16. Musaf of Rosh Hashanah

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16. The Musaf Prayer:[1]

The congregation is to Daven the Musaf prayer silently, reciting nine blessings.[2] The Chazan is likewise to Daven with them in order to be fluent in the prayer [that he will say in the repetition].[3] [Regarding if an individual can fulfill his obligation with hearing the repetition from the Chazan-See Halacha 17A.[4]]


The prayer of Hineni Heani:

The Chazan of Musaf recites the prayer of Hineni Heani prior to reciting the half Kaddish that is recited prior to the silent prayer of Musaf. Only the Chazan is to recite this prayer and not the congregation. This prayer is said with intense concentration from the depths of the heart, and with great accompany of tears. One is not to lengthen a great amount in this prayer in order to diminish the interval made between the Ashrei and Kaddish that follows.[5] In some years the Rebbe said Tehillim during this point.[6] After the recital of this prayer the Chazan then recites four verses beginning with the word “Yadati”.[7]


A. The nine blessings of Musaf-Malchiyos; Zichronois and Shofros:[8]

Although the holiday prayer of Shabbos and Yom Tov typically contains seven blessings, three in beginning, three in the end; and the blessing of Kedushas Hayom in the middle, nevertheless on Rosh Hashanah the Sages instituted to recite nine blessings within Musaf of both days of Rosh Hashanah. [The three middle blessings are called מלכיות/זכרונות/שופרות Kingship/Remembrance/Shofar.] They instituted that the middle blessing of Kedushas Hayom contain the verses of Malchiyos/Kingship. The purpose of this blessing is for one to advocate his acceptance of the yolk of Heaven. This is then followed by the blessing of Zichronos/Remembrance, in which one recites verses of remembrance in order to advocate a good remembrance of us before G-d. This [good remembrance] is accomplished through the Shofar. Therefore afterwards we recite the blessing of Shofros which includes the verses of Shofros. 


B. The detailed laws of these blessings:

The order of the blessings:[9] The order of the blessings [in the order of Malchiyos; Zichronos; Shofros] is required to be followed in order to validate the prayer. If one changed the order and first said Zichronos or Shofros prior to Malchiyos, or Shofros prior to Zichronos, then he does not fulfill his obligation and [must repeat the prayer].

If one omitted one of the blessings:[10] The three blessings that are recited during Musaf of Rosh Hashanah[11], which are Malchiyos, Zichronos, and Shofros, are all required to be recited for the prayer to be valid. [Thus if one omitted one of these blessings the prayer must be repeated.]

What to do if one does not know one of the middle blessings:[12] Based on the above, if one does not know all of the three blessings he is not to say anything, even the blessing that he knows.[13] [Some Poskim[14] say that this means that he should not say any of the blessings of Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros and rather he is to Daven Shemoneh Esrei with simply saying Kedushas Hayom in the middle as is done by a regular Musaf prayer. However some Poskim[15] leave this matter in question.]


C. The verses mentioned in the blessings:[16]

There are a total of ten[17] verses from scripture recited in each one of the blessings of Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros. These verses discuss the content of each particular blessing. For example, the verse of “Shema Yisrael Hashem Elokeinu Hashem Echad” is mentioned in the blessing of Kingship, being that it discusses the reign of G-d over the entire world.[18] Of the ten verses, the first three verses are taken from the Bible [תורה], the next three from the Scriptures [כתובים] and the last three from Prophets [נביאים]. The concluding [tenth] verse is recited from Torah.[19]

If one skipped a verse:[20] The mentioning of ten verses is only initially required. However Bedieved, in the event that a verse was skipped, then if one mentioned at least three verses in Malchiyos, three verses in Zichronos and three verses in Shofros he has fulfilled his obligation. If he mentioned less than three verses, then he does not fulfill his obligation.[21]

If one skipped all the verses:[22] If however one did not mention any verse at all and rather said “as is written in your Torah, Kesuvim and Nevim”[23] then he has fulfilled his obligation.



Are women obligated to Daven Musaf on Rosh Hashanah?

Some Poskim[24] rule that according to all women are obligated to Daven Musaf on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur as it is a request of mercy of which also women require.


Q&A on mistakes in Musaf

If one accidently recited Ritzei after completing the blessing of Malchiyos what is the law?[25]

One does not fulfill his obligation.


If one concluded the middle blessing of “Mikadesh Yisrael” incorrectly does he fulfill his obligation?

Stated Mikadeish Yisrael Vihazmanim: See Halacha 6 Q&A!

Stated Mikadeish Yisrael Veyom Hazikaron:[26] If one mistakenly said “Mikadeish Yisrael Veyom Hazikaron” omitting the words “Melech Al Kol Haaretz”, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.


Sparks of Chassidus:

The meaning of the nine blessings:

The Musaf prayer of Rosh Hashanah contains nine blessings in order to draw down the nine Sefiros [Chachmah through Yesod] into the Sefirah of Malchut, for the spiritual service of Rosh Hashanah is the “construction” of Malchus. [Likkutei Torah, Naso 26a]


The meaning of Malchiyos, Zichronos, Shofros:

The blessings of Kingship, and Shofar are said in order to reveal the will of G-d to be King over us for the following year.[27] The Remembrance blessing reminds G-d of the covenant that He made with our ancestors. This brings about a connection between us and G-d and thus makes His Kingship over us a possibility, as in order for one to be a King he needs to rule over a nation that can relate to him. For example a human is not termed a King over the animals which he rules over, rather he is termed a ruler. So too, and even more so, without us having a relation to G-d, Kingship over us is not a possibility. Thus it is the remembrance of the covenant which makes the Kingship possible. 

The Kingship blessing arouses a desire within G-d to be a king. While the Shofar blessings bring that desire into fruition, drawing down the Sefira of Malchus.


D. The Nusschaos of the middle blessings:

See footnote![28]


E. The mentioning of the Rosh Hashanah Sacrifices in Musaf:[29]

One must mention the sacrifices of the holiday within his Musaf prayer.[30] The custom[31] of Ashkenazi[32] Jewry is to mention the verses of the particular Musaf sacrifice of each holiday on that holiday.

If one omitted the sacrifices:[33] If one did not mention the sacrifices in Musaf, then if he said the words “Naaseh Venakriv Lefanecha Kemo Shekasavta Aleinu Besorasecha” he fulfills his obligation. [If however he did not recite the verses of the sacrifice and also omitted these words then he must repeat the Musaf prayer.[34]]

Reading the verses from within a Siddur:[35]One is to read the verses of the Musaf sacrifice from within the Siddur. [One is not to recite it from memory.[36]]



What is the law if one mentioned the wrong Musaf sacrifice in his prayer?

If he has not yet concluded the blessing then he is to retract and recite the correct set of verses. If he has already concluded the blessing [Yom Hazikaron] then if he recited the words “Naaseh Venakriv Lefanecha Kemo Shekasavta Aleinu Besorasecha” some Poskim[37] rule he has fulfilled his obligation and is to continue with his prayer. However other Poskim[38] rule that he does not fulfill his obligation. Practically we rule like the first opinion and one is to continue with the prayer.[39]


F. The mentioning of the Rosh Chodesh sacrifices within Musaf:[40]

One does not mention verses of the Rosh Chodesh Musaf sacrifice on [Musaf of] Rosh Hashanah as they are already included within the wording used for the Rosh Hashanah offerings.[41] This wording is said also on the second day of Rosh Hashanah.[42]

Reason for why we avoid explicitly mentioning Rosh Chodesh:[43] See Halacha 6C for the full discussion on this matter


What is the law if one did not say the correct Nussach and hence Rosh Chodesh was not included?

So long as one said the words “Milvad Olas Hachodesh” he fulfills his obligation.[44]  This applies even on the first day of Rosh Hashanah.[45]  However some[46] rule that on the first day of Rosh Hashanah one must repeat the prayer if he said Musaf instead of Musafei. Practically we are lenient as Safek Brachos Lehakel even against majority of the Poskim.[47]


G. One who is praying Musaf without a Congregation:[48]

One who is Davening alone is not to Daven Musaf of Rosh Hashanah until three hours have passed into the day.[49] However regarding Shacharis of Rosh Hashanah one may Daven within the first three hours of the day even if he is Davening alone.[50] [Furthermore it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar[51] to pray at the same time as the congregation is praying in Shul[52].[53]]

[1] Shulchan Aruch Chapter 591

[2] Admur 591/4; Michaber 591/1

Are the nine blessings recited even by the silent prayer? Yes. [Tur; Rosh; Beis Yosef 591; Michaber 591/1 [“The congregation is to first Daven the nine blessings silently”] Admur 591/4 [same wording as Michaber]; Kaf Hachaim 591/3] The following is the historical background of this matter: The Tur 591 brings a dispute regarding whether the nine blessings are recited by the silent Shemoneh Esrei of the congregation, or only by the Chazzan’s repetition. The Mahritz Geios writes that the two Yeshivos in Bavel received that the congregation is to pray a regular seven blessing Musaf while only the Chazan recites the nine blessings, and that so was the custom of the Geonim, Rav Nutrai Geon and Rav Amram Geon, of which in their times the congregation never Davened a nine blessing Shemoneh Esrei. However we have received from the great Sages, Baalei Horaah, that even the congregation Davens nine blessings. [Mahritz Geios ibid] The Rosh rules that one must Daven nine blessings and if he Davens seven it is a blessing in vain. [Tur] The Beis Yosef concludes that the custom today in the entire world is like the Rosh and hence he did not feel the need to elaborate on this subject.

[3] Admur 591/4; Michaber 591/1

[4] Regarding one who does not know the dialect of Musaf and is only able to come to Shul for either Musaf or Shofar blowing, he is to come to Shul for Shofar blowing and not Musaf. [See 595/1-2]

[5] Mateh Efraim 590/38

[6] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 128

[7] These verses are recited as a tradition from Rabbeinu Tam. However in previous times it was said before Hamelech in Shacharis. [Sefer Haminhagim p. 132]; The Mateh Efraim ibid states that these verses are recited in order so the Kaddish be said over verses of Torah. 

[8] 591/1; Gemara Rosh Hashanah 32

[9] 593/1; M”A 593/4 based on Ran brought in Beis Yosef; Elya Raba 593; Gra; Chayeh Adam 142/11; M”E 593/5-6; M”B 593/5

Ruling of Rama: The Rama 593/2 states that the order of the blessings do not matter Bedieved. The above Poskim interpret this to refer to the order of the Tekios versus the blessings, meaning if he Davened Musaf before blowing he is Yotzei. However not regarding the order of the blessings within themselves.

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that the order of the blessings do not invalidate the prayer Bedieved, although initially the proper order must be followed. [Siddur Yaavetz, brought in Kaf Hachaim 593/8]

[10] 593/2; Michaber 593/1

[11] The Michaber ibid adds also the blessings of Yom Kippur. The Poskim explain that this refers to the Musaf Shemoneh Esrei of Yom Kippur during the Yovel year [in future times] in which the three blessings of Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros were added. [M”A 593/3; Elya Raba 593/1; Beis Yosef; Bach; Kaf Hachaim 593/1] Seemingly since this matter has no practical application today it was omitted by Admur.

[12] 593/2; Michaber 593/1

[13] The law by the blessings recited during the regular year:

The above law is in contrast to the blessings recited during the year of which they do not invalidate each other and hence if one does not know all of the blessings he is to say the blessing that he knows. [Admur ibid; 104/4 in parentheses; M”A 593/2 (implication from Michaber and Braisa); Birchas Habayis 40/29; M”B 593/2] This however only applies in a case that one does not know the blessing. If however he knows the blessing and skips it then according to all he does not fulfill his obligation. [104/4; 119/4]  Furthermore, even if he recited all the blessings but recited them in the wrong order he does not fulfill his obligation. [69/1; 119/4]

Other opinions: The above ruling that by the regular year Shemoneh Esrei one may say the blessings that he knows and skip the ones that he does not know is questioned by a number of Poskim based on the fact that everyone agrees the blessings must be said in order and if one skipped even one blessing he does not fulfill his obligation. [Nehar Shalom 593/1; Elya Raba 593/2] The M”B 593/2 [elaborated in Biur Halacha “Zo Es Zo”] rules [after quoting the ruling of the M”A ibid] that even according to the M”A it is merely not considered a blessing in vain, and he fulfills the Biblical command of prayer. However he does not fulfill the Rabbinical obligation of Shemoneh Esrei. [brought in Kaf Hachaim 593/2]  [The practical ramification would be regarding if he must Daven a second time if a Siddur becomes available, and regarding Tashlumin. According to the M”B ibid he would have to Daven again either when a Siddur becomes available [and so rules Birchas Habayis ibid] or as Tashlumin. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 119/3] However according to Admur ibid it seems clear that he holds one fulfills his obligation even Rabbinically, if he skipped a blessing due to lack of knowledge. One must say that Admur learns that initially the Sages instituted 18 blessings to be said only if he knows the blessings, and whichever blessing he does not know he does not say.

How many blessings may one skip due to lack of knowledge? Vetzaruch Iyun with regards to if one only knows one of the middle blessings or the first or last blessing, is he to say just that blessing?  It is implied from the M”B ibid that one is to say even simply one blessing, however he concludes there that it is best to proximate it to another blessing, such as Asher Yatzar. However the Piskeiy Teshuvos 119 footnote 27 writes that regarding the first and last three blessings one must know all three blessings in order to say one of them. 

[14] Mateh Efraim 593/1; Kaf Hachaim 593/3

[15] P”M 593 A”A 1 leaves this matter in question [he states that it is implied that one may not Daven Shemoneh Esrei at all, and this matter is difficult as the Mahritz Geios rules that the 9 blessings were only instituted for the Chazan’s repetition, and hence very individual is to say seven blessings even initially.] Vetzaruch Iyun as the Tur 593 brings the Rosh that says if one recites seven blessings he does not fulfill his obligation even Bedieved and hence it seems there is no doubt in this matter and he may not say Musaf, unlike the other Poskim brought above. Vetzaruch Iyun Lemaaseh.

[16] 591/7-8; Michaber and Rama 591/4

Background from Admur ibid:

Must one mention verses of scripture in the blessings? Originally the three blessings of Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros were not instituted to have any verses recited within them and rather this was left to the discretion of each person praying. If he decided to say the verses then he could say it. If he decided to not say any verses then by Malchiyos he simply says “Uliolmei Ad Timloch Bekavod Kakasuv Besorasecha, Vechen Kasuv Bedivrei Kadshecha, Vechen Nemer Al Yidei Avadecha Hanvi’im. Elokeinu Velokei Avoseinu Meloch Al Kol Haolam Kulo etc”. The same order would then be followed by Zichronos and Shofros. All the above was only applicable in prior times. [591/8; see Gemara R”H 32; Tur; Bach 591; unlike Rashi in the Gemara that holds the verses must be said even Bedieved] However in today’s times it is forbidden to initially do so [to not mention the ten verses for each of the three blessings and rather say the blessings alone]. The reason for this is because saying all ten verses has become accepted as an obligation by all Jewry. It is therefore forbidden to change from this custom. [591/8; M”A 593/6] 

How many verses to mention? If one desired to mention a verse [discussing the topic of the blessing] then he would need to initially mention ten verses that relate to the blessing, corresponding to the ten Utterances that were said to create the world. [591/7] Thus if he decided to recite even a single verse of Malchiyos he would need say ten verses that relate to Malchiyos. If he decided to recite even a single verse of Zichronos he would need say ten verses that relate to Zichronos, and if he decided to recite even a single verse of Shofros he would need say ten verses that relate to Shofros. [591/8] However this mentioning of ten verses is only initially required. However Bedieved, in the event that a verse was skipped, then if one mentioned at least three verses in Malchiyos, three verses in Zichronos and three verses in Shofros, saying the first verse from Torah, the second from Kesuvim and the third from Navi, then he has fulfilled his obligation. If he mentioned less than three verses, then he does not fulfill his obligation. [591/7]

Which exact verses to mention? The choosing of the verses that relate to each blessing was not originally codified and hence was given to the discretion of the person praying, with a few rules regarding which verse he may choose. One cannot say verses that mention the punishments of the Jewish people [591/9; Michaber 591/5], although he could mention verses discussing punishments given to the gentiles. [591/9; Tur and Levush] One may not say verses of Zichronos of an individual [591/10; Michaber ibid], such as Zichra Li Elokai Letovah, Zachreiny Hashem Beritzon Amecha. [Admur ibid] Practically however, in the later generations, the exact verses were chosen and written in the Siddurim and being that the custom is to recite these specific verses one may no longer choose a different verse of his desire. [M”E 591/10; Kaf Hachaim 591/28]

[17] The reason: The reason for saying ten verses is because it corresponds to the ten Utterances that were said to create the world. [591/7] Alternatively it corresponds to the ten Halelukas of Shofar recited by David in Tehillim. Alternatively it corresponds to the ten commandments. [R”H 32a; Levush] Alternatively it corresponds to the Divine name of Mah. [Kaf Hachaim 591/19 in name of Tikkunim]

[18] 591/11; The word Echad refers to kingship, as its intent is to say that Hashem is the One and Only and there is no other comparable to Him, and His sovereignty covers all . It is for this reason that we conclude the last verse of Malchiyos with this verse in order to conclude with a verse from Torah. [ibid]

Saying Baruch Sheim Kevod Malchuso: One does not say Baruch Sheim Kevod Malchuso Leolam Vaed after saying the verse of Shema Yisrael. This applies also by the Shema recited in Kedusha of Musaf. [Kneses Hagedola 2/45; Ikarei Hadaat 30/28; Kaf Hachaim 591/27]

The verses in Shofros: Regarding the verses in Shofros, verses that mention the Teruah or Tekiah are valid. Thus one may say “Yom Teruah Yehiyeh Lachem” and “Usikatem Bachatzotzros”, as although the verse specifics trumpets nevertheless this is meaningless being that it also mentions the word Tekiah. It is for this reason that we conclude the last verse of Shofros with this verse in order to conclude with a verse from Torah. [Admur 591/12; Rosh and Ran brought in Michaber 591/6] However there are opinions that negate this practice of concluding Shofros with this verse. [brought in Michaber ibid]

[19] 591/7

If one concluded with a different verse: If one concluded with a verse from Prophets, and thus said four verses from Prophets he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. [591/7; R”H 32b; M”A 591/4; Shulchan Gavoa 591/10; M”E 591/10; M”B 591/9; Kaf Hachaim 591/22]

The reason that the verses of Kesuvim come before the verses of Nevim: There are a number of reasons recorded: 1) The verses of Kesuvim are taken from Tehillim, and Tehillim was written by David which preceded the prophets. [Rosh; Levush; Abudarham p. 101] 2) The verses of Kesuvim are praises of Hashem and have already been fulfilled. The verses of Navi are prophecies which have not yet been fulfilled and are hence recited at the end. [Karban Nesanel on Rosh ibid] 3) As David is a king and he thus is given precedence to the prophets. [Abudarham 101]

[20] 591/7

[21] What is the law if one said three verses but did not say one of each Torah Nevim and Kesuvim? The implication of the Poskim [i.e. Admur ibid] is that he does not fulfill his obligation.

[22] Rama 591/4 [“one fulfills his obligation”]; Admur 591/8 [that originally this was even initially permitted. Thus certainly Bedieved it is valid]

The reason: When one recites “as is written etc” it is considered as if he mentioned all the verses required. [Levushei Serud; M”B 591/10; Kaf Hachaim 591/23]

[23] The Rama ibid only mentions reciting “as is written in your Torah” and so rules the Tur 591, as by saying these words all the verses of all Tanach are included [Levushei Serud 591]. However Admur ibid mentions the above Nussach of Torah, Kesuvim and Nevim. So rules also Riaz brought in Kneses Hagedola; M”A 591/5; Erech Hashulchan 591/2 in name of many Poskim [brought in Kaf Hachaim 591/24] The reason for this is because we want for it to be considered that we mentioned all of the verses of Torah, Kesuvim and Nevim. [Levushei Serud ibid] To note however that Admur is referring to the Lechatchila method of the original times, while the Rama is referring to Bedieved, as will be explained next.

Practically what is the law if one only said “as is written in your Torah”? According to the Rama and Tur ibid one certainly fulfills his obligation. However according to the M”A ibid it implies that one does not fulfill his obligation [as the M”A ibid comments on the Rama]. However from Admur one cannot infer anything as Admur does not discuss the law of Bedieved, as explained above.

[24] Hisorerus Teshuvah 3/66

[25] Pachad Yitzchak; Ikarei Hadaat 30/34; Kaf Hachaim 591/4

[26] Chayeh Adam 28/17; Shalmei Tzibbur 308b; Alef Hamagen 582/36; Kaf Hachaim 582/44 [The Poskim ibid debate this matter with regards to the blessing of Malchiyos, as the words “Melech Al Kol Haaretz” is integral to that blessing. Nevertheless they conclude one fulfills his obligation.]

[27] The Sages state that Hashem said to the Jewish people “Say before Me verses of Kingship, in order to make Me a king over you.”‘ This means that by reciting verses of kingship we influence G-d to delight in us and desire to be our King. What is the connection between the verses of kingship and making Hashem King over us? This can be compared to a Torah scholar explaining his opinion and citing Torah sources so that that his words be convincing. Similarly, here we ask G-d to desire kingship; and for the request to be accepted, we cite precedents from the Torah-as these verses are introduced in the liturgy itself “And in your Torah it is written, saying”. [Siddur im Dach, p. 238]

[28] Why do we not mention “Ein Anu Yecholim Laalos Veliros Lefanecha” in Musaf Shemoneh Esrei? On Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur we do not mention the phrase of “Ein Anu Yecholim Laalos” as the Mitzvah of Reiyah only applies during the Shalosh Regalim. [582/10]

Nussach of the verse “Veakeidas Yitzchak Lezaro: Some are particular to recite “Veakeidas Yitzchak Lezaro Shel Yaakov Hayom Tizkor” in order to exclude Eisav from within the word “Zaro”. [591/12; Mahril; Taz 593/3 in name of Ramak; M”A 591/8] However the old original Nussach is “…Lezaro Tizkor”. There are opinions [Rivash 38; and so rules Michaber 591/7 brought in Admur ibid] that say one may not swerve from this Nussach [and if one does so he is changing the dialect of the Sages and is making a mistake-Michaber ibid]. The reason is because although one says Lezaro Tizkor, Eisav is not included as it states “And to you and your children I will give all these lands” and Eisav was not given anything. From this we see that Eisav was not included within the seed of Yitzchak at all. [Admur ibid; Levush] Furthermore by saying “Shel Yaakov” one is detracting from the blessing as it implies that the merit of Yitzchak does not suffice. [Rivash ibid; Ruach Chaim 591/13; Yifei Laleiv 2/5] Practically the first opinion is the main opinion as during the prayers of the High Holidays one must explicitly mention what he is asking in a way that there is no room for doubt in the request, as was explained in 582/7. [Admur ibid; Taz ibid; Derech Hachaim; M”B 591/12] Many other Poskim however rule like the Michaber ibid. [Implication of Rama in Darkei Moshe 591/1; Yeshuos Yaakov; Shevus Yaakov 3/43; Shieilas Yaavetz 1/144; Shaareiy Teshuvah 591/4; Gra; Chayeh Adam 199/8; M”E 191/11 [that so is custom]; Kaf Hachaim 591/31] Practically in the Siddur Admur writes only Zaro as rules the Michaber and thus is the Chabad custom. Bedieved according to all one fulfills his obligation even if he said the Nussach of Shel Yaakov. [M”A 591/8; Elya Raba 591/12; Shulchan Gavoa 591/16; Chayeh Adam ibid; M”E ibid; M”B 591/12; Kaf Hachaim 591/32]

The Nussach of the blessing of Shofros on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah: See Kaf Hachaim 591/26 for a discussion in Poskim in whether the word “Hayom” is recited. In the Nussach of Admur the word Hayom is omitted even when Rosh Hashanah falls during the week.

Saying Hayom Haras Olam in the silent Shemoneh Esrei: According to the Ashkenazi custom the phrase of Veochila and Hayom Haras Olam is not recited during the private prayer and is rather only recited by the Chazan’s repetition. [Tur 591; Bach 591; See Rama 591/7; Tur; Nussach in Siddur Admur; Shaar Hakolel 43/7] However according to the Rambam and Nussach Sefarad, Hayom Haras Olam is recited even in the private Shemoneh Esrei [even if the Shofar is not sounded]. [Bach ibid; Beis Yosef 591; Kneses Hagedola 591/7; M”E 591/13; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 329] However Veochila is not said by the silent prayer according to all. [Mamar Mordechai 591/8; Kaf Hachaim 591/33] The Chabad custom is not to recite Hayom Haras Olam in the silent prayer even though Tekios are sounded during the silent prayer of Musaf. [Nussach in Siddur Admur] However some Poskim rule that if Tekios are sounded in the silent prayer then even according to Ashkenazi custom “Hayom Haras Olam” is to be recited. [Kaf Hachaim 592/2; 592/7]

Saying Hayom Haras Olam on Shabbos: The paragraph of Hayom Haras Olam is recited even on Shabbos. [Admur 592/6; Rama 592/1; Rashbatz 3/290 and 309; Birkeiy Yosef 591/5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 591/6; Machzor Chabad] However the paragraph of Areshes Sifaseinu is omitted on Shabbos. [Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Machzor Chabad]

Nussach Viein Lefareish Ilum Shemecha: One is to say “Viein Lefareish Ilum Shemecha” and not “Viein Pirush Leilum Shimecha” as in truth there is a Pirush for His hidden name. [591/15; Tashbatz; M”A 591/9; Elya Raba 592/1]

[29] 591/5 and 488/8; Michaber and Rama 591/2

Background of Admur ibid

“One must mention the verses discussing the Musaf sacrifice in every Musaf prayer. This applies to Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh, Yom Tov, Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. The reason for this is because the mentioning of the Karbanos is considered in place of bringing the actual sacrifice. [However one does not need to mention the particular type and number of sacrifices offered on that holiday. Thus] if one mentioned “Naaseh Venakriv Lefanecha Kemo Shekasavta Aleinu Besorasecha” [“the sacrifices that are mentioned in scripture for this holiday”] he fulfills his obligation and is no longer required to mention the particular verses of the sacrifices. For this reason the custom of Sephardic Jewry is specifically not to mention the verses of the Musaf sacrifice [Michaber ibid; Rabbeinu Yerucham] with exception to Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh, in which case people are familiar with verses and will not come to make a mistake. However by the other Holidays [i.e. all Shalosh Regalim, R”H and Yom Kippur-488/8] one does not say the verses of the Musaf sacrifice as they suspect one may come to make a mistake in the prayer and it will confuse him during his prayer. [Tur; Taz 591/1] Nevertheless, in these countries [Ashkenazi Jewry] they do not suspect for this mistake and they are accustomed to mention the particular Musaf sacrifices even on Yom Tov [of Shalosh Regalim, Rosh Hashanah, and Yom Kippur-488/8].” [Admur 591/5; Rama ibid]

Alternative reason behind Sefaradic custom: Alternatively the reason the custom of Sefarad is to omit the verses by other holidays is because the verses were already read in the Torah as Maftir. However on Shabbos the verses of the Musaf sacrifice are not read from the Torah. Likewise on Rosh Chodesh, although the verses are read, they are read together with other verses and hence did not receive their due honor. [Shulchan Gavoa 488/10; Kaf Hachaim 591/7]

[30] The reason for this is because the mentioning of the Karbanos is considered in place of bringing the actual sacrifice. [ibid]

[31] However from the letter of the law simply mentioning “the sacrifices that are mentioned in scripture for this holiday” suffices, as explained in the background.

[32] However Sefardic Jewry only mention the particular sacrifices in Musaf of Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh. [see background]

[33] Admur 591/5; 488/8

Other Opinions: The Tur writes in the name of Rabbeinu Tam that if the particular verses were not recited one does not fulfill his obligation

[34] Implication of Admur ibid;

[35] 488/8

[36] As ruled in 49/1 [Admur there rules that it is forbidden to recite verses of Torah by heart unless the verses are fluent on the lips of the masses.]

[37] Chayeh Adam brought in M”B 488/13

[38] Shoel Umeishiv Mahadurah Daled 2/108; Lehoros Nasan 8/27

[39] M”B 108/38; 488/13; Sheivet Halevy 4/63; Piskeiy Teshuvos 488/2; See Betzeil Hachochmah 2/68; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1/388

[40] 591/5; Rama 591/2

[41] [The Olah offerings of Rosh Chadash] is included within the words “Milvad Olas Hachodesh etc” as in these words are included all the Olos of Musaf Rosh Chodesh. [Likewise regarding the Rosh Chodesh Chatas offering] in order to include the goat offering, which is the Chatas of Rosh Chodesh, we say “Ushinei Seirim Lechaper”. [Admur ibid; Rama ibid; This refers to the Chatas of Rosh Hashanah and the Chatas of Rosh Chodesh-Taz 591/2]  Likewise in order to include the Musaf offering of Rosh Chodesh we say “Musafei Yom Hazikaron” in the plural tense, as also Rosh Chodesh is called Zikaron, as explained in 582/9. [Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Michaber 591/3; See M”A 591/2 and Elya Raba 591/5 regarding the seeming repetition of the Rama.] 

[42] Admur ibid; Michaber 591/3

The reason: The wording of “Musafei” and “Ushinei Seirei” is also said on the second day of Rosh Hashanah, which is not Rosh Chodesh. The reason for this is in order to prevent people from belittling the second day of Rosh Hashanah under the claim that it is in truth the second day of the month and is not Rosh Hashanah. [Admur ibid; M”A 591/3; Levushei Serud; P”M 591 A”A 3; M”B 591/6] Alternatively the reason is because at times even in Jerusalem Rosh Hashanah [and Rosh Chodesh Tishrei] was two days, as explained in chapter 201. Therefore it is proper that we mention the Rosh Chodesh sacrifice also on the second day. [Birkeiy Yosef 593/3; Shaareiy Teshuvah 593/7; Kaf Hachaim 593/17]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that on the second day one does not mention the Nussach that includes Rosh Chodesh. [Kol Bo brought in Beis Yosef 591; Mabit 1/46; Halachos Ketanos 2/222]

[43] The Halacha above only explains how we fulfill our obligation of mentioning the Rosh Chodesh sacrifices in the current Nussach that we read. It however does not explain why we avoid explicitly mentioning the Rosh Chodesh sacrifice and rather suffice with it being included in other words. In Admur 591/6 two reasons are recorded as for why this is avoided. [To note that the question here regarding mentioning the Musafim of Rosh Chodesh in the Davening is applicable also according to the Sefaradi custom not to mention the verses of the Karbanos in Musaf, as by Rosh Chodesh even the Sefardim are accustomed to mention the verses.]

[44] Derech Hachaim brought in Kaf Hachaim 591/15; Erech Hashulchan 591/1; Ruach Chaim 621/1

[45] Erech Hashulchan ibid; Ruach Chaim ibid

[46] Implication of Halachos Ketanos 2/222; Beis Yehuda 107; See Kaf Hachaim 591/18

[47] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[48] 591/13; Michaber 591/8; Tur 591; Gemara Avoda Zara 4b

[49] The reason: The reason for this is because during the Musaf prayer one recites the blessings of Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros, and he is thus to worry that perhaps the supernal courts will investigate his actions and his prayer will be denied. The reason for this worry specifically by the first three hours of the day is because within the first three hours of the day G-D does not judge beyond the letter of the law, as during this time He learns His Torah which is called Truth [and thus judges people in accordance to Truth]. However after three hours into the day He judges the entire world and once He sees that the world cannot up stand to His judgment He therefore judges them in a manner of above the letter of the law, and the individuals prayer will not be differed. [ibid] [Now although one may Daven Shacharis of a weekday within the first three hours due that there is a congregation Davening during this time, and hence his prayer will be accepted with the congregation nevertheless this is not the case for Musaf] as since one can Daven Musaf throughout any time of the day therefore some congregations Daven early while others Daven later. Therefore one must suspect that perhaps at the time that he is Davening Musaf there is no congregation in the world that is Davening Musaf and his prayer will hence be denied. [591/14]

Musaf of other Holidays: The above law is only regarding Musaf of Rosh Hashanah. However regarding praying Musaf of other Holidays there is no limitation, as it is merely a story of the sacrifices and hence even if he Davens alone [within the first three hours] they will not investigate his actions. [591/14; Rashi Avoda Zara ibid; Shulchan Gavoa 591/19]                  

[50] 591/4 based on Rashi ibid as is understood by the M”A 591/9

The reason: As it is merely a praise of Hashem [and not requests from G-d] and hence even if he Davens alone [within the first three hours] they will not investigate his actions. [591/14]  

The Shacharis prayer of a weekday: Regarding a regular weekday Shacharis prayer, although the weekday prayer contains personal requests from G-d [to bestow blessing in health, livelihood as well as all matters of life] and there is thus worry that the supernal tribunal will investigate his actions, nevertheless since it is most likely that there is a congregation that is praying at the same time as him, as the time for Shacharis is in the morning, therefore his prayer will be accepted together with the prayer of the congregation, as Hashem never despises the prayer of the public as the verse states “Hen Keil Kabir Lo Yimas”. For this reason one is to beware in the summer not to Daven Shacharis of the weekday in the first hour of the day, as certainly there is no congregation that is Davening at this time in today’s times. Likewise in the winter one is not to delay the private prayer more than two hours into the day, as certainly all the communities have already prayed, and an individual must hence beware not to Daven during the third hour. [591/14]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that even Shacharis of Rosh Hashanah is to be initially prayed within the first hour of the day, as that is when most communities are Davening. If he did not Daven in the first hour he is to do so in the second hour. He is however to avoid doing so in the third hour as that is a time that G-d’s wrath is revealed. [M”A 591/9; Elya Raba 591/13; Yeshuos Yaakov; Kaf Hachaim 591/35]

[51] This is not an obligation but rather a mere extra Mitzvah. Hence if one desires to pray prior to the congregations prayer he may do so. [90/11]

[52] The reason: As this is considered an auspicious time above which as result of his prayers are not repelled [90/11], as also when praying simultaneously to a Minyan, even if not in the same building, on it G-d says “I will not repel their prayer”. [591/14] Nevertheless this prayer is not accepted above to the same extent as is prayer of a Minyan within a Shul. [90/11]

[53] 90/11; Kaf Hachaim 591/35

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