How to “fix” the Kiddush wine prior to distribution to the listeners

How to distribute the Kiddush wine to the listeners and how to “fix” it prior to the distribution:[1]

A. Introduction:

While there is no obligation for the listeners to drink from the Kiddush wine in order to fulfill their obligation of Kiddush[2], nonetheless, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for them to drink from the Kiddush wine.[3] [It suffices for them to drink any amount.[4]] Now, just as we rule regarding the person making Kiddush that he is initially not allowed to make Kiddush over blemished wine[5], so too we rule regarding the people drinking the distributed Kiddush wine, that although it is not even obligatory for them to drink it, nonetheless it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar also for them to initially drink from unblemished wine that comes from the Kos Shel Bracha.[6] This law applies both to wine and to any other valid beverage that is used for [the day[7]] Kiddush [i.e. tea, beer, etc].[8] Now, the definition of blemished wine is any wine that one has already drank from, while wine that no one has ever drank from is consider unblemished.[9] So, when the person making Kiddush pours the wine from the bottle into his cup, he is pouring unblemished wine that is initially valid for use for Kiddush [unless someone drank directly from the bottle, in which case all the wine in the bottle would be considered blemished[10]]. Hence, while the issue of blemished wine is most Halachically relevant to the person making the Kiddush, it is less common of an issue for him being that he pours straight from the bottle which contains unblemished wine. However, once the person making Kiddush drinks from the wine in his cup, he has now made it blemished[11] and hence the question is asked as to how this now blemished wine should be “fixed” for the sake of its distribution in accordance to the initially encouraged directive that also the listeners should only drink unblemished wine.

 

B. The available alternatives for “fixing” the wine prior to distribution:[12]

Option # 1 Lechatchila– Pouring Revius cups of wine for the participants prior to Kiddush:[13] As an alternative to needing to drink from the wine of the Mikadesh for the sake of the Mitzvah of tasting from his Kos Shel Bracha, one may fill individual cups to the top with [a Revius[14] of] “unblemished” wine prior to Kiddush and distribute them in front of each participant[15], and have each person drink that wine after the blessing is said by the Mikadeish. In such a scenario, each cup in front of each participant is considered a Kos Shel Bracha just like that of the Mikadesh[16], and there is thus no need to pour wine from the cup of the Mikadeish into these cups, and there is no need for them to delay drinking their cup until the Mikadeish drinks his, and rather as soon as he completes their Kiddush they may all drink their cups of wine.[17] For these reasons, this option was the preferred option to be used to solve the distribution issue of blemished wine.[18] [Practically, this custom of pouring a Revius of wine into the cups of each of the listeners prior to Kiddush was only followed in previous times and is no longer practiced today[19], although there is no Halachic issue for one to choose to do so also today. If, however, their cups are filled with less than a Revius of wine before Kiddush, as is common when using the small plastic shot glass cups for distribution of the wine, then these cups need to have wine from the Mikadesh added to them, as when their cups held less than a Revius, the participants remain required to drink from the wine of the Mikadeish in order to benefit from the Kos Shel Bracha.[20] In such a case that small, less than Revius, cups are being filled before Kiddush, then the Mikadesh is to pour into each of their cups prior to him drinking from the cup as explained in option one, and thus the listener should not drink from the cups until the Mikadesh pours his wine into it. Likewise, they are to wait and not drink from the small cup until after the Mikadesh finishes the distribution and drinks from his cup.[21] Even so, initially the less than Revius cups should not be filled prior to Kiddush in order so the participants drink only from the actual kiddush wine.]

Option # 2 Lechatchila– Pouring into another cup prior to drinking:[22] After one finishes the blessing of Hagafen, prior to drinking the wine[23], he is to pour some[24] wine into the individual cups of the listeners[25], making sure to leave himself at least a Revius amount of wine in his cup[26], and he is to then drink the wine prior to them drinking it.[27] [Alternatively, one is to pour some wine into a cup prior to him drinking from the wine, and then after he drinks from the wine he can pour it back into the remaining wine thus fixing it, and then give it out to the listeners.[28]]

Option #3 Bedieved– Drinking first from the cup and then fixing it with wine from the bottle:[29] All wine which has become blemished can be “fixed” [i.e. unblemished] by adding to it even a small amount of unblemished wine.[30] It may then be used even initially for wine of Kos Shel Bracha. Alternatively, one can fix blemished wine by pouring it into a larger amount of unblemished wine, although one is not to initially fix the wine using this option.[31] [Thus, just as one who is making Kiddush may add unblemished wine to leftover Kiddush wine that is in the  Kiddush cup in order for him to make Kiddush, so too, prior to distributing the wine to the listeners the person who made Kiddush can add some unblemished wine from the bottle into his Kiddush cup which he already drank from, and then distribute the now unblemished Kiddush wine  to the listeners.[32]] Nonetheless, initially one is not to do this option [and is rather to do one of the previous two options] and is thus not to first drink from the cup and then fix it by pouring unblemished wine from the bottle into it.[33] [If, however, one already drank from the wine, forgetting to first pour into another cup, or there is not enough wine in the cup to give out to all the listeners, then after one drinks from the wine he is to add more wine to it from the bottle, in order to fix the wine. In such a case, the wine still retains its Kos Shel Bracha status [although not on its best level] even if the newly added wine is a lot more than the remaining wine in the cup.[34] Some Poskim[35] suggest that another viable option which can be used even initially is to leave the bottle of wine on the table during Kiddush and have the Mikadesh and listeners explicitly intend to be Motzi it with the Kiddush hence in essence turning all the wine in the bottle into Kiddush wine which is then distributed to the listeners.[36] For whatever reason, however, this is not the practical directive as brought in C.]

Option #4 Lechatchila for family members– Having the listeners drink directly from the cup of the Mikadesh:[37] It is permitted for the listeners to drink directly from the Kiddush cup without it needing to be “fixed.”[38] Furthermore, it is even a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for the participants to drink directly from the Kiddush cup,  rather than have the wine poured into another cup, even after being fixed.[39] [Thus, when a father is making Kiddush for his family, rather than pouring the wine into individual cups and thus be required to fix it in one of the above-mentioned ways, he can simply pass his own cup to all the family members to drink from and not need to worry about fixing it. However, when there are guests and nonfamily members present, then one may not do this option as it is forbidden to offer a cup that one drank from to an individual.[40] The above option was indeed was the testified custom of the Rebbe that when he ate the Shabbos meals alone with the Rebbetzin then he would give her to taste from his Kiddush cup immediately after saying Kiddush without “fixing” it beforehand.[41] This was likewise the custom of Rav Yaakov Landau z”l, as testified to us by his son Rav Eliyahu Landau Shlita, that whenever it was just family members then they would all drink from the actual cup.[42]]

C. The practical directive:

Although as stated above, one is not initially to follow option 3 of first tasting the wine and then fixing it with more wine from the bottle prior to distribution, some Poskim[43] conclude that this is the widespread custom that is followed today, and we are no longer accustomed for each of the participants to have their own Revius cup of wine (option 1), or to pour into another cup prior to drinking from it (option 2). Practically, while this may be the widespread custom including amongst some Gedolei Yisrael[44], this is not the initial directive for Chabad Chassidim who follow the rulings of the Alter Rebbe. Rather the custom is to follow option 2 of pouring the wine into another cup prior to drinking it, or option 4 to give the family members to drink from the actual Kiddush cup. [It is no longer customary to follow option one, for each participant have their own Revius cup of wine by Kiddush.] This indeed was the testified custom of the Rebbe and other Gedolei Rabbanei Chabad. Whenever there were guests over by the Shabbos table, they would follow option one to first pour the wine into another cup and only then drink from it, and whenever it was just family, they would give them to drink from the actual up.[45]

 

Summary:

In previous times, it was customary for each listener to have their own Revius cup of wine in front of them during Kiddush which they would drink from as soon as the recital of Kiddush concluded. This was the best option available that avoided all Halachic issues. In today’s times that this is no longer practiced [although may be practiced if one chooses] the actual Kiddush wine is to be distributed to the listeners [even if small cups of less than a Revius of wine have already been prepared[46]], although it is to be distributed in an “unblemished” state. The following are the ways that this can be accomplished:

1.       Just family members-Drinking from actual Kiddush cup: If there are only family members at the table then one can [and even should, if appropriate] give the family members to drink directly from the actual Kiddush cup without needing to fix it beforehand.

2.       Pouring first into another cup before drinking: If there are guests at the table, or for whatever reason one does not desire to give the family members to drink from the actual cup, then one is to first pour some wine into another cup, making sure to still leave a Revius of wine in the Kiddush cup, and only then drink himself from the Kiddush cup. The wine that was poured into the other cup may then be distributed to everybody, or poured back into the Kiddush cup for distribution.

Bedieved if one already drank from the cup-fixing it with more wine from the bottle: In the event that one already drank from the cup, and there are guests over, or for whatever reason the family members do not desire to drink from the actual cup, then one is to pour more wine [of any amount] from the bottle back into the Kiddush cup in order to fix it, and then distribute it to the listeners.

Wife is Nidda:[47] Whenever one’s wife is a Nidda, the regulations relevant to sending her wine must be followed and it is beyond the scope of this summary to discuss it in detail. Practically, he is not to pour the wine into her cup and may not send her the cup either directly or through someone else, but is rather to pour into a number of cups, or put down his kiddush cup, and then have her take it herself.

 

How should the wine be distributed if there is not enough wine in the cup for all the participants?[48]

In such a case, one should simply add more wine from the bottle into the Kiddush cup and distribute it from there.

 

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[1] See Admur 182:4; 190:5; 271:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2; 183:12; 271:36 and 40

[2] Admur 271:25; 272:12; Michaber 271:14; Tosafus Pesachim 100b; Rashbam Pesachim 107a; Rosh 10:18; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 289 footnote 24 regarding the day Kiddush that this law applies even by the day Kiddush although some Poskim argue

[3] See Admur 190:5; 271:25; Michaber 190:5; 271:14; Rosh Pesachim 10:16

The reason: This is done in order to show one’s belovedness for the cup of wine which had a blessing and Mitzvah performed over it [i.e. Yikra Dekasa]. [Darkei Moshe 182:1; Ran Pesachim 106a] It is also done in order to merit all of the Segulos involved in consuming this wine. [See Tur and Beis Yosef 269; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:29 and footnote 356]

[4] Admur 190:5 “Pour a little into each cup”; 271:25 “It is a Mitzvah for each person to taste from the Kos Shel Bracha although it is not necessary for each person to drink Malei Lugmav”; Ketzos Hashulchan 46:11 “A taste of any amount suffices”; Taz; M”B; Kaf Hachaim 281:89

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that each of the participants need to drink Malei Lugmav. [Levush 271:14; 190:4; Mateh Yehuda 271:1]    

[5] Admur 182:4; 190:5; 271:18; Michaber 182:3; Pesachim 106a

[6] Admur 190:5; 271:29-30; Michaber 182:4 [1st opinion]; 190:1 [Stam ruling]; 271:17 [Stam ruling]; Ohel Moed; Rashba Brachos 47a; Rosh Brachos 7:15; Bach 190; Taz 190:1; 182:4

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that only the Mikadesh needs to drink from unblemished wine, while the listeners may drink from even blemished wine. [2nd opinion in Michaber 182:4; Reah, brought in Beis Yosef; See Taz 182:5 who brings a proof for this opinion from the Gemara; Taz 182:4 that the custom is to distribute the wine after the Mikadesh drinks from it, which causes them to drink blemished wine, and hence based on this testimony of the Taz it is seen that the custom was to be lenient for the listeners to drink from the blemished wine. So also writes P”M 182 M”Z 4 that so is the custom.] Practically, we do not rule like this opinion. [Admur 190:5; 271:29-30, the dissenting opinion was completely omitted from Admur; Michaber 190:1; 291:17; Darkei Moshe 182:1; Levush 182 that so is the custom like the first opinion; Kneses Hagedola 182:12; Mamar Mordechai 182:5; Kaf Hachaim 182:25; Even the Taz ibid concludes that it is best for all the listeners to have their own full unblemished cup for this reason, and so likewise concludes the P”M ibid that the Mikadesh can pour more wine into his cup before distribution and thus be Mitaken it. Thus, we see that even these Poskim agree that one should not follow the above custom, and should try to have the listeners drink unblemished wine]

[7] See Admur 272:11

[8] Admur 182:4; Thus, if one has drank from a bottle of beer ,it is not to be used for Havdala unless he fixes it through pouring onto it unblemished beer.

[9] Admur 182:4; Michaber 182:3; Pesachim 106a

[10] Admur 182:4

If the wine was tasted from prior to being bottled: Regarding if in the winery someone tasted the wine directly from the barrel, then it blemishes all the wine in the barrel and this wine remains blemished even when it is later placed in the bottle, unless he drank from the faucet of the barrel and the barrel is made of wood and not earthenware in which case we rule that Bedieved we do not consider the wine as blemished. [Admur 182:4] Practically, in general wineries are very careful never to drink directly from the barrel and rather pour some into a cup and taste it from there.

[11] Admur 190:5 “Each person can have a personal cup of wine placed in front of him, and it is even better for him to do so if possible, being that the wine in the cup of the person who said the blessing becomes blemished after he drinks from.; Taz 182:4

[12] Understanding the opinion of Admur: In various laws throughout his Shulchan Aruch, Admur makes mention of different methods of distribution. In the laws of distribution of the Kos Shel Bracha after Birchas Hamazon Admur mentions the option of every participant having their own full cup of wine in front of them as the most ideal choice and as a second choice he mentions pouring wine into their individual cups prior to the person drinking, and as third but negated option he mentions drinking from the cup and then pouring back into it from the bottle from before distribution. [Admur 190:5] In the laws of the distribution of the Kiddush wine, Admur makes mention of the above options in the same order. [Admur 271:29-30] In Admur 271:20 regarding if one does not have enough wine for the next day’s Kiddush he mentions the option of pouring the wine into another cup, prior to drinking from his cup. In Admur 472:24 he seems to imply of an additional option at least by kiddush for each person to drink from the actual Kiddush cup. From all the above, it seems clear that in his opinion the best option is for everyone to have their own cup of wine in front of them, as brought in option number one. As a possible equally best option is for everyone to drink directly from the cup, which is mentioned below as option number four, although has the disadvantage that it cannot be done when guests are present. The next option would be to pour the wine into the cups before drinking from it, as brought in option number two. The last option would be to drink from it and afterwards to pour back into it from the bottle and then distribute it.

[13] Admur 190:5 “Although it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for all of the participants to taste from the Kos Shel Bracha, nonetheless they are not required to taste from the actual cup of the persons who said the blessing. Rather, each person can have a personal cup of wine placed in front of him, and it is even better for him to do so if possible, being that the wine in the cup of the person who said the blessing becomes blemished after he drinks from.”; Admur 271:29 “There is no requirement for the Mikadesh to pour from the wine in his cup to the cups of wine in front of the listeners which are fulfilling their obligation with hearing him make kiddush unless the wine in their cup is blemished”; Michaber 190:1; Yerushalmi Brachos 6:1; Tosefus Brachos 47a; Rosh Brachos 7:15; Rashba Brachos 47a; Taz 182:4; Ketzos Hashulchan 46:11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:40 who writes that this custom was only followed in previous times and is no longer valid today

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that the custom is to pour into the cups of the listeners even if they have full unblemished cups of wine in front of them. [Darkei Moshe 182:1; Zechor Leavraham 182:20; Kaf Hachaim 182:24]

The law of the bottle of wine that is on the table: See option three for the full details of this matter.

The advantage of this option: All the participants drink unblemished wine which is considered to have been used for the actual kiddush and there is no delay for the Mikadeish between his blessing and drinking. Seemingly, this option is equivalent to the option of drinking directly from the cup of the Mikadeish, as in truth all the cups are considered a kos Shel Bracha. [Some Poskim rule that the idea of drinking from a Kos Shel Bracha is not just to drink from the wine that was in the cup but toe drink from the actual cup itself. See Meiri Brachos 51a; Sifsei Chachamim on Rashi Bereishis 18:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2 footnote 15; 183:12; 271:36 footnote 357. However, some Poskim negate this and write that the idea is simply to drink from his wine and not directly from his cup; See Elya Raba and of 182 based on Bava Metzia 87a; Orchos Rabbeinu 1:85; Shraga Hameir 5:106]

The disadvantage of this option: Seemingly, there are no halachic disadvantages in this option.

[14] So is implied from 190:5 which says “full and unblemished” thus implying that their cup [which refers to a cup that holds a Reviis] must be full. So likewise writes Piskeiy Teshuvos 272 footnote 396 that they must at the very least contain a revius. Thus, if the cups hold less than a Revius they are not considered a Kos Shel Bracha, just like is the law regarding the actual cup of the person saying the blessing that it must contain a Revius of wine. Accordingly, that which is accustomed in certain homes to pour wine before Kiddush into small cups for the listeners, these cups still require wine from the person saying the Kiddush to be poured into them prior to him drinking from it, being that the cups are small and do not hold a Revius of wine.

Other opinions: See Aruch Hashulchan 272:41 who implies that if the cups are not completely empty of wine then the listeners may drink from it right after the Kiddush, and it too is considered like Kos Shel Bracha. According to this understanding the custom today of preparing small cups of wine prior to kiddush and then distributing it after kiddush without first pouring into it from the cup of the Mikadesh, is valid. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol, as how can the cup be considered a Kos Shel Bracha if it does not have a Revius. Practically, this opinion is rejected and is certainly not the opinion of Admur ibid. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 272 footnote 396 who writes on the words of the Aruch Hashulchan ibid “Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol”]

[15] Vetzaruch Iyun if the cups are all sitting on a tray and not in front of each participant if they nevertheless have the same status of Kos Shel Bracha.

[16] Admur ibid; Taz 182:5; Abudarham Brachos 1 in name of Raavad; Brachos 51b and Rashi ibid

[17] Admur 190:5 “However, if they do not need to drink the wine from his cup, such as they have full cups [i.e. Revius] which are not blemished, then they may taste it prior to him drinking from his cup”; 271:30 “The participants are not to taste from their cup prior to the Mikadesh tasting his if they need his cup, such as if the cups are empty or blemished and therefore he will be pouring from his wine into their cup. However, if there cups of wine are not blemished and is permitted for them to drink from it prior to the Mikadesh drinking from his as explained in chapter 190”; Michaber 190:1; Michaber 271:16; Tosafus Brachos 47a and Pesachim 106a; Rosh Brachos Pesachim 10:16 in name of Yerushalmi; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2

The reason: As they do not need his wine for anything, and thus have no need to wait. [Admur 190:5]

[18] Admur 190:5 “Each person can have a personal cup of wine placed in front of him, and it is even better for him to do so if possible, being that the wine in the cup of the person who said the blessing becomes blemished after he drinks from.”; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:40 footnote 396

The reason: This remains the preferred method as it avoids all the issues of distribution, as the wine is not blemished, and the Mikadesh does not have to make an interval to pour some of his wine into another cup prior to him drinking it, and the wine in their cups is considered just as much Kos Shel Bracha as the wine in the cup of the Mikadesh, and they thus end up drinking 100% Kos Shel Bracha wine. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[19] Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:40; See there footnote 396

[20] See previous footnotes that the cups of the participants can only be defined as a Kos Shel Bracha if they fulfill the criteria for a Kos Shel Bracha, which includes them holding a Revius of wine.

[21] See Admur 190:5 “Since they need his cup they are not to taste it until after he tastes it as explained in chapter 167:20”; 271:30 “The participants are not to taste from their cup prior to the Mikadesh tasting his if they need his cup, such as if the cups are empty or blemished and therefore he will be pouring from his wine into their cup ”; Michaber 271:16; Tosafus Brachos 47a and Pesachim 106a; Rosh Brachos Pesachim 10:16 in name of Yerushalmi

[22] Admur 190:5 “If in front of the listeners there are empty cups, then he may pour a small amount of the wine of the Kos Shel Bracha into each and every one of their cups, after he completes reciting the blessing of Hagafen, prior to him drinking from it in order so the listeners drink from a cup that is not blemished. This applies also in the case that their cups already contain wine, but the wine is blemished, that he may pour it in order to fix their wine prior to him drinking from it”; Ketzos Hashulchan 46:11; M”B 182:23; 190:4; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2; Regarding pouring into Pagum cups: Admur ibid and 271:29 “There is no requirement for the Mikadesh to pour from the wine in his cup to the cups of wine in front of the listeners which are fulfilling their obligation with hearing him make kiddush unless the wine in their cup is blemished, in which case he needs to pour his wine into each and every cup prior to him tasting it in order so they all drink from wine that is not blemished which is the Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar.”; Michaber 190:1; 182:4; 271:17; Tosafus Brachos 47a and Pesachim 106a; the Rashba Brachos 47a; Rosh Brachos 7:15 Pesachim 10:16; Bach 190; Taz 190:1; 182:4; Kaf Hachaim 184:24; Regarding pouring into empty cup for next day’s Kiddush: Admur 271:20; Michaber 271:11; Rabbeinu Yerucham 1 Nesiv 12

The Chabad custom: Rabbi Binyamin Klein, the Rebbe’s secretary, testified that he noticed that the Rebbe would follow this custom, as he would first pour the wine into a separate cup on behalf of his wife the Rebbetzin and only then drink from it himself. However, Rabbi Labele Groner states that the Rebbe would give her to drink directly from the cup. Perhaps both testimonies are accurate and the former was done by the Rebbe when there were guests by the table, while the latter was done he was eating alone with his wife [See Maaseh Melech in name of Rav Chesed Halbershtam likewise testifies to have witnessed both customs by the Rebbe]; Rabbi Eli Landau Shlita likewise testifies that the above was the custom followed in his father’s home when there were guests around and they could not give him from the actual cup, although when there was only family around then they would give from the actual cup.

Other opinions: Some Poskim write that the custom is not like this approach to have the Mivareich delay his drinking in order to first pour into the other cups. [Taz 182:4; P”M 182 M”Z 4 “seemingly the custom is that the Mivareich drinks the wine first”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:40 “Today this is no longer the custom to pour first for the participants”] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2 footnote 12 who seems to understand from these Poskim that therefore it should not be done initially, and hence lists the option of pouring from the battle after the drinking as the first option and this option he only lists as the alternative. In Piskeiy Teshuvos 271 footnote 397 he writes that the reason that this custom is no longer followed is because we worry that the Mikadeish may speak in between. Vetzaruch Iyun

The advantage of this option: All the participants drink unblemished wine which was all use for the actual kiddush.

The disadvantage of this option: There is a delay for the Mikadesh until he drinks the wine. [However, since this delay is justified it is unclear if it is truly viewed as a Halachic disadvantage]

[23] The reason that this is not considered an interval: Distributing the wine at this time is not considered an interval between the blessing and the drinking being that it is being done for the need of the drinking of the listeners, as when he says the blessing it is as if they have said the blessed being that they fulfill their obligation with his blessing. [Admur 190:5; P”M 182 M”Z 4; See also Admur 271:20 “One should not make an interval between the blessing and the tasting for no reason,” which teaches us that an interval for spilling the wine is allowed to be done prior to drinking if it carries with it some halachic advantage] In other words, since the listeners are fulfilling their obligation together with the person saying the blessing, thus them drinking the wine first is just as justified as the person saying the blessing drinking the wine. Vetzaruch Iyun from Admur 167:20 in which he rules regarding Hamotzi that the pieces of bread should not be distributed until the person who said Hamotzi first eats from the bread as the distribution is considered an interval. Seemingly, however, one must say that in that case it is considered an interval being that the listeners lose nothing out from waiting [as well as that the custom is for them to say their own blessing when they receive the bread], in contrast to here that if the distribution is delayed until after he drinks from the wine, then their drinking will be blemished. Vetzaruch Iyun if this would apply even by the night Kiddush, in which there is a requirement to drink Malei Lugmav to be Yotzei, and hence while from the aspect of the blessing of Hagafen it would not be an interval, as they are all drinking the wine based on the blessing, perhaps it would be considered an interval to the blessing of Mikdesh Hashabbos in which they all need the person who made the kiddush to drink it in order for them to be Yotzei.

The reason it is not considered a shame for the blessing: See Admur 271:20 that pouring the wine after kiddush before tasting is considered a shame for the blessing, and hence is to be avoided if there is no need. In this case, however, one can argue that not only is it considered a case of need but that is not even considered a shame being that this wine is the wine that will be drunk by the listeners.

[24] Admur ibid writes “Me’at”; However, see Taz 182:4 and P”M 182 M”Z 4 that there is no point in pouring less than a revius into each cup

[25] Empty versus full cups: This applies whether the cups of the listeners are empty, or already contain wine, but the wine is either a) blemished [or b) does not contain a revius-see Admur end of 190:5 “Meileim” ], and thus needs the wine of the Mikadesh for them to drink from the Kos Shel Bracha, in which case he is to pour it into each of their cups in order to fix their wine, yes my prior to him drinking from it. [See Admur 190:5; 271:29; Michaber 190:1; 182:4; 271:17; Taz and Bach and Rosh ibid; Tosafus Brachos 47a]

Pouring into each cup versus pouring into a single cup for the distribution: Admur 190:5 and 271:29 makes it very clear that he is to pour some wine into each cup of each individual prior to him drinking from his cup. Vetzaruch Iyun as to why he does not simply suggest for the sake of shortening the delay time, pouring into a single cup, and then having wine from that cup distributed to each participant. There is seemingly no reason to differentiate between the two options.

[26] Admur ibid; See also Admur 271:20; P”M 182 M”Z 4

The reason: As a Kos Shel Bracha must hold a Revius at the time of drinking. [Admur 271:20] However, it is not required to be full until the top at the time of drinking, and perhaps not even by the blessing of Hagafen after Birchas Hamazon. [See P”M ibid]

[27] Admur 190:5 “Since they need his cup they are not to taste it until after he tastes it as explained in chapter 167:20”; Admur 271:30 “The participants are not to taste from their cup prior to the Mikadesh tasting his if they need his cup, such as if the cups are empty or blemished and therefore he will be pouring from his wine into their cup ”; Michaber 271:16; Tosafus Brachos 47a and Pesachim 106a; Rosh Brachos Pesachim 10:16 in name of Yerushalmi

[28] Admur 271:20 regarding one who needs to reuse the same wine the next day due to not having enough wine; Michaber 271:11; Rabbeinu Yerucham 1 Nesiv 12

Tzaruch Iyun: This option is brought in 271:20 regarding one who needs to reuse the same wine the next day due to not having enough wine. It is however not brought by Admur neither in 190 or 271 in regards to advice of how to give unblemished wine to the listeners. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol. Perhaps, however, one can say that it is already included in that which Admur suggests pouring wine prior to drinking, into each listeners individual cup. This is a much greater novelty than the above-mentioned ruling, as here one is making a greater interval. Thus, perhaps Admur brought this scenario rather than the scenario listed in 271:20 in order to teach us an even greater novelty. There is no logic to differentiate between the two options.

[29] Admur 190:5; P”M 182 M”Z 4; Ketzos Hashulchan 46 footnote 31; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2 as his first option and 271:36 as his second option

The advantage of this option: All the participants drink unblemished wine and the Mivareich does not have to make any delay between his blessing and drinking.

The disadvantage of this option: The participants do not drink 100% from the actual kiddush wine.

[30] Admur 182:5; Michaber 182:6

The reason: As this is similar to a blemish on the alter which when fixed returns back to its Kosher state.

[31] The reason: One is not to initially fix the wine using this option as one is not allowed to initially nullify an Issur. Rather if one chooses to add the wine back into its bottle, one is to first pour unblemished wine into the blemished wine, and then pour it back into the bottle. If one poured blemished wine into a smaller amount of unblemished wine, then the entire mixture is considered blemished.

[32] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:3 and 271:40 that one should do so in the following order: 1) after drinking the wine one should pour some of the wine from the bottle into the kiddush cup, and then 2) return all the wine that is in the Kiddush cup back into the bottle making sure that there is more wine in the bottle than there is in the cup that is being poured back into the bottle. [See ibid based on Likkutei Maharich 271 and Mishnas Yosef 5:65]

[33] Admur 190:5 “Although it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for all of the participants to taste from the Kos Shel Bracha, nonetheless they are not required to taste from the actual cup of the person who said the blessing. Rather, each person can have a personal cup of wine placed in front of him, and it is even better for him to do so if possible, being that the wine in the cup of the person who said the blessing becomes blemished after he drinks from, and although it is possible to fix it through adding more wine to it on behalf of each one of the participants, nevertheless it is better that they drink [completely] from the wine of the Kos Shel Bracha [and not from any additional wine that is added].”; So learns also Ketzos Hashulchan 46 footnote 31 in Admur ibid “Initially it is a mitzvah to drink from the actual wine that the blessing was said over without adding any other wine to it. So is understood from Admur 190:5 and the Michaber 190:1. This however is only a better option as indeed even if more wine is added from the bottle the wine is still considered Kos Shel Bracha and so is the custom of the world to add more wine and sometimes they add more wine than what was originally in the cup and they are not particular in this matter” and so is brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 183 in name of Admur.

The reason: The reason for this is because it is better for the listeners to entirely drink from the wine which had the blessing made over it, and not any other additional wine. [See Admur and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim write that the initial custom is like this approach to not have the Mivareich delay his drinking in order to first pour into the other cups and rather for him to drink right away. [Taz 182:4; P”M 182 M”Z 4 “seemingly the custom is that the Mivareich drinks women first”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:40 “Today this is no longer the custom to pour first for the participants”] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2 footnote 12 who seems to understand from these Poskim that therefore it should not be done initially, and hence lists the option of pouring from the battle after the drinking as the first option and this option he only lists as the alternative. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[34] Ketzos Hashulchan 46 footnote 31; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:36

[35] See Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:164; 5:76 that so directed Rav Chaim Falagi; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271 footnote 360 and 396; See also M”B 271:78

[36] This option would actually be similar to option two, which is the best of all the options of distribution, as here to everyone will drink only from the Kos Shel Bracha wine and there is no need for the Mikadesh to make an interval and first pour out some of his wine before he drinks from it. 

[37] Implication of Admur 472:24 who omits in this law that the reason for why each participant by the Seder should have their own cup of wine is because it becomes blemished after the leader of the Seder drinks from it and rather the only reason mentioned is so each person drink from a full cup which seems to negate the above issue of Pagum; P”M 472 A”A 9; M”B in 182:24 and Shaar Hatziyon 271:88 based on Rosh Pesachim 10:21; Kaf Hachaim 472:64; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:40; 182:2; 183:12 and 271 footnote 357 that this is best option!

Contradiction from Admur in 190:5: Admur 190:5 states as follows“Although it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for all of the participants to taste from the Kos Shel Bracha, nonetheless they are not required to taste from the actual cup of the person who said the blessing. Rather, each person can have a personal cup of wine placed in front of him, and it is even better for him to do so if possible, being that the wine in the cup of the person who said the blessing becomes blemished after he drinks from.” This seems to imply that even when one drinks from the actual cup of the Mikadesh the wine is considered blemished. However, in truth one can argue that Admur ibid is not referring to people drinking from the actual cup of the Mikadeish but rather from the wine in the cup and indeed if they were to drink from the actual cup then it would be valid, and the reason why Admur did not mention this option is because you can only do so with family, as it is forbidden to offer a cup that one drank from to another person, as will be explained. However, some suggest that indeed by a Kos Shel Bracha of Birchas Hamazon Admur holds that drinking from the actual cup is invalid due to it being considered blemished being that there is no obligation of Kos Shel Bracha other than on the individual, as opposed to kiddush which is an obligation on each individual and hence drinking from the same cup is considered one continued action and therefore the wine is not considered blemished while it stays in the cup. [Article of Rav Dovid Ofen] Vetzaruch Iyun!

The advantage of this option: All the participants drink unblemished wine which is the actual Kiddush wine from the actual cup of the Mikadeish and there is no delay for the Mikadeish between his blessing and drinking. Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2 footnote 15 indeed lists this option as the best approach. This option is seemingly equivalent to the first option of all the participants having their own full cup of wine in front of them. [Some Poskim rule that the idea of drinking from a Kos Shel Bracha is not just to drink from the wine that was in the cup but toe drink from the actual cup itself. See Meiri Brachos 51a; Sifsei Chachamim on Rashi Bereishis 18:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2 footnote 15; 183:12; 271:36 footnote 357. However, some Poskim negate this and write that the idea is simply to drink from his wine and not directly from his cup: See Elya Raba and of 182 based on Bava Metzia 87a; Orchos Rabbeinu 1:85; Shraga Hameir 5:106]

The disadvantage of this option: It cannot be offered to guests being that they may be nauseated to drink from someone else’s cup.

[38] The reason: As when one drinks from the same cup the wine is not considered Pagum.

[39] Implication of Admur 190:5 and 271:29-30 who never mentions the ability of pouring some wine into another cup prior to drinking from it as an initial option, and rather only mentions the participants each having their own full cup. This seems to imply that a true and initial Kos Shel Bracha is only applicable when you drink from the actual cup of the Mikadesh, and when each participant has a cup in front of him each cup is considered the cup of the Mikadesh; Implication of Gemara which states “to send a Kos Shel Bracha”; Meiri Brachos 51a; Pirush Sifsei Chachamim on Rashi Bereishis 18:9-20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 182:2 footnote 15; 183:12; 271:36 footnote 357; See Shraga Hameir 5:106 and previous footnotes!   

[40] See Michaber 170:16 that it is forbidden to offer another person to drink from one’s cup. The reason for this is because a) one may feel disgusted to drink from another person’s saliva that may remain in the cup [M”A 170:21; 1st explanation in Taz 170:8] and b) the person who drank from it may be sick [2nd explanation in Taz ibid in name of Tzavaas Rav Eliezer Hagadol; See M”B 170:37]; Seemingly, however, this directive applies only to nonfamily members as amongst family members it is not accustomed to be particular in this matter; See Ketzos Hashulchan 39:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 170:20

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that the custom of the world is to be lenient regarding Kos Shel Bracha of Birchas Hamazon, Kiddush and Sheva Brachos to offer the cup of wine to others. [Zivcheiy Tzedek 2:27; See SSH”K 48 footnote 69; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid suggest to only do so if one first cleans the area of the cup that he drank from prior to offering it to drink to the next person.]

The difference between drinking from the cup versus drinking from the wine when it is poured to another cup: See Michaber 170:22 that if one wipes the area of the cup from which he drank then he may offer to his friend to finish drinking, thus implying that the entire issue is with drinking from the same cup and that with drinking from the same wine. This seemingly goes in accordance to the explanation of the M”A ibid and the first explanation of the Taz ibid, however, according to a second explanation that the issue is worries of germs and getting sick, then seemingly it should not make a difference. Vetzaruch Iyun then as to how according to the second explanation one can ever distribute from Kos Shel Bracha.

[41] The Rebbes custom: Rabbi Label Groner stated to us in a written correspondence that the Rebbe would give her to drink directly from the cup. However, Rabbi Binyamin Klein, the Rebbe’s secretary, testified that he noticed that the Rebbe would follow this custom, as he would first pour the wine into a separate cup on behalf of his wife the Rebbetzin and only then drink from it himself. Perhaps both testimonies are accurate and the latter was done by the Rebbe when there were guests by the table, while the former was done he was eating alone with his wife [See Maaseh Melech in name of Rav Chesed Halbershtam likewise testifies to have witnessed both customs by the Rebbe]

[42] So replied Rav Landau ibid in a written correspondence: “When making kiddush at home within the family, certainly the custom is that we give the actual kiddush cup to the family members without fixing it beforehand. On occasion when there is a guest, in order not to make him feel uncomfortable, my father Rav Yaakov Landau zatzal would pour little bit of wine into another empty cup prior to him drinking from it, for the sake of the guest.”

[43] P”M 182 M”Z 4 “seemingly the custom is that the Mivareich drinks the wine first”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:40 “Today this is no longer the custom to pour first for the participants”; See there footnote 396 that he writes that when following this custom one should at least have in mind to include the bottle of wine within the Kiddush as explained in option three.

[44] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid in name of Likkutei Maharich 271 and Mishnas Yosef 5:65

[45] See footnotes in B under option 2 and 4

[46] Although initially the cups should not be filled prior to Kiddush in order so the participants drink only from the actual kiddush wine.

[47] See Michaber Y.D. 195:13; Sheilas Yaavetz 1:126; Pischeiy Teshuvah 195; Kaf Hachaim 813:28; Piskeiy Teshuvos 183:12

[48] See Ketzos Hashulchan 46 footnote 31

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