- All cities known today celebrate Purim on the 14th with exception to Jerusalem which celebrates on the 15th.
- Cities of doubt: Due to doubt, the following cities celebrate Purim also on the 15th: Akko; Gaza; Bagdad; Beiriy; Beis Shean; Damascus; Gush Chalav; Haifa; Hebron; Eiyn Zeiton; Lod; Ramlei; Shechem; Tiveria; Tzefas; Yafo; Yericho. They are to read the Megillah on both the night and day of the 14th and 15th [for a total of four readings]. However, a blessing is only recited when reading the Megillah on the 14th and not on the 15th. They are to rejoice [in having a festive meal], give presents to the poor, [send Mishloach Manos, and say Al Hanisim] on both days. [In Tzefas, however, the custom is not to recite AL Hanissim.] This applies equally to both men and women. The Davening on the 14th follows the order of Purim Davening. However, on the 15th they are not to recite Ata Kadosh in Maariv, and by Shacharis they are not to take out a Torah scroll for the Amalek reading.
- Lives in a city of 14th and traveled to a city of 15th [Jerusalem]:
Scenario A – Plans to leave the city which celebrates on the 15th before Alos of the 15th: One who lives in a city that celebrates on the 14th and traveled on the 13th, or the night of the 14th, to a city that celebrates on the 15th, then if his intentions at the time of travel were to be out of that city by Alos of the 15th, then he celebrates Purim on the 14th. This applies even if upon arriving to the city he changed his mind and decided to stay in the city past Alos of the 15th. Thus he is to celebrate and read Megillah on the 14th in the walled city that celebrates on the 15th.
Scenario B – Does not plan to leave the city which celebrates on the 15th until after Alos of the 15th: One who lives in a city that celebrates on the 14th and traveled on the 13th, or the night of the 14th, to a city that celebrates on the 15th, then if his intentions at the time of travel were to stay in that city until after Alos of the 15th, then he celebrates Purim on the 15th together with the inhabitants of the city. This applies even if he returned to his city on the 15th, nevertheless he is to read Megillah in that city which celebrated on the 14th.
- Lives in a city of 15th [Jerusalem] but traveled to a place of 14th:
Scenario A – Plans to leave the city which celebrates on the 14h before Alos of the 14th: If he lives in a city that celebrates on the 15th and has traveled to a city that celebrates on the 14th, if his intentions at the time of travel were to be back in the city of the 15th by Alos of the 14th, then he does not celebrate Purim on the 14th. This applies even if in the end he was required to stay in the city past Alos of the 14th. Thus he is to celebrate and read Megillah on the 15th in the un-walled city and he does not celebrate on the 14th.
Scenario B – Does not plan to leave the city which celebrates on the 14th until after Alos of the 14th: One who lives in a city that celebrates on the 15th and traveled on the 13th, or night of the 14th, to a city that celebrates on the 14th, then if his intentions at the time of travel were to stay in that city until after Alos of the 14th, and he in truth remained in the city until that time, then he celebrates Purim on the 14th together with the inhabitants of the city. This applies even if he returned to his city on the 14th, nevertheless he is to read Megillah in that city on the 14th. This applies even if he intended to return to Jerusalem prior to Alos of the 15th.
- If one celebrated on the 14th and then traveled to Jerusalem, arriving before Alos of the 15th, is he obligated to celebrate Purim a second time on the 15th? Some Poskim rule he is obligated to celebrate also on the 15th. Others rule he is not obligated to celebrate again on the 15th. Practically one is to read the Megillah without a blessing on the 15th. This ruling applies even in a case that one is originally from Jerusalem, and celebrated Purim on the 14th, and then returned to Jerusalem before of the 15th.
- May one who celebrated Purim on the 14th read Megillah for one who celebrates on the 15th? One who celebrated Purim on the 14th cannot read the Megillah, and thus fulfill the obligation, for other people who celebrate on the 15th.
- May one who lives in Jerusalem, and will celebrate Purim on the 15th, read Megillah for one who celebrates on the 14th? One who lives in Jerusalem and will thus celebrate Purim on the 15th cannot read the Megillah and thus fulfill the obligation for other people who celebrate on the 14th. If, after the fact, one who celebrates on the 15th read the Megillah for others on the 14th, they have fulfilled their obligation.
- May one who celebrated on the 14th, and made himself obligated to also celebrate on the 15th, read Megillah for others on the 15th? This matter is disputed in Poskim. Practically one is not to read the Megillah for others due to this dispute. This ruling applies even in a case that one is originally from Jerusalem and celebrated Purim on the 14th and then returned to Jerusalem before of the 15th.
3. Shushan Purim:
- One is obligated to slightly increase in joy and festivities on Shushan Purim. However, on the night of the 15th there is no need for those which celebrated Purim on the 14th to increase in festivities. However, many have the custom to do so. Furthermore, many scrupulous Jews increase in festivities and festive meals on Shushan Purim even more than on Purim itself.
- Tachanun is omitted on the 15th in all cities.
4. Purim that falls on Erev Shabbos [14th, or 15th for Jerusalem and Safek cities]:
A. The Purim Seuda-When during the day is the Purim meal to be eaten when Purim that falls on Erev Shabbos?
When Purim falls on Erev Shabbos the meal is to take place in the morning [prior to midday] due to Kavod Shabbos. [This applies even according to Admur which generally only requires a Seudas Mitzvah to take place prior to the 10th hour.] If one is unable to set the meal for the morning, then at the very least it is best to start the meal before the 10th hour of the day. [Some are accustomed to do so even initially.] If this too is not possible, one may start the meal up until sunset. In such a case, if one is unable to eat the Friday night meal, he is to eat three meals on Shabbos day. Regarding continuing the meal into Shabbos-See next.
B. Pores Mapa Umikadeish: The Purim meal when it falls on Erev Shabbos:
Saying Birchas Hamazon before sunset: As explained in Halacha 2, when Purim falls on Friday one is to eat the Purim meal in the morning, or prior to the 10th hour, and if this cannot be done it may be eaten anytime before sunset. Irrelevant to when the meal was started, it is best to complete the meal and recite Birchas Hamazon prior to sunset. If one did not recite Birchas Hamazon prior to sunset, he may not recite it until he performs Pores Mapa Umikadeish, in the order that will be explained below. [This however only applies if one plans to have a Kos Shel Bracha after Birchas Hamazon, or plans to begin his Friday night meal right away, in which case he cannot recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset until he performs Pores Mapa. If however one does not plan to have a Kos Shel Bracha after Birchas Hamazon, and he does not plan to begin his Friday night meal until later on, then he may even initially stop eating and drinking by sunset, and recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset without first performing Pores Mapa. So was the custom of the Rebbe and Rebbe Rayatz, and so was publicly done by the Rebbe’s Farbrengen on several occasions. See footnote regarding saying the Harachaman of Shabbos in Bentching in such a case.] [Despite the above ruling to initially recite Birchas Hamazon before sunset, some are accustomed on Purim to even initially continue the meal into Shabbos and perform Pores Mapa. So is the custom of many in Jerusalem.]
The order of Pores Mapa: Pores Mapa Umikadeish means that at sunset one stops eating, brings Lechem Mishna to the table and places a Challah cover over it, recites Kiddush, and eats a piece of bread. The following is the order:
- At sunset one stops eating.
- One brings Lechem Mishna [two whole loaves] to the table and covers it.
- One then says Kiddush over wine. However, if one drank wine during the meal, the blessing of Hagafen is not said over the Kiddush. Rather one says Vayechulu and then goes straight to the blessing of Mikadeish Hashabbos. One is then to drink the wine. If there are people listening to the Kiddush which have not drunk wine during the meal, then upon them receiving the wine they are to say a blessing of Hagafen.
- Immediately after Kiddush, without washing hands or saying Hamotzi, one is to cut the bread, and all participants are to eat a Kezayis/Kebeitza size of bread in order to fulfill their Friday night meal. The blessing of Hamotzi is not said over the Lechem Mishna, as one has already said Hamotzi in the beginning of his meal.
- If one planned to recite Birchas Hamazon prior to sunset and has already washed Mayim Achronim, and then sunset arrived prior to him beginning to recite it, then he is to be Pores Mapa as explained above and say a blessing of Hagafen over the wine in Kiddush and a blessing of Hamotzi over the bread.
- Birchas Hamazon-Does one recite both Al Hanissim and Ritzei: One is to say both Al Hanissim and Ritzei if one ate a Kezayis of bread after Kiddush. If one Davened Maariv before Bentching, Al Hanissim is not said, and thus if one ate a Kezayis after Kiddush only Ritzei is said. [However, some Poskim rule Al Hanissim is never to be said together with Ritzei, even if one did not Daven Maariv. However it is proper to say Al Hanissim within Harachaman.] See Halacha 7 and Chapter 6 Halacha 4D-E for further details on this matter!
C. Megillah-May one read the Megillah after sunset if he has not yet heard it?
One who has not heard the Megillah by the time sunset has arrived is to read the Megillah, without the blessings, up until nightfall. Once nightfall has arrived, according to all, he is no longer able to fulfill his obligation. [This applies even on Erev Shabbos, that if Purim falls on Erev Shabbos and one has not heard the Megillah reading and sunset has arrived, then one is to read the Megillah without a blessing until nightfall.]
D. Melacha-May one cut nails or hair on Purim that falls on Erev Shabbos?
Nails: One may cut his nails on Purim that falls on Erev Shabbos being that it is a Mitzvah to cut one’s nails in honor of Shabbos.
Hair: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to get a haircut on Purim as it is not considered a Melacha. Others rule that it is forbidden [and so is the practical ruling]. Nevertheless, a gentile may cut give one a haircut. Practically one is to only do so through a gentile barber.
From the Rav’s Desk
This year that Purim falls on Friday, is it permitted for me to cut my nails and get a haircut on Friday, in honor of Shabbos, or is it forbidden to do so due to the prohibition of doing Melacha on Purim.
Nails: When Purim falls on Erev Shabbos, it is permitted for one to cut his nails on Friday in honor of Shabbos even though it is generally forbidden to do so on Purim.
Haircut: It is debated in the Poskim as to whether it is permitted to get a haircut on Purim even if it falls in Erev Shabbos. Practically, you should get a haircut the day before, on Thursday, and if you could not do so, then you may get a haircut through a gentile barber on Erev Shabbos but may not have the Jewish barber cut your hair and you also should not cut your own hair. This applies even for Jerusalem residents this year who are celebrating Purim Meshulash, nevertheless they are to refrain from getting a haircut unless it is done through a gentile barber, although many Sephardic rabbis who follow the ruling of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef are lenient in this even initially this year to allow Jerusalem residents to get a haircut even by a Jew on Erev Shabbos
Explanation: The tradition is to prohibit doing Melacha on Purim which includes a prohibition against cutting nails, and according to some Poskim also against getting a haircut and so is the practical ruling. However, on Erev Shabbos when there is a mitzvah to cut the nails [as it is a mitzvah to cut the nails every erev Shabbos] this restriction is waived, as the clear ruling is that it is permitted to do Melacha on Purim for the sake of a mitzvah. However, getting a haircut is not an obligation every Erev Shabbos, and therefore is more stringent than cutting nails in its mitzvah status, and therefore the Poskim conclude that even on erev Shabbos it should not be done through a Jew.
Sources: Regarding the prohibition against doing work on Purim, see: Michaber and Rama 696:1; Regarding nails see: Piskeiy Teshuvos 696:1 in name of Piskeiy Teshuvah 150 and Divrei Malkiel 5:237; See 468:6 regarding Erev Pesach that a dispute is brought in this matter, however its Melacha prohibition is more stringent than Purim, and even there we rule leniently. Regarding a haircut see: Beis David 496; Mahariy Algazi 9; Dvar Moshe 44; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 21; Pnei Adam 1:44; Kaf Hachaim 696:11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 696 footnote 1; Some rule one may also give himself a haircut and the entire prohibition according to the stringent opinion is to have another Jew cut his hair. [See Beis David ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 696 footnote 1];
 Rama 695:2; Rebbe in Sichas Kodesh 5737 3:508, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:330 “Especially when Purim falls on Erev Shabbos, in which case we precede the Purim meal to the morning due to Kavod Shabbos.”
 M”B 695:10; Aruch Hashulchan 249:7; See however Shulchan Menachem 3:330 that the Rebbe once stated one is not required to be particular to begin prior to midday, and that the Rebbe Rashab had his meal in the afternoon on Erev Shabbos. [Sefer Hasichos 5700 P. 37]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 69 footnote 8, as by the Purim Seuda there is a greater chance of getting drunk.
How to calculate the 10th hour: The 10th hour of the day is three Zemanyios hours before sunset and depends on your location [i.e. if sunset in your location is at 5 o’clock, and each of the 12 halachic daylight hours is 50 minutes each, then this means that you should begin the meal at the very least before 2:30.]
 Yad Efraim in name of Maharil, brought in M”B 695:10
 Minhagei Eretz Yisrael in name of Nehar Mitzraim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 695:6 footnote 31 in name of Meiri Kesubos 7a that so is the custom in Jerusalem to continue the meal into Shabbos and perform Pores Mapa, although he concludes that based on Kabala it is improper to do so, as one is to Daven Maariv before Kiddush. [See Kaf Hachaim 271:22 in name of Arizal]
 Admur 249:6; Hisorerus Teshuvah 2:172; Piskeiy Teshuvos 695:6 brings from M”B 529:8 that in such a case one is to only eat a minute amount of food. However, no mention of this is made in Admur 249 or 529.
The reason: The reason for this is because a Seudas Mitzvah which has fallen out to be eaten specifically on Erev Shabbos, may be set on Erev Shabbos, even if due to this one will be unable to fulfill the Friday night meal, as this meal is likewise a Seudas Mitzvah just as the Friday night meal. [Admur ibid]
When Purim falls on Erev Shabbos and one did not start his meal prior to Plag Hamincha, may he already accept Shabbos and then begin his meal? One is not to do so. [Hisorerus Teshuvah 2:172]
 Admur 249:6
 Admur 271:9-11
 271:11 in end and 271:12; See Chabad custom brought below!
The reason: As if one does not recite Birchas Hamazon before sunset he will be required to begin the next meal and perform Pores Mapa [271:12 and so is implied from end of 271:11] and the performance of Pores Mapa enters one into dispute. Thus, one who is meticulous is to avoid it all together. [271:11] The following is the dispute involved: It is disputed whether one has to say another blessing of Hamotzi on the bread that he eats after Kiddush. Some say the saying of Kiddush over wine is considered an interval between the previous blessing of Hamotzi and the bread. Others hold it is not considered an interval and hence a new blessing is not to be said over the bread eaten after Kiddush. Practically we rule leniently when it comes to a questionable blessing. However, it is best to avoid the situation all together when possible. [ibid]
 The reason: The reason why one is not allowed to recite Birchas Hamazon past sunset, and must rather follow the order of Pores Mapa, is because if one were to recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset it would enter him into a number of disputes. There would be a question as to whether he is to say a blessing over the Kos Shel Bracha after Birchas Hamazon and then say Kiddush, or if he must first say Kiddush on a separate cup of wine, and is then to drink from the Kos Shel Bracha. Likewise, if one says Kiddush right after reciting Birchas Hamazon there is a dispute as to whether he must now eat a meal in order so his Kiddush be recited in the place that he will be eating his meal. Now if he follows this opinion, which he is to suspect for, and eats another meal after Kiddush, when he says Birchas Hamazon for his Erev Shabbos meal it is considered an unnecessary blessing, as he could have not recited an after blessing before Kiddush and hence said one after blessing for both meals. Thus, it is better for one to be Pores Mapa and begin his next meal than to recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset and enter these disputes. [271:12]
 One is allowed even initially to recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset without a Kos Shel Bracha and then begin his Shabbos meal later at night, as by doing one does not enter himself into any disputes, as the Birchas Hamazon is then not considered an unnecessary after blessing. This is also implied from the wording of Admur “if he were to say Kiddush immediately after Birchas Hamazon this would enter into the following dispute” thus implying that delaying the Kiddush does not involve any disputes. So also writes Admur explicitly in 271 KU”A 4 that if one delays the Kiddush and Friday night meal there is no prohibition of an unnecessary blessing taking place. So also writes Admur explicitly in 271 KU”A 4 that if one delays the Kiddush and Friday night meal there is no prohibition of an unnecessary blessing taking place. See also Seder 2:4; 168:8; Ketzos Hashulchan 48:20. Thus seemingly there is no restriction for one to recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset if he wishes to not begin his night meal right away. Based on this one can understand the custom of the Rebbe and the Previous Rebbe who would not perform Pores Mapeh after sunset and would rather not eat or drink anything and then recite Birchas Hamazon later on into the night, contrary to the ruling here. One can thus possibly explain that they were not planning to Bentch on the Kos Shel Bracha [requires verification] and also did not plan to eat the night meal right away, and hence circumvented this dispute.
In summary: If one does not plan to have a Kos Shel Bracha after Birchas Hamazon and he does not plan to begin his Friday night meal until later on, then he may recite Birchas Hamazon even after sunset. In such a case it is better for him to recite Birchas Hamazon than to perform Poreis Mapa as doing so involves a dispute regarding the blessing over Hamotzi as explained above.
 The Rebbe and the Previous Rebbe would not perform Poreis Mapeh after sunset and would rather not eat or drink anything and then recite Birchas Hamazon later on into the night. Some Chassidim based on this are also particular not to perform Poreis Mapah. [See Oatzer Minhagei Chabad Rosh Hashana 372; Sichas Simchas Torah 1957; Sefer Hasichos 1944 Simchas Torah footnote 25; Sichas 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah 5744; Sichas Shabbos Bereishis 5744]
 So was done in the Farbrengen of Erev Shabbos, 2nd day Rosh Hashanah in 5748, Erev Shabbos Simchas Torah 1988; See also Frabrengen of Erev Shabbos Rosh Hashanah and Simchas Torah 5741 and 5744
 Regarding reciting Harachaman in Birchas Hamazon in a case that one did not do Pores Mapa after sunset, but is bentching after sunset, the Rebbe stated that it is proper to be said. [See Sichas 2nd day Rosh Hashana 5744; Oatzer Minhage Chabad ibid] However in a later Sicha of Bereishis 5744 the Rebbe limited this saying of Harachaman to only the person leading the Birchas Hamazon, while for other individuals it is evident from that Sicha that it is not to be said. Furthermore, the Rebbe stated that this saying of Harachaman even by the person leading the Bentching is only relevant when part of the congregation has performed Pores Mapah. However, when no one has performed Pores Mapah then it is not to be said even by the person leading the Birchas Hamazon. Hence in conclusion it appears that today that we no longer perform Pores Mapah, the Harachaman is not said at all in Birchas Hamazon. So concludes also Otzer Minhagei Chabad ibid. Vetzaruch Iyun.
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 695:6 footnote 31 in name of Meiri Kesubos 7a that so is the custom in Jerusalem to continue the meal into Shabbos and perform Pores Mapa, although he concludes that based on Kabala it is improper to do so, as one is to Daven Maariv before Kiddush. [See Kaf Hachaim 271:22 in name of Arizal]
 The concept of bringing Lechem Mishneh to the table when one performs Pores Mapa is not mentioned in Shulchan Aruch or later Poskim. However, so concludes Piskeiy Teshuvos 271 footnote 146 [see there!], and Purim Hameshulash brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 695 footnote 34. However, the Halef Lecha Shlomo 1:113 rules that it is not necessary to have Lechem Mishneh according to the opinion that holds a blessing of Hamotzi is not recited. Vetzaruch Iyun!
 271:11; Sichas 1957 Simchas Torah 3
 As Kiddush is required to be Bemakom Seuda.
 Seemingly one is to eat a Kebeitza of bread in order to fulfill his obligation of Seudas Shabbos according to all. [See Admur 274:6; 639:19 that we mainly rule like the stringent opinion, and so rules Piskeiy Teshuvos 695 footnote 34 that it is proper to eat a Kebeitza. However see Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:14 which rules that one only needs to eat a Kezayis even though in general one needs to eat a Kibeitza of bread during the Shabbos meals. Vetzaruch Iyun.
 This matter of dispute has been discussed in previous footnotes. See there!
 See Seder 5:4-5; 179:5
 Based on 188:17 that we say both prayers if a Kezayis was eaten at night and the previous days prayer is said first; The simple wording of Admur implies that we follow the ruling of the Taz 188:7 even regarding Al Hanissim. So rules also Meiri [brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 695:6] based on that Shabbos is the 15th, on which the miracle of Purim also occurred.
Why Kiddush is not considered like one Davened Maariv? See Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag p. 211; Sefer Hasichos 5704 p. 40 that explains that even if one said Kiddush, he may still say the previous days prayer and it is not considered like he Davened Maariv.
 If one did not eat a Kezayis of bread after Kiddush, then only Al Hanissim is said. In such a case one must still eat a Friday night meal. If this is not possible one is to eat three meals the next day. As already explained above, once sunset has arrived one is to perform Pores Mapa and is not to bentch prior to eating Kezayis, with exception to the case brought in the footnotes.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 47 footnote 22; M”B 695:15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 695:6 [However from the simple wording of Admur in 188:17 it is implied that we follow the ruling of the Taz 188:7 even regarding Al Hanissim. Vetzaruch Iyun.]
 The reason: As in such a case it is proper to suspect for the opinion of the M”A that both prayers are never said, being that Al Hanissim is not an obligation to mention [see Admur 188:17], as well as that there are opinions which hold we never say the Al Hanissim for the previous day even when there is no contradiction. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 47 footnote 23; Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 695
 M”B 687:5; Kaf Hachaim 687:9; P”M 692 M”Z 3; Regarding Shofar: Chayeh Adam 141:1; 144:20; Mishneh Berurah 588:1; Kaf Hachaim 588:2; 600:12; Regarding Lulav: M”A 658;
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that on the 14th, the unwalled cities may read the Megillah with a blessing even after sunset, being that the 15th is also still considered like it is Purim. [Nitei Gavriel 31:10 in name of Hisorerus Teshuvah 3:493. I did a thorough search in the Hisorerus Teshuvah and did not find a Teshuvah 493 or any Teshuvah of this sort.]
 P”M 692 M”Z 3; Tzitz Hakodesh 55; Nitei Gavriel 31:10 footnote 15; See Michtam Ledavid 17 that rules this way also regarding Shofar. However see the following Poskim that rule one cannot blow the Shofar between sunset and Tzeis of Erev Shabbos: Mateh Efraim 601:13; M”B 600:7; Kaf Hachaim 600:13; Implication of Taz 600:1. To note however that the Shofar is itself forbidden to normally blow on Shabbos as opposed to reading the Megillah.
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 696:1 in name of Piskeiy Teshuvah 150 and Divrei Malkiel 5:237
 Beis David 496; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 696 footnote 1
 Mahariy Algazi 9; Dvar Moshe 44; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 21; Pnei Adam 1:44; Kaf Hachaim 696:11
 Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 21; Some rule one may also give himself a haircut and the entire prohibition according to the stringent opinion is to have another Jew cut his hair. [See Beis David ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 696 footnote 1]
 Mahariy Algazi ibid; Dvar Moshe 44; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 21; Pnei Adam 1:44; Kaf Hachaim 696:11
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