Eating a meal on Erev Yom Tov

This Halacha is an excerpt from our Sefer

Buy me here or on Amazon.com

Eating a meal on Erev Yom Tov:[1]

* These laws follow the same laws as Erev Shabbos. For the full details of this subject-See our Sefer “The Laws & Customs of Erev Shabbos” Chapter 5

A large feast:[2] It is forbidden for one to establish a large feast on Erev Yom Tov, which one is not accustomed to eat during the week, if the feast involves drinking alcoholic beverages. It is forbidden to eat such a feast even in the morning of Erev Yom Tov.

A regular meal:[3] It is a Mitzvah[4] to abstain from starting a regular meal past the 10th hour [i.e. three Zmaniyos/fluctuating hours before sunset] of Erev Yom Tov, just as is the law regarding Erev Shabbos.[5] [However, on Erev Sukkos and Erev Pesach it is not merely a Mitzvah to refrain from eating but is an actual prohibition to eat a meal past the 10th hour of the day.[6] It is however permitted to eat a meal prior to the 10th hour of the day, even on Erev Sukkos.[7]]

Eating a snack:[8] The above is only with regards to a set meal [i.e. 55 grams of bread[9]], however it is permitted to eat a mere snack up until sunset, and there is no need to refrain from doing so.

May one eat a meal past the 10th hour if he did not eat prior?[10] If one transgressed or forgot and did not eat a meal prior to the 10th hour of the day, then he may eat a meal past the 10th hour [with exception to Erev Pesach and Erev Sukkos].

May one eat past the 10th hour on the first day of Yom Tov:[11] On the first day of a two-day Yom Tov, as occurs by all Yomim Tovim in the Diaspora, and on Rosh Hashana in Israel, one is to eat the first day Yom Tov meal prior to the 10th hour of the day. However, if one has not done so, then he is to eat the meal even past the 10th hour.

A Seudas Mitzvah:[12] The above prohibition only applies with regards to an optional feast, or a Seudas Mitzvah which is optional in terms of the date in which one must set it for, and it is thus possible for one to delay it to a later date. However, a Seudas Mitzvah which has fallen out to be eaten specifically on Erev Yom Tov may be set on Erev Yom Tov. Nevertheless, even when the date of a Seudas Mitzvah falls on Erev Yom Tov one is to initially begin the meal prior to the 10th hour of the day[13] and he should only invite ten people besides for close relatives and the Baalei Hasimcha. The following is the list of Seudas Mitzvah occasions which may be celebrated on Erev Yom Tov: Bris Mila [whether it being the 8th day after birth or past the 8th day after birth]; Wedding feast; Pidyon Haben [if it is taking place on its proper time which is the 31st day after birth].

 

Summary:

On Erev Yom Tov one is to refrain from beginning a meal past the 10th hour of the day, which is three Zmaniyos/fluctuating hours before sunset. Snacks may be eaten throughout the day, even past the 10th hour. If one transgressed or forgot and did not eat prior to the 10th hour, then he may not eat a meal.

Seudas Mitzvah: It is forbidden to eat a large meal any time on Yom Tov unless it is a Seudas Mitzvah which its date has fallen on Erev Yom Tov. In such a case, one is to initially begin the meal prior to the 10th hour of the day and should only invite ten people besides for close relatives and the Baalei Hasimcha.

 

_______________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 529:2; 249:6 regarding Erev Shabbos; 639:20 regarding Sukkos; Rama 529:1

[2] Admur 249:6 regarding Erev Shabbos

[3] Admur 529:2; 249:6 regarding Erev Shabbos; 639:20 regarding Sukkos; Rama 529:1

[4] The Rama 529:1 however states that it is forbidden just like on Erev Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as by Erev Shabbos itself it is only a Mitzvah and not an obligation. The Mishneh Berurah [529:5] thus concludes that this wording is inaccurate and it really intends to say “a Mitzvah”. To note however that also the Magen Avraham [668:1] rules that it is forbidden to eat past Mincha of Erev Shemini Atzeres. Vetzaruch Iyun

[5] The reason: This is in order so one be able to eat the Yom Tov meal with an appetite, as this is included within the Mitzvah of Kavod. [Admur ibid]

[6] 471:1-2 regarding Erev Pesach; 639:20 regarding Erev Sukkos

The reason: This is due to juxtaposition made from Sukkos to Pesach in which we learn that just like on Pesach one may not eat a meal past the 10th hour, similarly, on Sukkos one may not eat a meal past the 10th hour.  [639:20]

[7] Admur 639:20 writes “Min Hamincha Ulimalah”; This seemingly means the 10th hour, as rules Admur 249:9 regarding Erev Shabbos; 471:1-2 regarding Erev Pesach and 529:2 regarding Erev Yom Tov, and there is no reason in Admur to assume that Erev Sukkos is any different, since he makes no explicit differentiation and so rules Kaf Hachaim 639:60 in opinion of Admur ibid. So also rule regarding Erev Sukkos: Implication of M”A 639:12 who questions Rama and so concludes Kaf Hachaim ibid that so is ruling of Admur and M”A ibid; Gr”a 639; Mishneh Berurah 639:27; See background and other opinions

Background of ruling of Admur regarding Erev Sukkos: Regarding Erev Sukkos, Admur 639:20 writes one is to abstain from eating “Min Hamincha Ulimalah.” This seemingly refers to Mincha Ketana or “Samuch Limincha” which refers to the 10th hour of the day. This explanation that “Min Hamincha” refers to 10th hour is found in Rama 529 who rules that it is forbidden to eat Erev Yom Tov from “Hamincha Ulimala” and the Magen Avraham 529:1 explains this to refer to the 10th hour of the day, and so rules Admur in 529:2. However, Tzaruch Iyun as for why Admur here did not also just simply state the 10th hour, as he wrote in 529:2, and especially in light of fact that in all the Halachas mentioned of not eating on Erev Chag/Shabbos Admur mentions specifically the 10th hour. [249:9 regarding Erev Shabbos; 471:1-2 regarding Erev Pesach, and 529:2 regarding Erev Yom Tov] As well, the question intensifies over the fact that the Rama 639:3 rules it is forbidden to eat a meal on Erev Sukkos from Chatzos and seemingly if Admur were trying to argue on the Rama he should have stated clearly without doubt of its meaning that he holds it’s from the 10th hour. Thus, although we find a source for ruling that Min Hamincha refers to 10th hour, it is puzzling why Admur did not just state this explicitly. Vetzaruch Iyun.

Other opinions regarding Erev Sukkos: Some Poskim rules it is forbidden to eat a meal from midday of Erev Sukkos just as is the law on Erev Pesach. [Rama 639:3] Some Poskim question this ruling of the Rama. [M”A 639:12; Gr”a] Other Poskim rule that bread may not be eaten from midday of Erev Sukkos while other foods are to be abstained from 10th hour. [Chayeh Adam 147:17; P”M 639 A”A 12; Kitzur SHU”A; Kaf Hachaim ibid] Other Poskim rule one is to eat his meal prior to midday, although if one did not yet eat he may nevertheless eat a meal until the 10th hour. [Mateh Efraim 625:7]

Question on ruling of Rama ibid: The M”A 639:12 questions the Rama ibid that on Erev Pesach it is only forbidden to start a meal from the 10th hour. He answers that bread [which one cannot eat on Erev Pesach] is more filling than other foods, and thus bread which can be eaten on Erev Sukkos we are more stringent and forbid it from midday. However, he concludes with asking a) what is the source for such a differentiation, and b) why does the Rama conclude as explained in the laws of Pesach. He thus concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun. Some Poskim learn the Magen Avraham’s final stance is to be arguing on the Rama that even bread is only forbidden from after the 10th hour. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] Other Poskim  learn him to accept the differentiation that he made between bread and other foods. [Chayeh Adam ibid; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch] The Gr”a explains that the Rama holds like the Rishonim who forbid eating form midday, but that is not how we rule as explained in Hilchos Pesach that we rule it may be eaten until 10th. The Chok Yaakov argues on differentiation of Magen Avraham and rather explains that Rama always holds even by Pesach that the prohibition to eat Mezonos or Hamotzi foods begin from midday, and it is just because that eating Mezonos/Hamoitzi on Erev Pesach is not done being that we do not eat Matza Ashira anymore, that the Rama did not say so in Hilchos Pesach. [Based on this explanation it is evident that Admur clearly does not rule like Rama being that he clearly states in 471:1-2 that Matzah Ashirah may be eaten on Erev Pesach until the 10th hour, which according to the Chok Yaakov’s explanation of the Rama is incorrect.]

[8] Admur 249:9 regarding Erev Shabbos

[9] Ketzos Hashulchan 69 footnote 11; See Shiureiy Torah p. 177: 57.6 grams

[10] Admur 529:2

[11] Admur 529:2

[12] Admur 249:6 regarding Erev Shabbos; M”A 581:11 regarding a Bris Mila on Erev Rosh Hashanah.

[13] Admur ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 69 footnote 8

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that the meal should be eaten in the morning [prior to midday]. [Mishneh Berurah 249:13; Kaf Hachaim 249:14; 581:66] This is based on the ruling of the Rama 695:2 that when Purim falls on Erev Shabbos one is to start the meal prior to midday. The Ketzos Hashulchan 69 footnote 8 however argues that one cannot learn from the Purim feast laws that all meals of a Seudas Mitzvah are to be eaten prior to midday as there is much greater of a chance of becoming drunk by a Purim meal, and hence it was initially set to be eaten before midday. However, other feast of a Seudas Mitzvah can be eaten even initially up to the 10th hour.

Was this article helpful?

Related Articles

Leave A Comment?