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13. Shofar Blowing:
The Shofar is blown for the first time after the Torah reading. This set of blows is referred to as Tekios Meyushav. One fulfills his Biblical obligation of hearing Shofar with hearing this set of blows. There are various subjects of laws applicable towards Shofar blowing, as elaborated on in the section entitled “Shofar”. In this Halacha only those laws and customs that relate to the blows within the prayer will be brought.
| Sparks of Chassidus:
The blowing of the Shofar on Rosh Hashanah expresses the scream of the essence of the Jewish soul. A deep cry bringing regret for the past and determination for the future. The blowing of the Shofar draws down the Sefira of Malchus for the coming year. This follows the saying of the Sages “One recites Malchiyos in order to crown me as King over you. And with what? With the Shofar”. See Shaar Hachassidus for further details on this Mitzvah and its meaning and accomplishments.
A. The spiritual preparation prior to the blowing:
One is to [spiritually] prepare himself prior to blowing Shofar. [This is accomplished by each person thinking of matters that spiritually arouse him, each person on his own level and in accordance to his nature. On a deeper level at this time one is to resolve a general acceptance of the Heavenly yoke for the entire year. The Rabbeim prepared themselves for this occasion through the singing of a Niggun. The Rebbe would sing the Niggun of Gimel Tenuos.]
|Making an interval prior to the Shofar blowing:
The custom amongst all Israel is to make a slight interval between the Torah reading and Shofar blowing in order to give the Baal Tokeia and congregation time to spiritually prepare themselves as explained above.
It is forbidden to eat or drink prior to Tekias Shofar and prior to hearing Kiddush. Nevertheless some Chassidic communities are accustomed to eat after Kerias Hatorah, prior to Tekias Shofar. Some are even lenient to drink at this time without hearing Kiddush. Practically, this is not the Chabad custom, and we rather follow the letter of the law that prohibits eating prior to Shofar and certainly prior to Kiddush. See Halacha 11 A!
B. The verses recited prior to the blowing:
After the above preparation is completed one is then to say the psalm of “Lamnatzeiach Livnei Korach” seven times. [This psalm has the ability to turn the attribute of judgment into mercy.] After the recital of this psalm the Chazan recites a series of verses [spelling out the words [קר”ע שטן with the congregation repeating verse by verse after the Chazan. The Baal Tokeia [and congregation] then recites the Yehi Ratzon prayer recited prior to the blessings over Shofar.
The Makri: The makri does not utter a word, and instead he merely points one by one to the names of the sounds as listed in the Siddur. See the section on Shofar Chapter 10 Halacha 9 for further details on this subject!
C. The blessing:
Prior to blowing the Shofar, the Baal Tokeia recites the following blessing while standing: “אקב”ו לשמוע קול שופר”
After reciting this blessing, he is to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu. The blessing of Shehechiyanu is recited on both the first and second day of Rosh Hashanah. By the Shofar blowing of the second day that does not fall on Shabbos, the Baal Tokeia should initially wear a new garment. The congregation is to have in mind to fulfill their obligation with the blessings and sounds. The congregation answers Amen after each of the two blessings that are recited although does not say Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo. See Chapter 10 Halacha 11 for the full details of this subject! The Shofar is to be covered prior to saying the blessings until after the blessings have been completed. [Some however write that the mouth of the Shofar remains revealed.] See Chapter 10 Halacha 10 for the full details of this subject! One is to hold [with his right hand] the covered Shofar while the blessings are recited. The Rebbe’s custom was to simply rest his hand on the cover of the Shofros. After reciting these two blessings [of Leshmoa and Shehechiyanu] the blower is to sound “תשר”ת תש”ת תר”ת” three times each set.
The custom is to stand throughout Shofar blowing, starting from the blessings until the end of the blows. This applies for both the Baal Tokeia and the congregants. [See chapter 10 Halacha 7 for further details on this subject!]
E. Concentration and Kavanos during Shofar blowing:
One must focus his attention on the sounds during the blows. If one did not do so it is questionable whether he fulfills his obligation of that specific blow in which his mind was drifting. Thus it is proper for one to look inside the Machzor and follow along by each sound. One is to think by each sound how he is fulfilling the will of G-d and giving Him pleasure above. Doing so will help him concentrate and prevent him from allowing his mind to drift. Accordingly one is to beware not to think too deeply while hearing the sounds even of matters that pertain to the Shofar, such as its laws and Kabalistic intents. However a general Kavana of the meaning and effect of Shofar every individual listener must have as one does not fulfill his obligation of the “Kavanos” with the Kavanos of the Baal Tokeia.
|A Segula if the Shofar is not blowing properly:
If one is not being successful in blowing the Shofar properly [and he is a good blower and the Shofar is a good Shofar] it is a Segula to turn the Shofar around and whisper into it the paragraph of Vihi Noam. If one is not successful in sounding even the first blow then he may not recite the above Segula, as doing so would be an interval between the blessing and the blowing, and would require a new blessing to be recited. See “Shofar” Chapter 3 Halacha 5!
F. Who holds the Sefer Torah during the Shofar blowing?
The prevalent custom amongst Anash is that the Sefer Torah is placed on the Bimah during the blowing, however in 770 the custom is for it to be held.
G. Not to talk until after Musaf:
Not to talk of irrelevant matters until after Musaf: One may not speak from the time he hears the beginning of Shofar blowing after Kerias Hatorah until after Musaf. However [after the first set of blows-Tekios Meyushav] one may speak of matters relating to the Shofar and Davening. See the section on Shofar Chapter 4 Halacha 3 for the full details of this subject!
The law if one talked between the blows: See the section on Shofar Chapter 3 Halacha 9 for the full details of this subject!
The law if one talked during a blow: See the section on Shofar Chapter 2 Halacha 11 for the full details of this subject!
Q&A on not speaking until after Davening
May one say Asher Yatzar after using the bathroom?
Yes. However some Poskim rule that one is to delay the recital of Asher Yatzar until after the blows of Musaf.
If one sees lightning or hears thunder prior to the conclusion of Musaf may he say the blessing?
May one say Tehillim or learn Torah during this time?
It is forbidden for one to learn Torah verbally until after Musaf. This applies even prior to Chazaras Hashatz. However, it is permitted to think Torah in one’s mind. One may however even verbally learn matters of Torah that relate to the Tekios. Some also permit one to say Tehillim during this time.
May one talk after the blowing of Musaf, prior to hearing the extra blows after Musaf?
It is proper to refrain from talking unrelated speech until after the finals blows are sounded after Davening. Hence, one is to refrain from talk until after the 30 blows are sounded after Tehillim. However from the letter of the law one is permitted to talk of even unrelated matters once the sounds of Musaf have been completed.
During the actual blowing of the Shofar, whether of Meyushav [i.e. before Musaf] or Meumad [i.e. during Musaf], it is forbidden for one to [make any noise even to] spit, as one must hear the entire sound from beginning to end, even if the blow is very long. See the section on Shofar chapter 2 Halacha 11 for the full details of this subject!
I. Confessing [Viduiy] during Shofar blowing:
In between the sets of the Shofar blowing [of Meyushav] one is to confess his sins quietly. [Some however write that this ruling applies only to the Baal Tokea. Others conclude that practically it is not the Chabad custom to confess between the Tekios. According to all one must stop confessing as soon as the Tekios resume.]
|Sparks of Chassidus:
The confession made between Tekios is not for the sake of fulfilling the Mitzvah of Teshuvah, as otherwise we would have a set order of confession said even not during the Tekios, as is done on Yom Kippur; rather it is an expression of the longing of one’s soul to attach to Hashem. This is the loftiest of moments within Rosh Hashanah in general and the blowing of Shofar in particular. One is able to change his entire essence at this time.
Is one to verbalize his confession or is it to be said only in his mind?
One is to verbalize the confession and not say it merely in his mind. However some rule that it is not to be verbalized at all due to an interval. [See footnote for opinion of the Rebbe.] Rav Eli Landa Shlita related to us that it should not be verbalized.
|Summary [includes Q&A]:
Although we avoid confessing sins on Rosh Hashanah, and actually omit all mention of sin from the prayer Nussach, nonetheless in between the sets of blowing of Tashrat and Tahsat and Tashat and Tarat in the blows sounded before Musaf, it is an auspicious time to confess one’s sins. The confession is to be done in silent, and according to some Poskim is to be said in one’s mind without verbalization. The Chabad custom in this matter is inconclusive, with contradictory directives recorded in various sources. Practically, based on the talks of the Rebbe and Rebbe Rayatz one should at the very least recite a mental confession in his mind during this time, emphasizing a confession for the sake of Dveikus, attaching ones soul to G-d.
J. Yehi Ratzon:
Some Poskim rule one is not to recite the Yehi Ratzon between the Tekios and so is the Chabad custom. However the Yehi Ratzon after the Tekios is recited.
K. The verses recited after Shofar blowing:
After the Shofar blowing the Chazzan [for Musaf] begins reciting the verses of “Ashrei Haam Yodei Teruah..”. Some are accustomed to reciting until the words “Tarum Karneinu” [and so is the Chabad custom as well as of many other communities]. Afterwards the Chazan is to begin reciting Ashrei Yoshvei Veisecha. [Practically the Chabad custom is [unlike above but rather] the person which read the verses prior to the Shofar blowing [i.e. the Baal Tokeia] also intones the three verses of “Ashrei Haam”. The congregation then begins ashrei yoshvei veisecha in unison.]
The Chabad custom is that after the Shofar blowing the Baal Tokeia reads the three verses of “Ashrei Haam”. The congregation then begins ashrei yoshvei veisecha in unison.
Looking at the Baal Tokeia:
Based on Kabala one is to stare at the face of the Baal Tokeia after he concludes the Tekios. The Baal Tokeia is to thus face the congregation after he returns to his place after completing the blows.
 Siddur Admur; Rambam Shofar 3:10; Maggid Mishneh ibid that so is custom in all world; Mentioned in Admur 584:9; Rama 590:9; Birkeiy Yosef 588:1; Machazik Bracha 588:1; Chaim Sheol 2 10:3 in name of Rashash; Shaareiy Teshuvah 588; Mateh Yehuda; Kisei Eliyahu 588:1; Ruach Chaim 588:1; Kaf Hachaim 588:5; M”E 585:1; See Likkutei Sichos 39 p. 43 footnote 1 that the novelty of Admur stating this in the Siddur is because he is hinting to the reason behind blowing the Shofar at this time which is to remember the sounds that were blown by Matan Torah.
The reason: In order to remember the sound of the Shofar of Matan Torah. [Likkutei Sichos ibid based on Rasag brought in Abudarham] Alternatively the reason is because based on Kabala the Tikkun of the Shofar is only to be done after Shacharis and the reading of the Torah. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid in name of Mekubalim]
Other Customs: Some have the custom to blow the Shofar before Shacharis as was the original custom [see next]. [Birkeiy Yosef 588:1; Mateh Yehuda; Kisei Eliyahu 588:1 write that this was the custom of their time although he negates the custom and says he would not hear the Shofar before Shacharis.
The original custom: The original custom was to blow the Shofar before Shacharis as Zerizin Makdimin Lemitzvos. However, this was nullified due to a decree of the gentile monarchy. [Gemara R”H 32b] Hence they would blow the Shofar during Musaf as by that time the government agents were no longer there to witness. [Rashi ibid] Others however explain that the Gemara means that this change was done due to danger as the gentiles thought that we blew the Shofar as a sign of waging war. It was thus changed to be blown during Musaf as the gentiles will simply think it is part of the regular prayers and not a vouch for war. [Tosafus 32b; Levush 585; Kaf Hachaim 585:5-0]
 See the section on Shofar Chapter 3 Halacha 1C!
 Hosafos Keser Shem Tov 108
 Tanya Igros Kodesh 14 “Through the Shofar and Tefilos a new light is drawn down” “The Or is Nistalek from the night of R”H until after Tekios”.
 Gemara R”H 16a
 Siddur Admur; See Mateh Efraim 585:1
 From the wording in Admur ibid it implies that only the Baal Tokeia is to prepare himself. [Likkutei Sichos 39 footnote 2] However see Mateh Efraim ibid [mentioned by the Rebbe in L.S. ibid] that every person is to do a preparation of Teshuvah prior to the Shofar blowing, however this obligation falls especially on the Baal Tokeia. [M”E 585:2] It is obvious that the Rebbe ibid is not coming to negate the spiritual preparation of each person and is rather explaining that the main intent is on the blower.
 Siddur Admur; Mishnas Chassidim 3; See M”E 585:1; Kaf Hachaim 585:10 that the Rav is to give a speech and arouse the congregation in feelings of Teshuvah and remorse after Kerias Hatorah, prior to the blowing. This is not the Chabad custom. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 106]
Preparations mentioned in Mateh Efraim ibid: Many make a great preparation prior to the Tekios, The Baal Tokeia, Makri, and Chazan of Musaf go to immerse in a Mikveh prior to the Tekios, after Kerias Hatorah. The remainder of the congregation uses this time to either look into the Kavanos of the Tekios, or to learn or to say Tehillim. Regarding those congregations that are accustomed to all immerse in a Mikveh prior to the blowing and what they are to do with the Sefer Torah in the interim-see Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:1 and Poskim mentioned there!
Preparations according to Kabala: See Siddur Rashash brought in Kaf Hachaim 585:11 for the Kabalistic unifications and the Lesheim Yichud recited prior to blowing Shofar.
The reason why Admur in the Siddur mentions the obligation of spiritual preparation specifically prior to Tekias Shofar and not by other Mitzvos: As the Mitzvah of Shofar affects ones entire year similar to the Lesheim Yichud recited before Baruch Sheamar which is meant to cover the entire day. [Likkutei Sichos ibid]
 Likkutei Sichos 39 Vayeilech [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:284]; See Sichos Kodesh 1971 1:12 “Some people are aroused through learning Keser Shem Tov, some are aroused through Shulchan Aruch Haarizal, others from Sifrei Poland, Others from Mateh Efraim” [ibid] This is the reason that Admur in the Siddur did not write any particular forms of preparation, as each person is to prepare on his level. [L.S. ibid]
Other opinions: The Shaar Hakolel 43:1 writeS that the intent of Admur in the Siddur is that one is to prepare for the Shofar blowing through reading the Kapitel 7 times. The Rebbe in L.S. ibid questions this understanding and hence writes as above.
 Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:242
 Hamelech Bemisibo brought in Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 111; Glosses of Rav Raskin p. 524
 Glosses of Rav Raskin p. 524
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:1; M”E 585:1; See Sdei Chemed R”H 2:31 that some make an interval prior to Kerias Hatorah; See however Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 106 that in 770 by the Rebbe the custom was not to make any interval
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:2 for a general overview of this subject
 The prohibition against eating before Shofar: See Halacha 11A for the general prohibition of eating a meal before Shofar. This especially applies in this case as since one has to make Kiddush in order to eat, and Kiddush can only be eaten in place of a meal, some Poskim rule that any amount that one will eat after Kiddush has the status of a meal which is forbidden to be eaten prior to Shofar from the letter of the law. [Beis Yitzchak 2:18; See Mahrsham 1:1 in name of Bashamayim Rosh 74]
The prohibition against eating before Kiddush once one has completed Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis [even though one has not yet Davened Musaf]: Admur 286:4; Takanos Rav Akiva Eiger in a year of epidemic that they should make Kiddush after Tekios Meyushav; Erech Shaiy 652; Divrei Yoel 1:29; Az Nidbaru 1:10; Sdei Chemed Daled Minim 3:22; Kaf Hachaim 588:11; Mateh Efraim 588:2
 The following Poskim mention and defend this custom: Hisorerus Teshuvah 147; Olas Shmuel 82; Tzitz Eliezer 6:7; 7:32; 8:21; Az Nidbaru 1:10; See Kaf Hachaim 588:11; Mateh Efraim 588:2
 This custom is mentioned and defended in the following Poskim: Darkei Chaim Veshalom 716; Shut Hadoctor 29:98; Sefer HaChaim p. 146-147; Heishiv Moshe 19; Sdei Chemed 2:31; Beis Yisrael 2; Alef Hamagen 588:2 and Poskim mentioned there; Zichron Yehuda in name of Maharam Eish brought in Ketzie Hamateh ibid; Betzeil Hachochmah 4:147; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 19; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 176
The reason for this leniency: Some Poskim rule that one is never obligated in Kiddush until after Musaf [Levush; Rashal in 286] hence on R”H since the prayers end very late one can rely on their opinion in order to garner some strength. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]
 Siddur Admur; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 116-118
 Siddur Admur; Mateh Efraim 585:3
Is the entire congregation to recite this psalm or only the Baal Tokeia? The custom is for the entire congregation to recite the Psalm 7 times. [M”E ibid; Rebbe in Hamelech Bemisibo 1:233; Glosses of Rav Raskin p. 524] However from the wording of Admur in the Siddur in implies that only the Baal Tokeia recites it. [Likkutei Sichos 39 Vayeilech footnote 2]
 Siddur Rav Yaakov Kopel, brought in Alef Hamagen 585:5; Shaar Hakolel 43:1
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 118; However, see Hiskashurs 947 that only the Baal Tokeia recites the Yehi Ratzon
 See Halacha 24 for the full details of this subject.
 So is evident from the ruling regarding not to bring children below Chinuch to Shul and the prohibition of spitting during Shofar. [See the section on Shofar Chapter 2 Halacha 11 for the full details of this subject!]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 589:6; 587:3 footnote 8; See the following Poskim regarding Megillah: Levushei Serud on M”A 590:15; see also Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 690; Piskeiy Teshuvos 690:4; Eretz Tzevi 1:45; Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 141:13
This commonly occurs to Torah scholars and businessmen that their minds wander to Torah thoughts and business dealings when hearing something read for a long period of time. [Nimukeiy Orach Chaim ibid]
 Yesod Veshoresh Havoda 11:3
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 589 footnote 28
 See Hamelech Bemisibo 1:68; Shulchan Menachem 3:284; Tzafnas Paneiach 3 Geirushin regarding the custom of repeating the ten sons of Haman
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad 240
 Minchas Yitzchak 3:44; 4:47-48; Sheivet Halevy 5:66; Tzitz Eliezer 11:45; Kinyan Torah 5:56; Piskeiy Teshuvos 592:4
The reason: As it has the same status as Pesukei Dezimra.
 Daas Torah 592
The reason: As the time between the two Mitzvos has the same status as Birchas Shema.
 Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; See Admur 66:4; This would apply even if the two sets of blows have a status of Birchas Shema.
 Har Tzevi 1:42; Piskeiy Teshuvos 592:4
 Leket Yosher from the student of the Terumas Hadeshen p. 128; brought in Minchas Yitzchak 4:48
 Yesod Veshoresh Havoda 11; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; however perhaps there he is only referring to Chazaras Hashatz of Shacharis, Vetzaruch Iyun; See however Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 128 that the Rebbe at times would say Tehillim during the Chazan’s recital of Hineni Heani. Seemingly the reason this is not considered an interval is because it is similar to matters relating to prayer which one may even initially speak of during this time.
 Chayeh Adam 141:9; Kaf Hachaim 592:17; The Rebbe’s custom was to refrain from talking until after the last Tekios sounded after Davening. Only then would he wish the Kohanim a Yasher Koach. However, in the year 1992 the Rebbe changed from his custom and recited Yasher Koach even before the last blows. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad 340]
The reason: It is proper not to make an interval in order so the blessing cover also these blows.
 Kaf Hachaim ibid
 592:7 that the prohibition is only between the Tekios Meyushav and Meumad; 590:19 that these last Tekios don’t even have to be redone if they were invalidated.
 Siddur Admur; Admur 584:2; M”A 584:2; Shlah 214b; Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos 90a; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar 26:5; Kaf Hachaim 584:6; 592:17; Minchas Elazar 1:75; Alef Hamagen 590:46; Mentioned in Sichas 1944 p. 31 and 41-42; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 124-125
Wording in Admur 584:2: “Furthermore even actual confession is not to be refrained from being said between the Tekios, as the heavenly prosecutor is in a state of confusion during that time. It is [thus] proper for one to silently confess between the Tekios while the congregation is reciting the prayer of Yehi Ratzon.”
How is there even time to confess? To note however that in the Nussach in the Siddur the Yehi Ratzon is not recited between the sets, as will be explained next. Nevertheless, there is a little bit of time between the sets, as the Baal Tokeia usually takes a small break. [Shlah 214b]
 There are three sets in total, for a total of two confessions recited between the first and second set and the second and third set. [Siddur ibid]
 Arizal ibid; One is not to confess by any other time on R”H.
 The reason: Although in general we refrain from confessing on Rosh Hashanah, nevertheless between the Tekios one may confess as the heavenly prosecutor is in a state of confusion during that time. [Admur ibid; Arizal ibid] The Peri Eitz Chaim ibid brings a contradiction in this matter in whether one may confess on Rosh Hashanah, and he concludes that one may confess silently. Nevertheless, he says that even the quiet confession he would only say in-between the Tekios when the Satan is in confusion. [Kaf Hachaim 584:6; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 592 footnote 18] The Shlah Hakadosh ibid states that at the time of the confession one is to cry and have sincere regret, asking forgiveness from Hashem.
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad 291 in name of Melech Bemisibo; however, from there the matter still remains unclear as the Rebbe concludes that perhaps some are accustomed to do so and so is the implication from the Siddur.
 Rav Raskin p. 527
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 592 footnote 18; See Chapter 10 Halacha 13
 Michtav Klali printed in Likkutei Sichos 4; See Igros Kodesh 23:512; Likkutei Dibburim 99-102
 As simply due to that the Satan will not be confused if we confess is not enough of a reason to nullify the Mitzvah of Teshuvah. [ibid]
 Meaning that one confesses his sins for the sake of attachment to G-d, and due to a strong passion to attach to him. This is in contrast to normal confession which comes from a feeling of remorse.
 Sichas of Rebbe Rayatz brought in Otzer Minhagei Chabad 294
 Sichas 1944 p. 31 and 41-42
 Arizal brought in Kaf Hachaim 584:6; Minchas Elazar 1:75 that it is to be verbalized; Simple implication of Admur 584:2 and Siddur which rules it is to be said quietly [implying with verbalization]; Or Letziyon 1:39
The reason it is not an interval: It does not constitute an interval being that it is part of the matters of Davening which are allowed to be said in between the blows. [ibid; 592:7]
 Alef Hamagen 590:46; Derech Hachaim brought in M”B 592:12; Takanas Rav Akiva Eiger; Mahril Diskin 79 [KU”A]; Yabia Omer 1:36; Kaf Hachaim 592:19 regarding Yehi Ratzon, however seemingly regarding the confession he would agree it is to be verbalized, as he concludes there.
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad 292 brings contradictory statements in the name of the Rebbe in two different years of Hamelech Bemisibo. He concludes there based on the Sicha of the Previous Rebbe on the matter of Gaguim that the correct stance is that it should be said only in one’s mind. However, in truth the matter is not clear from the Sicha of the Rebbe Rayatz, as he is merely referring to the feeling behind the confession, and not whether it is to be verbalized or not.
 Derech Hachaim; Tosefes Chaim on Chayeh Adam 141:9; M”B 592:12; Takanas Rav Akiva Eiger; Minchas Elazar 1:75; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 724; Maaseh Rav 206; Sefarim mentioned in Igros Kodesh 3:196
Other opinions: Some argue that the Yehi Ratzon is not an interval. [Olas Shmuel 88; Siddur Yaavetz; Shaareiy Tziyon 592:15; Kaf Hachaim 592:17]
 The reason: Doing so is an interval between the blessing and the completion of the Mitzvah after Musaf. [Derech Hachaim; Tosefes Chaim on Chayeh Adam ibid; M”B ibid] Alternatively it is because it has no source in the writings of the Arizal. [Minchas Elazar ibid; Sefarim brought in Igros Kodesh 3:196]
 Nussach Admur in Siddur; Igros Kodesh 3:196 printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:288
 See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 298
 Admur 590:21; Rama 590:9
 Tur 590 brought in Admur ibid; Abudarham; Siddur Arizal; Elya Raba 591; Kaf Hachaim 590:73
 Siddur Admur
 Shaareiy Teshuvah 590:9
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 119 [English]; Hayom Yom Vol. 2; Sefer Hasichos 1944 p. 3; 1945 p. 3; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 126
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 119 [English]; This is in contrast to the custom of some that the congregation repeats verse after verse also by Ashrei. [See Otzer ibid]
 Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rayatz 3:342; Kuntrus Limud Hachassidus p. 11; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 127 that a) this is a Segula for Chatas Neurim; b) Is a Minhag Kabala and not a Minhag Chabad c) Is mainly to be done by Vekareiv Pezureinu.
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