah in new Sefer Torah: Some Poskim rule that one is to always take out a new Sefer Torah, finish the Aliyah there, and only then have the Olah say an after blessing. However, the before blessing remains valid. [Michaber ibid and ibid; Yaakov Beis Rav, brought in Beis Yosef 143; This follows the understanding of M”B 146:13 and Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim 143:21 to be their opinion; Perisha Y.D. 279:2; Chavos Yair 235; Birkeiy Yosef 49:2; Kitzur SHU”A 24:8; Shulchan Hatahor Kumrina 143:4; Maharash Engel 4:44 that so was custom of Reb Chaim of Tzans; Yagel Yaakov 15; Birchas Habayis 44:37; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 54 and 62] Some Poskim rule that even according to this opinion, one is to only continue to read three verses in the Kosher Sefer Torah and then say an after blessing and end the Aliyah. [M”B 143:18; Shaareiy Efraim 5:2; Maharsham 8:27; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 41] Regarding if the mistake was found within two verses of a Pesucha/Setuma or end of Parsha: See Beir Heiytiv 138:2; Shaareiy Efraim 5:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnotes 43-46

Opinion 2-Always end Aliyah by the invalid Sefer Torah and recite an after blessing: Some Poskim rule that one is to always end the Aliyah as soon as the mistake is found, and have the Olah say an after blessing. If three verses were not yet read, then the Baal Korei is to continue reading by heart until three verses are read and then have the Olah say the blessing. The same applies if the mistake was found within three verses of a Parsha Pesucha or Setuma, the Baal Korei is to continue to read until an area that he may stop. [M”A 143:4; Bach 143; Mordechai Megillah Remez 793-794; Shach Y.D. 279 that so is custom of some communities; Chayeh Adam; Derech Hachaim; Shaareiy Efraim 5:2 that so is custom; Aruch Hashulchan 143:5 that so is custom of all Geonei Olam; See Biur Halacha ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnotes 47-49, 64] If the mistake is found in the last Aliyah-See M”B 146:13; 23; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnotes 50-53

Opinion 3-Only recite an after blessing by the invalid Sefer Torah if is permitted to stop the Aliyah there: Some Poskim rule that if an invalidating mistake was found within an area that it is permitted to end an Aliyah [i.e. read three verses, not within three verses of Pesucha/Setuma], then the Olah is to say the after blessing right away. If, however, the mistake was found within an area that it is forbidden to end an Aliyah [i.e. they did not yet read three verses, or are within three verse of the start or end of a Parsha Pesucha/Setuma], then the after blessing is not to be said on the invalid scroll, and rather a Kosher Sefer Torah is to be removed and one is to read from the beginning of the verse that they are holding by, and then say the after blessing. [Rama ibid; Opinion of Michaber and Mahariy Beiy Rav, as learns Shach and Taz on Michaber Y.D. 279:2, P”M 143 M”Z 1, Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 143:21, and so was discovered in the newly published Shut Yaakov Beirav to be his opinion; Elya Raba 143; Nehar Shalom; Siddur Yaavetz; Magen Giborim; See Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 54, 64]

Opinion 4-Restart Aliyah with before and after blessing in new Sefer Torah: Some Poskim rule that one is to always take out a new Sefer Torah, and have the Olah repeat his before blessing, have the reading continued, and then say an after blessing. [Gr”a; See Shaareiy Efraim 5:2; Biur Halacha 146:4 “Unimtza”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146 footnotes 60-61]

Opinion 5-Finish the reading in the Pasul Sefer Torah: Some Poskim rule that one may always continue and finish the reading in a Pasul Sefer Torah. [Lechem Chamudos, in name of Maharal of Prague, brought in M”A 143:4]

[115] See previous footnote!

[116] Biur Halacha 146:4 “Unimtza” that although every custom has upon whom to rely, and on them we say “Amecha Kulam Tzadikim”, nevertheless, absent of a custom otherwise, one is to follow the ruling of the Rama ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 86 footnote 13 “What we wrote above [like the Rama] is to be followed in every community without a set custom”; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that absent of a custom otherwise, one is to follow the ruling of the Mordechai, and always recite an after blessing on the Pasul Sefer Torah. [Implication of M”A ibid, brought in Biur Halacha ibid; Chayeh Adam; Derech Hachaim]

[117] M”B 143:13; Kaf Hachaim 143:21

[118] Rama ibid; Opinion of Michaber, as learns Shach and Taz on Michaber Y.D. 279:2, P”M 143 M”Z 1, Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 143:21, and as published in new manuscript edition of Shut Yaakov Beirav; Levush Elya Raba 279; Nehar Shalom; Siddur Yaavetz; Magen Giborim; Avnei Nezer Y.D. 377:12; Imrei Yosher 1:143; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:3; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:94; All Poskim in 2nd opinion above; See Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 63

Other opinions-Custom of Sephardim, and some Ashkenazi communities, particularly Chassidic: The Sephardim are accustomed to remove a new Sefer Torah and conclude the Aliyah with its blessing in the new Sefer Torah, even in a case that the mistake was found in an area that it is permitted to end the Aliyah. [Kaf Hachaim 143:21 that so is the old custom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 62; See 1st opinion in footnotes above] This custom is likewise followed by some Ashkenazi communities, particularly within the Chasidic community. [See Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Poskim in 1st opinion in previous footnotes]

[119] Rama ibid

[120] Michaber O.C. ibid and Y.D. ibid; Rav Yaakov Beirav; M”B 143:13; Biur Halacha 143:4 “Im Nimtza”

Other opinions: In previous times it was customary to repeat the reading of the Parsha from the beginning within the new Sefer Torah. [Tashbeitz; Gr”a, brought in Biur Halacha ibid]

[121] Rama ibid; All Poskim in 1st opinion above, including Michaber and Sephardim; Levush Elya Raba 279; Nehar Shalom; Siddur Yaavetz; Magen Giborim; Avnei Nezer Y.D. 377:12; Imrei Yosher 1:143; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:3; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:94; See Biur Halacha ibid

Other opinions-Custom of some Ashkenazi communities: Some Ashkenazi communities are accustomed to continue the reading of the Aliyah and recite the after blessing on the Pasul Sefer Torah, even in a case that the mistake was found in an area that it is forbidden to end the Aliyah. [See 2nd opinion above! Shaareiy Efraim 5:2 that so is custom; Aruch Hashulchan 143:5 that so is custom of all Geonei Olam; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 64]

[122] Michaber 138:1

[123] Rama 138:1

[124] See Chapter 9 Halacha 1D! Kaf Hachaim 143:38; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:9

[125] See M”B 143:18; Shaareiy Efraim 5:2; Maharsham 8:27; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 41 that one should not read until the remainder of that Aliyah, unless necessary [i.e. last Aliyah on Rosh Chodesh], and is to end it as soon as possible and then have the next Aliyah read from where he left off.

[126] Michaber ibid

Other opinions: See previous footnotes!

[127] Michaber O.C. ibid and Y.D. ibid; Rav Yaakov Beirav; M”B 143:13; Biur Halacha 143:4 “Im Nimtza”

Other opinions: In previous times it was customary to repeat the reading of the Parsha from the beginning within the new Sefer Torah. [Tashbeitz; Gr”a, brought in Biur Halacha ibid]

[128] Shaareiy Efraim 5:1; Kitzur SHU”A 24:8; See M”B 143:15 and Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 40 that the verses remain valid even if the mistake was realized only a few verses later.

[129] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:8 and 11

[130] However, according to Sephardi custom, and all those who follow the 1st opinion above, a new Sefer Torah is to be removed and have the reading continue from there, which is then followed by the after blessing. [Kaf Hachaim 143:22 in name of Birkeiy Yosef] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 75

[131] Chaim Sheol 1:74-14; Chesed Leavraham 29

The reason: As there is no requirement to read until Sheiyni on a Monday and Thursday.

[132] See Kaf Hachaim 143:23, 25; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:4-5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:12

[133] Rama Y.D. 279:2; M”A 143:4; M”B 143:23

[134] M”A 143:4; M”B 143:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:4; See all Poskim in coming footnotes; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid that this applies according to all, however, see there footnote 84

[135] Taz 282, brought in M”A 143:4; P”M 282 M”Z 4; Mamar Mordechai 143:6; Elya Raba; Tosefes Shabbos 282:13; Tehila Ledavid 282:55; Kaf Hachaim 143:23, 25

[136] M”A 143:4; Rashbatz 1:131, brought in Beis Yosef 282; P”M 143 A”A 4; Chayeh Adam 31:33; Shaareiy Efraim 6 and 8; Derech Hachaim; M”B 143:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:4

[137] Admur 284:3

[138] M”A ibid [however makes no mention regarding blessing]; M”B 143:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:5; See Poskim ibid

[139] Levushei Serud on M”A ibid; Tehila Ledavid ibid

[140] Taz ibid; Poskim ibid in previous footnotes

[141] Admur 284:3

[142] See M”B 143:15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 40

[143] See M”B 143:25; Shevet Halevi 8:26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:7

[144] Kapei Aaron 2:1; Har Tzevi 65; Yabia Omer 8:15-8

[145] M”A 143:8; Maharam Melublin 84; Shaareiy Efraim 6:61-62; M”B 143:29; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:6-8; See Admur 284:3 “If one read from a Pasul Sefer Torah, as explained in 143:4”; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:17

[146] Shaareiy Efraim 6:61; Pischeiy Teshuvah 279 in name of Bnei Yonah; M”B ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:6 [see there footnote 11]; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that all remaining Aliyos may be called up with their before and after blessings. [M”A 143:8 in name of Maharam Melublin 84; 2nd opinion in Shaareiy Efraim ibid]

[147] Siddur Yaavetz; However, see Pischeiy Teshuvah Y.D. 279 in name of Adnei Paz 13, and Ketzos Hashulchan 86 footnote 13, that Hagbah is performed but without saying Vezos Hatorah

[148] Admur 284:3; Beis Yosef 284; Elya Raba 284 in name of Mordechai; P”M 284 M”Z 3; Stam opinion in Shaareiy Efraim 6:61 and M”B 143:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:6 footnote 12; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the Haftorah is to be said without its blessings. [2nd opinion in Shaareiy Efraim ibid and M”B ibid]

[149] Ketzos Hashulchan 86:6

[150] Shaareiy Efraim 6:61-62; Ketzos Hashulchan 86:6

[151] Implication of Admur ibid and Poskim ibid who do not differentiate [See however Ketzos Hashulchan 86 footnote 11 regarding opinion of Admur]; Orchos Chaim 143:10 in name of Minchas Pitim; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 171

[152] Shut Ramatz 16; Zera Emes 1:57; Eretz Tzevi 1:38 based on Rashba 115; Nishmas Avraham 135 in name of Rav SZ”A; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:27

The reason: As the honor of a Minyan/community and Tircha Detzibura is greater than the impediment against carrying a Sefer Torah from one place to another. This allowance is similar to the allowance to bring a Sefer Torah to a private home for the sake of an Adam Chashuv, as brought in B. [Poskim ibid]

[153] Divrei Malkiel 3:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[154] Shaareiy Efraim; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 172

[155] So writes M”B 143:13 in end.

[156] Rama O.C. 143:4

[157] M”B 143:134; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:14

[158] See Kinas Sofrim 121; Kaf Hachaim 143:34; Minchas Yitzchak 2:12; 4:47; Tzitz Eliezer 14:3; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:517; Yabia Omer 8:15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:15

A Yemenite Sefer Torah: Some Poskim rule that neither Ashkenazim or Sephardim are to hear Kerias Hatorah from a Yemenite Sefer Torah [Kaf Hachaim 143:34 and Kol Yaakov 36:3] Other Poskim, however, negate this ruling. [Yechaveh Daas 6:56; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:15]

[159] See Michaber Y.D. 271-284 for the full laws of invalidations of a Sefer Torah; Michaber and Admur chapter 32 and 36; Shaareiy Efraim Shaar 5-6; M”B 143:24-27; Tzemach Tzedek Miluim 4:4 O.C. 76; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:1-10; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-15; Bitaon Rabbanei Europe 14

[160] Shaareiy Efraim 6:6; M”B 143:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-2

[161] M”B 143:25

[162] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-2

[163] M”B 143:25; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-8

[164] See Admur 32:20-21

[165] 2nd and main opinion in Admur 32:20 and that so is custom; Taz 32:10; Rivash 120; Maharik 69; Elya Raba 32:19

[166] Shaareiy Efraim 6:6; M”B 143:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:2; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-1

[167] Rama 143:4; Terumas Hadeshen 80; Maharil; Iggur; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-1

Other opinions and Sephardi custom: Some Poskim rule a second Sefer Torah is to be removed even if a mistake of Chaser or Yaser is found. [Beis Yosef, brought in Rama ibid; Shulchan Hatahor 143:4; Zohar Parshas Acharei; See Shut Rav Akiva Eiger 75; Chayeh Adam 31:34 that if a Drasha was made on the Chaser or Yaser, then a new Sefer Torah is to be removed] Practically, so is the Sephardi custom. [Kaf Hachaim 143:32; Shaareiy Efraim 5:24] Some Poskim conclude that it is proper even for Ashkenazim to be stringent. [Shevet Halevi 1:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[168] Admur 284:4; Rashba 1:487; Kol Bo 20

[169] The reason: As today, all of our Sifrei Torah contain some errors of Chaser and Yaser and there is this no advantage of taking out a new Sefer Torah which itself may contain the same problem. [Rama ibid]

[170] See Shaareiy Efraim Shaar 6 in great length of all the cases listed; M”B 143:26; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:10

[171] M”B 143:27

[172] Shaareiy Efraim 6:8; M”B 143:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:3; See Chayeh Adam 31:35 regarding if the added letter is at end of word

[173] M”B ibid; See above, however, regarding Chaseiros and Yiseiros that do not change the pronunciation

[174] Shaareiy Efraim 6:9; M”B 143:25 [see there for other opinions and time of need]; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:4; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-7

[175] See Shaareiy Efraim 6:10; M”B 143:25; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

[176] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-7

[177] Admur 32:27; Shaareiy Efraim 6:9; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:4

[178] Shaareiy Efraim 6:12; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:5

[179] Admur 32:20; Shaareiy Efraim 6:14; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:6

[180] Poskim ibid

[181] Admur 32:40; Shaareiy Efraim 6:13; M”B 143:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:5; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-5

[182] Admur 32:46; Shaareiy Efraim 6:16; M”B 143:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:8; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-3

[183] Shaareiy Efraim ibid

[184] Admur 32:46; Shaareiy Efraim 6:15; M”B 143:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 87:9; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-3

[185] Shaareiy Efraim 6:7; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid in name of Shaareiy Efraim and Rav Akiva Eiger; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:6; 143:13-9

[186] M”B 143:25; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-6

[187] Admur 32:20; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 32:24

[188] Or Letziyon 2:44-27; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[189] Vayan David 1:3

[190] See Admur ibid; See Kol Sofrim 6 in name of Maharsham; Mishnas Hasofer 6:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 32 footnote 139

[191] Admur 32:20; Michaber 32:16; Seder Get Ashkenazi; Bach E.H. 125, brought in Beir Heiytiv 32:22; Ketzos Hashulchan 87 footnote 10; See Aruch Hashulchan 32:34; Kol Yaakov 32:63

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to cover the letters that are prior to the letter in question. [M”A 32:19; Maharit 2:32; Shaareiy Efraim 6:9 who writes to cover the letters]

[192] See Ketzos Hashulchan 87:7; 144 footnote 2; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:13-9; 141:6 regarding if it falls on Keri Ukesiv

[193] Shaareiy Efraim 6:7; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid in name of Shaareiy Efraim and Rav Akiva Eiger.

[194] Shvus Yaakov 2:4; Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 24; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid and ibid

The reason: As this proves that the wax never really covered the letter. [Shvus Yaakov ibid]

[195] Shvus Yaakov ibid; Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid. However, Rav Akiva Eiger writes that the reason is because of Tikkun Keli. See Ketzos Hashulchan ibid which argues that in this case there is no problem of Tikkun Keli.

[196] M”B 340:10

[197] See Kaf Hachaim 146:37; Betzel Hachochma 3:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143 footnote 169

[198] Michaber Y.D. 279:1; Bnei Yonah and Kol Yaakov 279; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:6

[199] See Sefer Chassidim 834; Noda Beyehuda Kama O.C. 69; Binyan Tziyon 141:97; Minchas Elazar 3:52; Zecher Leyehosef 37; Eretz Chaim Y.D. 279; Daas Kohen 174;

[200] See Igros Kodesh 14:50, 284, 15:280, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:130; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[201] See “Inside Stam” chapter 15

[202] When the program was first developed in 1980, of the first 100 Sifrei Torah scanned by the program, 83 were found to be invalid. [Inside Stam ibid]

[203] Shevet Halevi 7:2-3; Rav Yaakov Yosef

[204] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:99; 3:326; Kinyan Torah 5:106; Mishneh Halachos 11:115

[205] See Inside Stam p. 320

[206] Minchas Yitzchak 10:89; Inside Stam ibid footnote 626 that so was signed on a letter Rav Elyashiv, Rav Wozner, and Rav SZ”A

[207] See Inside Stam p. 322

[208] Igros Moshe Y.D. 2:140; Minchas Yitzchak 2:15; Rav Yaakov Yosef

[209] Yaskil Avdi Y.D. 7:33; Az Nidbaru 3:62

[210] See Minchas Shaiy Parshas Ki Seitzei; Zera Emes 3:141; Minchas Chinuch 613; Sheiris Yehuda Y.D. 16; Divrei Nechemia Y.D. 21; Mishnas Avraham 32; Shaar Efraim 6:44; Otzer Haposkim 1:104; Igros Kodesh 14:283; 168; 15:190; Shulchan Menachem 5:205

[211] See Michaber 274:5; 275:6 regarding Chaseiros and Yiseiros

[212] Directive and ruling of Alter Rebbe, as recorded in Sheiris Yehuda ibid, Divrei Nechemia ibid, Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rayatz 4:478; 9:419; Hayom Yom 7th Elul and Igros Kodesh 14:168; Divrei Chachamim in name of Or Torah; Seder Avraham; Poskim in Mishnas Avraham 32:2; Or Torah leans to write with Alef [although concludes like Rameh out of reverence]; Tradition in Minchas Chinuch ibid and Teshuvah Meahavah 71

[213] So was the widespread Ashkenazi custom until approximately the 18th century. See Mishnas Avraham 32:2 that in the times of the Alter Rebbe so was the custom of all Sifrei Torah in Ashkenaz; See Divrei Nechemia ibid “So is written in the Sifrei Ashkenaz and we are from Ashkenaz”

[214] The reason: As Dakah with a Hei is a female tense word, while with an Alef means “humbled.” [Sheiris Yehuda ibid] See Divrei Nechemia ibid

[215] In Prague there is a Sefer Torah which according to tradition was reviewed and edited by Ezra the Sofer and in it the word Daka is written with an Alef. This Sefer Torah is only used once a year, on Simchas Torah, and is always found by the Parsha of Shema. [Testimony of Rebbe Rayatz who visited the Prague Shul in 1908 and personally checked and verified that it is written with an Alef, brought in Hayom Yom ibid and Igros Kodesh 14:168] Likewise, in the city of Worms there is a Sefer Torah which accoridng to tradition was written by the Maharam of Rothenberg and in it the word Daka is written with an Alef. [Testimony of Rebbe Rayatz who visited the Worms Shul in 1909 and personally checked and verified that it is written with an Alef, brought in Hayom Yom ibid, and Igros Kodesh 14:168]; Mishnas Avraham 32:2 testifies that the Sefer Torah written by the Sofer of the Baal Shem Tov, and Rav Shabsi Roshkevor, as well as many other old Sifrei Torah that he saw are written with an Alef. Minchas Chinuch ibid testifies that so he saw in a number of old Sifrei Torah that it is written with an Alef; Rav Yaakov Yosef testified that so is written in the Sefer Torah of the Ran as found in the Hebrew University library; Sefer Torah found in Italy estimated to have been written in the 1200’s is written with an Alef; Unfortunately, some of the old Sifrei Torah have been purposely and brazenly edited to fit the tradition of a Hei, even though they were originally written with an Alef. [Igros Kodesh 15:189]

The following Mefarshei Hatorah and Poskim write Daka with an Alef: In the Mishneh, Talmud and Rishonim, the word Patzua Daka is always written with an Alef. [See Divrei Nechemia ibid for list] In the Otzer Hasefarim of Mr. Sasson in London there are many old manuscripts, and all are written with an Alef. For example, in the Tanach of the Migdal Oz who was a student of the Rashba, it was written with a Hei and he erased it and wrote it with an Alef. So is also written in the Tanach of the grandson of the Rashba; Chumash Damasek written over 1500 years ago; Chumash Tanach written 500 years ago. [Igros Kodesh 14:168 and 6:102] Semag on Ki Seitzei; Pirush Rasag on Devarim ibid; Pirush Rashbam on Devarim ibid; Chumash Toras Chaim [Mosad of Rav Cook] writes it with an Alef written based on the Mesorah of Chumash Aram Tzova

[216] Rameh in his Sefer Mesores Seyag Latorah [brings both traditions, and negates the tradition of an Alef as a mistake]; Rebbe Menachem Di Lunzano in Or Torah [brings both traditions and Lechatchila says to write with Hei]; Minchas Shaiy; Minchas Kalil; Meil Tzedaka 29; Teshuvah Meahava 71; Emes Leyaakov; Ledavid Emes 11:16; Shaareiy Efraim 6:44 and Beis Efraim Y.D. 64 [Initially is to write with Hei]; Simanei Mesores; Poskim in Mishnas Avraham 32:1

[217] Or Torah ibid that so is written in all Sephardi Sifrei Torah

The following Mefarshei Hatorah and Poskim write Daka with a Hei: Pirush Rashi, Even Ezra, Chizkuni on Devarim ibid [as printed in Toras Chaim of Mosad Rav Cook]

[218] See Simanei Mesores and Mishnas Avraham ibid

[219] Sheiris Yehuda ibid; Igros Kodesh 14:283; 15:190; See however Divrei Nechemia ibid; The Rebbe directed Rav Goredetzky to have the Sefer Torah he was bringing to Tunis be discreetly changed to an Alef

[220] Igros Kodesh 14:283

[221] Or Torah ibid; Meil Tzedaka ibid; Divrei Nechemia ibid; Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Mishnas Avraham 32:3 that so is conclusion of Achronim; Ketzos Hashulchan 87 footnote 16 that even according to Admur it is valid; Yabia Omer 8:25; Chayeh Halevi 1:59; Kaf Hachaim 143:34 and Kol Yaakov 36:3 regarding that a Sephardi may hear Kerias Hatorah from an Ashkenazi Sefer Torah, and so too vice versa, and so is the custom in Jerusalem, although neither Ashkenazim or Sephardim are to hear Kerias Hatorah from a Yemenite Sefer Torah [Vetzaruch Iyun if the Kaf Hachaim ruled this way due to the change of Ashkenazim to write Daka with a Hei, or regardless of the change]; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:15; 685:10; Yalkut Yosef Y.D. 270:22; Yerios Shlomo 2:1; Rav Yaakov Yosef zatzal testified that he and Rav Ben Tziyon Aba Shaul were accustomed to Daven Shacharis by Chabad on Rechov Chanah in Jerusalem, and Rav Aba Shaul would often receive an Aliyah by the Sefer Torah even though it was written with an Alef, unlike their tradition.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that a Sefer Torah which is written with an Alef at the end of the word Dakah is invalid. [Ledavid Emes ibid a that one may not read it with a blessing; Emes LeYaakov]; See Sheiris Yehuda ibid in name of Admur that on the contrary, if it is written with a Hei it must be erased and written with an Alef

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