Covid-19 Davening alone instruction
Directives for one who is without a Minyan for Rosh Hashanah
A. Blowing the Shofar:
Some Poskim rule that the institution to blow Shofar in the month of Elul was only established in the presence of a Minyan, however a person praying privately is not required to blow. Other Poskim, however, rule that one is to blow the Shofar even when praying in private. The Rebbe was accustomed to blow the Shofar even when Davening in private. Practically, while it is not obligatory for one to blow the Shofar when Davening in private, it is certainly a good thing to do so.
B. Selichos without a Minyan
May a person recite Selichos without a Minyan? It is permitted to recite Selichos without a Minyan, although one is required to omit certain parts, as will be explained next.
What does one omit if he is saying Selichos without a minyan? If one is saying Selichos without a Minyan, he is to omit the 13 attributes of mercy. [One is to omit the words starting from Vayaavor. Some write that one is to also omit the entire paragraph of “Keil Melech Yosheiv”. It is not our custom in such a case to recite the 13 attributes of mercy in the tune of the Torah reading-see Halacha D in Q&A!] He is likewise to omit the Aramaic parts said within Selichos. One does not omit the verse of “Uzechor Hayom Bris Shlosh Esrei” upon saying Selichos without a Minyan.
The 13 attributes of mercy: If one is saying Selichos without a Minyan, he is to omit the 13 attributes of mercy. However, it is permitted to recite the thirteen attributes in the Torah reading tune even if one is reciting it alone. Nevertheless, many are accustomed to avoid doing so, and they thus completely omit it when a Minyan is not present. Practically, the recorded Chabad custom is not to say it.
Language-When saying Selichos with a Minyan: One is to be particular to say Selichos in Lashon Hakodesh if he [is fluent in the language and] understands what he is saying. If, however, he does not understand Lashon Hakodesh, he is to say Selichos in whatever language he understands. [Furthermore, if he can express himself better in his native language than in Lashon Hakodesh he is to do so, as the main thing is that the prayer should come from the bottom of one’s heart. Accordingly, many women were accustomed to recite Selichos in Yiddish.]
May one join Selichos through a Telephone, radio, live video/audio internet hookup? If one is unable to join the saying up Selichos with an actual Minyan, then he can join through a live hookup, such as through the telephone, radio, or internet. Nonetheless there is debate as to the value of such a recital of Selichos, if it’s considered to have been said with a Minyan, and be allowed to answer Amen, and recite the 13 attributes of mercy. Some Poskim rule one is not to answer Amen or the 13 attributes in such circumstances. Other Poskim, however, rule one is to answer Amen and for the 13 attributes. Practically, one may be lenient in this matter. [If however there is a number of seconds of delay between the “live” hookup and the actual events taking place, then according to all opinions one may not answer Amen to Kaddish. In many live broadcasts there are several seconds of delay between the events and the broadcast, and hence in such a case one may not answer Amen to the Kaddish.]
C. Hataras Nedarim Erev Rosh Hashashanah:
Joining male family members for an at home Hatras Nedarim: For Hataras Nedarim of Erev Rosh Hashanah, a tribunal of three observant Jews who are above the age of Bar Mitzvah is needed. The members of the tribunal who annul the vow may be relatives of each other and may even be a relatives of the person asking for the annulment. Thus a girl/woman may do Hataras Nedarim through presenting the vow to her father and two older brothers or other relatives who will serve as the tribunal of three. A husband, however, cannot serve as part of the tribunal of judges to annul the vow of his wife.
May one perform Hataras Nedarim via Zoom or telephone? This matter is debated amongst today’s Rabbanim. Practically, with regards to the general Hataras Nedarim that is done on Erev Rosh Hashanah, one who cannot join a Minyan or three other men for a Beis Din, may do so through Zoom or a phone.
2. Rosh Hashanah Shacharis Davening:
A. When to Daven Shacharis when Davening without a Minyan:
One who is Davening Shacharis of Rosh Hashanah without a Minyan, may Daven even within the first three hours of the day. [Furthermore, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to pray at the same time as the congregation is praying in Shul.] This is opposed to Musaf which one is not to Daven within the first three hours of the day.
B. Avinu Malkeinu/אבינו מלכנו:
Avinu Malkeinu is recited on Rosh Hashanah [after each Shacharis and Mincha Shemoneh Esrei, if it does not fall on Shabbos] even if one is not Davening with a Minyan.
All Piyutim that are normally recited in Shul may likewise be recited when Davening in private.
Tips for an enhanced private at home High Holiday Davening:
1. Set aside a specific room for the prayers. Make it clean, and organized.
2. Daven aloud, and with whatever tunes and Niggunim you know of.
3. Try to join your entire family in the Davening [although women and girls above age 11 are not to sing the words when a man is Davening].
3. Shofar Blowing:
A. When to blow Shofar:
If one is blowing Shofar on Rosh Hashanah without a Minyan in order to fulfill the Mitzvah, he is to beware to delay the blowing of the Shofar until three hours have passed from the beginning of the day.
If one is Davening without a Minyan, when is he to blow the Shofar to fulfill his Biblical obligation, before or after Musaf? If one is Davening without a Minyan it is proper for him hear [or blow] the Biblical amount of blows, which are three times of each set of Tashrat, Tashat and Tarat, prior to Musaf.
B. How many sounds to blow:
From the letter of the law, he must only hear 30 sounds, which are three sets of each Tashrat, Tashat and Tarat, and is not required to hear any additional sound to make up the sounds he is missing from the Musaf prayer. Nevertheless, the custom is to blow a total of 100 sounds. The Shofar is blown after Musaf in order to complete the 100 sounds.
How to blow the Shevarim-Teruah, in one or two breaths?
The first thirty blows are to have the Shevarim-Teruah blown in one breath. If one did not do so, he is to repeat the sets of Tashrat properly. Any extra blows that one decides to blow after Musaf for the customary 100 blows, may be done in two breaths.
D. May a woman blow Shofar?
Women are not obligated to hear Shofar. Nevertheless if they desire to blow Shofar, they may do so [with a blessing, as explained next]. Practically, women have accepted upon themselves the Mitzvah of hearing Shofar as an obligation. [Accordingly, women are to be particular to hear Shofar on each day of Rosh Hoshanah, due to the accepted custom. It is likewise customary to educate young girls to hear Shofar.]
The blessing: A woman [of Ashkenazi origin] who hears Shofar, may choose to recite a blessing prior to doing so, just as a man recites prior to performing the Mitzvah. [She may likewise recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu.] If, however, a woman does not know how to say the blessing, a man may not say the blessing on her behalf.
May a man blow Shofar for women? It is permitted for a man to blow Shofar for women even if he has already fulfilled his obligation. It is even permitted for him to carry a Shofar through a public domain for the sake of women hearing Shofar. However, if the man has already fulfilled his obligation of hearing Shofar [or plans to do so with a later blowing] then he may not say the blessing for a woman, and rather the blessing is to be said by one of the women. If a man desires to blow with a blessing for women then he is to blow for them before hearing Shofar in Shul and hence fulfill his obligation with this blowing. Alternatively, he can intend not to fulfill his obligation with the blowing in Shul [of Meyushav] and then blow for women with a blessing [between Meyushav and Meumad] having intent to fulfill his obligation with this blowing.
May a woman blow Shofar for another man to fulfill his obligation?
May a woman blow Shofar for herself or for another woman to fulfill the Mitzvah?
How many blows is a woman to hear?
A woman only needs to hear the 30 sounds required to fulfill the Mitzvah [as explained in Chapter 3]. Nevertheless, it is proper for them to also hear the blows of Musaf and not speak until its conclusion.
A. When to Daven Musaf:
One who is Davening alone is not to Daven Musaf of Rosh Hashanah until three hours have passed into the day.
B. Shofar blowing in Musaf:
One who is Davening Musaf in private [i.e. without a Minyan] is not to make an interval to blow the Shofar in between the blessings of Shemoneh Esrei. This applies even if he has another person available to blow for him, nevertheless he may not stop to hear it.
All Piyutim that are normally recited in Shul may likewise be recited when Davening in private.
 Tzitz Eliezer 12:48; Rivivos Efraim 1:394 in name of Rav Chaim Kanievsky and many other Rabbanim who he corresponded with; Piskeiy Teshuvos 581:3
 Siach Yitzchak 264; Nitei Gavriel 4:9 and footnote 14 in new edition versus old edition in which he wrote not to blow
 Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 14
 Bach; M”A 565:6; Gr”a; M”B 565:13; Elya Raba; Birkeiy Yosef 131:11; Kesher Gudal 19:10; Shalmei Tzibur 149; Zechor Leavraham 131:6 Kaf Hachaim 131:25; Yalkut Yosef Moadim 13 footnote 17; Mateh Efraim 581:21 and Chesed Lealafim 131:9 and Kitzur SHU”A 128:9 rule it may be said although one must skip “Uzechor Hayom Bris..”.
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not recite Selichos without a Minyan. [Rama 565:5; Taz 565:5]
The Rama 565:5 rules [in name of Or Zarua] that a Yachid may not say Selichos. The Taz 565:5 explains it is forbidden because one mentions in Selichos “Uzechor Hayom Bris Shlosh Esrei” which is forbidden to be said without a Minyan, just like the 13 attributes themselves. The Bach [brought in Taz ibid and M”A 565:6] however argues that Selichos may be recited, and so rules M”A 565:6 saying the intent of the Or Zarua and Rama was to negate saying Selichos in middle of Shemoneh Esrei. [See Gr”a; Shaareiy Tziyon 565:10] Practically Mateh Efraim 581:21 brings not to say “Uzechor Hayom Bris..” as rules Taz ibid. So also rules Chesed Lealafim 131:9 and Kitzur SHU”A 128:9. However the M”B 565:13 sides like the M”A ibid that one recites Selichos as usual, omitting only the 13 attributes itself. So rules also Elya Raba; Birkeiy Yosef 131:11; Kesher Gudal 19:10; Shalmei Tzibur 149; Zechor Leavraham 131:6 [brought in Kaf Hachaim 131:25]; Yalkut Yosef Moadim 13 footnote 17 that so is the custom.
 Michaber 565:5; Mateh Efraim 581:21; Kaf Hachaim 565:26 [this applies even during the Aseres Yimei Teshuvah].
 Rama 565:5; Kitzur Shlah Miseches Taanis
 Kitzur Shlah Miseches Taanis “One needs to tell the masses that should not say Keil Melech Yosheiv and Vayaavor”
 Sefer Hatanya 72; Elya Raba 581:9; Kaf Hachaim 581:26; Mateh Efraim 581:21; M”B 581:4; See however Hiskashrus 60 p. 20
The reason: The reason for omitting the Aramaic parts is because the angels do not understand Aramaic and will hence be unable to elevate these prayers. [see Admur 101:5; Shabbos 12a; Sotah 33; Mefarshim in Shulchan Aruch 101] The Kaf Hachaim ibid questions this ruling as why do we need the angels to understand our prayers. The prayers can be said directly to Hashem. Likewise this matter of omitting Aramaic when reciting Selichos in private is not brought in any other Poskim.
 Bach; M”A 565:6; Gr”a; M”B 565:13; Elya Raba; Birkeiy Yosef 131:11; Kesher Gudal 19:10; Shalmei Tzibur 149; Zechor Leavraham 131:6 Kaf Hachaim 131:25; Yalkut Yosef Moadim 13 footnote 17
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to omit the words “Uzechor Hayom Bris Shlosh Esrei” upon saying Selichos without a Minyan. [Taz 565:5; Mateh Efraim 581:21; Chesed Lealafim 131:9 and Kitzur SHU”A 128:9 ]
 Michaber 565:5; Mateh Efraim 581:21; Kaf Hachaim 565:26 [this applies even during the Aseres Yimei Teshuvah].
 Michaber 565:5; Tur 565; M”A 565:5; Rashba in Teshuvah; Terumas Hadeshen 8; Seder Hayom [must finish the entire verse]; Machazik Bracha 131:6; Kesher Gudal 19:9; Ruach Chaim 131:1; Mateh Efraim 581:21 [however states that in such a case must omit the words Zechor Lanu Hayom Bris Shlosh Esrei]; Hisorerus Teshuvah 2:140; Minchas Elazar 4:22 [defends ruling of Mateh Efraim however in Darkei Chaim Veshalom 190 says not to say at all even in a way of Niggun. Vetzaruch Iyun.]; Grach Naah in Yagdil Torah Jerusalem 17 p. 26 [states that technically one is not even required to recite it with the tune]; Igros Moshe Yoreh Deah 3:10; Kaf Hachaim 131:23 brings the dispute on this matter and rules it is only to be said with the Niggun by Tachanun and not by Selichos.
The reason: As there is no prohibition in reading it as a verse in scripture. The prohibition is only when reading it without a Minyan as a prayer and supplication
The tune: Rav Avraham Chaim Naah in Yagdil Torah ibid states that technically one is not even required to recite it with the tune, and it is only done to show that one does not mean to say it as a prayer. The Igros Moshe ibid similarly states that one may read the words in the usual tune he uses for reading words of Torah, even if it is not the actual Torah reading tunes [Taamim], so long as it does not sound like a supplication.
Finishing the verse: The Seder Hayom writes that one must finish the entire verse [until Vieal Riveim] and may not stop by the words Venakeh, as it is forbidden to end a verse in an area that Moshe did not end. [see Admur 494:11] However, some Poskim state it is not necessary to finish the verse. [Ben Ish Chaiy in Rav Poalim 1:11; Yechaveh Daas 1:47 based on Pesach Dvir 51] Practically, the Kaf Hachaim ibid negates the opinion of the Seder Hayom, and so rules Rav Avraham Chaim Naah in Yagdil Torah ibid; Igros Moshe ibid; Hisorerus Teshuvah 2:140; Piskeiy Teshuvos 565:5]
Reading in a Siddur: Some write that one must read the verse within a Sefer rather than from memory. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid in name of Peri Hasada 4:49]
 Beis Yosef 565; Taz 565:5; Birkeiy Yosef 488:5 in name of Maharam Zakusa in name of Arizal; Shalmei Tzibur p. 148; Zechor Leavraham 131:7; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 190 [However see Minchas Elazar 4:22 who defends ruling of Mateh Efraim ibid that it may be said so long as one skips the parts that mention the 13 Middos before and after reading it. Vetzaruch Iyun.]; Kaf Hachaim 131:23 rules that by Selichos one may not say it.
The reason: The reason is because since he is mentioning it at this time, seemingly his intent is as a request and not to read a verse in the Torah. [Taz ibid]
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad Elul 63; Hiskashrus 423 p. 18 footnote 17; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur footnote 337; Heichal Menachem 3:265
Otzer Minhagei Chabad ibid records that an individual does not recite the 13 attributes even with the Torah reading tune. This is based on an answer of the Rebbe to this exact question of which the Rebbe answered that he has not heard of such a practice of reading it with the tune. In the first printings of the Siddur Tehillas Hashem it stated by Mincha that a Yachid does not recite the 13 attributes. It did not mention this by Shacharis or Selichos. The Rebbe was hence asked if there is a difference, to which the Rebbe replied in Igros Kodesh 3:138 that he never heard of such a differentiation as the ruling is clearly given in 565:5 without any difference regarding the type of prayer.
 Admur 101:5
 1st opinion in Admur 101:5 and Michaber 101:4 that one is to be particular to Daven in Lashon Hakodesh; Rif Brachos 2:7; Rabbanei Tzarfat; Yearos Devash Derush 1; Chayeh Adam 24:19; M”B 122:8; Shulchan Hatahor 118 footnote 5 all conclude like this opinions
The reason: One is to always say Daven in Lashon Hakodesh as the angels [Malachei Hashareis] don’t understand other languages, [1st explanation in Admur ibid; Taz 101:4 and M”A 101:6] and a prayer needs the angels to elevate and vouch for his prayer’s acceptance. [Admur ibid; Rif Brachos 2:7]
Other opinions in Admur: Some Poskim rule that the angels understand all languages, even thoughts, other than Aramaic, and therefore one may Daven in any language he desires except for Aramaic. [2nd explanation in Admur ibid; 2nd opinion in Michaber 101:4 as explained in Taz 101:5 and M”A 101:7; Rosh Brachos 2:2; Tosafus Shabbos 12b, brought in Taz ibid]
 Admur ibid; M”A 101:5 in name of Asara Mamaros Mamar Eim Kol Chaiy 1:31 and Sefer Chassidim 588 and 788; Chayeh Adama and M”B ibid
The reason: As a prayer without intent is worthless. [Admur ibid]
 See Chayeh Adam and M”B ibid; Beis Baruch 22:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 101:7; This follows the second opinion mentioned in
 See Yalkut Yosef Hilchos Rosh Hashanah footnote 7 for a great length on this subject; Birchas Aaron p. 242
 See Piskeiy Teshuvah 167; Rav SZ”A in Minchas Shlomo 9:1; Moadim Uzmanim 6:105; Mishpitei Uziel 1:5 [brought in Igros Kodesh 13:221 as opinion of Sephardim]; Beir Moshe 3:166-168; See Mishneh Sachir 30; Tzitz Eliezer 20:19; Ratz Katzevi 2:10; Piskeiy Teshuvos 56:3; Halichos Olam [Rav Slonim] 581:28 footnote 40 that one is not to join Selichos through the radio and the like, and is certainly not to answer Amen
 The reason: Being that there may be feces or idols that intervene between him and the area that the blessing or Minyan is taking place. [See Admur 55:22; Koveitz Ohalei Sheim 5:104; Halichos Olam ibid] Alternatively, this is because it is defined as an Amen Yesoma since the person is not in the same room as the person saying the blessing. [Piskeiy Teshuvah ibid; Minchas Shlomo ibid; Moadim Uzmanim ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as to why being in a different area would make it an Amen Yesoma, contrary to the explicit ruling in Admur 55:22 based on the Gemara and Poskim
 Minchas Elazar 2:72; Igros Moshe 2:108; 4:91; Yechaveh Daas 2:68; Yalkut Yosef R”H 7; Birchas Aaron p. 242; See Igros Kodesh 13:179 and 13:221 and Likkutei Sichos 21:497 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 1:81] that the Ashkenazim [i.e. Minchas Elazar of Hungary] are lenient in this, thus implying that the Rebbe rules like the opinion.
 The reason: This is permitted as a) There is no need to be in the same room as a person in order to answer Amen, [Admur 55:22] Now, although most certainly there are feces or idol worship in-between, nevertheless we are lenient being that the phone wires that carry the voice bypass the feces and idols. This is in addition to that the wires are in the air, higher than ten Tefachim and is thus considered a different Reshus. [Minchas Elazar ibid; See Admur 345:17] b) There is no need to hear the actual voice of the person saying the blessing so long as one knows what blessing he is answering for. [Admur 124:11]
 So seems to be the leaning opinion of the Rebbe ibid and so was witnessed during the satellite hookup candle lighting of Chanukah in which the Rebbe answered Amen; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 56:3 that one may be lenient regarding Amen of a blessing [however not obligatory] however not regarding Kaddish and Kedusha
 Admur 124:11
 Heard from a media technician; Verified through sampling various live broadcasts and seeing a delay between different channels; See Shiureiy Rishon Letziyon [Rav Ovadia Yosef] p. 78 that one may not answer by radio due to delay, although one may answer through satellite being that there is no delay. Rav Yaakov Yosef stated similarly in his classes.
 Michaber Yoreh Deah 228:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 581:16
 Michaber Y.D. 234:57
The reason: As one’s wife is considered like the same body as her husband, and he is hence invalid to revoke her vow. [Shach 234:7]
 591:14 based on Rashi as is understood by the M”A 591:9
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that even Shacharis of Rosh Hashanah is to be initially prayed within the first hour of the day, as that is when most communities are Davening. If he did not Daven in the first hour, he is to do so in the second hour. He is however to avoid doing so in the third hour as that is a time that G-d’s wrath is revealed. [M”A 591:9; Elya Raba 591:13; Yeshuos Yaakov; Kaf Hachaim 591:35]
 The reason: As it is merely a praise of Hashem [and not requests from G-d] and hence even if he Davens alone [within the first three hours] they will not investigate his actions. [591:14]
 This is not an obligation but rather a mere extra Mitzvah. Hence if one desires to pray prior to the congregation’s prayer he may do so. [90:11]
 The reason: As this is considered an auspicious time above which as result of his prayers are not repelled [90:11], as also when praying simultaneously to a Minyan, even if not in the same building, on it G-d says “I will not repel their prayer”. [591:14] Nevertheless this prayer is not accepted above to the same extent as is prayer of a Minyan within a Shul. [90:11]
 90:11; Kaf Hachaim 591:35
 Kitzur Shlah; Shvus Yaakov 3:42; Elya Raba 584:5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 584:2; M”E 584:13; Kaf Hachaim 584:11; Daas Torah 584:1
Other Opinions: Those that are not accustomed to reciting Avinu Malkeinu unless they are with a Minyan have upon what to rely as the source of Avinu Malkeinu is from Rebbe Akiva who said it with a Minyan. [Elya Raba ibid brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid; Daas Torah 584:1]
 591:14; M”A 591:9; M”B 591:15; Kaf Hachaim 591:36
 The reason: The reason for this is because within the first three hours of the day G-D does not judge beyond the letter of the law, as during this time He learns His Torah which is called Truth [and thus judges people in accordance to Truth]. There is thus to worry that perhaps the supernal courts will investigate his actions and his prayers [Tekios] will be denied. However, after three hours into the day He judges the entire world and once He sees that the world cannot up stand to His judgment He therefore judges them in a manner of above the letter of the law, and the individuals prayer will not be differed. [ibid]
 Admur 592:7; Rama 592:2; Beis Yosef in name of Kol Bo; Levush; Biur Hagr”a; M”E 592:7; M”B 582:7; Kaf Hachaim 592:13
The reason: This is done in order to confuse the Satan prior to him beginning his prayer. [Levush; see Admur ibid] Alternatively it is done because of Zerzin Makdimin Lemitzvos. [Derisha 592:2]
Other Opinions: Many Poskim rule that if one is Davening without a Minyan, he is to blow the Shofar, to fulfill his Biblical obligation, after Musaf. [Rashi; Razah; Ramban in Milchamos; Tosafus 33b brought in Erech Hashulchan 592:4; Kneses Hagedola 592:2 that so is the custom today]
 Admur 592:7
 Rama 592:2 “and one is not required to blow for him a second time” Vetzaruch Iyun why these words were omitted from Admur 592:7
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 592:3
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 590:6
 A) In order so the blessing is not in vain according to the second opinion and b) in order to fulfill his obligation according to all.
 588:6; 589:2; Michaber 589:3; Kedushin 29
The reason: The reason for this is because hearing Shofar is a Mitzvas Aseh Shehazman Grama. [ibid] Regarding a Tumtum and Androgenus see 588:9.
 Admur 589:2; Michaber 589:6; R”H 33a as rules Rebbe Yossi and Rebbe Shimon; Rabbeinu Tam; Ran; Rosh there; Beis Yosef 589; See Kaf Hachaim 589:22
The reason it is allowed for women to blow Shofar on Rosh Hashanah despite it being a Shvus: Although blowing Shofar on Shabbos or Yom Tov is forbidden if it is not done for the sake of the Mitzvah and women are not obligated in the Mitzvah nevertheless the Sages allowed women to blow it if they intend to do so for the sake of the Mitzvah. The reason for this is because this specific prohibition of blowing a Shofar is not an actual complete Shvus as it is merely forbidden due to Uvdin Dechol, thus for the sake of appeasing the women the Sages permitted this light Rabbinical matter. [589:2]
 Admur 17:3; Shut Rav Akiva Eiger 1 Hashmatos; See Ashel Avraham Butchach 689 and Mahadurah Tinyana 592; so is implied also from Kitzur SHU”A 129:19; Ateres Zekeinim 689
 Admur 589:2; 17:3; Rama 589:6; Taz 658:9; M”A 658:11; M”B 655:1; Rabbeinu Tam R”H 33a; Ran; Rosh in name of Mahritz Geios; Tur 589; Ritva Sukkah 2; Rashba 123; Maggid Mishneh Shofar 2 in name of Rashba; Shut Min Hashamayim 1; Birkeiy Yosef 654:2; Yosef Ometz 82; See Kaf Hachaim 17:4; 589:23
Other Opinions-Sephardim: Some Poskim rule that women may never recite a blessing over any Mitzvah that they are not obligated in. [Michaber 589:6; Beis Yosef 589; Rambam Hilchos Tzitzis; Igur in name of Reb Yeshaya; Rashi, brought in Hagahos on Rambam; Chacham Tzevi] The Michaber ibid rules that they cannot say a blessing as Safek Brachos Lihakel. [Beis Yosef 589] The Birkeiy Yosef ibid states that after seeing the answer from heaven in Shut Min Hashamayim he retracted from ruling like the Michaber and would tell women to recite a blessing. He concludes that if the Michaber would have seen the Shut Min Hashamayim certainly he too would have retracted his ruling.
May a woman who is a Nidda recite blessings? See Darkei Teshuvah Y.D. 195:58; Shulchan Melachim Nida 4; Yalkut Hagershoni 658:5; Nitei Gavriel 41:3
 See previous footnote
 The reason it is allowed for women to say a blessing despite them not being obligated in the command: Women are accustomed to say a blessing on even those commands that they are exempt from due to it being a Mitzvas Aseh Shehazman Grama. Thus, in this case as well women may say the blessing before hearing Shofar. [Admur 589:2] Women may say a blessing of “Asher Kidishana … Vitzivanu..” on commands that they are exempt from fulfilling, being that the men are commanded in this Mitzvah. Furthermore, although they do not receive as much reward as a man who is commanded in the Mitzvah, they do receive some reward and thus they too may say a blessing just like a man. [Admur 17:3]
 Rabbeinu Manoach Lulav 4:19; See Yabia Omer 4:50; Piskeiy Teshuvos 655:3
 Admur 589:2; 640:2; Rama 589:6; Darkei Moshe 589:2
The reason why a man may not say the blessing for women: Women are not obligated in the command of Lulav and hence are not commanded to say the blessing. Thus, a man has no obligation to recite the blessing for them to fulfill this optional Mitzvah. In such a case, if a man says the blessing for women it is considered a needless blessing and is hence defined as a blessing in vain. However, women themselves can choose to say the blessing for reasons explained in previous footnotes. [ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun as to how to understand this reason. Why can’t men say this optional blessing for women just like women can say it for themselves? In other words, if we permit an optional blessing for women why can’t we also permit it for men to say for the sake of women. Perhaps the reason is because since the blessing is optional and the man gains nothing for saying it [not even an exemption from Areivus], it is therefore considered an unnecessary blessing for him to say. However, women may say it being that she gains the fulfillment of the Mitzvah and hence it is not unnecessary.
 589:2; Michaber 589:6
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rama ibid; Ravaya brought in Rosh R”H 33; Tur; Beis Yosef; Levush; Erech Hashulchan 589:3; M”B 589:8
Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden for men to blow the Shofar on behalf of only women as it is forbidden to blow the Shofar for no need. [Baal Hitur brought in Tur 589; Peri Chadash; See M”E 589:12] The Kaf Hachaim 589:27 concludes that since there are Achronim that agree to the ruling of the Peri Chadash the custom therefore is that women come to Shul to hear Shofar and only in a case of need do we blow for them outside of Shul.
 Admur 589:2; Rama 589:6; Darkei Moshe 589:2; Ravaya brought in Rosh R”H 33; Tur; Beis Yosef; Chida in Yosef Ometz 82; Kaf Hachaim 589:28; Igros Moshe 3:94; Az Nidbaru 13:38 [permitted even for female children]; Ketzei Hamateh 589:5 [“so is the custom”]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 518:4; 589:5
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not carry the Shofar through a public domain that does not contain an Eruv simply for the sake of blowing for women. [Shaagas Aryeh 106 brought in Machazik Bracha 589:5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 589] The Chida in Yosef Ometz ibid negates this opinion and concludes like above. See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 16 that perhaps today it is permitted according to all opinions as women have accepted upon themselves to hear Shofar and it is hence like a vow which is Biblical, and one may hence carry on their behalf according to all.]
 Admur 589:2; Rama 589:6; Darkei Moshe 589:2
The reason why a man may not say the blessing for women: Women are not obligated in the command of Shofar and hence are not commanded to say the blessing. Thus, a man has no obligation to recite the blessing for them to fulfill this optional Mitzvah. In such a case if a man says the blessing for women it is considered a needless blessing and is hence defined as a blessing in vain. However, women themselves can choose to say the blessing for reasons explained in previous footnotes. [ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun as to how to understand this reason. Why can’t men say this optional blessing for women just like women can say it for themselves? In other words, if we permit an optional blessing for women why can’t we also permit it for men to say for the sake of women. Perhaps the reason is because since the blessing is optional and the man gains nothing for saying it [not even an exemption from Areivus] it is therefore considered an unnecessary blessing for him to say. However, women may say it being that she gains the fulfillment of the Mitzvah and hence it is not unnecessary.
 This means that one is to leave Shul to blow for women between the first and second sets of blowing [between the blowing before Musaf and Musaf] and then return to Shul to hear the blowing of Musaf [Meumad]. [However, one is not to have in mind not to fulfill his obligation and then only blow for women after Musaf as in such a case he has lost out on the Mitzvah of Tekios Meumad in Musaf which is only done with a Minyan.] Now although one makes an interval between his blessing and the blows of Musaf being that he says the blessing in the house of the women and returns to Shul for the blowing of Musaf, nevertheless he is not required to repeat the blessing before Tekios Meumad of Musaf as even if one talked in-between he is not required to repeat the blessing as explained in 592:6. [ibid]
 Admur ibid; See M”E 589:12 that says this is the best option in order to suspect for those that rule one may not blow on behalf of women. However, see Alef Hamagen 589:11 that negates this as we do not ask of one to exclude himself from the community Mitzvah.
 M”E 589:8; Kaf Hachaim 589:15
 Shaagas Aryeh 105; Machazik Bracha 589:4; Shaareiy Teshuvah 589; Kaf Hachaim 589:26
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 589:2
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 589:4
 591:13; Michaber 591:8; Tur 591; Gemara Avoda Zara 4b
 The reason: The reason for this is because during the Musaf prayer one recites the blessings of Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros, and he is thus to worry that perhaps the supernal courts will investigate his actions and his prayer will be denied. The reason for this worry specifically by the first three hours of the day is because within the first three hours of the day G-D does not judge beyond the letter of the law, as during this time He learns His Torah which is called Truth [and thus judges people in accordance to Truth]. However, after three hours into the day He judges the entire world and once He sees that the world cannot up stand to His judgment, He therefore judges them in a manner of above the letter of the law, and the individual’s prayer will not be differed. [ibid] [Now although one may Daven Shacharis of a weekday within the first three hours due that there is a congregation Davening during this time, and hence his prayer will be accepted with the congregation nevertheless this is not the case for Musaf] as since one can Daven Musaf throughout any time of the day therefore some congregations Daven early while others Daven later. Therefore, one must suspect that perhaps at the time that he is Davening Musaf there is no congregation in the world that is Davening Musaf and his prayer will hence be denied. [591:14]
Musaf of other Holidays: The above law is only regarding Musaf of Rosh Hashanah. However, regarding praying Musaf of other Holidays there is no limitation, as it is merely a story of the sacrifices and hence even if he Davens alone [within the first three hours] they will not investigate his actions. [591:14; Rashi Avoda Zara ibid; Shulchan Gavoa 591:19]
 592:7; Michaber 592:2; Tur 592; Rabbeinu Yerucham 6:2; Orchos Chaim p. 98; Kol Bo
 As the institution of the Sages was only made by a congregation. [Admur ibid; M”B 592:6] The Levush however writes that the reason is because doing so is considered an interval in the Shemoneh Esrei of a Yachid. Veztaruch Iyun if Admur is saying a difference in ruling than the Levush. See Kaf Hachaim 592:12
Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that even if one is Davening alone, he may blow Shofar if he so chooses, even though he is not obligated to do so. [Maaseh Rokeaich; Radbaz 2:347; brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 592; Kaf Hachaim 592:11] Practically the Poskim negate this opinion. [Birkeiy Yosef 592:1; Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; and so rule the Achronim-Kaf Hachaim ibid] However see Shaar Yissachar 2:35 who defends the opinion of the Ridbaz ibid and so rules the Daas Torah 592. See Sdei Chemed R”H 2:36.