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1. Pesukei Dezimra:
On every Yom Tov, both by Shacharis and Maariv, it is customary to read the Mizmorim that are said on Shabbos in Pesukei Dezimra. Some however skip the psalm of Mizmor Shir Leyom Hashabbos and rather begin from Tov Lehodos Lahashem etc. This however is not the custom in our provinces. [The Chabad custom on the night of Yom Tov is to recite a regular weekday Maariv prayer until Shemoneh Esrei, without any of the additional Mizmorim that are normally added on Shabbos. However, by Shacharis, all the Mizmorim added on Shabbos in Pesukei Dezimra are likewise recited on Yom Tov.]
On each one of the Shalosh Regalim, [which includes, in the Diaspora, both days of Shavuos, the first two nights and days of Pesach, the nine days of Sukkos, including Shemini Atzeres, and also the eight days of Chanukah], one is required to recite the complete Hallel during the day. This is a [positive] Rabbinical command that was instituted by the prophets. [This applies for both a congregation and a person who is praying in private.]
Are women obligated to recite Hallel?
The blessing over Hallel:
On each one of the Shalosh Regalim [which includes, in the Diaspora, both days of Shavuos, the first two nights and days of Pesach, the nine days of Sukkos, including Shemini Atzeres, and also the eight days of Chanukah] a blessing is said over the complete Hallel. [This applies whether one is with a Minyan or Davening in private.]
Being Yotzei the blessing with the Chazan versus saying it individually: If a Minyan is present, there is no Halachic precedence, and one can to choose to say the blessing himself, or be Yotzei with the Chazan, as each option contains an advantageous aspect. When a Minyan is not present, it is better for each person to say their own blessing rather than be Yotzei with another person. Nonetheless, the widespread custom today is for every individual to recite the blessing himself, even if a Minyan is present, and so is the proper directive. [Some recite it prior to the Chazan and hence complete it prior to the Chazan completing his blessing. Others recite it together with the Chazan and some recite it after the Chazan. Those who recite it after the Chazan, must intend to not be Yotzei the blessing with his recital.]
Are women who recite Hallel to recite a blessing before and after?
Some Poskim rule that women are not to recite a blessing upon reciting Hallel. This applies even towards those women of Ashkenazi origin that usually recite a blessing prior to performing their optional Mitzvos. Other Poskim however rule that women may recite the blessing and so is the widespread custom.
What is the law if one accidently recited the blessing of Ligmor Es Hallel?
He fulfills his obligation and is not required to repeat the blessing.
When is Hallel to be recited?
From when during the day, and until when in the day: Hallel may be recited throughout the entire day, from dawn [Alos Hashachar] until nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim]. Thus, if one did not recite Hallel immediately after Davening [Shemoneh Esrei of] Shacharis, he may recite it throughout the day, until Tzeis Hakochavim.
May one initially read Hallel before sunrise? Lechatchilah, one should not recite Hallel prior to sunrise. Nevertheless, if one transgressed and recited Hallel prior to sunrise, after daybreak he has fulfilled his obligation.
After Shemoneh Esrei: Although Hallel may be recited throughout the day, it is best to recite it immediately after the Shacharis Shemoneh Esrei. [It is permitted to recite Hallel prior to Davening Shacharis. Nevertheless, according to the Arizal, Hallel is not to be said prior to Davening.]
May Hallel be recited with a blessing after sunset, prior to nightfall?
No. One is to recite Hallel without a blessing.
May one eat before Hallel?
One is to avoid eating prior to reciting Hallel, unless he is sick or weak in which case he is not to be stringent even as an act of piety. [Thus, even if one already Davened Shacharis but has not yet recited Hallel, he should avoid eating until he recites Hallel.]
Reading Hallel with the congregation:
It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to read Hallel together with the congregation immediately after [Shemoneh Esrei of] the Shacharis prayer.
Reading Hallel with the congregation prior to Shacharis? If one came to Shul after the congregation completed the Shacharis prayer [of Shemoneh Esrei] and has reached the saying of Hallel, and has not yet Davened Shacharis, then there is an opinion who says that if there is no worry that the time of Shema will pass, it is best for him to first recite Hallel with the congregation, and afterwards Daven Shacharis. This applies even on those days that one who Davens without a Minyan recites the complete Hallel with a blessing according to all opinions. [Nevertheless, the Arizal was not comfortable with such an arrangement of reciting Hallel out of its proper order, and hence according to the Arizal one is never to read Hallel prior to Davening. Practically, the widespread custom amongst Chabad Chassidim is not to recite Hallel before Davening, as explained in the summary below.]
If one is in the middle of Davening: If one is holding in middle of Davening, past Baruch Sheamar, at the time that the congregation begins to read Hallel, he is not to make an interval in order to read Hallel together with them. [This applies] on those days that the complete Hallel is recited [i.e. all of Sukkos and Chanukah; 2 days of Pesach, Shavuos].
One is to be particular to read Hallel together with the congregation immediately after Shemoneh Esrei. If one is holding prior to Davening, some Poskim rule he is to stop and recite Hallel together with the congregation. This applies for Hallel of all days. Nevertheless, the Arizal was not comfortable with such an arrangement of reciting Hallel out of its proper order, and hence according to the Arizal one is never to read Hallel prior to Davening. If one is holding within Pesukei Dezimra, he is not to stop and recite Hallel together with the congregation on days that the complete Hallel is recited.
The Chabad Custom:
No clear directive has been given with regards to the Chabad custom in whether one should say Hallel with the congregation prior to his Davening, if the circumstance occurs. Nevertheless, it is known that the Chabad Rabbeim would be careful to always pray with the same pace as the Minyan on Yom Tov in order to say Hallel with the congregation. This is despite the Rebbeim’s usual practice of praying at greater length than the Minyan. [Practically, the widespread custom amongst Chabad Chassidim is not to recite it before Davening.]
Should one who usually Davens in great length without the congregation do so on days that Hallel is said?
The Rebbe Rashab would Daven Shacharis of Yom Tov on pace of congregation in order to say Hallel with the congregation after Shacharis, at its appropriate time.
Being Yotzei Hallel by hearing it from another person/Fulfilling one’s obligation with the Chazan:
One can fulfill his obligation of Hallel through hearing it recited from another person. One can thus fulfill his obligation of Hallel through hearing the reading of the Chazan. [In such a case, he is required to hear the entire recital of Hallel from the Chazan.] This applies even if a Minyan is not present. This applies even if the person reciting Hallel has already fulfilled his obligation of Hallel. Nevertheless, this only applies if the listener answers “Hallelukah” for each stanza recited. If he does not answer Hallelukah after each stanza, and is expert in how to do so, then he does not fulfill his obligation. However, some Poskim are lenient in a case that the person reciting the Hallel has not yet fulfilled his obligation, in which case it is not required for the listeners to recite Hallelukah, even if they know how to do so. If the listener does not know how to recite the Hallelukah then he fulfills his obligation even if he does not answer Hallelukah.
Hearing from many people reading simultaneously: It is permitted for many people to read the Hallel aloud simultaneously and have the remainder of the congregation listen and fulfill their obligation through this hearing. [One thus fulfills his obligation of Hallel through hearing the Chazan recite it even if there are other people saying Hallel aloud simultaneously.]
One fulfills his obligation of Hallel through hearing it recited from another person, even if a Minyan is not present and the person reciting it has already fulfilled his obligation. [Practically, those that are not expert in answering the Hallelukahs for the stanzas fulfill their obligation even if they do not do so.]
May a woman read Hallel on behalf of a man for him to fulfill his obligation?
No. If however the man repeats each word after her then he fulfills his obligation. Nevertheless, one who succumbs to this will have a curse befall upon his home. However, some Poskim rule that the above only applies to the complete Hallel recited on Holidays and Chanukah. However, on Rosh Chodesh, possibly a woman who is accustomed to say Hallel may read on behalf of a man who is listening and have him fulfill his obligation.
May a child read Hallel on behalf of another?
One does not fulfill his obligation with hearing the reading of Hallel from a child below the age of Bar Mitzvah even if he has reached the age of Chinuch. [However, it is possible that the above only applies to the complete Hallel recited on Holidays and Chanukah, while on Rosh Chodesh, perhaps a child may read on behalf of a man who is listening and have him fulfill his obligation. Practically, one is to be stringent in this matter.]
The language: From the letter of the law, Hallel may be recited in any language. One fulfills his obligation even if he does not understand the language that he is reading. [Nevertheless, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to recite Hallel in Lashon Hakodesh.]
Which verses in Hallel are to be repeated? There are different customs regarding which verses are said twice. Each community is to follow their custom. [The widespread custom is to repeat each verse from Odecha until the conclusion of Hallel, by the verse of Hodu Lahashem. This is likewise the Chabad custom.]
Which parts are to be read aloud by the Chazan and repeated by the congregation? There are different customs regarding which verses are said aloud by the Chazan and then repeated by the congregation. Each community is to follow their custom. [The Chabad custom is for the Chazan to recite Hodu and for the listeners to recite Hodu and Yomar Nah. The Chazan repeats the verse of Hodu together with the congregation. The Chazan then recites Yomar and the listeners answer Hodu and Yomru Nah Beis. The Chazan then recites Yomru Nah Beis and the listeners answer Hodu and Yomru Nah Yirei. The Chazan then recites Yomru Nah Yirei and the listeners answer Hodu. The four phrases beginning Ana Hashem are each recited by the Chazan and repeated by the congregation. The stanzas are to be recited clearly by the Chazan and then answered by the congregation. Hence, the singing that customarily takes place during this recital should not drown out the voice of the Chazan or the congregation.]
One who is praying without a Minyan: The verse beginning Hodu LaHashem is repeated after each of the next three verses, even when one is praying in private.
Saying Hodu with two other people when praying privately: If one is reciting Hallel without a Minyan it is a Mitzvah to have another two people listen and answer [for Hodu and Ana]. This applies on all days that Hallel is recited, whether the complete or incomplete Hallel. [If however one cannot find another two people easily, then he is not required to trouble himself any further. Even one’s wife, and children that have reached Chinuch, join to make up the other two people needed for this purpose. However, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to say it with two other men that are above the age of Mitzvos. Even if one has already recited Hallel he can join to answer for Hallel.]
The word Al in the concluding paragraph: In the concluding paragraph the word “al” should be omitted.
Hefsek-Making an interval to answer Amen and the like:
When the complete Hallel is recited, the laws of making a Hefsek [speech interval] during Hallel has the same laws as a Hefsek during the reading of the morning Shema, as explained in 66/1. This applies for both the laws of Hefsek within individual paragraphs and between paragraphs.
Making a long interval in middle of Hallel:
- Example: One went to the bathroom in middle of Hallel and remained there for five to ten minutes. Must he repeat Hallel from the beginning?
If one made an interval during Hallel, even if the interval was as long as the amount of time it would take to read the entire Hallel, he may nevertheless continue from where he had left off. This applies even if one made an interval due to a [Halachic] Oness, such as one entered a bathroom, which is a place that Hallel cannot be recited. Nevertheless, some Poskim are stringent [regarding days that the complete Hallel is recited], to require one to repeat from the beginning of Hallel, if one made a long interval due to Oness. Practically, one is to be stringent like their opinion [on days of complete Hallel] to repeat from the start of Hallel, although the blessing is not to be repeated. This however only applies if one had a Halachic Oness, which refers to one who made an interval in the reading due to a Halachic prohibition to continue the reading, such as if the reader had to use the bathroom in middle. In any other type of Oness the reader fulfills his obligation.
Standing for Hallel:
Hallel is to be recited in a standing position.
Reading Hallel in the wrong order and skipping a verse:
One who reads Hallel in the wrong order does not fulfill his obligation. This applies to one who reads the verses within a paragraph in the wrong order. If however, the verses in each paragraph were read in the correct order, although the paragraphs themselves were not read in order, then some Poskim rule it is valid Bedieved, even though that initially one may not do so. Other Poskim however rule it is invalid even in such a case.
Repeating if read in wrong order: In the event that one read Hallel in the wrong order, he is to repeat it without a blessing. This applies whether one read the verses in the wrong order, or read the paragraphs in the wrong order.
Made a mistake-skipped verse: If one made a mistake [and continued the Hallel], then he is to return to the area of the mistake and repeat from there. Thus, if one skipped a verse and then remembered later on, he is not to recite the verse in the area that he remembered, but is rather to retract to that verse and continue from there. If he does not remember which verse he skipped then he is to return to the beginning of that paragraph.
Sparks of Chassidus
The meaning and effect of Hallel:
The term Hallel means praise. This has one of two meanings. 1) That we thank and praise G-d for the great joy and for the revelations given to us from above. 2) That we draw down a revelation below. There is no contradiction between the two explanations, and rather it means that by us praising G-d we cause the great revelation of G-dliness below, which is the source of our joy.
The reading of the Torah:
Moshe Rabbeinu established for the Jewish people that on every Yom Tov one is to read the Torah portion dealing with that Holiday. The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of the Torah that is read on each holiday.
Haftorah: The reading of the Haftorah was instituted by the Anshei Kneses Hagedola. They instituted that one should read from Navi on every holiday from a portion that deals with the holiday events. The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of Navi that is read on each holiday.
The Maftir: [Maftir in truth refers to the reading of the portion from Navi formally known as the Haftorah. It comes from the word Petor which means finish, as the reading is completed with the Haftorah.] However, the person that reads the Maftir from Navi is also required to first read a section from the Torah. In the times of the Sages of the Mishneh and Talmud the Maftir would read from the Torah as part of the five Aliyos that were read from the portion of that Holiday which was read from the first Torah scroll. [There was hence no second scroll taken out from the ark] However, in later generations, the Rabanan Savuraiy established, and so was accustomed by the Geonim which followed them, that the Maftir is to read [from a second scroll] the portion of the Musaf sacrifice written in Parshas Pinchas. This institution was based on the following teaching of the Sages: Avraham stated in front of Hashem “Master of the world when the Temple is not in existence the children of Israel do not have on what to find support. What will be with my children when they sin? Perhaps you will do to them as you did to the generation of the Mabul and Haflaga. Hashem answered “I have already established for them the order of the Karbanos. When the Karbanos are read, I consider it as if they sacrificed the Karban before me and I forgive all of their sins. [Regarding why the Maftir is read as the sixth Aliyah and is not part of the five Aliyos-see chapter 282/10-13!]
Two Torah scrolls: Being that two different sections of the Torah need to be read on Yom Tov, therefore, one is initially required to remove two Torah scrolls; one for the Holiday reading, and the second for the Maftir. It does not suffice to remove only one Torah scroll and then roll it to the Parsha of Musafim [for Maftir]. [The scrolls are to be rolled to their proper places prior to Davening. Doing so is not to be delayed until Kerias Hatorah. If only one scroll is available then the two portions are to be read from the same scroll.]
The recital of Akdamos:
Yud Gimmel Middos-Hashem Hashem:
When the Shalosh Regalim fall on a weekday the 13 attributes [i.e. passage of Hashem Hashem] is recited one time when the Ark is opened to remove the Torah scrolls, prior to Berich Shmei. If Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, the Yud Gimmel Middos [and Ribono Shel Olam] is not recited. After the recital of Hashem one recites the prayer of Ribono Shel Olam [one time]. [Likewise, the verse of Veani Sefilasi, which is recited after the Ribono Shel Olam is only recited one time.] This is then followed by the prayer of Berich Shmei.
First day of Shavuos: On the first day of Shavuos, after reciting Hallel, two Torah scrolls are removed from the Aron. The Torah scroll is to be rolled to its proper section before Davening in order to prevent delay for the congregation. By the first scroll, five men are called up for Aliyos and [a portion from] the Parsha of Yisro is read. One reads from the words “Bachodesh Hashlishi Latzei until the end of the Parsha. [After the above reading the second scroll is placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish. Hagba is then done to the first scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagba. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil. When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.]
Second day of Shavuos in Diaspora: On the second day of Yom Tov two Torah scrolls are removed from the Aron. By the first Torah scroll one calls up five Aliyos and reads the Parsha of “Kol HaBechor”. [After the above reading the second scroll is then placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish. Hagba is then done to the first scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagba. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil. When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.]
Standing for Aseres Hadibros: The custom is to stand facing the Torah scroll during the reading of the Aseres Hadibros.
Who is to be called up for the reading of the ten commandments? Some communities are accustomed to call up the Rav of the community for the Aliyah of Aseres Hadibros. [This is not the Chabad custom. Nevertheless, if lack of doing so will be seen as a form of disrespect to the community Rabbi, one is to be meticulous to give him the Aliyah.]
Having all men, women and children come to hear the reading of Aseres Hadibros:
It states in the Psikta that G-d told the Jewish people “When you read the Ten Commandments each year, I consider it as if you were standing on Mount Sinai accepting the Torah.” For this reason, all members of Jewry are to attend the Torah reading of the Aseres Hadibros. This includes men, women and children of all ages, including even infants who were just born; just as was the case by Matan Torah.
Q&A relating to Mivtza Kerias Hatorah of Shavuos:
May one remove a Sefer Torah from a Shul in order to read for others in a different area?
No. One is to arrange that people come to Shul for the Torah reading. It is forbidden to remove the Sefer Torah and bring it to the area the people are found, unless one prepares an Aron for the Sefer Torah in its new location and it is brought there some time prior to the reading, and the Sefer Torah will remain there for 1-2 days, and one will read from at least on three different occasions.
How many people are needed for a Minyan?
One may not read from the Torah [with its blessings] with less than ten adult men above the age of Mitzvos. Many Poskim rule that if at least six people amongst the ten have not yet heard Kerias Hatorah and still need to be Yotzei, one may perform Kerias Hatorah with its blessing.
May six people who already heard the reading join for the Minyan if they had in mind to not be Yotzei?
Yes. One who has in mind to not be Yotzei is considered still obligated to hear the reading. They can also make a stipulation that if they will be needed for another Minyan then they have in mind to not be Yotzei.
When making another reading must the Maftir and Haftorah also be read?
If there are six people present who did not yet hear the Maftir/Haftorah, or who heard but had in mind to not be Yotzei, then it is to be read.
The punctuation for the reading of the Aseres Hadibros:
In the Ten Commandments, there are two forms of reading melodies. The readings differ in their stop points within the verses and in their vocalization.
First method: In the first method each command is read as a single verse. This applies whether the command is long [i.e. split to many verses] or short [the verse includes many commands]. This means that the verses of Anochi, Lo Yihyeh Lecha, Lo Saseh Lecha, lo Sishtachaveh and Oseh Chesed is all read as one verse. Likewise, the verses of Zachor, Sheshes Yamim, Yom Hashevi, and Veki Sheses are all read as one verse. Likewise, the two words of Lo Tirtzach is one complete verse. Likewise, the two words of Lo Tinaf is one complete verse. The same applies for the words Lo Tignov. [In this method, the words Tirtzach, Tinaf and Tignov are recited with a Taf and not a Saf.]
Second method: In the second method, each verse is read as a single verse [even if they only contain part of the command or contain more than one command]. Thus, the verse of Anochi is one verse, and the verse of Lo Yihyeh Lecha is a second verse. Likewise, Zachor is read as one verse, and Sheshes Yamim as a second verse. Likewise, the words Lo Tirtzach, Lo Tinaf, Lo Tignov, and Lo Seaneh is all read as one verse.
Final practice: On Shavuos, the custom is to read for the congregation like the first method, to read each command as a separate verse. Furthermore, there are those who are accustomed to read like the first method for the congregation even on Shabbos Parshas Yisro and on Shabbos Parshas Vaeschanan, and only a private individual who reads the verses to himself reads it in the second method.
For Maftir of both days of Shavuos one reads from the second Torah scroll the portion of “Ubeyom Habikkurim” found in the Parsha of Pinchas. After Maftir, one performs Hagba to the second scroll and reads the Haftorah.
First day: The Haftorah of the 1st day of Shavuos is read from the Merkavah of Yechezkal. The custom is to conclude with the verse “Vatisaeini Ruach”, even though it is not written at all by the Merkavah.
Second day: The Haftorah of the second day is read from “Tefilah Lechabakuk” until the words “Lamnatzeiach Beniginosaiy”. Some places are accustomed to begin the Haftorah from the words “VeHashem Beheichal Kodesh”, [and so is the Chabad custom].
Standing for the reading of the Haftorah: Throughout all the Haftorahs of the year, the person reading the Haftorah aloud must initially stand when doing so out of honor for the congregation. In addition, [on the 1st day of Shavuos] some have the custom for all those who read the Haftorah of Merkavah Yichezekel, along quietly with the reader, to stand during the reading of. [However, those who do not read along quietly with the reader, there is no custom for them to stand. Practically, the Chabad custom is to always read a Haftorah quietly along with the reader, although it is not necessarily our custom to stand even for the Haftorah of Shavuos. Each community is to follow the directive of their Rav regarding this matter.]
Wishing Mazal Tov:
It was customary amongst the original Chassidim to wish each other Mazal Tov on Shavuos. At first, this wish was given during the Torah reading, however due to the Halachic issue of making an interval, it was therefore delayed until after the Torah reading. Later, it was pushed off until after Davening. The Rebbe Rayatz concludes “I remember that the elderly Chassidim in Lubavitch would wish each other Mazal Tov.”
 Admur 488:1
 It is unclear what additions Admur is referring to in the Maariv prayer. Perhaps it refers to the prayer of Mizmor Shir Leyom Hashabbos. [See P”M 488 A”A 1] However, the Poskim negate this recital during Maariv of Yom Tov. [Chok Yaakov 488:1; Machatzis Hashekel 488:1; P”M 488 A”A 1] Alternatively, it refers to Lechu Neranena, or Lecha Dodi. [P”M ibid] Practically, on a Yom Tov that falls on a weekday, a regular Maariv prayer is followed until Shemoneh Esrei without any additional Mizmorim that are normally added on Shabbos.
 Admur ibid; Michaber 488:1
 Siddur Rasag p. 120; Abudarham; Beis Yosef 51
 Admur ibid; M”A 488:1; Maharil Seder Hatefilos p. 146; Darkei Moshe 488:1
The reason: As also Yom Tov is called Shabbos, as the verse [Vayikra 23:11] states “Mimacharas Hashabbos Yanifenu etc.” [Admur ibid]
 Admur 488:2; 490:6-7 regarding Pesach; 494:4 regarding Shavuos; 644:1 regarding Sukkos and Pesach; 131:5; Siddur Admur; Siddur Shelah; Michaber 488:1; Rambam Chanukah 3:5; Shmuel Pesachim 117a; Erechin 10a; Taanis 28b
 Siddur Admur; The Siman for this is בבט”ח
 Admur 644:1
 Admur ibid; Rambam and Raavad ibid; Pesachim ibid
 Pashut! See Michaber 422:2 regarding Rosh Chodesh
 Admur 106:2; M”A 422:5; Mishnah Sukkah 38a; Tosafus Brachos 20b; Kaf Hachaim 422:28; See Admur in Kuntres Acharon 296:3
The reason: As it is a Rabbinical time dependent Mitzvah. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]
 Kesher Gudal 23:7; Beis Oved 16
 422:2; See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin for an overview in this matter
 Siddur Admur; The Siman for this is בבט”ח
 The reason: As the saying of Hallel on these days is a Rabbinical command that was instituted by the prophets. [Admur ibid]
 Pashut! As every individual is obligated in its recital. This is unlike the ruling regarding the abridged Hallel, in which case it is a mere custom, and hence subject to debate as to when a blessing is justified.
 Siddur Admur; Admur 488:2 [with slight nuance as explained next]; Rama 488:1; M”A 488:1; Tur 488 in name of Maharam Mirothenberg 464; Mordechai Shabbos 286
 So is the Nussach in the Siddur ibid, however in 488:2 Admur writes “Likros Hahalel.” The M”A ibid writes “Likro Hahallel.”
 Admur 488:2 in Stam opinion, and in conclusion; Taz 488:1; M”A 488:1; Tur in name of Maharam ibid; Mordechai ibid
The reason: As perhaps he will skip one word or even one letter, and it will cause his blessing to have been in vain, as he did not read it completely. [Admur ibid; Poskim ibid]
Other opinions in Admur: Some provinces are accustomed to recite “Ligmor Hahallel” in the blessing. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Tosafus Brachos 14a; Rambam ibid; Rosh Pesachim 2:5] They are not worried of the above-mentioned issue being that Ligmor can also mean reading. Nevertheless, it is better [even for them] to say Likros, like our custom. [Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 488:1]
 Admur 213:6; The advantage of fulfilling the blessing through one person is “Berov Am Hadras Melech”, (while the advantage of saying their own individual blessing is to personally say the blessing rather than be Yotzei through a messenger, and thus increase in blessings.) [See Admur ibid]
 Admur 489:1 as explained in previous footnote; M”A 213:7 and Tosefta Brachos 6:20 “Ten people who are doing a Mitzvah together”, implying that less than ten does not contain Berov Am; This can also be implied from Admur 8:11 and Michaber 8:5 who rules “If a few people are wearing the Tallis simultaneously, each one says their own blessing each person is to say the blessing on his own, although if they want, they can choose to have one person say the blessing, and the remainder will listen and answer Amen.”, now from the fact that Admur/Michaber plainly stated that each one should say the blessing on their own implies that it is preferable. [So learns M”B 8:13 in his initial inference]
 Admur 619:8 regarding Shehechiyanu, Birchas Hallel and Lulav “Although it is proper to be Yotzei with the Chazan due to Berov Am, nevertheless today …. every person should recite the blessing himself”; M”A 619:3; Chayeh Adam 5:17; M”B 8:13 that so is custom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 213:2
The reason: As in majority of instances the Chazan does not have in mind to be Motzi the congregation. Admur ibid; Chayeh Adam ibid; M”B ibid]
 As is the simple understanding of Admur in 619:8 that when saying the blessing of Hallel to oneself one is to say it prior to the Chazan and answer Amen to his blessing. See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin under Hallel; So rules also Yesod Veshoresh Havodah 12:4 regarding reading Megillah, that the listeners may answer Amen to the Chazzan’s blessing even if they already said their own blessing beforehand.
 As finishing the blessing prior to the Chazan causes an issue of an interval as how can one answer Amen prior to beginning Hallel after his blessing. So rules Yalkut Yosef Moadim 5:295 regarding the above case of Megillah; See Panim Meiros 2:5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 167:11; See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin ibid
 Admur 213:4 (in parentheses) regarding all blessings; 489:12 regarding the Sefira; [See however Admur 296:17; 6:9, explained below]; Rashba 1:458, brought in Beis Yosef 489, regarding blessings; Rama 489:3 regarding blessing of Sefira “If he had in mind to not be Yotzei”; M”A 489:8, explained in Machatzis Hashekel and P”M 489 A”A 8; Elya Raba 489:12; M”B 489:17 limits this ruling to only blessings [and not verbal Mitzvos]; Michaber 6:4 regarding Birchas Hashachar “They intend to not be Yotzei”; Tehila Ledavid 6:4 in understanding of Michaber ibid [See however Michaber 489:3 and M”B 48918 who implies one is not Yotzei unless he has Kavana to be Yotzei] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 489:8;
Source of Admur’s ruling: This ruling of Admur that one can fulfill a verbal Mitzvah through overhearing another is a novelty that is not explicitly recorded in Poskim prior to Admur. However, it is rooted in a response of the Rashba 1:458 regarding whether one may repeat a blessing after hearing it from the Chazan, to which the Rashba answer’s that one may only do so if he had in mind to not be Yotzei, however if he had no Kavana then he is Yotzei according to those who rule that Mitzvos don’t need Kavana. This ruling of the Rashba is recorded and hinted to in the Michaber ibid and Rama ibid as well as the other Poskim. The novelty of Admur ibid is that he extends this ruling even to the Mitzvah of Sefira. It is possible to learn this way as well in the M”A ibid. as explained in the Machatzis Hashekel and P”M ibid.
 Yeshuos Yaakov 422:6; Siddur Yaavetz; Kaf Hachaim 422:28 in name of Yeshuos Yaakov ibid
 Biur Halacha 422:2 “Hallel”
 Yeshuos Yaakov ibid; Biur Halacha ibid
 Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 422:33
 Admur 488:3; Rambam Chanukah 3:9; Mishneh Megillah 20b
 Admur ibid; See also regarding Shofar: 588:1; Michaber 588:1
 The reason: As it appears like night in the eyes of the masses. [Admur ibid] In 588:1 Admur writes as follows regarding Shofar: Biblically, day begins from Alos Hashachar regarding all Halachic matters. Nevertheless, the Sages decreed that one must delay blowing the Shofar until after sunrise being that not all people are expert in the definition of Alos and hence in order to be certain that it is day, one must wait until sunrise. [Admur ibid; Rashi Megillah ibid]
 Admur 488:3; 131:5 in parentheses; See Rosh Hashanah 32b; Megillah 20b; 156:17
 The reason: As Zerizin Makdimim Lemitzvos. [ibid]
 See Admur 488:3, brought in next Halacha; Vetzrauch Iyun as to why even initially Hallel was not established to be recited prior to Shacharis. Perhaps the reason is because Hallel may only be recited after sunrise while one may Daven up until Shemoneh Esrei prior to sunrise.
 Shalmei Tzibur 223; Beis Oved 6; Kaf Hachaim 422:38
 Nitei Gavriel Chanukah 49:5; Regarding Shofar: Chayeh Adam 141:1; 144:20; Mishneh Berurah 588:1; Kaf Hachaim 588:2; 600:12; Regarding Lulav: M”A 658; Regarding Megillah: M”B 687:5; Kaf Hachaim 687:9; P”M 692 M”Z 3
Opinion of Admur: Admur ibid rules that from Alos until Tzeis is the permitted time for reciting Hallel. So writes Admur also regarding Shofar in 588:1 and 18:8 regarding Tzitzis. The source of Admur is from the Gemara Megillah 20b which states that until Tzeis Hakochavim it is considered day. This seems to imply that during Bein Hashmashos one may recite Hallel and blow Shofar even with a blessing! This is further inferred from the change of wording from the Tur 588 which writes simply “until night” while Admur specifies Tzeis. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol, as Bein Hashmashos is questionable whether it is night or day as rules Admur is 261:1, hence how can one say a blessing at that time. Practically, the Poskim rule one is to not recite a blessing past sunset. Likewise, in the Siddur Admur retracted his ruling regarding Tzitzis, and rules the blessing may not be recited after sunset.
 Sheilas Yaavetz 40; Birkeiy Yosef 422:5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 422:5; Kaf Hachaim 422:30
 Admur 488:3;
 The reason: This is to be done in order so one be able to answer the prayer of Hodu and Ana together with the Chazan. [ibid] Alternatively, it is done in order to be Yotzei the Bracha with the congregation
 Admur ibid
 Kol Bo; M”A 422:6; Mentioned in 131:5
 Shalmei Tzibur 223; Beis Oved 6; Kaf Hachaim 422:38
 Admur ibid; M”A 422:6
 The reason: As the blessing of before and after Hallel would be considered an interval between the blessings of Baruch Sheamar and Yishtabach which are already recited in Pesukei Dezimra. Thus, only on Rosh Chodesh and the like in which some Poskim rule a blessing is never recited is one to make an interval and read it without a blessing. [M”A ibid]
 Igros Kodesh 17:67 [See also Igros Kodesh 15:170; 18:81; see Shulchan Menachem 2:250; Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:175]
 Hiskashrus 748; Rabbi Groner related in the name of the Rebbe, who said in the name of the Rebbe Rayatz, who said in the name of the Rebbe Rashab, that Hallel is not to be said outside of the order of Davening, as Davening Shemoneh Esrei without Hallel is like an old bread that has been baked a long time ago. [Hiskashrus 748]
 Igros Kodesh 17:67 [See also Igros Kodesh 15:170; 18:81; see Shulchan Menachem 2:250; Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:175]
 See Admur 488:4; Sukkah 38; M”A 422:5; Biur Halacha 422:6 “Hallel”
The original Takana for reciting Hallel was for the leader of the congregation to recite Hallel aloud, and the congregation would listen quietly and answer Hallelukah after each stanza recited by the Chazan. [Rashi Sukkah 38a-b] There were a total of 123 Hallelukas said by the congregation. [Rambam Chanukah 3:12] In addition they would repeat the first verse of each paragraph after the Chazan [Roshei Perakim]. This custom gradually changed throughout the years, as is testified by the Gemara ibid 38b, in which those that knew how to recite Hallel would recite it on their own while those that did not would hear it from the Chazan and recite Hallelukah. Eventually, everyone became expert in the recital of Hallel and the custom of hearing Hallel from the Chazan and answering Hallelukah eventually became abolished. [See Sukkah ibid Rashi 38b “Miminhaga Dehaleila”; Mefarshim ibid]
 Mishneh Sukkah 39a; M”A 422:5; Admur 488:4
 Pashut, as any area which he did not hear has the same status as one who skipped that area.
 See Mishneh ibid; M”A ibid in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham “He can fulfill the obligation whether for an individual [Yachid] or whether for a congregation”
 M”A ibid in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham
 Mishneh ibid; M”A ibid in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham
 Peri Chadash brought in Biur Halacha ibid
 M”A ibid in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham; Sukkah 38b “If he listened and did not answer-Yotzei”; Tosafus ibid “Shama” explains this to refer to “If he does not know how to read or how to answer the Hallelukah”; So explains also Biur Halacha 422:6 “Hallel”
 Admur 488:4; Michaber 488:2; Megillah 21b
 The reason: Although when two voices are heard simultaneously one cannot properly decipher even one of the voices, as explained in 141:2, nevertheless, since Hallel is beloved onto the congregation they therefore pay very close attention to hear it and are therefore able to hear it well even when many sounds are coming from many people. [Admur ibid; M”A 488:2; Megillah ibid]
 Mishnah Sukkah 8a; M”A 422:5; Kaf Hachaim 422:28
 The reason: As she is exempt from the Mitzvah.
 The reason: As he should have learned to recite Hallel himself, and if he is knowledgeable and still chooses to repeat after a woman then he will be punished for choosing such a Shliach. [ibid]
 Biur Halacha 422:2 “Hallel”; unlike the simple implication in M”A ibid
 M”B ibid concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun
 The reason: As the Hallel of Rosh Chodesh is a mere custom of which men and some women have accepted upon themselves and hence there is no reason to differentiate between a man and a woman. [ibid]
 Admur 479:6 regarding Hallel of the night of the Seder; Peri Chadash brought in Kesher Guda 23:8; Beis Oved 15; Kaf Hachaim 422:27
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a child that has reached the age of Chinuch may read Hallel on behalf of another, being it is only a Rabbinical command. [Riaz brought in Kneses Hagedola; Kaf Hachaim 422:27]
 The reason: As a child is exempt from all the Mitzvos of the Torah and is only Rabbinically obligated in them in order to educate him in Mitzvos. [Admur ibid]
 M”B ibid concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun regarding women
 Biur Halacha 422:2 “Hallel” regarding having women read on behalf of men; unlike the simple implication in M”A ibid; The same would seemingly apply to a child
The reason: As the Hallel of Rosh Chodesh is a mere custom in which both men and children who have reached the age of Chinuch equally accepted upon themselves and hence there is no reason to differentiate between a man and a child. [Based on Biur Halacha ibid regarding children]
 The Kaf Hachaim ibid does not record any leniency attributed to Rosh Chodesh in this regard
 Admur 62:2; Tosafus Sotah 32a; Kneses Hagedola 422:7; Peri Chadash; Kaf Hachaim 422:26
 Bach 193
 Michaber 422:3; Mishneh Sukkah 38a
 The reason for repeating verses: Many of the verses of Tehillim that are recited in Hallel from Hodu Lahashem and Min Hameitzar are repeated within the Psalm by David Hamelech. Such as the words “Tov lachasos Bahashem.. Tov Lachasos, and other verses of the like. Therefore some places are accustomed to also repeat the latter verses starting from Odecha. [Rashi 38a]
 Tur 422; M”B 422:19; Shaar Hakavanos p. 103; Kaf Hachaim 422:43
Other customs: In Sefarad the custom is not to repeat the verses of Baruch Haba and Keil Hashem. [Tur ibid; See Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Michaber 422:3
The recital of verses after the Chazan is recorded in the Gemara Sukkah 39b. The reason behind this repetition is to serve as a reminder of the original Takana of the Sages in the recital of Hallel. Originally the congregation would simply listen to the Hallel of the Chazan and recite the word Hallelukah after every stanza. There was a total of 123 Hallelukas said by the congregation. [Rambam Chanukah 3:12] In addition, they would repeat the first verse of each paragraph after the Chazan [Roshei Perakim]. In remembrance of this custom it is accustomed even today to repeat the verse of Hodu after the Chazan. [See Sukkah 39b; Rashi “Mikan”]
 The custom used to be for only the Chazan to recite the stanzas of Yomar, Yomru Nah Beis and Yomru Nah Yirei. The congregation would listen and hence fulfill their obligation. Nevertheless, since at times the congregation does not listen properly to the Chazzan’s recital, as well as that the Chazan at times does not have in mind to fulfill their obligation, therefore, it is better for each person to say the Stanzas to himself. [M”A 422:8; M”B 422:20; See Kaf Hachaim 422:44] Practically, so is the custom today.
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 81 [English]; M”B 422:20
 See Kaf Hachaim 422:45 in name of Tosafus 38b and Kol Bo regarding why it is permitted to stop in middle of the verse
 See Hiskashrus 439; Siddur Rav Raskin p. 478
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 69 [English]; Hayom Yom 30th Tishreiy-1st of Cheshvan
 Rama 422:2; Rama 479:1 regarding the night of the Seder; Admur 479:6 regarding the night of the Seder; See also Sefer Haminhagim p. 41
 Admur ibid; M”B 422:17
Other opinions: The custom is to recite the stanzas of Hodu bit not of Ana. [Rama ibid; Gr”a; M”B 422:18; Kaf Hachaim 422:41
 The reason: On days that one does not recite the complete Hallel this is to be done as there are opinions that say that a Zimun of three is considered a congregation which warrants a blessing to be said, and hence in order to say a blessing according to all one should strive to have at least three people. [Lechem Chamudos brought in M”A 422:7; M”B 422:18; Kaf Hachaim 422:39] Furthermore, it is to be done even on days that we recite the complete Hallel in order so one is able to read the Hodu to another person. [Igur 815; Shivlei Haleket brought in M”A ibid] Alternatively, it is because it is a Mitzvah to answer Roshei Perakim when reciting Hallel. [Mordechai brought in M”A ibid]
 M”A 422:7; Admur ibid regarding the night of the Seder
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the above law only applies to days when the incomplete Hallel is recited due to the first reason cited above. [Lechem Chamudos ibid]
 Admur ibid; Elya Raba 422:11; Kaf Hachaim 422:39
 Admur ibid; M”A 479:2; Taz 479:3; Igur 815; Rosh 10:32
Does this apply to all Hallel or only to Hallel of the night of the Seder? The M”A ibid implies that only the night of the Seder this applies, being that women are obligated in the Mitzvah of Hallel on the night of the Seder just like men. However from the Iggur ibid it is implied that this law applies by all Hallel and not just the night of the Seder. So is also implied from the Taz ibid who states that only the men are obligated in the Hallel, unlike the M”A ibid. Vetzaruch Iyun!
 Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Taz ibid; Igur 815
 Admur ibid
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 69 [English]; Hayom Yom 1st Teves based on gloss of Tzemach Tzedek; Shaar Hakolel 37:8; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; Rasag; Rambam Megillah 3:10; Abudarham; Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach p. 46; See Igros Kodesh 2:147 that Rav Yaakov Landa claimed the Rebbe Rashab would say the word Al, although the Rebbe Rayatz did not do so.
 Admur 488:3; Michaber/Rama 422:4 and 488:1
 Admur ibid; Rama ibid
The reason: As the recital of Hallel on these days is a Rabbinical obligation and Mitzvah and hence receives a stricter status. [Admur ibid]
 Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 422; Kaf Hachaim 422:47
 Michaber 422:5; Kaf Hachaim 422:49; Admur 488:3 refers the reader to 422; Regarding interval during Shema see 65:1; Regarding an interval during Shofar see M”A 588:2; Regarding an interval during Megillah see M”B 690:18
It is a dispute amongst Rishonim and Poskim in whether an interval invalidates a Mitzvah other than Shemoneh Esrei. The Rif; Rambam and Michaber 65:1 rule one never has to repeat the Mitzvah even if he made an interval due to Ones. The Tosafos; Rosh rule that if one made an interval due to Ones that equals in time to the amount of the Mitzvah, then he must repeat the Mitzvah in all cases. The Rama rules like this opinion regarding Biblical commands [Rama and Admur 65:1] and rules like the Rif regarding Rabbinical commands. Hence according to the Rama, an interval during the reading of Hallel does not invalidate the reading. [Darkei Moshe 422:5; Shaar Hatziyon ibid that it is for this reason that the Rama here did not argue on the ruling of the Michaber] However the Levush; Olas Shabbos; Elya Raba and Bach rule like the Tosafus and Rosh even by Rabbinical commands. The M”A 422:9 concludes that by Rabbinical commands [such as Hallel] one is to repeat the Mitzvah without a blessing. [Biur Halacha 65 “Karah Seirugin”; Kaf Hachaim 690:35; See Kaf Hachaim 588:14]
 Michaber ibid; Implication of Rama [Shaar Hatziyon 422:22]; Darkei Moshe 422
 Implication of M”A 422:9; M”B 422:24 in name of Beis Yosef; Darkei Moshe 422:5; Levush; Kaf Hachaim 422:49; See Admur 65:1
 Tosafus; Rosh; Levush; Olas Shabbos; Elya Raba and Bach. The M”A 422:9 concludes that by Rabbinical commands [such as Hallel] one is to repeat the Mitzvah without a blessing. [Biur Halacha ibid; Kaf Hachaim 690:35; See Kaf Hachaim 588:14]
 See M”A 422:9; M”B 422:24
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to be stringent even regarding those days that half Hallel is recited. [Bach brought in M”A ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 422:23]
 M”A 422:9; M”B 422:25; Kaf Hachaim ibid
 Admur 65:1 regarding the law by Shema
 Michaber 422:7; Admur 473:48; Shivlei Haleket 174
 The reason: The reason Hallel is recited while standing is because it serves as a testimony of praise to Hashem for all the miracles he has performed for us, and all testimonies must be performed standing. Alternatively, it is due to the verse recited in Hallel which states “Hallelu Es Hashem Omdim”. [Shivlei Haleket; Taz 422:4; M”B 422:28]
The reason that Hallel on the night of Pesach is nevertheless recited sitting: As on the night of Pesach all the actions are done in a way of Cheirus/freedom. [Admur ibid]
 M”A 422:11; Elya Raba 422:17; Chayeh Adam 118:9; See Admur 581:1 regarding Shofar
 Biur Halacha 422 “Meumad”; Regarding Shofar: Admur 581:1; Drashos Maharil Shofar; Darkei Moshe 585; M”A 585:1; Peri Chadash 585; Elya Raba 585:1; Birkeiy Yosef 585:4; Shaareiy Teshuvah 585:1; Chayeh Adam 141:6; M”E 585:5; M”B 585:2; Kaf Hachaim 585:4
The reason: As in such a case this leaning is not defined as standing but as leaning. [Admur ibid; See also 607:7]
 The reason: As anytime that standing is required it is forbidden to lean. This is opposed to the law by the Azara in which leaning is permitted, as standing is not required and rather it is only forbidden to sit due to disrespect. [M”A ibid] See Biur Halacha 422 “Meumad” for a discussion on this matter and why leaning by Hallel should be permitted based on the Shivlei Haleket which basis his ruling on the fact that they would stand in the Azara. Nevertheless, he concludes that based on the reason of the verse of Hallelu Es Hashem Omdim one should not lean.
 P”M 422 M”Z 4; M”B 422:28; Kaf Hachaim 422:58; Regarding Shofar: Admur ibid; M”A 585:1; Peri Chadash 585; Elya Raba 585:3; Birkeiy Yosef 585:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 585:1; Chayeh Adam 141:6; M”E 585:5; M”B 585:2; Kaf Hachaim 585:5
 The reason: As the above obligation to stand is a merely Rabbinical enactment. [Admur ibid regarding Shofar]
 422:6; Megillah 17b
 Michaber ibid; Megillah ibid
The reason: This is learned from the verse “Memizrach Shemesh Ad Mevoa Mehulal Sheim Hashem” that just like the sun travels from east to west, so too the praising of Hashem must follow an exact order and cannot be said retroactively. [M”B 422:26; Megillah ibid]
 M”A 422:10
 M”B ibid based on Michaber 64:1 regarding reading the paragraphs of Shema in the wrong order
 Peri Chadash 422; P”M 422 A”A 9; implication of Olas Tamid 690:6; M”B 422:26 in name of Poskim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 422:50; Implication of Admur 64:1 rules that the reason why by Shema it is valid if the paragraphs are said in the wrong order is because in the Torah itself the paragraphs are not in proximity to each other. This would imply that by Hallel, in which the paragraphs are proximate to each other, it would be invalid.
 The reason: As the order in which we read the Hallel follows the order that they are written in the Torah, and hence it is not similar to Shema. [M”B ibid]
 M”B 422:26; Kaf Hachaim 422:51
 Days in which Hallel is obligatory: Seemingly this applies even during days that Hallel is an obligation. However see M”B ibid which implies that if one read the verses in the wrong order by those days in which Hallel is obligatory, the blessing is to be repeated. However from Kaf Hachaim ibid it implies one never repeats the blessing even in such a case. See also Kaf Hachaim 690:40 and the next footnote in the second reason
 M”B 422:26
The reason: As one who read the paragraphs in the wrong order, some Poskim rule it is valid, and Safek Brachos Lihakel. [M”B ibid] Furthermore, even regarding one who read the verses in the wrong order, seemingly on Rosh Chodesh, being that the entire reading of Hallel is only a custom, and therefore we specifically skip two paragraphs, then Bedieved one should fulfill his obligation, as why should reading in the wrong order be more severe than skipping a verse. Thus, although certainly one should repeat the Hallel in all cases, nonetheless one should not repeat the blessing. [M”B ibid and Biur Halacha 422:6 “Lemafreia”] Another reason not to require the repetition of a blessing is because in any event the invalidation traces back only until the area of disorder, however, all the verses recited until that point are valid. It is thus considered like one who read part of Hallel and then made an interval, in which case we rule that he is simply to continue from where he left off, as an interval does not invalidate the original blessing. [See Halacha H regarding making an interval in Hallel]
 Rama ibid; Rabbeinu Yerucham
 M”A 422:10
 M”B 422:27; Beis Yosef based on Rabbeinu Yerucham; See Biur Halacha 422:6 “Lemakom Shetah” which questions this ruling
 Likkutei Torah Tzav page 28
 Admur ibid; 282:1; M”A 135:1; 535; Rambam Tefila 13:8; Mishneh Megillah 31a
The hint in scripture: The above institution is hinted to in the verse “Vayidaber Moshe Es Moadeiy Hashem El Bnei Yisrael”, from which we learn that Moshe established that each Parsha of the Moadim is to be read at its proper time. [Admur ibid]
 Admur ibid; Megillah ibid
 Admur 282:1; 488:5; M”A 135:1
 The reason: The reason behind the different number of Aliyos [Three during the week; Four on Rosh Chodesh; Five on Yom Tov; six on Rosh Hashanah; seven on Shabbos] is based on the levels of holiness that each day contains over the other days. See 282:1 for further details on this matter.
 Admur 488:5
 Admur ibid; Sefer Hamachria 31 in name of Rabbeinu Tam that it was instituted by Ezra
 Admur 488:6
 Admur 282:10; 488:6
 Admur 488:6; Michaber 144:3
 One must read from the Parsha of the Holiday, as per the institution of Moshe Rabbeinu, and one must also read the Karbanos from Parshas Pinchas, as per the institution of the Rabanan Savuraiy.
 The reason: As one may not roll a Sefer Torah in front of the congregation due to respect of the congregation. [Admur ibid]
 See M”B 144:13
 Michaber 144:3; Although the scroll will need to be rolled to the proper place of the second reading, after completing the first reading, nevertheless since there is no other scroll available we allow it to be rolled and differ the “respect of the Tzibur”. [ibid; See M”B 144:16]
 Admur 494:7
 When is the Akdamos recited? Some have the custom to recite Hakdamos after the Kohen reads the 1st verse in the Torah reading. One should not protest against those who do so, even though they are making an interval during the reading with a matter that is not relevant to the reading, as they have upon whom to rely. However, in a place where there is no custom, it is best to say the Akdamos before the Kohen begins the blessing over the Torah reading. The same applies for the Piyut of Yatziv Pisgam. On the second day of Shavuos it is best to recite the Akdamos prior to the blessings of the Haftorah, and so is the custom today in many places. [Admur ibid]
 Hayom Yom p. 59; Sefer Haminhagim p. 87 [English]; Igros Kodesh 18:427 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:40]; Letters and Sichas in Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 302-304; This is also the custom of the Sefaradim [Igros Kodesh ibid]
Custom of the Rebbe: The Rebbe was accustomed to say the Akdamos quietly to himself on Shavuos. It was said before, and between, the Aliyos, of the Torah reading. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 303]
 Siddur Admur
 Admur ibid; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar 20:3
It is not customary to recite the words “Vayavor Hashem Al Panav” prior to saying it being that the Hashem is recited as a prayer and not as a verse in the Torah. [Halichos Olam brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 584 footnote 16, unlike Mateh Efraim 584:584:16; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 206].
 Darkei Chaim Veshalom 715; Siddur Rav Raskin footnote 72
 Implication of Admur in Siddur; Shaareiy Efraim 10:5 See Sefer Haminhagim p. 119 [English Edition]; Hayom Yom 10th Tishrei; Hisvadus 6th Tishrei 1970; Shaareiy Teshuvah 488:1; Likkutei Maharich Pesach based on Ramaz; Custom brought in M”E 584:16; Luach Eretz Yisrael; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 210; Piskeiy Teshuvos 488:3
 This prayer was established with Ruach Hakodesh by the Arizal. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 584:3; See Kaf Hachaim 134:11; Shaar Hakavanos p. 89] On Rosh Hashanah the words “Umechol Al Kol Avonosaiy” is omitted as we do not mention sin on Rosh Hashanah. [See Siddur Admur; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 205]
 Shaareiy Teshuvah 488 [“so is the custom”]; implication of Admur in Siddur [Rav Raskin p. 300]
Other Opinions: According to the Arizal one is to recite the prayer of Ribono Shel Olam three times. [Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Tefilos R”H]
 Implication of Admur in Siddur and so is the Chabad custom
Other customs: Some have the custom to recite the verse of Veani Sefilasi three times. [Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar R”H; Siddur Shlah]
 Siddur Admur; Ketzei Hamateh 619:48 [so is custom of world] unlike the custom brought in Shaareiy Efraim 10:5 and Mateh Efraim 619:48
 Admur 488:5
 Admur 494:4
 Pashut as this is the entire reason for why we are to take out two Sifrei Torahs.
 The reason: As this Parsha discusses the matters that occurred on Shavuos, which is the giving of the Torah. [ibid]
 See 282:12 for the reason why Kaddish is recited between the five Aliyos and Maftir.
 Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42
 See Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4
 See 282:12 for the reason why Kaddish is recited between the five Aliyos and Maftir.
 Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42
 See Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4
 Hayom Yom p. 59; Sefer Haminhagim
 M”A 428:8
 The Magen Avraham ibid writes that the custom in some places is to only call up the Rabbis of the community, or a great scholar for the reading of the Ten Commandments. However, the Alter Rebbe does not make any mention of this here. The Rebbe in 5746 emphasized that this custom is to certainly be practiced in a scenario that there are those which despise and try to undermine the Rabbinical leader, and thus in order to emphasize the Rabbis authenticity he is to be called up for the Aliyah, even if the above is not the usual custom of the community.
 See Likkutei Sichos 23:251; 256; 28:315; Toras Menachem 5784 3:1833
 Michaber 135:14; 584:3; based on Yerushalmi brought in Beis Yosef 135 “In all places we say one must go to the Sefer Torah and not have the Sefer Torah come to him”;
 See Rama 135:14 [one to two days]; M”A 135:22 [Makom Kavua]; Aruch Hashulchan 135:32 [three times]
 Michaber 143:1
 Michaber ibid; Rambam Tefila 2; Ketzos Hashulchan 26:14
 Biur Halacha 143:1 “Bepachus” based on Ran; Ashel Avraham 69; Maharsham 1:175; 2:97; Lev Chaim 2:25; Levushei Mordechai 1:39; Ketzos Hashulchan 26:14; Keren Ledavid 16; Har Tzevi 1:52; Shaareiy Teshuvah 566:4 in name of Machazik Bracha regarding Taanis Tzibur that 6-7 people fasting suffices; See Yabia Omer 8:14; Mishneh Halachos 3:17
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may only perform Kerias Hatorah with its blessing if at least ten people have not yet heard Kerias Hatorah and still need to be Yotzei. [Chayeh Adam 31:11 questions this matter; Aruch Hashulchan 69:14; Binyan Shlomo 35; Igros Moshe 1:38] Other Poskim rule that one may perform Kerias Hatorah with its blessing if at least seven people have not yet heard Kerias Hatorah and still need to be Yotzei. [Kaf Hachaim 143:3 in name of Lev Chaim 2:25] Other Poskim rule that by a reading of three Aliyos, such as on Monday, Thursday, and Mincha of Shabbos, it suffices to have three people who have not yet heard Kerias Hatorah and still need to be Yotzei. [Peri Hasadeh 2:97; Shaareiy Rachamim 7:18; Toras Yekusiel 51; Daas Sofer 1:8; Daas Torah 69 although concludes with Tzaruch Iyun; Mahariy Asad 51; So rule regarding a fast: Bach in name of Aguda; Meiri Megillah 2a; Orchos Chaim [Lunil]; Leket Yosher 114 in name of Terumos Hadeshen; Aruch Hashulchan 566:7; Maharsham 2:97; Daas Torah 69; Sdei Chemed 1 Klalei Haposkim 13:7; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 26; Piskei Dinim 566; Shut Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 8, brought in Shaar Hakolel 9:17; Igros Kodesh 16:313; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 1024 footnote] Other Poskim imply it suffices to have even one person who did not yet hear the Torah. [Implication of Maharil end of Shabbos that he once missed Kerias Hatorah and read it to himself after the Minyan. See Daas Torah ibid] Other Poskim rule one may repeat the reading even if everyone already heard the Torah. [See Noda Beyehuda Tinyana O.C. 15; Birkeiy Yosef, brought in Daas Torah ibid]
 The reason: As whenever majority of a Minyan is obligated in a matter we allow the recital of a Davar Shebekedusha. [See Admur 55:3; 69:4-5]
 Noda Beyehuda Tinyana O.C. 15; Daas Torah 69; Toras Yekusiel 51; Levushei Mordechai 1:19; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:3; unlike Aruch Hashulchan 69:8
 See Admur 46:9 in parentheses; 489:12; Michaber 489:3 as explained in Taz 489:6; M”A 489:7 according to opinion that Mitzvos need Kavana; M”B 489:16; See Birchas Habayis 46:15 footnote 41; Piskeiy Teshuvos 489:13 footnote 62; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296:17
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that making a Tnaiy is useless, as one cannot questionably join the fulfillment of a Mitzvah. [Taz 489:6] It is thus questionable whether he has fulfilled his obligation even if he made a Tnaiy and remembered later on. [P”M 489 M”Z 6]
 Admur 494:8-11; See M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Elya Raba 142:1; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14
 Admur 494:8
 The reason: The reason for this custom is because they follow the way the commands were written in the Torah [I.e. Kesiv], in which each command was written as its own Parsha. From Anochi until Lo Sisa is one Parsha Setuma, and one command, and it is therefore read as a single verse. Likewise, from Zachor until Lo Tirzach is a single Parsha Setuma. However, Lo Tirtzach until Lo Tachmod is written in four Parshiyos Setumos, as they are four commands, and therefore they are read as four verses. [494:10]
 The reason: As Anochi and Lo Yihyeh Lecha were said simultaneously. It is for this reason that the Nun of the word Panaiy is vocalized with a Patach and not a Kamatz, as there is no stop [Asnachta or end of verse] by it. [Admur ibid]
 The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Chaf of the word “Chol” which is in proximity to the word “Veasisa” is Refuyah and not Degusha. [Admur ibid]
 The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Tzaddik of the word Tirtzach is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that there is a conclusion of verse at this area. Likewise, the Taf is Degusha being that the word Lo is vocalized with a Mafsik, which is a Tafcha. [Admur ibid]
 The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Tinaf is Degusha and the Alef is vocalized with a Kamatz being that there is a conclusion of verse at this area. [Admur ibid]
 The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Tignov is Degusha. [Admur ibid]
 Admur 494:9
 One reads the verses as they have been allocated to be read from the Torah [i.e. Keri]. Thus, at times a single verse includes many commands, and at times the same command is read in many verses.
 The vocalization: According to this method, the Nun of Panaiy is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that it represents the end the verse. [Admur ibid]
 The vocalization: According to this method the Chaf of the word “Kol” is Degusha. [Admur ibid]
 The reason: The reason for this custom is because they follow the way the verses are to be read according to Kri, as from Lo Sirtzach until Lo Sachmod there is only one verse. The reason for why this custom does not allow one to stop in middle of the verse and read it in accordance to the commands is because it is forbidden to completely stop in middle of a verse, even when one is reading the verse in private, as all the stop marks in the Torah are a tradition to Moshe from Sinai, and it is forbidden to stop in an area that Moshe did not make a stop in accordance to his tradition from Sinai. Now, since it is forbidden to make a complete stop in middle of these four small Parshiyos [from Lo Sirtzach to Lo Sinaf], therefore, when they are read in one setting they are read in a continuous melody which connects them into one verse, being that they are in truth one verse, as there is no verse in the entire Torah that contains less than three words. Likewise, from Anochi until Lo Sisa and from Zachor until Lo Sirtzach, there are various verses in the reading. Accordingly, a private individual may make a complete stop in the middle of the Parsha of Anochi and Zachor, so long as he does so at the end of a verse. Furthermore, even when reading in public there is no prohibition to stop in these areas due to stopping in middle of a verse, but rather due to those who enter and exit during the reading, as explained in 138:1. Therefore, they are read in a melody that makes a break between them, in order to turn them into many verses, being that in truth they are considered many verses regarding the number of verses they contain. [Admur 494:11; M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14]
The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Sirtzach, Sinaf, Signov, Seaneh is Refuyah and the Tzaddik of the word Sirtzach is vocalized with Patach, and the Alef of Sinaf is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that it has an Asnachta. [Admur ibid]
 Admur 494:11; M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Elya Raba 142:1; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14
 The reason: As on Shavuos the Ten Commandments were given and therefore it is read in accordance to the way they were given, which is each command as a different verse. [Admur ibid]
 Admur 494:4 and 12
 Admur 494:12
 Admur 494:5; Chok Yaakov 494:5
 The reason: This custom is hinted to in the ruling that we do not expound on Maaseh Merkavah unless the student is a great scholar and has great understanding of his own. [Admur ibid; See Mishneh Chagiga 11b]
 Admur 494:4
 The reason: The reason why this Haftorah is read is because it discusses matters similar to the revelation of G-d by Sinai, with hundreds of thousands of Shinan. [Admur ibid] Some explain Shinan refers to a type of angel. [Radak]
 Admur 494:12
 Admur 494:6; Brought in Luach Kolel Chabad; Elya Zuta 494; Chok Yaakov 494:5
 The reason: This is done out of honor for the Haftorah of Merkava Yichezkal. [ibid]
 See Admur 284:11
 Sefer Hasichos 1940 p. 121; See Sichas Shavuos 5713; Nitei Gavriel Shavuos