Parshas Kedoshim-Summary of the Parsha

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Parshas Kedoshim

Pesukim: 64 [Siman:מי זהב ]

Haftorah:[1] Yechezkal 20:2-20

Number of Mitzvos:

There are a total of 51 Mitzvos in Parshas Kedoshim; 13 positive commands and 38 negative commands. The following are the commands in the chronological order that they are brought in the Parsha.

 

A. Positive:

1. Mitzvah 212; Positive 92: To fear one’s mother and father.

2. Mitzvah 216; Positive 93: To leave the corner of one’s field to the poor [i.e. Peiah]

3. Mitzvah 218; Positive 94: To leave Leket, which are the bundles that fall to the ground during harvest, to the poor.

4. Mitzvah 220; Positive 95: To leave a corner or Olalaos [i.e. small grapes not in clusters] of the vineyard to the poor.[2]

5. Mitzvah 222; Positive 96: To leave the Peret of the vineyard to the poor. This refers to the grapes that fall during harvest.

6. Mitzvah 235; Positive 97: To judge justifiably and not honor one side of the case more than the other.

7. Mitzvah 239; Positive 98: To rebuke a sinner

8. Mitzvah 243; Positive 99: To love a fellow Jew.

9. Mitzvah 247; Positive 100: To eat the fruit of the fourth year of the tree in Jerusalem [i.e. Neta Rivaiy]

10. Mitzvah 254; Positive 101: To fear the Mikdash.

11. Mitzvah 257; Positive 102: To honor the Sages and elders and stand for them.

12. Mitzvah 259; Positive 103: To have honest weights and measurements.

13. Mitzvah 261; Positive 104: To burn one who is liable for the capital punishment of burning.

B. Negative:

1. Mitzvah 213; Negative 121: Not to pursue idolatry in neither thought, speech, or even sight.

2. Mitzvah 214; Negative 122: Not to make idols for oneself or for other people.[3]

3. Mitzvah 215; Negative 123: Not to eat Nosar, the leftover meat of Kodshim that has past its Halachic expiration date.

4. Mitzvah 217; Negative 124: Not to harvest the entire field and rather leave the corner of the field for the poor.

5. Negative 219; Negative 125: Not to take the bundles that fall to the field during harvest, but rather to leave them to the poor.

6. Negative 221; Negative 126: Not to take all the grapes off the vine and rather to leave the corner/Olalos to the poor.[4]

7. Negative 223; Negative 127: Not to take the Peret of the vineyard, but rather to leave it for the poor.

8. Negative 224; Negative 128: Not to steal any money or item.

9. Negative 225; Negative 129: Not to deny having another’s money in one’s possession.

10. Negative 226; Negative 130: Not to swear falsely regarding money that one owes.

11. Negative 227; Negative 131: Not to swear falsely.

12. Mitzvah 228; Negative 132: Not to withhold money that belongs to another.

13. Mitzvah 229; Negative 133: Not to rob a person.

14. Mitzvah 230; Negative 134: Not to delay the payment of a worker.

15. Mitzvah 231; Negative 135: Not to curse any Jew.

16. Mitzvah 232; Negative 136: Not to place a stumbling block [i.e. bad advice] in front of a person.

17. Mitzvah 233; Negative 137: Not to judge unjustifiably, contrary to Torah law.

18. Mitzvah 234; Negative 138: For a judge not to honor one of the sides during the judgment.

19. Mitzvah 236; Negative 139: Not to speak Rechilus/Lashon Hara.

20. Mitzvah 237; Negative 140: Not to standby when Jewish blood is spilled but rather to help save him.

21. Mitzvah 238; Negative 141: Not to hate a fellow Jew in one’s heart.

22. Mitzvah 240; Negative 142: Not to embarrass a fellow Jew.

23. Mitzvah 241; Negative 143: Not to take revenge from a Jew.

24. Mitzvah 242; Negative 144: Not to hold a grudge against a Jew.

25. Mitzvah 244; Negative 145: Not to mate two different species of animals.

26. Mitzvah 245; Negative 146: Not to plant two different species of seeds together in Eretz Yisrael.

27. Mitzvah 246; Negative 147: Not to eat Arla fruits, which are fruits within three years of planting.

28. Mitzvah 248; Negative 148: Not to eat and drink like a glutton

29. Mitzvah 253; Negative 149: Not to do Nechisha, which is to follow superstitious signs.

30. Mitzvah 250; Negative 150: Not to do Onen, which is to follow superstitious times or to do magic tricks.

31. Mitzvah 251; Negative 151: Not to shave the corners of the head [i.e. Peios].

32. Mitzvah 252; Negative 152: Not to shave the corners of the beard.

33. Mitzvah 253; Negative 153: Not to make a tattoo on one’s skin.

34. Mitzvah 255; Negative 154: Not to do the sorcery of Ov or pursue them.

35. Mitzvah 256; Negative 155: Not to do the sorcery of Yidoni.

36. Mitzvah 258; Negative 156: Not to use dishonest measurements and weights in your sales

37. Mitzvah 260; Negative 157: Not to curse one’s father or mother.

38. Mitzvah 262; Negative 158: Not to go in the paths of the gentiles.

 Rishon

  1. List of Mitzvos:

Hashem spoke to Moshe saying, tell the Jewish people the following commands:

  • Be Holy, as I am holy.
  • Fear your father and mother.
  • Guard Shabbos.
  • Don’t go after idolatry and don’t make idols.
  • Sacrifices: When you sacrifice a Shelamim offering to Hashem, do so with proper thoughts to appease Hashem. Eat the meat of the sacrifice that day and the next day, and any leftover on the 3rd day is to be burnt. Don’t eat any leftover [i.e. Nosar]. One who eats the meat on the 3rd day [i.e. Nosar] receives Kareis as he has defiled the sacred to Hashem, and his soul shall therefore be cut off from its people.
    • Harvest: When you harvest your field do not to take the corner of the field. Do not take the Leket, the fallen stalks, of the field. Do not take the Olalos [young grapes] of your vineyard. Do not to take the Peret [fallen grapes] of the vineyard. Rather, it is to be left to the poor and converts.
    • Stealing: Do not steal [discreetly]. Do not deny money that you owe to your friend. Do not swear falsely on money that you owe. Do not to swear falsely using My name. One who does so has desecrated the name of Hashem. Do not cheat your friend [by withholding his wages]. Do not rob a person. Do not delay the payment of a worker past morning.
    • Do not curse the deaf.
    • Do not place a stumbling block in front of the blind.
    • Fear Hashem.

 

Sheiyni (Chamishi when connected to Acharei Mos)

  • Justice: Do not do injustice. Do not favor a poor man and do not honor a great man in judgment. Judge your fellow righteously.
  • Between man and friend: Do not speak Lashon Hara. Do not standby when Jewish blood is being spilled. Do not hate a fellow Jew in your heart. Reproof a sinner, although do not carry sin in the process [by embarrassing a fellow Jew]. Do not take revenge and do not hold a grudge against a member of your people. Love your friend as yourself.
  • Kilayim: Do not mate two different species of animals. Do not plant two different species of seeds together. Do not wear a garment of wool and linen [i.e. Shatnez].
  • Relations with a Shifcha Charufa: One who sleeps with a Shifcha Charufa, who is a female slave who has not been [fully] redeemed who belongs to another man, is not to be killed. He is to bring a ram as an Asham offering to Hashem, to the Temple. The Kohen is to atone for him with the Asham ram for his sin, and he is to be forgiven.

 

Shelishi

  • Mitzvah of Orlah and Neta Rivai: When the Jewish people come to Eretz Yisrael and you plant fruit trees, the fruits of the first three years are Orlah and are forbidden to be eaten. In the fourth year the fruits are to be Kodesh Hilulim, fruits of praise for Hashem. In the fifth year you may eat the fruit. The above Mitzvah was given to increase your crop.
  • Don’t eat over the blood [of a sacrifice, meaning before its blood is sprinkled].
  • Avoiding the ways of idolaters: Do not practice Nechisha/divination. Do not believe in superstitious times. Do not shave the corners of the head. Do not shave the corners of the beard. Do not cut your skin in mourning. Do not make a tattoo on your skin.
  • Don’t give your daughter over to prostitution lest the earth be filled with promiscuity.
  • Observe the Shabbos.
  • Revere the Mikdash (by not entering with his staff, shoes, or belt).
  • Do not turn to the actions of the Ovos and Yidonim [i.e. necromancy]. Do not seek to become impure through them. I am Hashem your G-d.
  • Stand up for an old person and honor the Sages.
  • Fear your G-d. I am Hashem.

Revi’i (Shishi when connected to Acharei Mos)

  • Converts: Do not oppress the converts. The convert is to be like any other Jew. You shall love the convert as you love yourself as you were also converts in the land of Egypt
  • Honesty in business: Do not be dishonest in business. You are to have honest weight stones and scales. I am Hashem who took you out of Egypt.
  • You are to guard all my commands and judgments. I am Hashem.

Chamishi

  1. Punishment of Molech:
  • Hashem spoke to Moshe saying: Tell the Jewish people that if anyone gives their child to Molech they will die. They will be stoned to death by the people. The man will be cut off from his nation as he gave his child to Molech in order to defile my Temple and desecrate my name. If the people will ignore the man and ignore giving him his due punishment, I myself will cut off him and his family, as well as all the other followers of Molech.

  1. List of punishments for sins:
  • One who turns to the necromancy of the Ov or Yidoni and follows them, will be cut off from his nation. You are to be holy as I am Hashem your G-d.

Shishi (Shevi’i when connected to Acharei Mos)

  • You are to guard my commands and perform them, I am Hashem your G-d.
  • One who curses his father and mother is to be put to death.
  • Punishments for adultery and incest: One who sleeps with a married woman, both are to be put to death.
  • One who sleeps with his father’s wife has revealed his father’s Erva, both are to be put to death.
  • One who sleeps with his daughter in-law has done Tevel/perversion and both are to be put to death.
  • One who sleeps with a male has done an abomination, both are to be put to death.
  • One who sleeps with his mother in-law has done Zima/depravity, they are to be put to death.
  • A man who sleeps with an animal both are to be put to death.
  • A woman who sleeps with an animal, both are to be put to death.
  • One who sleeps with his sister has done a disgrace. Both will be cut off from their nation, as he has revealed his sisters Erva.
  • One who sleeps with a Niddah, if he has performed Hearah [penetration], both will be cut off from their nation.
  • One may not sleep with his aunt, and if they do so they will carry their sin. If one sleeps with his aunt, they will both die without children.
  • One who sleeps with his brother’s wife has committed Niddah, an offense, and both will die childless.
  • One is to guard all of My commandments and perform them and in this way the land of Israel will not repel you.

 

Shevi’i

  1. Final Mitzvos and tidings:
  • Not to follow the ways of the gentiles: Do not walk in the statutes of the gentiles, as I have despised them. I have inherited their lands to you, a land of milk and honey. I am Hashem your G-d who has separated you from the nations.
  • Kashrus: You shall distinguish between the pure and impure animals and birds. You shall not defile your souls with eating these forbidden animals and birds and the creeping creatures. You are to be holy to me as I am holy and I have separated you from the nations so you be mine.
  • Ov and Yidoni: A man or woman who is an Ov or Yidoni will be killed through stoning.

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[1] So is followed by Sefaradi and Chabad communities. However, Ashkenazi communities read from Yechzkal 22:1-16.

[2] The Rambam learns this Mitzvah is to leave grapes on the tree for the poor, while the Ramban learns the Mitzvah to leave the small grapes is in addition to the Mitzvah of leaving the corner. See Chinuch Mitzvah 221

[3] See Minchas Chinuch Mitzvah 214 in name of Rambam that one who makes idols for himself transgresses this command while one who makes idols for others transgresses command 27.

[4] The Rambam learns this prohibition is against removing all the grapes from the tree, while the Ramban learns the prohibition is against taking the small grapes [i.e. Olalos] from the tree. See Chinuch Mitzvah 221

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