Parshas Vayikra- Summary of the Parsha

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Parshas Vayikra

Pesukim:111 [Siman: דעואל]

Haftorah: Yeshayahu 43:21-44:23

Number of Mitzvos:

There are a total of Sixteen Mitzvos in Parshas Vayikra; Eleven positive commands and Five negative commands. The following are the commands in the chronological order that they are brought in the Parsha.

 

A. Positive:

1. Mitzvah 115/Positive 48: To offer the Olah sacrifice according to its detailed laws.

2. Mitzvah 116/Positive 49: To offer the Mincha offering according to its detailed laws.

3. Mitzvah 119/Positive 50: To salt all the offerings.

4. Mitzvah 120/Positive 51: For the Beis Din to bring a Karban Chatas in case of a mistaken ruling involving Kareis.

5. Mitzvah 121/Positive 52: For an individual to bring a Karban Chatas in case of a mistaken transgression involving Kareis.

6. Mitzvah 122/Positive 53: To testify in court regarding matters one has witnessed that carry criminal or civil liability.

7. Mitzvah 123/Positive 54: To bring a Karban Olah Veyoreid for certain sins, which include swearing falsely, Shavuos Haeidus, and entering the Temple while impure.

8. Mitzvah 127/Positive 55: For one who benefited from Hekdish [i.e. Meilah] to pay for the benefit plus an additional 1/5th, to the Temple.

9. Mitzvah 128/Positive 56: To bring an Asaham Taluy if one performed an act of questionable transgression that involves a negative command that contains Kareis.

10. Mitzvah 129/Positive 57: To bring a Karban Asham for certain sins [i.e. Asham Vadaiy], including stealing, sinfully swearing, Meila, and other sins.

11. Mitzvah 130/Positive 58: To return a stolen object to its rightful owner.

B. Negative:

1. Mitzvah 117/Negative 68: Not to offer honey or Chametz onto the altar.

2. Mitzvah 118/Negative 69: Not to bring offerings without salt.

3. Mitzvah 124/Negative 70: Not to separate [behead[1]] the bird Chatas offering.

4. Mitzvah 125/Negative 71: Not to place oil on the Mincha sin offering.

5. Mitzvah 126/Negative 72: Not to place frankincense on the Mincha sin offering.

Rishon

  1. The Mitzvah of Karbanos:
  • Hashem called to Moshe from the Ohel Moed and commanded him to relate to the Jewish people the laws involving the sacrifices. These laws relate to the following topics:
  • The type of animal to bring as a sacrifice: A man who desires to bring a Karban to Hashem, is to bring it from the domestic animal, whether from cattle or sheep.
  1. The cow Olah offering:
  • If one brings an Olah offering from cattle, it is to be a perfect male. It is to be offered at the opening of the Ohel Moed.
  • Semicha: One is to rest his hand on the head of the Olah, and it will be an appeasement for him, to bring him atonement.
  • Offering the animal: Once slaughtered, the Kohanim are to offer the blood of the animal onto the altar.
  • The Olah must be skinned and dismembered. The Kohanim are to light a fire on the altar and set up the wood. They are to arrange the limbs on the altar. The intestines and feet are washed and offered on the altar. All of the parts of the Olah are offered to Hashem.
  1. The sheep and goat Olah offering:
  • If one brings an Olah offering from flock, it is to be brought from sheep, or goats, it is to be an unblemished male animal.
  • It is to be slaughtered in the northern part of the altar in front of Hashem.
  • The Kohanim are to offer the blood around the altar.
  • The Olah must be dismembered.
  • The Kohanim are to light a fire on the altar and set up the wood. They are to arrange the limbs on the altar. The intestines and feet are washed and offered on the altar. All of the parts of the Olah are offered to Hashem. It is a pleasant smell for Hashem.

Sheiyni

  1. The bird Olah offering:
  • If one brings an Olah offering from birds, it is to be from the turtledoves or young doves.
  • The Kohen is to bring the bird to the altar and remove its head, and offer it to the altar, spraying its blood on the wall of the altar.
  • Its innards is to be removed and discarded to the side of the altar, to the area where the ash rests.
  • The bird is to be partially torn and then offered on the altar, on the wood that is one the fire. It is an Olah offering to Hashem.
  1. The Mincha offering:
    • When a soul brings a Mincha offering to Hashem it is to be made of Soles, fine flour. It is to contain oil and frankincense.
    • The Kohen is to take his three full fingerfuls of the flour, and oil, together with all of its frankincense, and offer it to the altar. The remainder of the Mincha is to be distributed to the Kohanim.
    • The baked Mincha: If an oven baked Mincha [i.e. Maafeh Tanur] offering is brought, it is to be baked into Matzos. If one bakes loaves, it is to be mixed with oil. If one bakes crackers, it is to be smeared with oil.
    • The fried Mincha: If a pan fried Mincha is offered, it is to contain fine flour that is mixed with oil, and is baked into Matzos. It is to be broken to small pieces, and then have oil poured over it.

 

Shelishi

  • The deep fried Mincha: If a deep pan Mincha offering is brought, it is to be made of fine flour and oil. You shall bring this Mincha to the Kohen and place it close to the Mizbeiach. The Kohen is to take a memorial portion from the Mincha and offer it to the altar. The remainder of the Mincha is to be distributed to Aaron and his sons, it is a Kodesh Kodashim.
  • Chametz: Any Mincha offering may not be made into Chametz, as all Chametz and all honey may not be offered to Hashem. They are to be offered as the first offering [on Shavuos] and are not to be brought to the Mizbeaich.
  1. Salting the offerings:
  • Every Mincha offering is to contain salt, and you shall not discontinue using the salt of Hashem’s covenant from on the Mincha.
  • Every Karban is to be salted.
  1. The Bikurim-Omer offering:
    • When you bring a Mincha offering of the first grains to Hashem, it should be made from flour that is ground from ripe ears of grain which is parched over fire. Oil is to be poured over it as well as frankincense. The Kohen is to take a memorial portion from the flour, oil and its frankincense as an offering to Hashem.

 

Revi’i

  1. The Shlomim sacrifice from cattle:
  • If one brings a Shlamim from cattle, it may be either male or female, although must be unblemished.
  • Semicha: One is to rest his hand on the head of his Karban, and it is to be slaughtered by the opening of the Ohel Moed.
  • Offering the animal: The Kohanim are to offer the blood of the animal onto the altar, all around. The fat that covers the innards is to be offered. The two kidneys and the fat that is on them, and the diaphragm on the liver and kidneys is to be offered. It is to be offered over the Olah, which is on the wood that is on the fire.
  1. The Shlamim sacrifice from sheep:
  • If one brings a Shlamim from flock, it may be either male or female, although must be unblemished.
  • Semicha: If the offering is a sheep, he is to bring it before G-d and rest his hand on the head of the Karban, and it is to be slaughtered by the opening of the Ohel Moed.
  • Offering the animal: The Kohanim are to offer the blood of the animal onto the altar, all around. The entire tail, up until the kidneys, is to be offered, and the fat that covers the innards is to be offered. The two kidneys and the fat that is on them, and the diaphragm on the liver and kidneys is to be offered.
  1. The Shlomim sacrifice from a goat:
  • If one brings a Shlamim from a goat he is to rest his hand on its head, and it is to be slaughtered by the opening of the Ohel Moed.
  • Offering the animal: The Kohanim are to offer the blood of the animal onto the altar, all around. The fat that covers the innards is to be offered. The two kidneys and the fat that is on them, and the diaphragm on the liver and kidneys is to be offered.
  1. Prohibition of eating Chelev fat or blood:
  • It is an eternal decree for all generations that one may not eat any fat or blood.

Chamishi

  1. The Chatas sin offering of a Kohen Moshiach:
  • Hashem spoke to Moshe saying that he should tell the Jewish people the following laws relating to a sin offering that is brought if a soul unintentionally sins and transgresses one of the commands that Hashem prohibited.
  • The sin offering of a Kohen Moshaich: If the anointed Kohen sins, he is to bring a young bull which is unblemished as a Chatas offering for Hashem. The bull is to be brought to the entrance of the Ohel Moed and he is to rest his hands on the head of the bull and sacrifice it before Hashem.
  • Offering the blood: The Kohen is to dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle it seven times before Hashem, onto the face of the Paroches. The Kohen is to take from the blood and place it on the corners of the altar used for the incense. The remaining blood is to be spilled on the base of the altar that is outside the Ohel Moed. 
  • Offering the animal: All the fat that covers the innards is to be offered. The two kidneys and the fat that is on them, and the diaphragm on the liver and kidneys is to be offered on the Olah altar. The skin of the bull and its meat, head, feet, innards and waste is to be taken outside of the camp to a pure place where the ashes are poured, and is to be burnt there using wood.
  1. The Chatas sin offering of the congregation/Sanhedrin:
  • If the entire Jewish people accidently sin, then the congregation is to offer a young bull as a Chatas offering for Hashem. The bull is to be brought to the entrance of the Ohel Moed. The elders of the congregation are to rest their hands on the head of the bull and slaughter it before Hashem.
  • Offering the blood: The Kohen Hamoshiach is to bring the blood to the Ohel Moed and dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle it seven times before Hashem, onto the face of the Paroches. The Kohen is to take from the blood and place it on the corners of the altar used for the incense. The remaining blood is to be spilled on the base of the altar that is outside the Ohel Moed.
  • Offering the animal: All of its fat is to be offered to the altar. Everything that is done to the offering of the Kohen Moshaich is likewise to be done to this offering. Doing so will bring atonement and Hashem will forgive them. The bull is to be removed to outside the camp and be burnt just as described by the previous offering.
  1. The Chatas sin offering of a Nassi:
  • If a leader accidently sins, he is to bring a male goat which is unblemished as a Chatas offering for Hashem. He is to rest his hands on the head of the goat and sacrifice it before Hashem in the same area as the Olah offering.
  • Offering the blood: The Kohen is to take from the blood and place it on the corners of the altar used for the incense. The remaining blood is to be spilled on the base of the Ohel altar.
  • Offering the animal: All of its fat is to be offered to the altar. Doing so will bring atonement and Hashem will forgive him.

Shishi

  1. The goat Chatas sin offering of an individual:
  • If an individual accidently sins, he is to bring a female goat which is unblemished as a Chatas offering for Hashem. He is to rest his hands on the head of the goat and sacrifice it before Hashem in the same area as the Olah offering.
  • Offering the blood: The Kohen is to take from the blood and place it on the corners of the altar used for the incense. The remaining blood is to be spilled on the base of the Ohel altar.
  • Offering the animal: All of its fat is to be offered to the altar. Doing so will bring atonement and Hashem will forgive him.
  1. The sheep Chatas sin offering of an individual:
    • If an individual accidently sins, and he bring a female sheep which is unblemished as a Chatas offering for Hashem. He is to rest his hands on the head of the goat and sacrifice it before Hashem in the same area as the Olah offering.
    • Offering the blood: The Kohen is to take from the blood and place it on the corners of the altar used for the incense. The remaining blood is to be spilled on the base of the Ohel altar.
    • Offering the animal: All of its fat is to be offered to the altar. Doing so will bring atonement and Hashem will forgive him.
  1. The Karban Olah Veyoreid for specified sins:
    • Anyone who has transgressed the following sins is responsible to bring a Chatas offering:
      • Swearing falsely: If an individual sins, by swearing falsely that he does not have testimony of something that he witnessed, then he will bear his sin.
      • Impurity: Likewise, an individual who touches an impure item or a Niveila and he became impure, and he forgot of his impurity and sinned [through entering the Temple or eating Kodshim].
      • Vow: An individual who made a vow and forgot and transgressed it.
    • The animal offering: Anyone who is guilty of the above is to confess his sin and bring his guilt offering before Hashem. It is to be a female sheep or goat, and the Kohen is to atone for him.
    • If he is poor-the bird offering: If one cannot afford to bring an animal then he is to bring two turtledoves or two young doves to the Kohen. The first is to be offered as a Chatas and have Melika performed on its head, by its neck area, although it is not to be beheaded. The blood of the Chatas is to be sprayed on the wall of the altar, and the remaining blood is to be poured on the base of the altar. The second bird is to be offered as an Olah.

 

Shevi’i

  • If he is very poor-The Mincha offering: If one cannot afford even birds, then he is to bring a tenth of an Ephah of fine flour as a Chatas offering. It is not to contain oil or frankincense, as it is a sin offering. It is to be brought to the Kohen and he removes three fingerfuls from it and offers it to G-d. The Kohen atones for his sin and it will be forgiven. The Kohen receives the Mincha offering [for himself to eat].
  1. The Karban Asham Vadaiy for Meila-Benefiting from Hekdish:
    • Hashem spoke to Moshe saying: An individual who has accidently committed misuse of Hekdish is to bring his Asham to Hashem. He is to bring an unblemished ram with a value of the silver Shekalim. He is to compensate that which he deprived from Hekdish, as well as an additional fifth. The ram is to be given to the Kohen and he will atone for him.
  1. The Karban Asham Taluiy:
    • Anyone who possibly transgressed a sin and does not know for certain, is to bring an unblemished ram the value of a guilt offering as an Asham to the Kohen. The Kohen is to atone for his sin and he will be forgiven.
  1. The Karban Asham Vadaiy for swearing falsely:
    • If an individual swears falsely to deny that he possesses the item of another which he truly has in his possession, he must a) return the item, adding an additional fifth to its value and b) bring a Karban Asham.
    • The Karban is to be an unblemished ram. The Kohen is to atone for him and he will be forgiven.

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[1] Rambam Maaseh Hakarbanos 7/6

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