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7. The required length of the Tekiah, Shevarim, Teruah:[1]
*See the end of this Halacha for a final summary, final ruling and a chart of opinions.
The method of measurement: The length of the blows is measured by the amount of Terumatin [טרומטין] worth they contain. טרומטין refers to a short blow similar to that contained in the Teruah. [i.e. Tu, Tu, Tu = three טרומטין]. Thus, if one were to say that a Tekiah must contain 10 Terumatin this would mean that the length of the Tekiah must be long enough for one to blow 10 Terumatin within that amount of time. So if it takes five seconds to blow 10 Terumatin the Tekiah would have to be five seconds long.
The general rule: According to all opinions the minimum required length of a Tekiah which is mentioned in the Torah is commensurate to the minimum required length of the Teruah.[2] The minimum required measurement of the Teruah mentioned in the Torah is three Yevavos [cries].[3] [Thus the Tekiah is dependent of the Teruah and the Teruah is dependent on the Yevava.] Now, there is a dispute amongst the Poskim regarding the length of a Yevava [cry] and how many Terumatin it contains. Is it three short cries or three long cries? In other words, is a Yevava the amount of time it takes to sound three short cries which contain an x amount of Terumatin, or is it the amount of time it takes to sound three long cries which contains an x amount of Terumatin.
*Important note:[4] The minimum length of the Tekiah is only dependent on the Halachic minimum length of the middle blow irrelevant of how long it actually took for one to blow the middle blow. Thus, if Halachicly the minimum length of the middle blow [Teruah] must take 5 seconds, then its Tekiah would have to be only five seconds long even if in actuality the person took ten seconds to blow it.
Introduction to Opinions: The law to follow is complex being that it is made up of many different opinions on the measurements of the different blows in the different sets. The following are the list of opinions and how Admur rules regarding them.
 Some Poskim rule that the Teruah is 3 Terumatin long. [Rashi; 1st opinion in Tur; Michaber; Admur] Some rule the custom is like this opinion. [M”A 590/2; Tzemach Tzedek 76b] Admur and other Achronim conclude to be stringent like this opinion but not lenient.
 Some Poskim rule that the Teruah is 9 Terumatin long. [Riva; Rivam in Tos. 33b; Rosh; Maggid Mishneh; 2nd opinion in Tur; Michaber; Admur] Some rule completely like this opinion. [Michaber ibid as explained in Kaf Hachaim 590/14] Admur and other Achronim conclude to be stringent like this opinion but not lenient.
 The agreement of the Poskim is that the minimum length of the Tekiah must always be the minimum length of the middle blow. [See Kaf Hachaim 590/14] Thus the length of the Tekiah of each set is dependent on the above dispute. However some Poskim rule that the Tekiah must always be 9 Terumatin long irrelevant of the middle blow. [Raavad; Ramban and Rashba] The Michaber; Rama and Admur do not record this opinion however it is brought down in the Bach 590; M”A 590/2; Elya Raba 590/3; M”B 590/13 and they conclude that one is to be stringent like this opinion.
 The Poskim agree that the total length of the three sounds of the Shevarim combined must always be the same minimum length of the Teruah. Thus the combined length of the three Shevarim is dependent on the above dispute.
 All Poskim agree there is no maximum length for either the amount of Shevarim or Teruah one may sound. Likewise, all Poskim agree there is no maximum length to the Tekiah. This however only applies so long as it is all done in one blow.
 All Poskim agree that each individual Shever may not be longer than the minimum length of the Tekiah of that set. Thus, the maximum allowed length of an individual Shever is dependent on the above dispute. Some Poskim however rule that an individual Shever may not even be the minimum length of the Tekiah of Tarat. [Tosafus 33b; Rosh; Michaber 590/3; Beis Yosef] Others rule that it may and the issue is only if it reaches the minimum length of the Tekiah of its set. [Mordechai; Hagahos Ashri; Rama 590/3] Admur rules one is to suspect for this first opinion Lechatchila.
A. First opinion:[5]
Some opinions rule that the three Yevavos [i.e. crying sounds] which make up the Teruah are each a single short sound for a total of three short sounds. These sounds are referred to as Terumatin. Hence according to this opinion, the measurement of the sounds are as follows:
Teruah: The Teruah must contain at least three Terumatin [i.e. Tu Tu Tu].
Shever: The Shever has a minimum and maximum length. Each of the three Shevarim must be slightly longer than a single Terumatin [i.e. TuuTuuTuu].[6] The maximum length of each of the three Shevarim depends on the set one is currently blowing in, as a single Shever may not be as long as the minimum required length of the Tekiah of its set, being that in such a case this is considered a Tekiah and not a Shever. For example in the set of Tashrat one must beware that not even a single Shever be as long as a Shevarim Teruah which is three medium Shevarim and three Terumatin combined.[7] In the set of Tashat one must beware that not even a single Shever be as long as three medium Shevarim.[8] If one is not careful in this and he lengthened the Shever to this amount then the Shever is invalid and even Bedieved he has not fulfilled his obligation [according to this opinion]. Furthermore, initially it is good to beware not to make the Shever, even in the set of Tashrat [and certainly in the set of Tashat], as long as three Terumatin.[9] Thus it is proper to shorten the length of the Shever as much as possible, although it should not be too short as it must be a Genicha and not a Yelil which is the Terumatin in the Teruah blow.[10] [Hence, according to this opinion all Shevarim of all sets are to be slightly more than one Terumatin and less than three Terumatin. The Poskim[11] write that practically according to this opinion each Shever is a minimum of two Terumatin long.]
Tekiah: The length of the Tekiah is measured in accordance to the minimum length of the middle blow generally called the Teruah. Now being the Sages instituted to blow three sets of possible Teruas therefore the length of the Tekiah varies in accordance to the minimum required length of the Teruah of that set. By the set of Tashrat the Tekiah must be the minimum length of its middle blow which is “Shevarim Teruah”. Thus it must be as long as three medium blows, which are like three Genichos [i.e. Shevarim], and three short blows [i.e.Teruah] combined.[12] [This is approximately the length of nine Terumatin.[13]] However in the set of תש”תeach Tekiah must only be the minimum length of three Shevarim.[14] [This is approximately the length of six Terumatin.[15]] In the set of תר”ת one is only required to lengthen the Tekiah the length of three Yelalos [i.e. 3 Terumatin].[16]
Is there a maximum length for the Tekiah? There is no maximum length for the Tekiah. Hence one may lengthen the Tekiah as much as he desires.[17]
B. Second Opinion:[18]
There are opinions that say that the three Yevavos [i.e. crying sounds] which make up the Teruah are each three short sounds for a total of nine short sounds. Hence according to this opinion the measurement of the blows is as follows:
Teruah: The Teruah consists of three Yevavos. Thus, the Teruah must contain at least nine Terumatin. [i.e. Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu]. There is no maximum limit of how many טרומטין one can blow in the Teruah.
Shever: The length of the Shevarim is certainly not less than the length of the Teruah. Hence the three Shevarim combined must be a total minimum length of nine Terumatin. Thus, each of the three Shevarim must be at least three Terumatin long [i.e. Tu, Tu, Tu = three טרומטין] for a combined total of nine Terumatin in order so its length not be less than that of a Teruah. The maximum length of each of the three Shevarim depends on the set one is in, as a single Shever may not be as long as the minimum required length of the Tekiah of its set, being that in such a case it is considered a Tekiah and not a Shever. For example in the set of Tashrat a single Shever may not be as long as eighteen Terumatin.[19] Furthermore, initially one is not to make the Shever, even in the set of Tashrat [and certainly in the set of Tashat], as long as nine Terumatin.[20] Bedieved so long as the Shever was less than 18 Terumatin long it is valid.[21] In the set of Tashat one must beware that not even a single Shever be as long as nine Terumatin.[22] If one is not careful in this and he lengthened the Shever to this amount then the Shever is invalid and even Bedieved he has not fulfilled his obligation.
Tekiah: The length of the Tekiah is measured in accordance to the minimum length of the middle blow generally called the Teruah. Now being the Sages instituted to blow three sets of possible Teruas therefore the length of the Tekiah varies in accordance to the minimum required length of the Teruah of that set. By Tashrat the Tekiah must be the minimum length of its middle blow which is “Shevarim Teruah”. Thus according to this opinion it must be as long as eighteen Terumatin.[23] In the set of תש”ת[and תר”ת] each Tekiah must be a minimum length of nine Terumatin.[24] There is no maximum length for the Tekias.
C. The Final Ruling: [25]
Lechatchilah:
Practically one is to [initially] be stringent [in the minimum length of the Tekiah and Shevarim] like the second opinion being that blowing Shofar is a Biblical command. [Likewise, one is to initially be stringent like the first opinion regarding the maximum length of the Shevarim.] Thus, practically the following are the desired lengths:
The Teruah: The Teruah must consist of at least nine טרומטין.[26] [i.e. “tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu”] [There is no maximum limit of טרומטין in the Teruah.]
The Shivarim:[27] [In order to comply with both opinions] each of the three blows of the Shevarim are to be an exact length of three Terumatin.[28] It is not to be the length of nine Terumatin even in the set of Tashrat.[29]
The Tekiah:[30] The Tekiah’s of the set of תשר”ת are to be at least the length of eighteen טרומטין [i.e. the amount of time it takes to blow 18 טרומטין].[31] The Tekiah’s of Tashat and Tarat are to be at least the length of nine טרומטין.
[The Chabad Rebbe’s were accustomed that the final Tekiah of each set should be the length of both the Teruah and Tekiah of that set combined. See Q&A!] There is no maximum length for the Tekias.
Bedieved:[32]
Bedieved if one blew the Shofar in a way that is only valid according to the first opinion [i.e. blew a Shever less than 3 Terumatin long, or a Tekiah less than 9 Terumatin long] it is valid and one is not required to reblow the Shofar, as one can rely on the first opinion. [Likewise, if one blew a set that is only valid according to the second opinion (i.e. blew a Shever more than approximately 6 Terumatin long in a set of תש”ת) it is valid. Nevertheless, some Poskim[33] rule that it is proper to repeat the blows in all cases in order for it to be valid according to all opinions.]
Did two invalidations, each one according to one opinion: If [in a single blow[34] or even if amongst any of the thirty blows[35]] there are two invalidations, each one being invalid according to one of the opinions, then according to both opinions one has not fulfilled his obligation and is required to reblow the invalidated set. Thus if in תש”ת one blew a Tekiah less than nine Terumatin [invalid according to 2nd opinion] and blew one of the Shevarim longer than approximately 6 Terumatin [invalid according to 1st opinion] then he must reblow that set.[36] Likewise if one blew one Shever less than three Terumatin [invalid according to 2nd opinion] and another Shever he blew approximately six Terumatin [in the set of Tashat, or 9 Terumatin in the set of Tashrat, which is invalid according to 1st opinion] then he must reblow that set (following the laws of one who made a mistake during the blows, as explained in Halacha 12[37]). One cannot grab the leniencies of both opinions being they contradict each other.[38] [If in Tashrat one blew a Tekiah less than 18 Terumatin and a Shever more than 9 Terumatin it is invalid.[39]]
D. Invalid according to all opinions:
According to both opinions it is invalid if one blew any of the following lengths:
Tekiah: If one blew a Tekiah of less than the minimum required length of the 1st opinion, [i.e. 9 Terumatin in Tashrat, 6 in Tashat[40], and 3 in Tarat] that blow is invalid.
Shevarim:[41] If one blew any of the Shevarim of תש”ת a length of 9 טרומטין or more, or in תשר”ת blew a Shever of 18 Terumatin or more it is invalid according to all. If one of the three Shevarim was not more than one Terumatin long then it is invalid according to all. If one blew less than three Shevarim it is invalid according to all.
Teruah: If one blew less than three Terumatin in a Teruah it is invalid according to all.
E. Adding to the amount of Shevarim:[42]
From the letter of the law there is no maximum limit of how many short blows one can blow in the Shevarim so long as it is done in one breath[43].[44] Hence, one may blow as many short blows of Shevarim as he desires.[45] Nevertheless the custom is not to blow more than three Shevarim. However, some add a simple sound [קול פשוט] at the end of the three Shevarim, however the custom is not to do so. [Practically the Chabad custom is to do so.[46]]
F. Adding to the amount of Teruah:[47]
There is no maximum limit of how many Terumatin one can blow in the Teruah so long as it is done in one breath.[48] Hence one may blow as many Terumatin as he desires.[49] There is no custom to limit the amount of Terumatin blown in the Teruah.[50] Some add a simple sound [קול פשוט] at the end of the Terumatin, however the custom is not to do so.
Final summary and ruling: The Tekiah of Tashrat is to be at least 18 Terumatin[51] long. The Tekiah of Tashat and Tarat is to be at least nine Terumatin long. Each Shever is to be exactly three Terumatin long. One is to blow at least nine Terumatin in the Teruah. One may lengthen the Tekiah as much as he desires. One may blow as many Terumatin as he desires within the Teruah blow. One is not to blow more than three Shevarim although some are accustomed to add a small sound after the three Shevarim and so is the Chabad custom.
Bedieved fulfills his obligation: – If the Tekiah of Tashrat was less than 18 but more than 9. – If the Tekiah of Tashat was less than 9 but more than 6. – If the Tekiah of Tarat was less than 9 but more than 3. – If the Teruah of Tashrat or Tarat was less than 9 but more than 3. – The Shevarim of Tashrat and Tashat were less than 3 each but more than 1 each.
Pasul and must be redone: 1. If the Tekiah of Tashrat was less than 9. 2. If the Tekiah of Tashat was less than 6. 3. If the Tekiah of Tarat was less than 3. 4. If the Teruah of Tashrat or Tarat was less than 3. 5. If one of the Shevarim of Tashrat or Tashat was not more than 1 each. 6. If the Shevarim of Tashrat or Tashat contained less than three Shevarim. 7. If the Tekiah in Tashrat was less than 18 and one of the Shever was more than 9. 8. If the Tekiah in Tashat was less than 9 and one of the Shever was more than 6. 9. If one Shever in Tashrat was less than 3 and another more than 9. 10. If one Shever of Tashat was less than 3 and another more than 6.
Q&A Practically how many seconds long should the Tekiah of Tashrat be? Some[52] say that based on measurements they did the Tekiah of Tashrat is a minimum of four seconds each.
Must one repeat the sound if he made a mistake in the blows of after Musaf?[53] No, unless one knows that there is someone present who did not yet fulfill his obligation. 
The Chabad custom regarding the last Tekiah of each set:[54] The previous Chabad Rebbe’s were accustomed that the last Tekiah of each particular set be the length of the first Tekiah and middle blow of that set. [Thus the last Tekiah of the set of Tashrat is to be at least 36 Terumatin long. The last Tekiah of the set of Tarat and Tashat is to be at least 18 Terumatin long.]
The Chabad Custom regarding the amount of Terumatin in the Teruah sound: The Rebbe Rayatz stated that the Teruah of Tarat is to contain 12 Terumatin while the Teruah of Tashrat is to contain 24 Terumatin.[55] The Rebbe Maharash was accustomed to blow 42 Terumatin in the Teruah.[56] At times he blew 72 Terumatin.[57] At other times he blew 53 Terumatin.[58] 
The Tekiah Gedola:
It is customary after the prayer to blow an extralong Tekiah.[59] [The Chabad custom is to blow this long Tekiah at the last Tekiah of the thirty blows sounded after Tehillim.[60] We however do not sound a Tekiah Gedola by the last Tekiah of the ten blows sounded within Kaddish of after Musaf.[61]] It is likewise customary to sound an extralong Tekiah by the concluding blow of the Tekios Meyushav.[62] The reason this is done is in order so the congregation knows that the blows have ended and they should begin saying Ashrei Haam.[63] 
Tarat
First Opinion  Second Opinion  Lechatchila  Bedieved  Pasul  
Teruah  3 Terumatin  9 Terumatin  9 Terumatin  Valid if 3  If did less than 3 
Tekiah  3 Terumatin  9 Terumatin  9 Terumatin  Valid if 3  If did less than 3 
Tashat
First Opinion  Second Opinion  Lechatchilah  Bedieved  Pasul  
Shevarim

2 Terumatin each  3 Terumatin each  Exactly three not more, not less  If blew 2 Terumatin each is valid  If is more than 9 
Tekiah  6 Terumatin  9 Terumatin  9 Terumatin  If is more than
6 
If is less than 6 
Tashrat
First Opinion  Second Opinion  Lechatchilah  Bedieved  Pasul  
Shevarim Teruah  9 Terumatin [3 in Teruah; 2 in each Shever]  18 Terumatin
[9 in Teruah; 3 in each Shever] 
18 total as 2nd opinion  More[64] than 9 as 1st opinion  Less than 9 
Tekiah  9 Terumatin  18 Terumatin  18  More than 9  Less than 9 
______________________________________________________
[1] 590:47; Michaber 590:3
[2] Kaf Hachaim 590:10; Rashi and all Poskim unlike Rambam which holds it’s the size of half a Teruah, [Kaf Hachaim 590:9] It is also unlike the Raavad which holds that every Tekiah is always nine Terumatin and is not measured in accordance to the middle blow. [Bach 590; See M”B 590:13; Kaf Hachaim 590:14] Admur does not mention this opinion or reason.
[3] 590:4
[4] Moadim Uzmanim 1:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:4
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that the Tekiah is to be as long as the actual length that one performed for the middle blow. [Orchos Chaim in name of Rashba; Siddur Yaavetz; Drashos Ramban, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] Some conclude that one is to suspect for their opinion in the blows of Meyushav. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:4]
[5] 590:4; Rashi; first opinion in Michaber ibid
[6] 590:4; This is approximately two Terumatin for each Shever. [M”B 590:13 based on Mateh Efraim 590:4 and 11, explained in Shaareiy Tziyon 590:8]
[7] As this length is the minimum length of a Tekiah of that set of Tashrat and hence if one blows a Shever of this length it is no longer considered a Shever but rather a Tekiah. [590:5] This is approximately 9 Terumatin long. [see Shaareiy Tziyon 590:8]
[8] As the length of a Tekiah in the set of Tashat is the length of three medium Shevarim and hence if one blows a Shever of this length it is no longer considered a Shever but rather a Tekiah. [590:5] This is approximately 6 Terumatin long. [see Shaareiy Tziyon 590:8]
[9] Admur ibid based on Rama 590:3 that Bedieved is valid; Darkei Moshe; Mordechai
The reason: As this is the minimum length of the Tekiah of the set of Tarat and hence if one were to lengthen the Shever of Tashrat or Tarat to this amount it ends up that he has blown the Tekiah of the set of Tarat and has not blown a Shever. [Admur ibid]
Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that even Bedieved the Shever may not be as long as three Terumatin in any set according to this opinion. [Michaber 590:3; Beis Yosef; Levushei Serud; Nehar Shalom 590:2; Kaf Hachaim 590:12]
[10] 590:5
[11] Mateh Efraim 590:4 and 11; M”B 590:13; explained in Shaareiy Tziyon 590:8; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 590 footnote 9 that some say it is a total of 4.5 Terumatin for all three Shevarim
[12] As the Teruah of this set of Tashrat includes both a Shevarim and Teruah
[13] See Shaareiy Tziyon 590:8
[14] As three Shevarim is the Teruah of this set. [ibid]
[15] Mateh Efraim 590:4 and 11; M”B 590:13; explained in Shaareiy Tziyon 590:8
[16] Thus according to this opinion, the minimum Shiur of the Tekiah of Tashrat is longer than the minimum Shiur of the Tekiah of Tashat and the minimum Shiur of the Tekiah of Tashat is longer than the minimum Shiur of the Tekiah of Tarat. [Michaber 590:3]
[17] As the measurement given for the Tekiah is only regarding its minimum length, that it should not be less than the minimum length of the Teruah. [ibid]
[18] 590:6; Riva; Rivam; Rosh; Maggid Mishnah according to Rambam
[19] As up until this length the blow is not considered a Tekiah. [ibid]
[20] As this is the minimum length of the Tekiah of the set of Tarat and hence if one were to lengthen the Shever of Tashrat or Tarat to this amount it ends up that he has blown the Tekiah of the set of Tarat and has not blown a Shever. [ibid] Furthermore, another reason is because according to the Raavad every Tekiah is nine Terumatin long even in the set of Tashrat and hence if the Shever is nine Terumatin it is considered a Tekiah. [Bach 590; See M”B 590:13; Kaf Hachaim 590:14] However Admur does not mention this opinion or reason.
[21] As within the set of Tashrat so long as it is less than 18 Terumatin it is not considered a Tekiah. [ibid]
[22] As the length of a Tekiah in the set of Tashat is the length of nine Terumatin and hence if one blows a Shever of this length it is no longer considered a Shever but rather a Tekiah. [ibid]
[23] As the Teruah of this set of Tashrat includes both a Shevarim and Teruah and the Shevarim and Teruah each must be a minimum length of nine Terumatin [being that there are three Genichos of three Terumatin each in a Shevarim and three Yevavos of three Terumatin each in a Teruah] for a total of 18 Terumatin. [ibid]
[24] As nine Terumatin is the minimum length of the “Teruah” of this set. [ibid]
[25] 590:7 and so rules: Chayeh Adam 142:7; M”B 590:15; Kaf Hachaim 590:25 [for Ashkenazim]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even initially one is to follow the first opinion of Rashi. [M”A 590:2 that so is the custom of the world]
[26] To comply also with the second opinion.
[27] Admur ibid; and Poskim ibid; Chabad custom as brought by the Rebbe in Reshimos Hayoman p. 344; Shulchan Menachem 3:105 in name of Rebbe Rayatz “each Shever is three Terumatin each”
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that even initially one is to follow the first opinion of Rashi and hence the Shever is to be two Terumatin each and not three. [M”A 590:2 that so is the custom of the world; Alef Hamagen 590:9 in name of Eish Das] Some are accustomed after Davening to blow a second set of blows according to the opinion of Rashi and custom of M”A ibid. [Mishmeres Shalom 41:6]
Ruling of Tzemach Tzedek: See Chidushei Hatzemach Tzedek 76b that he argues that one is to make the Shever less than three Terumatin. Vetzaruch Iyun why one is not to make each Shever more than three if even according to the first opinion the Shiur of a Tekiah in Tashat is 6 Terumatin. Seemingly the reason is because according to the Ravad one may not make a single Shever be as long as the Tekiah of any set and hence one is not to lengthen it more than 3 Terumatin which is the length of a Tekiah of Tarat.
[28] The reason: It may not be less than three as then it is invalid according to the second opinion. It may not be more than three as then it is considered like a Tekiah of the set of Tarat according to the first opinion.
[29] As according to the first opinion this is considered like a Tekiah of Tashrat. Furthermore, even according to the second opinion it is proper not to lengthen any Shever to the point it is as long as the Tekiah of another set and the Tekiah of Tashat and Tarat according to this opinion is nine Terumatin.
[30] Admur ibid and Poskim ibid
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that initially the Tekiah of Tashrat is to be the length of 24 Terumatin. [Alef Hamagen 590:6 in name of Eish Das as they take into account 6 Terumatin worth of breaths between the Shevarim and Teruah of Tashrat.] Others write it is to be 27 Terumatin long, as the Shevarim have to be slightly longer than 9 Terumatin. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 590 footnote 12 in name of Moadim Uzmanim; M”B 590:14]
[31] Being that the ShevarimTeruah must be at least 18 טרומטין long according to the stringent opinion.
[32] 590:7; So rules also M”B in Shaareiy Tziyon 590:4
[33] Alef Hamagen 590:7
[34] Kaf Hachaim 590:26
[35] Admur and the Poskim do not state if the invalidation is relevant in a single blow or a single set or in the total sets. Logically his ruling would apply in all cases as so long as one has not blown thirty blows according to either opinion, one has not fulfilled his obligation according to either opinion. Vetzaruch Iyun. See also Kaf Hachaim 590:26 which explains the case to be within a single set of blows.
[36] Admur ibid and in more detail in M”E 590:11
[37] Parentheses in original; This means that he must reblow starting from the first Tekiah of that set as it is considered as if he blew an extra Tekiah.
[38] Admur ibid
[39] Mateh Efraim 590:10
[40] Mateh Efraim 590:4 and 11; M”B 590:13; explained in Shaareiy Tziyon 590:8
[41] Understood from Admur ibid; Mateh Efraim 590:9
[42] 590:4
[43] See Halacha 8
[44] Meaning he can blow more than three blows in the Shevarim.
[45] These additional sounds are not considered an interval between the Teruah and Tekiah that follows it being that one is making these sounds all in one breath. [ibid]
[46] Toras Menachem 29 p. 14; Igros Kodesh 20:39 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:105]
[47] 590:4
[48] See Halacha 8
[49] These additional sounds are not considered an interval between the Teruah and Tekiah that follows it being that one is making these sounds all in one breath. [ibid]
[50] This is opposed to the Shevarim in which the custom is not to blow more than three.
[51] The length of the blows is measured by the amount of Terumatin [טרומטין] worth they contain. טרומטין refers to a short blow similar to that contained in the Teruah. [i.e. Tu, Tu, Tu = three טרומטין]. Thus if one were to say that a Tekiah must contain 10 Terumatin this would mean that the length of the Tekiah must be long enough for one to blow 10 Terumatin within that amount of time. So, if it takes five seconds to blow 10 Terumatin the Tekiah would have to be five seconds long.
[52] Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:4 in name of Kitzur Hilchos Moadim
[53] Admur 590:18; Bach 596
[54] Directive of Rebbe Rayatz recorded by the Rebbe in Toras Menachem Reshimos Hayoman p. 344 [Printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:286; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 5:70]; Custom by Rebbe Mahrash recorded in Sefer Hasichos 1941 p. 28; Sefer Hatoldos Admur Mahrash p. 67; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 123
[55] Directive of Rebbe Rayatz recorded by the Rebbe in Toras Menachem Reshimos Hayoman p. 344 [Printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:286; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 5:70]
[56] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 123
[57] Sefer Hasichos 1944 p. 136
[58] Sefer Hasichos 1938 p. 253
[59] M”B 592:4; M”E 592:11; Based on the following Poskim regarding a Teruah Gedola: Michaber 596:1; first custom brought in Admur 596:1; Tur in name of Rav Amram
The reason: This is done in order to confuse the Satan [Divine prosecutor] from prosecuting that we are not scared of Gd’s judgment. As being that after prayers we proceed to have a festive meal with food drink and merrymaking the prosecution may use this to find fault with us that we are not afraid of the day of judgment. [Thus, the final Shofar blowing prevents this prosecution]. [Admur ibid; Taz 596:1] Alternatively the reason is in order to push away the Kelipos from nurturing from the Holiness that was drawn down through the prayer of the day. [Kaf Hachaim 596:1]
[60] Chabad custom. In all the new printings of the Machzor Chabad they specifically write that the last Tekiah of the 30 blows of after Tehillim is to be a Tekiah Gedola. [see printing of Machzor Kehos 2006 in both the English and the Hebrew version] However in all previous prints of the Machzor this was omitted, and it simply writes “Tashat” as the ending set without mentioning that it should be a Tekiah Gedola. In Otzer Minhagei Chabad 337 and 335 he evidently understood from this that we do not blow a Tekiah Gedola at the conclusion of the thirty blows after Tehillim.
[61] Siddur Admur; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 334335
[62] Siddur Torah Or and Machzor [omitted in Siddur Slavita of Admur]; Siddur Arizal; Siddur Shlah; Minhagei Mahril R”H; Minchas Elazar 2:65; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 720; Siddur Yaavetz; Siddur Daas Kedoshim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 596:1
[63] Mahril ibid
[64] M”B 590:13
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