A valid tying of the Tzitzis

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The requirements that need to be fulfilled for a valid tying of the Tzitzis onto the Tallis:

There are various laws relating to the tying of the Tzitzis to the garment, such as the intent one must have in tying it [Halacha A]; the people that are valid to tie it [Halacha B]; and the validity of the Tallis and Tzitzis prior to the tying [Halacha C]. In addition, there are laws relating to the amount of strings one must use [explained in Halacha 3], the length of the strings [explained in Halacha 5] and the form of braid required to be made through the tying [will be explained in Halacha 9]. Regarding the use of a hole in tying the Tzitzis to the garment, versus other methods of attachment, see Chapter 3 Halacha 11.

 

A. Tying the Tzitzis Leshmah: [1]

There is an opinion[2] that rules that if a Jew tied Tzitzis to a Tallis, it is valid even if it was not done for the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitzis.[3] However other Poskim[4] rule that if a Jew tied the Tzitzis to the Tallis without intent [of Leshma], then the Tzitzis is invalid.[5] Practically, the final ruling follows this latter opinion that the Tzitzis is invalid [and hence if one tied the Tzitzis not Leshma he is to undo the Tzitzis and retie them Leshma, and not wear them until this is done]. [See Q&A!] However in a time of need, such as one who does not have another Kosher pair of Tzitzis to wear and he is also unable to untie the Tzitzis and retie them Leshma, such as on Shabbos, then he may rely on the first opinion and wear the Tallis without a blessing.[6]

How is it done Leshma-What is one to think/say?[7] The spinning of the strings “Leshma” is accomplished by verbally reciting prior to the spinning that he is doing so for the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitzis. [The custom is to recite “Lesheim Mitzvas Tzitzis” which means “For the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitzis”.[8] This law likewise applies to the tying of the strings to the corners; that one is to verbally recite the above statement.[9] Nevertheless, if the above was not verbalized but one thought so in his mind prior to the tying, it remains valid.[10] Furthermore, some Poskim[11] rule that it is not even initially required or accustomed to verbalize the above statement and it is rather simply thought of in one’s mind. Nevertheless, practically every G-d fearing Jew is to verbalize that he is doing so Leshma.[12]]

 

Summary:

One must tie the Tzitzis onto the Tallis for the sake of the Mitzvah. This is accomplished by verbalizing “Lesheim Mitzvas Tzitzis” prior to the tying of the Tzitzis. If one did not tie it Leshma, the Tzitzis is invalid, and must be untied and retied with the proper intentions. However, in a time of need that no other Kosher Tallis is available, and one is unable to untie and retie the Tzitzis, such as Shabbos, then one may be lenient to wear it without a blessing.

 

Q&A

In what language is one to recite that he is tying the Tzitzis Leshma?

It may be recited in any language that one understands. If one does not understand what he is saying then he is not to say it even if it is in Hebrew. The custom is to recite “Lesheim Mitzvas Tzitzis” which means “For the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitzis”.[13]

 

When in the tying process is one to recite “Lesheim Mitzvas Tzitzis”?[14]

Initially, it is proper to say it prior to inserting any of the strings into the holes of the corner.[15] If one did not do so, it remains valid so long as it was stated prior to making the first knot.[16]

 

How often must one recite “Lesheim Mitzvas Tzitzis”?[17]

The statement of Leshma is only required to be said prior to the first strings being inserted in their corner. It is not required to be said prior to inserting the strings into the other three corners.[18] Nevertheless, some are accustomed to recite it a number of times through the tying process, between the tying of each corner, and some even say it between each set of loops.[19] Some[20] refrain from talking throughout the entire tying process.

If one made an interval in midst of the tying, must he repeat “Lesheim Mitzvas Tzitzis” prior to continuing? There is room to learn that once the Leshma statement has been recited, it is not required to be repeated even if one made a long interval prior to continuing the tying of another corner. [Nevertheless, initially one is to repeat it, although Bedieved it is valid.[21]] If one sates at the beginning of the tying that all the Tzitzis that he will tie on this Tallis is being done Leshma, then it suffices even initially. 

 

How often must one recite “Lesheim Mitzvas Tzitzis” when tying Tzitzis to many Talleisim?[22]

So long as an interval was not made in-between, it suffices to say it one time. If however an interval was made, one is to repeat it prior to continuing.[23]

 

What if one did not verbally recite that he is tying the Tzitzis Leshma, but thought so in his mind?

As stated above, if one thought in his mind to tie the Tzitzis for the sake of the Mitzvah, the Tzitzis is valid despite him not having verbalized this intent.

 

What is the law if one did not even think in his mind to tie the Tzitzis Leshma, and simply tied them without any explicit intent?[24]

The Tzitzis is valid, and so was the widespread custom of many even initially.[25] If however one explicitly intended that he is not doing it for the sake of the Mitzvah, it is invalid according to all.[26]  

 

B. Who may tie the Tzitzis? Gentile, Woman, Child:[27]

Gentile:[28] If a gentile tied Tzitzis onto the corner of a Tallis, the Tzitzis is invalid.[29] This applies even if the gentile did so under direct Jewish supervision, was told to do so Leshma, and had the Jew assist him in part of the tying process.[30] [The gentile may not assist the Jew in the tying even if the Jew performs majority of the work.[31]]

Women and children:[32] Some Poskim[33] rule women [and children] are valid to tye the Tzitzis to the corners.[34] Other Poskim[35] however rule that women and children[36] are invalid to tye the Tzitzis to the corners.[37] This [invalidation] applies even if an adult male Jew supervises them during the actual tying and tells them to tie the Tzitzis for the sake of the Mitzvah.[38] Practically, we rule like the first opinion that they are valid, although it is best to initially be stringent like the latter opinion.[39] [Therefore, one is to avoid having women and children tie the Tzitzis to the Tallis. However, in the event that a woman or child did so, the Tzitzis is deemed valid if it was done Leshma.[40] A blessing may be recited over it.[41] A woman is believed to say that she verbally recited that she is doing it for the sake of the Mitzvah, even if she was not supervised.[42] Nevertheless, if a child tied the Tzitzis, it is only valid as Leshma if an adult was supervising his work and telling him to tie the Tzitzis for the sake of the Mitzvah.[43]]

 

Summary:

Gentile: If a gentile tied the Tzitzis to the garment it is invalid in all cases.

Women: It is initially invalid for a woman to tie Tzitzis to the Tallis. If a woman tied the Tzitzis to the garment Leshma it is valid Bedieved.

Children: It is initially invalid for a child to tie Tzitzis to the Tallis. If a child tied the Tzitzis to the garment Leshma it is valid Bedieved if he had adult supervision.

 

Q&A

May a Cheresh/Shoteh tie the Tzitzis to the Tallis?[44]

This follows the same dispute as mentioned above regarding women and children. According to the stringent opinion, a Cheresh and Katan are invalid even with adult supervision. According to the lenient opinion, a Cheresh and Shoteh is valid if an adult was supervising and telling him to tie the Tzitzis for the sake of the Mitzvah of Tzitzis.[45] Practically, we rule like the first opinion, although it is best to initially be stringent like the latter opinion, as stated above.

 

May a blind man tie Tzitzis?[46]

Yes.

 

May an Onen tie Tzitzis?

No. In the event that an Onen tied Tzitzis, some Poskim[47] rule the Tzitzis is invalid and must be removed and retied while other Poskim[48] rule it is valid. 

 

May a non-observant Jew tie Tzitzis to a Tallis?[49]

No. This applies even if an observant Jew is supervising him.[50] However, the Poskim conclude that non-observant Jews which are considered Tinokes Shenishbu are valid to be used for the tying, so long as they are trained to do so Leshma.[51] Practically, one should only allow Tzitzis to be tied by Jews that are G-d fearing and can be trusted to do everything that is required in Halacha.[52]

 

May a Shabbos observant Jew that does not wear Tzitzis tie the strings?

Yes.[53] Practically however, one should only buy Tzitzis from Jews that are G-d fearing and can be trusted to do everything that is required in Halacha.[54]

 

May all male children that are above Bar Mitzvah initially tie Tzitzis?

Some Poskim[55] rule that all male children above Bar Mitzvah are valid to tie Tzitzis even the child has not yet grown two hairs. Other Poskim[56] however rule one may not allow children above Bar Mitzvah to tie Tzitzis unless it is verified that they have reached puberty and grown two hairs

 

May a child tie the Tzitzis of his own personal Tallis Katan?[57]

Yes. A child that has reached the age of Chinuch is valid to tie Tzitzis for his own Tallis, or the Tallis of another child.

 

When a child reaches Bar Mitzvah, may he continue to wear Tzitzis that he tied prior to his Bar Mitzvah?

Some Poskim[58] rule it is permitted for the child to continue wearing the Tzitzis if he knows he tied it Leshma.[59] Other Poskim[60] however argue that the Tzitzis is not to be worn after his Bar Mitzvah. Practically, meticulous Jews are careful in this matter and give their children a new pair of Tallis Katan upon them reaching Bar Mitzvah.

 

May a person who is invalid to tie Tzitzis make the remaining loops and knots after the first set of loops and knots was tied by a valid Jew?

Some[61] write it is permitted to do so.


May one tie Tzitzis to a Tallis at night?[62]

Some Poskim[63] rule one is not to tie Tzitzis to a Tallis at night.[64] Most Poskim[65] however rule that one may do so.[66] Practically, the custom is to be lenient.[67]

 

C. Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy – Validating the garment prior to tying:[68]

The rule: The Torah states “Gedilim Taaseh”, which teaches us that the validating[69] process of the tying of the fringes on a garment must be performed at a time that the garment is obligated in Tzitzis. It is invalid to tie Tzitzis to the garment prior to it being validated as a garment requiring Tzitzis, and if one does so, he is obligated after validating the garment, to untie and retie the fringes. This concept is called “Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy”, which means that the action of the Mitzvah must validate the Mitzvah at the time of the action, in contrast to doing the action and then making the Mitzvah validated. If however the garment was obligated in Tzitzis, but the Tallis was invalidated due to external reasons, such as if one of the corners contained invalid Tzitzis, then placing valid Tzitzis on the other corners is never deemed invalid due to this rule.[70] If the garment was obligated in Tzitzis and one attached Tzitzis that contained an invalidation in it of themselves, then whether the Tzitzis can be validated through an external action, without needing to untie and retie the Tzitzis, is dependent on whether the original action of placement was considered a legal action or not.[71] The following are the cases in which this rule applies:

Tallis of three corners was made into four corners:[72] If a Tallis that contained three corners had three Tzitzis placed on its corners, and the garment was then cut to create a fourth corner, all the Tzitzis that were tied prior to its fourth corner being created is invalid and must be removed and then retied.[73] This likewise applies even if one only tied Tzitzis to one corner, or even if one only made a single set of knots and one loop, and then created the fourth corner, nevertheless he must undo the loops, or the Tzitzis which were tied with invalidation, and then retie them.[74]

One tied Tzitzis to one corner while the Tzitzis of another corner were invalid:[75] All Tzitzis that were tied to a garment of four corners which is obligated in Tzitzis, remains valid even if they were tied at a time that the Tallis was invalidated due to one of its corners containing invalid Tzitzis, such as if one of its corners had Tzitzis placed on it before the fourth corner was created.[76] [Thus, when replacing torn Tzitzis that are invalid, one is not required to undo the Tzitzis of any other corner.]

Tied two sets of Tzitzis to one corner:[77] A Tallis that has two sets of Tzitzis tied to a single corner is invalid, as by doing so one has transgressed the prohibition of Baal Tosif. The Tallis can be validated by cutting off one of the two sets.[78] One can cut off whichever set he desires; either the original set, thus having the added set now validate the Tallis[79], or the new set, hence having the old set validate the Tallis.

Tied Tzitzis to five corners:[80] The same law as above applies in a case that one tied five sets of Tzitzis to a five cornered garment, hence transgressing Baal Tosif, which if one cuts off one set the Tallis is valid. One can cut off whatever set he desires; either one of the original four sets that were first placed, thus having the 5th set now validate the Tallis[81], or through cutting the 5th set, hence having the original four sets validate the Tallis.

Used more than 4 strings? See Halacha 3!

Made the braid from a single string and then cut it: See Halacha 3!

Made the corner hole above 6 cm and then cut the hole: See Chapter 3 Halacha 12B!

Tying a loose string to a torn string so it meet the minimum measurement: See Halacha 14!

May one sew a corner with Tzitzis onto a garment? See Chapter 3 Halacha 12!

May one sew a braided Tzitzis onto a corner? See Halacha 9 in Q&A!

When replacing the Pasul Tzitzis of a corner, must one undo the Tzitzis of the other corners and retie them? See Halacha 12 in Q&A

 


[1] 14/3; Michaber 14/2

[2] Rambam Tzitzis 1/12

[3] The reason: As if one were to learn that such Tzitzis are invalid then why do we need a verse in the Torah to teach us that gentiles are invalid to tie Tzitzis [from the words “Bnei Yisrael”] if in any event he is invalid due to that a gentile does not intend to do so for the sake of the Mitzvah. [Admur ibid; Beis Yosef] Furthermore, there is no verse stated regarding tying the Tzitzis which hints to that the Tzitzis must be tied Leshma, and only regarding the spinning of the Tzitzis does it state the word Lecha which teaches it must be spun Leshma. [Olas Tamid 14/5]

[4] Rashi Sukkah 9a; Rosh Tzitzis 14

[5] The reason: As if not for the verse teaching us to exclude a gentile, one would have thought that if a Jew supervises the Gentile tying the Tzitzis, and assists him in the process and tells him to do so for the sake of the Mitzvah, it is valid. Hence, the verse is needed to exclude and invalidate a gentile even in the above circumstances. [Admur ibid; Elya Zuta 14/4; Kuntrus Achron 14/2]

Other opinions: Some Poskim explain that the verse is coming to exclude only if a Jew supervises the Gentile tying the Tzitzis and tells him to do so for the sake of the Mitzvah, in which case it is invalid. However if the Jew also assists in the tying then it is possibly not invalid. [Olas Tamid 14/5; Admur and Poskim ibid negate his opinion as a gentile is never considered to do it Leshma even when supervised, and hence there is no need for a verse to teach us that.]

[6] The reason: As in any event, blessings do not invalidate the fulfillment of a Mitzvah. [Admur ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun why Admur does not simply state not to say a blessing being that Safek Brachos Lihakel, as he states in 12/6!

[7] 11/3; Siddur Admur; Michaber 11/1

[8] Piskeiy Teshuvos 11/3; See however M”B 11 and 14/8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 11 footnote 200

[9] Ketzos Hashulchan 7/15 [However see Ketzos Hashulchan 7 footnote 38 that differentiates between the wording of Admur here and in 11/3 regarding weaving, hence implying that by tying we are more lenient regarding the verbalization]; M”B 14/8; Biur Halacha 14/2 “Belo Kavana” and “Lo Yivarech”; Shulchan Hatahor 14/2; Chesed Lealafim 14/2; Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 3; Kaf Hachaim 14/8

[10] Admur 32/31 that in a case where the requirement of Leshma is under dispute, one may be lenient; Ketzos Hashulchan 6 footnote 38 based on the ruling of Tzemach Tzedek 2/4 and Even Haezer 285/3 regarding weaving; Biur Halacha 14/2 “Belo Kavana”; So rule regarding weaving: Tzemach Tzedek 2/4; Even Haezer 285/3; Radbaz 1/154; Meishiv Davar 3; Minchas Baruch 1; Aruch Hashulchan 11/5; Kaf Hachaim 11/2

[11] Meishiv Davar 3 in response to the Chofetz Chaim; Aruch Hashulchan 14/5; Minchas Shlomo 2/1; So is the custom of many as brought in Biur Halacha 14/2 “Lo Yivarech” and the M”B ibid finds justification for their custom; Kesav Sofer 2; Eretz Tzvi 1/2

[12] Conclusion of Biur Halacha 14/2 “Lo Yivarech” and so rule all Poskim ibid

[13] Piskeiy Teshuvos 11/3; See however M”B 11 and 14/8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 11 footnote 200

[14] Ketzos Hashulchan 6 footnote 40; M”B 14/8; Biur Halacha 14/2 “Lo Yivarech”; Ashel Avraham Butchach 14; Chazon Ish 3/11

[15] So writes Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; However see M”B ibid which writes it is invalid if said after the insertion of the strings, although in Biur Halacha ibid he sides to be lenient.

The reason: So is understood from the ruling of Admur 11/23 that when using a single long string that is folded into four, it is proper to initially cut the string prior to insertion into the hole, and thus enter four separate strings into the hole. This is to be done in order so there is no step of the making of the Tzitzis that contains invalidation. [ibid] From here we see that even the insertion of the strings into the hole is to be done with validity. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid] 

[16] The reason: As it is no different the law regarding one who cut the single long string into 8 strings only after the insertion, in which we rule in 11/23 that it is valid. [ibid; Ashel Avraham ibid]

[17] Biur Halacha 14/2 “Belo Kavana”

[18] The reason: As it is all a single Mitzvah. [ibid]

[19] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 11 footnote 201

[20] Midrash Pinchas in name of Rav Pinchas of Koretz; Piskeiy Teshuvos 11/30

[21] So is implied from Biur Halacha ibid, Vetzaruch Iyun on Piskeiy Teshuvos 14/4 that implies even initially one is not required to repeat it.

[22] Piskeiy Teshuvos 14/4 based on Biur Halacha 14/2 “Belo Kavana”

[23] The reason: As each pair of Tzitzis is a different Mitzvah.

[24] Biur Halacha 14/2 “Lo Yivarech”; Biur Halacha 14/2 “Lo Yivarech” and so justifies the M”B there; Kesav Sofer 2; Eretz Tzvi 1/2

[25] The reason: As since there is no other reason why one would tie Tzitzis to the corners, we therefore assume it is tied for the sake of the Mitzvah even if one did not have this explicitly in mind. [ibid]

[26] Biur Halacha “Hitil” in name of Mishkanos Yaakov; Kesav Sofer 2; Pischeiy Teshuvah 14

[27] 14/2

[28] 14/1; Michaber 14/1; Menachos 42a

[29] The reason: The verse states “Speak to Bnei Yisrael and make Tzitzis”; this teaches that the Jewish people are to make the Tzitzis onto the corners and not a gentile. [ibid]

[30] 14/3; Elya Zuta 14/4; Kuntrus Acharon 14/2 unlike Olas Tamid 14/5

The reason: As Tzitzis must be tied Leshma, and a gentile cannot tie Leshma even when supervised by a Jew. [see Admur 11/4; Taz 11/1]. Furthermore, even if the Jew assists in the tying it is invalid, as it is precisely for this purpose that the verse states “Bnei Yisrael”, to even exclude if one assists the gentile in the tying. [Poskim ibid] This explanation follows the 2nd opinion in 14/3 [see previous Halacha A], however seemingly this ruling [that even assistance does not help] applies even according to the 1st opinion [Rambam], as in his opinion the verse is simply excluding gentiles irrelevant of the concept of Leshma, and hence they are excluded totally even if a Jew assists in the process. It is the 2nd opinion, which holds of the concept of Leshma by tying, that requires a verse to exclude the assistance of a Jew which is not regularly excluded from Leshma.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if the Jew assists in the tying it is questionably valid, as the verse is only coming to exclude that even with supervision it is not valid, and hence there is no verse to invalidate when the Jew assists in the process. [Olas Tamid 14/5] Admur in Kuntrus Acharon ibid negates his opinion.

[31] Tehila Ledavid 14/1

[32] 14/2

[33] First and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Michaber 14/1; Tosafus Menachos 42a; Rosh Tzitzis 13

[34] The reason: As women [and children] are included within the term Bnei Yisrael that is mentioned in the verse. [ibid]

[35] Second opinion in Admur; Rama 14/1; Hagahos Maimanis in name of Maharam; Rabbeinu Tam in Gittin 45b, brought in Taz 14/1 regarding women; M”A 14/3 and Admur add the same applies to children.

[36] Admur ibid and M”A 14/3 add that according to Rabbeinu Tam the same rule applies to children; Aruch Hashulchan 14/7; Kaf Hachaim 14/4; Conclusion of Biur Halacha 14 “Lehatzrich” in name of Peri Megadim and Derech Hachaim

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even according to Rama/Rabbeinu Tam it is permitted to have male children tie the Tzitzis, and only women were excluded. [Artzos Hachaim 14/1, brought in M”B 14/4; Kesav Sofer 1; Mahrsham 8/7; Daas Torah 14; Meishiv Davar 1/47] Furthermore, according to the Maharam, of which the Rama’s ruling is sourced in, children are valid. [see next footnote; Biur Halacha 14/1 “Lehatzrich”; Olas Tamid]

[37] The reason: As the tying must be done by a person that is obligated in the Mitzvah. This is similar to the rule regarding Tefillin; that women are invalid to write Tefillin scrolls being that they are not obligated to wear them, as written in 39/1. The same would apply by Tzitzis, that since women are not obligated to wear Tzitzis therefore they are invalid to tie Tzitzis to the Tallis. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Rabbeinu Tam ibid]  Alternatively, the reason women are invalid is because they are excluded by the words of the verse “Bnei Yisrael” and not Bnos Yisrael. [Hagahos Maimanis in name of Maharam brought in glosses of Rama ibid and M”B 14/2 and Biur Halacha 14/1 “Lehatzrich”; See Biur Halacha ibid that the practical ramifications between the two reasons is regarding a child, as according to this reason children are valid as they are included in Bnei Yisrael.]

[38] Admur ibid; Kuntrus Achron 14/1 based on M”A ibid

[39] Admur ibid; Rama ibid

The Sephardic custom: Although the Michaber rules leniently in this regard, practically even the Sephardim are stringent in this matter. [Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 2; Kaf Hachaim 14/4]

[40] Vetzaruch Iyun if one may be lenient in a time of need even if it was not tied Leshma by a woman or child, as ruled in 14/3 that some Poskim rule the tying of the Tzitzis is not required to be done Leshma, and so is the ruling in a time of need.

[41] Implication of Admur and Rama ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 14 footnote 10

[42] M”B 11/7; 14/5

[43] See Kuntrus Achron 14/1 and So rules Admur 11/4 [based on M”A 11/2 as explained in Kuntrus Achron 11/3] regarding the spinning and interweaving; M”B 14/4; Vetzaruch Iyun if one may be lenient in a time of need even if it was not tied Leshma by a woman or child, as ruled in 14/3 that some Poskim rule the tying of the Tzitzis is not required to be done Leshma, and so is the ruling in a time of need.

Other opinions: Some Poskim are lenient to validate the Tzitzis made by a child even if there was no adult supervision, so long as the child states he did so Leshma. [Artzos Hachaim 14/1]

[44] Pashut as according to Rabbeinu Tam anyone who is not obligated in the Mitzvah is invalid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 14/2; Shoel Umeishiv Tinyana 4/7

[45] See Admur 11/4; M”A 11/2

[46] Aruch Hashulchan 14/7 as rules Admur 18/1; Michaber 17/1; Menachos 43 that a blind man is obligated in Tzitzis. However see Rosh who brings an opinion that a blind man is exempt from Tzitzis.

[47] Machaneh Chaim 3/135; See Toras Chaim Sofer 71/6

[48] Shoel Umeishiv Tinyana 4/74

[49] M”B 11/8; See Admur 39/1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 11/8; 14/1

Other opinions: Some Poskim question whether non-religious Jews are truly invalid to tie the Tzitzis. [Tehila Ledavid 14/3]

[50] P”M 460 A”A Hakdama

[51] Piskeiy Teshuvos 11/8; see also Piskeiy Teshuvos 55/21; 136/2; 197/2; 460/2

[52] Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 3; Kaf Hachaim 11/4; 14/8

[53] M”B 11/7; See Tehila Ledavid 14/3 and his implication from Admur

[54] Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 3; Kaf Hachaim 11/4; 14/8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 14 footnote 3

[55] M”B 14/4; Kesav Sofer ibid; Tehila Ledavid 14/2; Divrei Yatziv 1/45; Pischei Olam 14/3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 14/2

[56] Kaf Hachaim 14/4 based on M”A and Admur ibid which hold that according to Rabbeinu Tam there is no difference between children and women, and hence children are Biblically invalid according to his opinion and two hairs must be verified as is required by all other Biblical commands, as rules Admur 39/1 regarding Tefillin. However see Tehila Ledavid ibid that since the main ruling follows the Tosafus and Rosh that women and children are valid, therefore one may even Lechatchila be lenient by a child above Bar Mitzvah, as perhaps he has already grown two hairs and they have fallen off.

[57] Biur Halacha 14/1 “Lehatzrich”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 14/3; Mishneh Halachos 3/229

[58] Biur Halacha ibid; Levushei Mordechai 4/194; Birchas Habayis 37/40 is lenient if the child explicitly verbalized that he is tying it Leshma

[59] The reason: As Bedieved we rule like the Rosh, unlike Rabbeinu Tam, that children are valid to tie Tzitzis. [ibid]

[60] See Even Yisrael 9/63; Mishneh Halachos ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Chanoch Lanoar 9 footnote 16

[61] Piskeiy Teshuvos 14/1

[62] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 18/1; Minchas Yitzchak 9/8; Beir Moshe 8/47

[63] Shulchan Hatahor 18/1; Yeshuos Chochmah 9; Afikei Maginim 11/12; Minchas Yitzchak 9/8 says the Peri Megadim 18 M”Z 1 implies that one should not do so initially; Shoel Umeishiv brought in letter of Rav Yaakov Landau printed in Shemuos Vesippurim 1/313

[64] The reason: As perhaps we rule like the Rambam that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis does not apply at night, and hence it is Taaseh Velo Min Hasuy. [See Peri Megadim ibid; Shoel Umeishiv ibid]

[65] Peri Megadim 18 M”Z 1; Lev Chaim 3/29; Chochmas Shlomo 18; Likkutei Maharich; Daas Torah 18; Birchas Habayis 36/39; Aruch Hashulchan 14/7; Salmas Yosef 2 in name of Ragatchaver; Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Licha 18; Kaf Hachaim 18/2; Yabia Omer 8/3; Halichos Shlomo 3/23

[66] The reason: As the concept of Taaseh Velo Min Hasuy does not apply to an invalidation due to time, and rather only applies to an invalidation in the body of the object. [P”M ibid] So is proven from the fact that according to all one may make a Sukkah before Sukkas.

[67] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

The Chabad Custom: The Rebbe Rashab was not particular against having his Tzitzis tied at night. [Rav Yaakov Landau ibid] However the Rebbe was particular in this matter. [Rav Chesed Halbershtam brought in Sipurim Micheder Harebbe p. 226]

[68] 10/10-12; Michaber 10/5; Menachos 40b; For other cases of Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy see: 626/16

[69] See 10/11 that even if one loop was done at a time that the garment was invalid, then the Tzitzis is invalid. However see 11/23 that if a double knot was not tied on top of the loop, then it is valid, as we only prohibit Taashe Velo Min Hassuiy when the entire Biblically valid Tzitzis was made with invalidation. Nevertheless, as Admur concludes there, initially one should not make any part of the Tzitzis with invalidation, not even the entering of the strings into the hole.

[70] See 10/12

[71] See 10/14

[72] 10/10; Michaber ibid

[73] The reason: As when the Tzitzis were initially tied to the corners of this garment they were invalid, being that the Tallis was not yet obligated in Tzitzis at all, as it did not yet have four corners. Now, although afterwards one created the fourth corner, nevertheless this does not have power to validate the original three Tzitzis, as one has not done any action to the actual Tzitzis to make them valid, and the Torah said “Gedilim Taseh”, and not from ones that are already made. [ibid]

[74] 10/11; M”A 10/6

[75] 10/12; M”A 10/6; See also Admur 15/8

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one must undo all the other Tzitzis when replacing an invalid Tzitzis. [Levush brought in M”A ibid]

[76] The reason: An invalidation of the garment due to invalid Tzitzis of a different corner does not invalidate the other Tzitzis, being that they themselves are being tied in a valid method. [Admur ibid] In 15/8 Admur writes “being that the Tzitzis still remained attached to a piece of garment that retains Shiur Tallis and contains four corners, and therefore still retains their status of Kosher Tzitzis. It is simply that the Tzitzis have now separated from each other, and this separation does not invalidate them as all the Tzitzis of the entire world are placed one after the other [and are hence at first separate until all four Tzitzis are tied].” [ibid] It is implied from the above that the invalidation of one corner has no effect on the fringes of the other corners, even if the Tzitzis of the other corners are initially invalid to be used, such as a string tore to below 24 cm.

[77] 10/14; Michaber 10/6; Menachos 40b

[78] Admur ibid; Rama 10/6; Rosh; Rabbeinu Yerucham

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one tied the second pair with intent to add to the Mitzvah, then both sets become invalid, and must be removed and have one retied. [Michaber 10/6; Rambam 1]

[79] The reason this is not invalid due to Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy: Although the second set of Tzitzis was made in an invalid method, as through making it one transgressed Baal Tosif, and upon cutting the first set one did not perform any action to the second set to validate it, being that it was already made, nevertheless it is not invalid. It is not invalidated due to the verse of “Gedilim Taaseh” which teaches the rule of “Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy.” The reason for this is because when the second set was tied in addition to the first set, its action was considered meaningless due to it transgressing the prohibition of Baal Tosif and it is thus considered as if it was never tied to begin with. Therefore, when one now cuts off the first set of Tzitzis, and thus removes the Baal Tosif prohibition from the second set, the second set becomes the validating set of the Tallis and is considered as if it was made at that time, as the cutting of the first set acts as the action of placement of the second set. The validation of the second set is not considered Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy being that the second set was never considered made to begin with, being that its placement involved a prohibition and hence is not considered a legal placement and now through cutting the first set it is considered to have been placed at this moment. [Admur ibid; Levush 10/6; Rashi 40b]

[80] 10/15; M”A 10/2

[81] This follows the same line of reason as the previous case. [ibid]

 

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