Chapter 4: The Seder


Chapter 4: The Seder

 

The layout of the laws and customs:

There does not exist a more cherished order of tradition than the Pesach Seder. Families and communities each keep their own particular customs with regards to various steps and idiosyncrasies throughout the Seder, and each hold it very dear to their heart. Rabbanim and Gedolei Yisrael throughout the period of the early Acharonim, and particularly in today’s modern generation, maintained unique customs and traditions which are religiously followed until this very day by their followers and admirers. There does not exist a more prolific work in the Jewish library than the various versions of the Haggadah, printed by various publishers, artists and Rabbis. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to capture the unique customs of the various folds of Jewry throughout the steps of the Seder, and perhaps such a task would be impossible to properly document. The focus of this chapter is to provide the reader with the basic Halachos of the Seder which are binding on all Jewry, as written in the Shulchan Aruch and codifiers. It likewise contains the specific Chabad customs and traditions as received from the Rabbeim, and particularly, as written in the Rebbe’s Haggadah which he published. Those affiliated with other communities, or Rabbanim, are to follow the guidelines specified in their community Haggadah for their particular customs and differences.

The Rebbe’s customs: Due to the high interest of Chassidic followers to be aware of their Rebbe’s personal customs, we have also included the Rebbe’s personal Seder customs, each in their relevant area. These customs are not necessarily meant to be seen as instructions to the Chassidim, as often such customs are the unique heritage of a Rebbe, and are not applicable to others. Nonetheless, we did not withhold this information from our readers, due to the high human interest.  The Rebbe’s customs have been highlighted with the following bullet point, listed as Maaseh Rav:      

 

General instructions

The Shlah’s general overview of the Seder:[1]

The Shlah Hakadosh describes the order of the night of the Seder as follows: “After completing the festive prayer of Maariv and Hallel one is to return home. Him and his wife are to act like a King and Queen and his children are to act like princes. They are to prepare vessels of gold and silver and wear silk and expensive garments of all that Hashem has made available for them. This is all done to express one’s great joy and gratitude of all the kindness that Hashem has done for us. The holiness of this night and all of its accompanied laws and customs, contains much holiness, as on this night Hashem chose us as His nation from amongst all other nations, and sanctified us with his Mitzvos. Therefore, one is to beware not to talk any mundane speech on this night. One is to warn his family not to talk of any mundane matters during the Seder, in order so they not to be separated even one moment from their Dveikus to Hashem. The entire night they should be involved in the Mitzvos of that night, retelling the story of the exodus, and publicizing it to his family. However, one who knows the Kabalistic intents of this night is to spend his time dealing with them.”

 

The great revelation on this night:[2]

All the Divine revelations which were revealed at the time of the exodus are revealed annually on the night of the Seder. It is for this reason that one feels an extra joy on the night of the Seder, more than on other Holidays or Shabbos.

 

 

Guarding one’s speech-Not to talk of matters unrelated to the Seder:[3]

One is to beware not to talk any mundane speech on the night of the Seder. One is likewise to warn his family not to do so, in order so they not be separated even one moment from their Dveikus to Hashem. This especially applies from the time one makes Kiddush until after Hallel.[4]

 

Being a Mentch [a refined human being]:[5]

The Rebbe Rashab once related to his son the Rebbe Rayatz that throughout the Seder one needs to concentrate on being a Mentch, and by doing so hashem will help [him accomplish this]. One is to especially focus on this matter when the doors are open for Shefoch Chamascha. One is to ask for spiritual things and not focus on materialism.

 

The importance of every step of the Seder:[6]

Every person should perform the exact steps of the Seder as established by the Sages, and no matter of this order should be light in his eyes, as every step of the Seder contains significance even if it does not appear so in the eyes of the person. All the matters performed on this night have special meaning and are instrumental in assisting the soul to leave its spiritual Egypt.[7]

 

Studying the instructions prior to each Siman:[8]

Prior to each step of the Seder, one is to study the instructions that are relevant to that step, as printed in the Haggadah prior to each Siman.

& Maaseh Rebbe:[9] The custom of the Rebbe was to look inside the Haggadah prior to each step and quietly read the instructions of that step, as written in the Haggadah.

 

Reading the Simanim:[10]

Prior to each step of the Seder, one is to say the Siman of that step. For example, prior to Kadesh one is to say the word Kadesh, and prior to Urchatz one is to say the word Urchatz, and so on and so forth. This is done because each step of the Seder contains great mystical secrets which are emphasized upon being verbalized.

& Maaseh Rebbe:[11] The custom of the Rebbe was to look inside the Haggadah prior to each step and quietly read the Siman of that step, as stated above.

 

Reading the Haggadah out loud and in a Niggun:[12]

It is customary in many communities to recite the Haggadah with a Niggun. The Siddur Arizal writes prior to Mah Nishtana that the Haggadah is to be said aloud, with great joy and concentration. [So also conclude other Poskim.[13] This applies even if one is performing the Seder alone.[14] The Rebbe Maharash once instructed the Chassidim by his Seder table, who were very quiet upon reading the Haggadah, that they should each say the Haggadah aloud.[15] Accordingly, the Rebbe Rayatz was accustomed to read the Haggadah aloud, and in those times that he could not read it aloud due to his speech impediments, he would instruct others to say it aloud.[16]]

& Maaseh Rebbe:[17] The custom of the Rebbe was to read the Haggadah quietly, although he would instruct whoever was the lead reader to read it aloud.

 

Commentary on the Hagadah:

It is customary throughout the Seder for the Seder leader, and other participants to recite commentary on the Haggadah and its steps. The custom of the Rabbeim was as follows:[18] They would only recite commentary during the section of Maggid of the Haggadah, from Hei Lachma Aniya until Asher Goaleinu. Nonetheless, they would not stop during the stanzas of Dayeinu until Lichapeir Al Kol Avonoseinu. In all cases, one is to beware of the time so that he can complete the Afikoamn before midnight.

 

Haggadah’s:[19]

By the Rebbe’s Seder table he had in front of him his Haggadah of Likkutei Taamim Uminhagim, as well as the Siddur Arizal of Rav Shabsi of Rashkov. Throughout the Seder he would study from both of them.

 

Niggunim/Singing:[20]

By the Rebbe’s Seder table, they did not sing any of the stanzas, and no Niggunim were sung during the meal. This was likewise the order by the Seder of the Rebbe Rayatz.

 

Learning the laws of Karban Pesach:[21]

It is proper to study the laws of the Karban Pesach during the meal of the Seder. Some are accustomed to learning from the Rambam’s laws of Karban Pesach.

 

Having all the children of the family, including babies, be present by the Seder:[22]

All the children of the family should be awake and present for the Seder including even a nursing baby. Thus, a mother is to nurse her child and nap him before the Seder begins, in order so the child be awake by the Seder. The reason for this is because even the smallest of children were present by the exodus and the splitting of the sea and proclaimed Zeh Keily Vianveihu.

 

The Shiurim of Revius and Kdei Achilas Peras for the Four Cups:

See Chapter 1 Halacha 4F and J-H.

 

The Shiurim of Kezayis, and Kdei Achilas Peras for Matzah & Maror:

See Chapter 3 Halacha 5-6.

 

Eating and drinking during the Seder:

See Chapter 3 Halacha 8!

 

Leaving the Seder table during the Seder:

See Chapter 3 Halacha 9!

 

  1. The order upon returning home:
  2. Coming home to a set table:[23]

One is to prepare the Seder table on Erev Pesach, before Yom Tov.[24] [This, however, is with exception to the Seder plate which is only prepared once the father returns from Shul.[25] The cushions for leaning are to also be prepared at this time. It is not necessary to prepare cushions for women if they are not accustomed to lean.]

Having beautiful vessels on the table:[26] On the night of Pesach [by the Seder] it is proper to place many beautiful vessels [of gold and silver[27]] on the table, in accordance to that which one can afford. [Also the cups are to be beautiful and splendor.[28]] One should not diminish in placing beautiful vessels on the table even though it is proper to do so during the year in commemoration of the Churban.[29] Even vessels that are not needed for the meal are to be placed on the table.[30] Even [non-Chameitz[31]] vessels that one is holding as a Mashkon from a gentile are to be set on the table.[32] The vessels are to be well organized on the table, thus making the table beautiful. All this is done in order to serve as remembrance of the redemption [and expresses one’s great joy and gratitude of all the kindness that Hashem has done for us[33]].[34] [It is likewise done in fulfillment of the Talmudic dictum which requires one to express himself in a form of freedom and luxury as if he had just been emancipated from Egypt.[35]]

  • Maaseh Rebbe:[36] On the Seder table of the Rebbe there weren’t any silver vessels placed there for beautification purposes, with exception to those vessels needed for the meal. In the center of the table, the cup of Eliyahu was already set up. This cup was made of glass, and was larger than the regular Kiddush cups. [However, on the Seder table of the other Rabbeim, beginning from the Alter Rebbe until the Rebbe Maharash, they were particular to place all the silver and gold vessels on the table. Some of the Rabbeim had a particular table set up for this purpose. The Tzemach tzedek instructed his daughter in-law, the wife of the Rebbe Maharash, to make sure that all the gold and silver vessels are set up and revealed before all, in commemoration of the fact that G-d took us out with wealth.[37]]

 

 

Not to have Matzos on the table:[38]

Some Poskim[39] rule that [other than the three Matzos on the Kearah[40]] one is not to have any other Matzah on the table until after the Seder [i.e. until after Maggid].[41] [Some[42], however, explain that the Matzos that will be eaten by the household members for the Mitzvah of Motzi Matzah are to be on the table during the Seder and recital of Maggid. Others[43], however, negate this and state that other than the three Matzos on the Kearah, there is not to be any other Matzah on the table, and so is the custom.]

 

 

  1. Coming home immediately after Davening:[44]

One is to return home immediately after Davening has concluded in order to begin the Seder right away. Even if one is in the Beis Hamidrash he is to immediately get up and go home.[45] [The custom of the Rabbeim was to begin the Seder of the first night immediately after Maariv in order to eat the Afikoman before midnight. However, on the second night, they would begin the Seder much later into the night.[46]]

 

Acting like kings:[47]

The husband and wife are to act like a King and Queen and his children are to act like princes by the Seder. They are to prepare vessels of gold and silver and wear silk and expensive garments of all that Hashem has made available for them. This is all done to express one’s great joy and gratitude of all the kindness that Hashem has done for us.

 

Mikveh night falls on the night of Seder:

If Mikveh night falls on the night of the Seder, it is not to be delayed to another night, despite the difficulties involved, as explained in Halacha 19D. In such a case all preparations are to be made before Yom Tov, in order so the Seder can begin immediately upon the wife’s arrival home. The wife is to try to immerse immediately after nightfall, and return home immediately afterwards. In the event of a long delay, the husband is to at least have his children begin the Seder, in her absence, in order so he can fulfill his Mitzvah of Vehigadeta Libincha. He, however, may choose to delay starting his own Seder until his wife returns. Nonetheless, in all cases, the couple must arrange to finish eating the Matzah of Motzi Matzah before midnight, and if one indeed estimates that she will not be able to return with enough time to do so, then the immersion is to be delayed for the next night.[48]

  1. Distributing nuts to the children:[49]

It is a Mitzvah to distribute nuts[50] [or other sweets[51]] to the children on the night[52] of Pesach, prior to the start of the Seder.[53]

  1. Shalom Aleichem and Eishes Chayil when Pesach falls on Shabbos:[54]

When Pesach falls on Shabbos one is to recite Shalom Aleichem and Eishes Chayil in an undertone upon returning home from Shul. In Kiddush [by Kadesh] one likewise recites Mizmor Ledavid Hashem Ro’i and Da Hi Se’udasa in an undertone.

 

  1. The Kearah-Seder plate:[55]

*See end of this Halacha for a quick summary and practical guideline of how to arrange the Seder plate!

 

  1. The items on the Seder plate:[56]

The Sages established for various items to be present on the table upon reading the Haggadah. This has created the famed Seder plate used on the night of the Seder. The following are the list of items that are to be present on the table, and are hence placed on the Seder plate:

  1. Matzos:[57] Upon saying the Haggadah one is to have three Matzas Mitzvah in front of him in order for the Haggadah to be said over them.[58]
  2. Maror:[59] One is to likewise have the Maror present in front of him at the time of the reading of the Haggadah.[60] 
  3. Charoses:[61] The Sages also established that the Charoses be in front of the person at the time of the saying of the Haggadah.[62]
  4. Zeroa & Egg: In the times of the Temple the meat of the Pesach lamb would likewise have to be present at the time of the reading of the Haggadah.[63] Now that the Temple has been destroyed the Sages established that one is to have on the table two different cooked foods, which are the Zeroa and the egg.[64] This applies even when Pesach falls on Motzei Shabbos.[65]
  5. Karpas:[66] One is to also have the Karpas in front of him, on the Seder plate.[67]
  1. The Matzos:

Number of Matzos on Kearah: One is to have [exactly[68]] three Matzas Mitzvah on the Seder plate.[69] These three Matzos correspond to Kohen, Levi and Yisrael.[70] [There is no need for all the Matzos that will be eaten by Motzi Matzah by the other family members to also be on the table, and rather these three Matzos of the Seder plate suffice.[71] See Halacha 1A in Q&A!]

Arranging the Matzos on the Kearah: The three Matzas are to be placed on top of a plate, which is called the Keara.[72] The three Matzos are to be placed one on top of the other.[73] [The Matzas are separated from each other with a cloth, also known as a Matzah cover.[74]] The Yisrael is placed as the bottom Matzah, while the Levi as the middle Matzah, and the Kohen as the top Matzah.[75] [One first places the bottom Matzah, which is called the Yisrael, on the Kearah, and then the middle Matzah which is the Levi, and then the top Matzah which is the Kohen.[76]] The three Matzos represent different levels of holiness, with the top Matzah [i.e. Kohen] being the holiest, and then the middle Matzah [i.e. Levi], and then the bottom Matzah [i.e. Yisrael] which is the least holy.[77] Thus, once the Matzas have been designated for the Kohen, Levi and Yisrael, they should no longer be switched around.[78]

What the Matzos are used for: Every Matzah is to be used for one Mitzvah.[79] The top Matzah of Kohen is used for the first Mitzvah of the Seder, which is the blessing of Hamotzi, as this blessing is the first Mitzvah which is done with these Matzas. The middle Matzah of Levi is used for the second Mitzvah, which is the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah.[80] The third Matzah is used for the Koreich sandwich with the Maror.[81]

Selecting the Matzas: The largest of the three Matzas is to be used for Levi.[82] We make a point of selecting specifically Matzas which have a concave shape, similar to a bowl.[83] One must verify that the Matzas are complete [Shaleim][84] and do not contain any folded [Kefulos] areas.[85]

Shleimos: As on any Shabbos and Yom Tov, one is required to have Lechem Mishneh, which is two Shaleim Matzas, on the night of the Seder.[86] [Thus, the top Matzah of Kohen, and bottom Matzah of Yisrael must be a Shaleim.] However, from the letter of the law, it is not necessary for the middle Matzah used for Yachatz/Levi to be a Shaleim.[87] Nevertheless, Lechatchila, it is a Hiddur Mitzvah for all three Matzos to be Shleimos at the time that they are brought to the table.[88]

Definition of a Shaleim: A Matzah is only considered a Shaleim if it is not missing a piece.[89] A Matzah with a crack is still considered Shaleim if the Matzah does not break no matter from what side of the crack one holds it. However, if the crack is long enough that if one were to hold from one of the sides of the crack, then the piece would completely break off the Matzah, then it is invalid.[90] [Initially, one is to choose a Matzah that is not missing any piece at all.[91] Likewise, initially, it is not to contain any burnt areas that are inedible.[92] However, if such Matzos are not available, then one may use any Matzah that appears whole to the normal eye, even if in truth it is missing a miniscule piece, or contains burnt areas.[93] If this too is not available, then before Yom Tov one is to place the broken areas of the broken Matzah near a flame until the area becomes crisp/burnt, and if it regains a whole appearance in the eyes of people then it is valid for Lechem Mishneh.[94] [Accordingly, one is to verify before Yom Tov that he contains enough Shaleim Matzos for the Seder and Yom Tov, and if necessary burn the edges before Yom Tov.] If this was not done before Yom Tov, then it is disputed amongst Poskim[95] whether one may do so on Yom Tov itself. Practically, many are accustomed to being lenient to burn the edges of the Matzah on Yom Tov for the sake of making it a Shaleim.[96] Those who do so must beware not to extinguish the fire if it ignites onto the Matzah.[97] On Shabbos, or when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, according to all it is forbidden to burn the sides of the Matzah for the sake of making it a Shaleim.[98]

If one of the Matzos broke while on the Seder plate: If the middle/Levi Matzah broke while on the Seder plate [prior to Yachatz], there is no need to switch the Matzah for another Shaleim Matzah.[99] If the Kohen or Yisrael broke, then it is to be switched for the whole middle/Levi Matzah.[100] [However, seemingly, if the three Matzos were not baked as special Erev Pesach Matzos Mitzvah for the night of the Seder, and one has other Matzos Mitzvah available from the box, then one should switch the broken Matzah for another whole Matzah, rather than have a broken Matzah for Levi, and demote the broken Kohen or whole Levi Matzah from its use.[101] After Motzi Matzah, there is no longer a need for the Yisrael Matzah used for Koreich to remain whole, and hence if it broke after Hamotzi, it does not need to be switched.]

  1. The order of the Simanim:[102]

According to Halacha-First approach-Line of foods:[103] [According to Halacha] upon bringing all the Simanim in front of him [to the table] it is good to organize them on a plate in a way that one will not need to pass over any of them [for the sake of getting a different Siman]. Thus, the [Karpas] vegetables are to be closer than the Matzos, and the Matzos are to be closer to him than the Maror and Charoses, and the Maror and Charoses are to be closer than the two cooked foods taken as the Zeroa and Beitza.[104] [Accordingly, the Simanim are organized in a straight line and not on top of the Matzos, and not in a circle.]

According to Halacha-Second approach:[105] However, some people are not particular that the Charoses and the two cooked foods of Zeroa and Beitza be in the back, and allow it to be even in front of the other foods.[106] Likewise, some are also not particular that the Maror be behind the Matzah and Karpas, and allow it to be even in front of all the other foods.[107]

According to Kabbalah & Final ruling and custom-On top of Matzos as two Segols:[108] Some[109] are accustomed to arranging all the Simanim on top of the Matzos similar to two Segols [in the order to be explained next].[110] [Practically, today this is the custom of all Jewry, and so is the Chabad custom.[111] The Matzos are to be covered by a cloth or plastic, known as the Matzah cover, and the Simanim are then arranged on top of this cover.[112] The Chabad custom is to place the foods directly on the Matzah cover without placing them in individual bowls or a general plate.[113] Thus, the common Seder plate which include shelves between each Matzah and a shelf on top of the Kohen Matzah which holds the bowls of Simanim, is not customarily used amongst Chabad. Nonetheless, one may place the wet foods [i.e. Charoses] on a small plastic bag, or various pieces of paper, in order to prevent the Matzah from getting wet.]

The order of the Simanim for forming the Segols:[114] The order is as follows:[115] After one places the Kohen, Levi, and Yisrael Matzos on the Kearah[116], one places the Zeroa of the sheep [or neck of chicken] on top of the Kohen Matzah, towards the right side, the egg towards the left side, and the Maror slightly beneath it towards the middle, making a shape similar to a Segol.[117] One then places the Charoses [lower down] towards the right side, the Karpas towards the left side, and the Maror of Koreich [i.e. Chazeres[118]] slightly beneath it towards the middle, making a shape similar to a second Segol. [The Chabad custom, as well as the custom of other Chassidic groups, is to use both romaine lettuce and horseradish for both Maror and Chazeres.[119] This means that both vegetables are to be placed by the area of Maror and likewise by the area of Chazeres. The set of Maror is eaten for Maror while the set of Chazeres is eaten for Koreich. See Chapter 1 Halacha 3E for the full details of this subject! Praised is one who follows this order and intends the Kabalistic intents involved with it.[120] One is not to have anything else on the Seder plate/Matzos, other than the above Simanim. Hence the saltwater and wine are not to be placed on it.[121]]

  1. Who is to have a Seder plate?[122]

[From the letter of the law] the Seder plate, which includes the Matzaos, Maror, Charoses, and Zeroa and egg, only needs to be brought in front of the leader of the house [i.e. Baal Habayis], which is the person who will be reading [and leading] the Haggadah. However, all other household members and participants who will be fulfilling their obligation of the Haggadah through hearing the reading of the leader of the house, do not need to have these foods brought before them when they are hearing the Haggadah. Likewise, even during the actual meal [i.e. after Maggid] they do not need to have these items brought in front of them, as the leader of the home will distribute to each and every one of them the Matzah and Maror and Charoses.[123] There is also no need for each participant to have two Matzos of Lechem Mishneh in front of them, as they are Yotzei with the Lechem Mishneh of the Baal Habayis.[124] [Nonetheless, the custom amongst many today is for all male participants above the age of Mitzvos to have their own Kearah/Seder plate arranged in front of them.[125] Furthermore, even children who have reached the age of Chinuch are educated to have their own Keara.[126]]

 

  1. When is the Kearah to be brought to the table?[127]

[From the letter of the law] the items on the Seder plate only need to be brought to the table after the vegetables [of Karpas] are eaten, which is prior to saying [the section of Maggid in] the Haggadah.[128] However, the custom is to bring the Kearah and Simanim [to the table] in front of the Seder leader, immediately after Kiddush, prior to eating the vegetables [of Karpas].[129] [Practically, the Chabad custom is to arrange the Kearah at night after returning home from Maariv, and have the Kearah/Simanim brought to the table before Kiddush.[130]]

 

Summary:

Who should have a Kearah/Seder plate? The leader of the house [and all other males above the age of Mitzvos] are to have a Kearah/Seder plate arranged in front of them. Children who have reached the age of Chinuch should likewise have a Kearah.

When is the Kearah to be brought to the table? The Kearah is placed on the table before the Seder begins.

The Matzah’s: Three Matzahs are placed on top of a plate which is called the Kearah. The Matzahs are separated from each other with a cloth, also known as a Matzah cover. One first places the bottom Matzah, which is called the Yisrael, and then the middle Matzah which is the Levi, and then the top Matzah which is the Cohen. [The largest of the Matzahs is to be used for Levi.] We make a point of selecting specifically Matzahs which have a concave shape, similar to a bowl. One must verify that the Matzahs are complete [Shaleim] and do not contain any folded [Kefulos] areas.

The order of the Simanim: On top of the three Matzahs, which are covered by a cloth or plastic [known as the Matzah cover] one arranges the Simanim/foods in the order shown below. It is our custom to place the foods directly on the Matzah cover without placing them in individual bowls or a general plate.

 

Eating from the foods on the Kearah & Leaving the Siman empty after it is used:[131]

All the Simanim eaten on the night of the Seder are taken from the Seder plate [i.e. Karpas, Maror, Charoses], and hence after each Siman is used, it is now lacking from the plate. [It is not necessary for all participants to eat from the food on the Seder plate, and any additional amounts needed for distribution should be prepared separately.[132] One should prepare enough of an amount for all the participants already on Erev Pesach, or before the Seder begins. This is with exception to the Matzos of which a piece is distributed to all the participants.]

 

How the Rebbe arranged his Kearah:[133]

  1. The Rebbe stood while he was Misader the Kearah.
  2. Prior to each step of the arrangement of the Kearah, the Rebbe would read the step inside the Haggadah. For example, the Rebbe would say that the Zeroa is placed on the right side, and would then go ahead and do so.
  3. The Rebbe placed all the Simanim directly onto the cloth which covered the Matzahs.
  4. The Rebbe’s cup was placed to the right of the Kearah.

 

 

Kearah Checklist:

ü  Take three curved shaped Matzas. Verify that the Matzas are complete [Shaleim] and do not contain any folded [Kefulos] areas

ü  Place a plate on bottom, and place the Matzas on top of the plate

ü  First place the Yisrael and then the Levi, and then the Kohen. The Matzas are separated from each other with a cloth. The largest of the Matzas is to be used for Levi.

ü  Place the Simanim directly on top of the Matzah cover. We do not use small bowls to place it in.

ü  Dry the Maror prior to placing it on the cover.

ü  One is to use romaine lettuce and horseradish for both Maror and Chazeres. This means that both vegetables are to be placed by the area of Maror and likewise by the area of Chazeres. If the leaves of the Chazeres became dry, then one cannot fulfill his obligation with them.

ü  The Rebbe used an egg with a shell.

ü  Set the plate up in the above order.

 

Reading all the Simanim prior to Kadesh:

It is customary to read all the Simanim prior to starting Kadesh. The Rebbe’s custom was to read starting from the words “Siman Seder Pesach, Kadesh, Urchatz, Karpas” until Nirtzah.[134]

 

  1. Kadesh:[135]

*For the full detailed laws relating to the drinking of the four cups-See Chapter 1 Halacha 4! For the detailed Shiurim of the wine and drinking-See Chapter 3 Halacha 5F and J. For the detailed laws relating to leaning while drinking the four cups-See Chapter 3 Halacha 7

  1. General Laws:[136]

The Seder begins with the pouring of the first [of the four] cups of wine on which Kiddush is recited over. [This cup is used for Kiddush and likewise fulfills the first of the four cups drunk this night which correspond to the four Geuloas, the first being “Vehotzeisi.”]

Rabbinical:[137] The Kiddush of a Holiday is of Rabbinical institution. This is opposed to Kiddush on Shabbos, which is rooted in a Biblical precept.

Who receives a cup of Kiddush? Men, women, and male and female children of Chinuch age and can understand the story of the exodus, are obligated to drink four cups of wine [or grape juice, or other valid beverage] and are hence to all be holding a Kiddush cup filled with wine. The custom is to give cups of wine even to children below the age of Chinuch. The children are to each have their own cup of wine and not simply drink from the cup of an adult. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4E!

Rinsing the cup: The Kiddush cup is to be rinsed with water inside and outside prior to making Kiddush. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4H!

Washing hands beforehand:[138] Even those who are accustomed throughout the year to wash hands for bread before saying Kiddush[139], are to begin the Seder with Kadesh and are only afterwards to wash hands.[140] [Practically, today the widespread custom is to always make Kiddush prior to washing hands for Hamotzi, even throughout the year.[141]] Nonetheless, if one’s hands are dirty, he is to [slightly[142]] wash them before saying Kiddush [and is not to say a blessing over this washing[143]].[144]

The need to intend to drink  more wine after the first cup if one forgets to lean:[145] It is initially proper for one to have in mind upon saying the blessing of Hagafen over the first cup, that he intends to drink more wine afterwards, between the 1st and 2nd cup, and to include it in this blessing. In this case, even if one were to forget to lean upon drinking the first cup, he may re-drink the first cup in a leaning position.[146] However, one should not drink more wine between the first and second cup, if he did not forget to lean, and thereby does not need to re-drink the 1st cup. See Chapter 3 Halacha 7E and 8B for the full details of this subject!

Having someone else pour the wine:[147] If possible, it is proper[148] for the Baaal Habayis [i.e. Seder leader,] to not pour the wine for himself and he is to rather have someone else [such as his wife, if she is pure[149]] pour wine into his cup, similar to a servant.[150] [The same applies for all the other Seder participants.[151] It is thus customary for each Seder participant to pour for the wine for his friend.[152] This custom, however, was omitted from the Haggadah of Admur [printed in his Siddur], and some Poskim[153] learn based on this that it should not be followed. Practically, the custom of the Rabbeim was not to have someone else pour them the wine.[154] Likewise, even in previous times, many were not careful to follow this custom and rather poured the wine for themselves.[155] It is unclear if this is a directive for the public, although the widespread Chabad custom today is not to be particular in this matter. Those who intend the Kabalistic intents of the pouring[156], may pour so themselves rather than have others pour for them.[157]]

Standing:[158] When one says the blessing of Kiddush [i.e. Hagafen and onwards], it is better to sit.[159] [Nevertheless, from the letter of the law, Kiddush can also be said in a standing position.[160]] Practically, in these [Ashkenazi] provinces, the widespread custom is to sit.[161] [The above is all in accordance to Halacha, however, according to Kabballah, Kiddush is to be recited in a standing position.[162] Practically, the Chabad custom is to stand for the night Kiddush by all times, whether on Shabbos or Yom Tov, including the night of the Seder.[163] So is also the Sephardi custom, to stand for the night Kiddush.[164] So is also the custom of some Gedolei Ashkenaz.[165] However, other Gedolei Yisrael of Ashkenaz, have the custom to sit while saying Kiddush.[166]]

Looking at the candles:[167] Prior to starting the Kiddush, it is proper to look at the [Yom Tov] candles [that one said the blessing over[168]].[169] However, once one begins the blessing of the Kiddush, he must look at the cup.[170] [The Rebbe once instructed the candles to be brought to the Seder table of the Bochurim in Tomchei Temimim, so they could look at it during Kadesh.[171]]

How to hold the cup:[172] The cup is lifted with one’s right hand and handed over to one’s left hand, and is then lowered from above to below into the palm of the right hand. The right hand is to be formed into a cup form, lifting one’s four fingers in an upright position, with the thumb resting to the side. The cup is to be lifted three Tefachim from the table.[173]

Drinking the entire cup in one shot: Initially one is to drink the entire cup of wine, or at the very least majority of the cup of wine, irrelevant of how much wine the cup contains. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4J for the full details of this subject! Initially, one is to drink the entire cup of wine, or at the very least majority of a Revius of wine, in one shot and in one gulp, and at the very least within the amount of time it takes to drink a Revius of wine. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4K for the full details of this subject!

Leaning: Men are required to lean to their left side upon drinking the four cups of wine, including the first cup of wine which Kiddush is said over. If one forgot to lean, he does not re-drink the cup unless he explicitly had in mind to drink more wine upon saying Kiddush, as stated above. See Chapter 3 Halacha 7 for the full details of this subject!

After blessing:[174] After drinking the first [of the four] cup, an after blessing is not to be recited.[175] This applies even if one drank much more than a Revius, and applies whether one drank wine or other beverages which are considered Chamer Medina.

 

 

Summary:

·         The widespread Chabad custom today is not to be particular that another person pours one the wine.

·         It is initially proper for one to have in mind upon saying the blessing of Hagafen over the first cup, that he intends to drink more wine afterwards, between the 1st and 2nd cup, and to include it in this blessing.

·         The Chabad custom is to stand while reciting Kiddush.

·         The cup is lifted with one’s right hand and handed over to one’s left hand, and is then lowered from above to below into the palm of the right hand. The right hand is to be formed into a cup form, lifting one’s four fingers in an upright position, with the thumb resting to the side. The cup is to be lifted three Tefachim from the table. One is to look at the candles before beginning the Kiddush. However, once one begins the blessing of the Kiddush, he must look at the cup.

·         Prior to starting the Kiddush, it is proper to look at the candles. However, once one begins the blessing of the Kiddush, he must look at the cup.

·         One is to try to drink the entire cup of wine, in one shot and in one gulp.

·         Men are to lean to their left side upon drinking the wine.

 

Q&A

Are the participants to say their own blessing over their cup, or are they to be Yotzei with the blessing said by the leader of the Seder?[176]

The participants are not obligated to say their own blessing over the four cups, and may be Yotzei with the family leader who is making Kiddush. [Practically, the custom of many is to be Yotzei Kiddush with the family leader just as is done the rest of the year and not to say their own individual blessing for Kiddush.[177] Nevertheless, one may choose to say their own Kiddush if they wish, and so is the custom of some.]

The order to be followed by the participants:[178] Those participants who say it quietly to themselves together with the leader of the Seder, are not to answer Amen to the blessing of the leader of the Seder.[179] If they will be saying it after the Kiddush of the leader of the Seder, then they are to intend to not be Yotzei with his Kiddush.[180] Those participants who are being Yotzei with the leader of the Seder are to hold the cup in their hands while Kiddush is recited, just as if they were making Kiddush.[181]

 

How does one fulfill Kiddush Bimakom Seuda on the night of the Seder?

Although one is generally required to eat Mezonos or Hamotzi immediately after Kiddush[182], nevertheless, on the night of the Seder we delay doing so until Motzi Matzah. The reason for this allowance is because we are required to recite the Haggadah prior to eating the Matzah, and hence the delay of reading the Haggadah is considered for the need of the meal, and it is permitted to make an interval between Kiddush and Hamotzi for the sake of the meal.[183] Alternatively, the reason is because the Sages did not obligate eating immediately after Kiddush on the night of the Seder.[184] This is in addition to the fact that some Poskim[185] rule that one who drinks a Revius of wine for Kiddush, fulfills his obligation of Kiddush Bimakom Seuda and according to all, if one drinks the entire cup which holds much more than a Revius fulfills his obligation.

 

May one walk from one room to another between Kadesh and Motzi Matzah?

In general, it is forbidden to switch areas between Kiddush and Hamotzi, and at times doing so can invalidate the Kiddush, due to it failing to fulfill Kiddush Bemakom Seuda.[186] Accordingly, one is not to initially leave the Seder table and go into another room, and is certainly not to leave the home, after Kadesh, until one eats Matzah.[187] One who switches areas in between, and eats the Matzah for Motzi Matzah in a different area then where Kadesh was performed, does not fulfill his obligation of Kiddush.[188] Furthermore, even if he returns to his original area of Kiddush and continues the Seder from there, he is not Yotzei and must repeat Kadesh if he delayed some time in that area.[189] Bedieved, if he did not delay very long, and quickly returned to the Seder table, then the Kiddush remains valid.[190]

For the sake of the meal, or time of need:[191] It is permitted to walk from one area to another between Kadesh and Motzi Matzah for the sake of the meal [such as to grab a cushion for one’s seat, or bring a Haggadah]. Likewise, one may walk to a different area in order to use the bathroom [or to change a diaper, and the like].

 

 

  1. Shehechiyanu[192]

The blessing of Shehechiyanu is recited during Kadesh [on behalf of the Yom Tov, and the Mitzvah of eating Matzah[193]]. It is recited after the completion of Kiddush, prior to drinking the wine.[194] In the Diaspora, it is recited in Kadesh of both the first and second night of Pesach.[195] [One who recited the blessing of Shehechiyanu during candle lighting may not repeat the blessing during Kiddush.[196] Thus, women who are saying Kadesh do not say the blessing of Shehechiyanu if they recited it by candle lighting. If a man is lighting the candles, then he should say the Shehechiyanu by Kiddush. If he said it by candle lighting, then he does not repeat the blessing by Kiddush.]

Forgot Shehechiyanu:[197] One who forgot to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu during Kiddush, prior to drinking the wine, is to recite it afterwards, immediately upon remembering. Even if he only remembered the next day, he is to recite Shehechiyanu. [It may be recited even without a cup of wine.[198]] It may be recited anywhere upon remembering, even if he is in middle of the marketplace.[199] If in the Diaspora one did not remember to recite Shehechiyanu until the second night of Yom Tov began, then he fulfills his blessing of Shehechiyanu of the first night through the Shehechiyanu recited after Kiddush of the second night.[200] If he forgot to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu during Kiddush of the second night [in the Diaspora] then he is obligated to recite the blessing whenever he remembers throughout the seven days of Pesach.[201] This applies until the end of Achron Shel Pesach [the 8th day of Pesach].[202] [In Eretz Yisrael, if he did not recite the blessing on the first day of Pesach, he is obligated to recite it until the end of last day of Pesach, which is the end of Shevi Shel Pesach.[203] Once Pesach concludes, in Eretz Yisrael after seven days and in the Diaspora after eight days, Shehechiyanu can no longer be recited.]

 

Summary:

One who did not say Shehechiyanu by candle lighting does so by Kiddush. If one forgot to do so, then he says it immediately upon remembering. The same applies in the Diaspora, that if one forgot to say Shehechiyanu on the Kiddush of the second night then he says it immediately upon remembering.

 

Intending to include the Matzah in the blessing of Shehechiyanu:

The blessing of Shehechiyanu said by Kiddush also includes the Mitzvah of eating Matzah, which will take place later on during the Seder.[204] Accordingly, upon saying the blessing of Shehechiyanu by Kiddush, some Poskim[205] rule that, one is to have in mind to also include the eating of the Matzah [and the other Mitzvos such as Maror]. However, from other Poskim[206] it is implied that one is not required to have this explicitly in mind, and it is automatically included within the blessing.  

 

 

 

Q&A

If a man is lighting the candles, should he say the Shehechiyanu by the lighting, or should he say it by Kiddush?

A man is to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu by Kiddush, even in the event that he is lighting candles. If, however, he said the blessing by candle lighting he does not repeat the blessing by Kiddush. See “The Laws & Customs of Pesach” Chapter 10 Halacha 19 for the full details of this subject!

 

Should women who already said Shehechiyanu by candle lighting answer Amen to the blessing of Shehechiyanu said by Kiddush?[207]

Some Poskim[208] rule that they may not answer Amen after the blessing of Shehechiyanu, due to it being considered an interval between the blessing and the drinking of the wine. Other Poskim[209], however, rule that women are allowed to answer Amen for the blessing of Shehechiyanu, and doing so is not considered an interval.[210] Practically, the custom is like this latter opinion, to answer Amen after the blessing of Shehechiyanu.

 

  1. Kiddush when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos:

Shalom Aleichem, Eishes Chayil, Mizmor Ledavid, Askinu:[211] When Pesach falls on Friday evening, the Chabad custom is to say the following passages prior to Kiddush in an undertone: Shalom Aleichim, Eishes Chayil, Mizmor Ledavid Hashem Ro’i, Da Hi Se’udasa, Askinu. [The classical Chabad Hagados do not contain the above paragraphs prior to Kiddush, and they rather begin straight with Askinu and Vayechulu.[212] Practically, the above paragraphs are to be recited from a regular Siddur, and one may then continue with the Kiddush written in the Haggadah.]

Vayechulu:[213] When Pesach falls on Friday evening, the custom is to recite Vayechulu before Kiddush [starting from Yom Hashishi[214]].[215]

Extra words of Shabbos:[216] When Pesach falls on Friday evening, one is required to add the extra words that mention Shabbos, in the paragraph of Kiddush, and conclude the blessing of Kiddush with Mikadesh Hashabbos ViYisrael Vihazmanikm.

Forgot to mention Shabbos in Kiddush:[217] If one forgot to add any of the parts for Shabbos in the Kiddush, then he does not fulfill his obligation, and must repeat the Kiddush.[218] Likewise, If one accidentally said the Friday night Shabbos Kiddush and not the Kiddush for Yom Tov, he does not fulfill his obligation and must repeat the correct Kiddush.[219] [If he already drank the cup of wine, then he is to pour a new cup and recite Kiddush again.[220]] However, if he concluded the blessing with Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, then even if he did not mention Shabbos in the main paragraph the Yom Tov Kiddush, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.[221] Furthermore, if he mentioned Shabbos anywhere in the main paragraph, then even if he did not conclude the blessing with Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation according to some Poskim, and is hence not to repeat it.[222] This applies whether he concluded with only Mikadesh Hashabbos, or only Mikdesh Yisrael Vihazmanim.[223]

 

Q&A

May one make Kiddush on the night of Seder during the seventh hour?[224]

Yes. Even those who are generally particular throughout the year not to say Kiddush during the 7th hour after midday [between 6:00-700 p.m.] are not to abstain from making Kiddush during this time on the night of the Seder.[225]

 

  1. Yaknahaz-Yom Tov that falls on Motzei Shabbos:[226]

Saying Bein Kodesh Lekodesh:[227] When Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos one may not begin doing any Melacha which is permitted on Yom Tov until he says Havdalah, or recites Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh[228], after the conclusion of Shabbos. It is of importance to remind women of this requirement, and have them say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing any Yom Tov preparations.

Yaknahaz:[229] When Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos one says Yaknaha”z in the order of Kiddush.[230] The order of the blessings is: 1) Hagafen 2) Kiddush Hayom 3) Ner 4) Havdalah 5) Shehechiyanu. This is called Yaknahaz.

Besamim:[231] When Motzei Shabbos coincides with Yom Tov, the blessing of Besamim is omitted from the order of Havdalah “Yaknahaz”.[232]

Haeish:[233] If one has a candle available, one is to recite a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush”, but prior to the blessing of Havdalah. [The custom is to say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish over the Yom Tov candles that were lit. We do not place the candles together[234], and nor do we place our nails towards them. Rather, we simply look at the candles[235] after the blessing and then continue with Yaknahaz.[236]]

Standing or sitting:[237] Although in general Havdalah is recited in a standing position, one is to recite Kiddush of Yaknahaz in a sitting position, just as is done by a regular Kiddush.[238] [However, many are accustomed to recite Kiddush of Yaknahaz in a standing position, even though in general they sit for Kiddush.[239] Practically, the Chabad custom is to stand for Kiddush by all times, whether on Shabbos or Yom Tov, and certainly one is to stand for Kiddush of Yaknahaz.[240] See Halacha A for the full details of this matter!]

The Nussach of the Havdalah:[241] The dialect of the blessing of Havdalah recited on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov contains seven stanzas of “Havdalos”.[242] It concludes with the words of “Bein Kodesh Lekodesh,” as opposed to Bein Kodesh Lechol”.[243] [See Q&A regarding if one accidentally said Bein Kodesh Lechol.]

If one did not follow the correct order:[244] If one did not say the blessings in the above order, and rather preceded one of the latter blessing to one of the earlier blessings, then he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and is not to repeat any of the blessings already said. This, however, is with exception to if one preceded the blessing of Kiddush to the blessing of Hagafen, in which case one must repeat the blessing of Kiddush.[245]

If no wine is available:[246] If one does not have wine available on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov, the custom is to say Havdalah [Yaknahaz] over bread.[247]

Forgot to say Havdalah in Kiddush:[248]

Remembered after Kiddush, before end of Maggid:[249] If one forgot to say Havdalah [in Kiddush of Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov], and did not remember until he began Maggid, then he is to complete Maggid until after the blessing of Goal Yisrael [and the blessing of Hagafen] and not immediately drink the 2nd cup, but rather first say the blessing over the candle and Havdalah, and only then drink the cup.[250] (Furthermore, even if he remembered prior to starting the Haggadah, immediately after drinking the first cup of Kiddush prior to eating the vegetables of Karpas, he is not to immediately pour a second cup to say Havdalah over it, and it is better that he eat the Karpas vegetables prior to Havdalah, and say the entire Maggid until after Goal Yisrael, and then afterwards say the blessing over the candle and Havdalah, and drink the cup.[251]) [However, if he remembered in the midst of drinking the cup of Kiddush, prior to finishing it, then he may refill the cup and say Havdalah over it and then re-drink it.[252]]

Remembered immediately after Maggid and 2nd cup:[253] If he remembered immediately after drinking the 2nd cup that he did not say Havdalah in Kiddush, then he needs to immediately pour a 3rd cup of wine and say Havdalah over it. The blessing of Hagafen is not to be said over it unless at the time that he said the blessing over the second cup he intended to not drink any more wine within the meal, and not prior to the meal.

Remembered after Motzi Matzah, during meal:[254] If he did not remember to say Havdalah until he was in middle of the meal [i.e. past Motzi Matzah[255]], then upon remembering he must immediately stop eating and recite Havdalah over a cup of wine.[256] The blessing of Hagafen is not to be said over it unless at the time that he said the blessing over the second cup he intended to not drink any more wine within the meal.

Remembered after Afikoman:[257] If one did not remember that he did not yet say Havdalah until after the meal, which is after eating the Afikoman, then he is not to say Havdalah over a cup of wine prior to Birchas Hamazon[258], and is rather to wait until after Birchas Hamazon [and the blessing of Hagafen over the 3rd cup] and then say the blessing over the candle and Havdalah and then drink the [3rd] cup [which is the cup] of Birchas Hamazon.[The same applies if he remembered in the midst of Birchas Hamazon that he did not yet say Havdalah, that he is to say it on the 3rd cup.[259]]

Remembered after 3rd cup:[260] If one did not remember that he did not yet say Havdalah until after drinking the [third] cup of wine after Birchas Hamazon, then he is to wait until after the completion of Hallel and the Haggadah, and then say Havdalah over the fourth cup.

Remembered after 4th cup:[261] If one did not remember until after drinking the fourth cup of wine, then he is to say Havdalah over a 5th cup, as at this point there is no other choice. [If he only remembered the next day, then he is to say Havdalah as soon as he remembers the next day.[262]]

 

Summary:

When Pesach falls on Sunday, the order for Kiddush on Shavuos night follows Yaknahaz. When one recites the blessing over the candle, it is our custom to merely look at it. We do not move it closer or spread our hands near it, or look at our nails.

Q&A

Are women to say their own Kiddush with Havdalah when the Seder falls on Motzei Shabbos?[263]

Those women who are accustomed to say their own Kiddush for Kadesh by the night of the Seder may do so even when the Seder falls on Motzei Shabbos, and they thus must recite Havdalah over the wine.[264] This is despite the fact that in general women do not drink from the leftover Havdalah wine[265], and that according to some Poskim they are not even obligated in Havdalah.[266] They may even say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeis.[267] Some Poskim[268], however, rule that women are not to say the blessing of Haeish. Furthermore, in some communities, when the night of the Seder falls on Motzei Shabbos the custom is for the women to say their own Kiddush until the blessings of Havdalah, and then hear the blessings of Havdalah from the leader of the Seder.[269]

 

If during Kiddush of Yaknaha”z one accidently concluded the blessing “Bein Kodesh Lechol”, does he fulfill his obligation?[270]

If he remembers right away, within “Kdei Dibur”, he is to correct himself and recite “Bein Kodesh Lekodesh.” If he did not remember within this time, then he does not fulfil his obligation and is to repeat the blessing of Hamavdil over the cup of wine, prior to drinking it. [Regarding if he should repeat the blessing of Hagafen over the wine, this matter is disputed in Poskim.[271]] If he already drank the wine, then he is to follow the order explained above for one who remembered in middle of the Seder that he did not say Havdalah.

 

What is one to do if he forgot to say Havdalah in Kiddush of Yom Tov which falls on Motzei Shabbos, and it is already the next day?[272]

He is to say Havdalah over wine immediately upon remembering the next day.[273] If he remembered before the Yom Tov day meal, he is to say Havdalah over a cup of wine and then eat the meal. If one remembered only on Sunday night which is also Yom Tov [in the Diaspora], then he is to say Havdalah within Kiddush.

If one remembered by Bein Hashmashos on Sunday: If Sunday night is Motzei Yom Tov then he is to wait until then, and when he recites Havdalah for Motzei Yom Tov he fulfills Havdalah also for Shabbos.[274] If however that night is the second night of Yom Tov then he is to say Havdalah by Kiddush of the Yom Tov night meal.

  1. May one eat or drink after Kiddush?

* See Chapter 3 Halacha 8B for the full details of this subject!

Drink: After Kadesh, prior to the end of Maggid, one is to avoid drinking any wine or alcoholic beverage, even if a new blessing is not required to be said. However, one may drink any other beverage without restriction with exception to coffee, tea, and pure juice, if a new blessing must be recited upon drinking it. If these beverages were already included in the blessing of Hagafen said earlier, then it is permitted to drink even these beverages without restriction.

Food: One may eat a small snack of non-Hadamah food after Kadesh, prior to Karpas, and say an after blessing, if relevant, prior to beginning Karpas. After Karpas, one may eat a small snack of any food, although he is to eat less than a Kezayis in order to avoid an after blessing. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Urchatz:[275]

Prior to dipping the vegetable [of Karpas] in vinegar or saltwater, and the like, each participant[276] is required to wash his hands [in the same way that he washes for bread[277]].[278] Nonetheless. a blessing is not recited over the washing.[279] [One is not to have in mind at the time of Urchatz to include the washing for Matzah, and is not to be particular to guard his hands in the interim, as explained in Halacha 8. However, in a time of need that one is ill, or there is not enough water available for washing, then one can intend to include also the Matzah in this washing of Urchatz and guard his hands until the eating of Matzah and thus not be required to rewash his hands prior to eating Matzah, by the Siman of Rachtza.[280]]

 

The order of the washing:

The order of the washing is as follows, as per the Chabad custom for washing for bread: One is to fill a vessel with at least a Revius of water, while it is held in his right hand. One then passes it to the left hand and pours over the entire right hand three times, up until the wrist.[281] One then passes the vessel to the right hand and pours over the left hand three times. One then dries the hands without saying a blessing. Some have the custom for the family members to bring the water to their father and mother and wash their hands.[282] This is not necessarily the Chabad custom.]

& Maaseh Rebbe:[283] Prior to washing hands, the Rebbe would silently read the instructions written in the Siddur regarding Urchatz and Kaarpas. The Rebbe washed his hands on his own and did not have anyone pour the water on his hands, or bring the water to him.

 

Q&A

May one speak between washing and eating the Karpas and when are the instructions of Karpas to be said?

One may not talk between the washing and the eating of the Karpas.[284] Accordingly, some are accustomed to reciting the Simanim of Urachatz-Karpas, and all their instructions prior to the washing.[285] Other Poskim[286], however, rule that it is even initially permitted to recite the Siman and instructions of Karpas after washing, as the matter relates to the Mitzvah and is not considered an interval.

 

What is one to do if he accidentally said a blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim by Urchatz?

*See supplement at the end of this chapter for the full details of this matter!

If one began saying the words Baruch Ata Hashem, and then remembered, then he is to conclude with the words Lamdeini Chukecha. If one accidentally recited Al Netilas Yadayim by Urchatz then many are accustomed to [saying Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso Leolam Vaed and] continuing the Seder as usual [with washing again with a blessing by Rachtza], as is written in many Poskim. However, amongst Chabad Chassidim, some are accustomed to follow an initial directive of the Rebbe, and to immediately eat Matzah in such a case, and follow the order of 1) Yachatz; 2) Eat Matzah; 3) Karpas without Bracha; 4) Maggid; 5) Maror. Others, however, abide by the claim that the Rebbe later retracted from this ruling and hence follow the former, general approach. Each person is to follow the directive of their Rav.

 

 

  1. Karpas:[287]
  2. General law:[288]

After drinking the first cup of wine, each and every person needs to eat a small amount of vegetables which are dipped in the liquids to be explained.[289] (This applies even if one is doing the Seder alone, without any other participants.[290]) This eating of the dipped Karpas is not an intrinsic obligation, as is the eating of the Maror dipped in Charoses, or the eating of Matzah and drinking of wine.[291] Nevertheless, it is treated similar to an obligation due to the fact that it was instituted by the Sages [and thus every individual must do so].[292]

Having it on the Seder plate: One is to have the Karpas in front of him, on the Seder plate prior to starting the Seder, as explained in Chapter 2 Halacha 1A. See Halacha E regarding if the Karpas is to remain on the Seder plate even after Karpas.

 

  1. The vegetable to be used:

The Karpas vegetable:[293] [From the letter of the law, one may use any Hadamah vegetable for Karpas, so long as it is invalid for Maror, as explained below. Nonetheless] the custom is to specifically use the vegetable which is called Karpas [Ipach in Yiddish].[294] [Some Poskim[295] identify this as Petrozilia/parsley, and thus use parsley for Karpas. Other Poskim[296] identify it as the celery, and thus use celery for Karpas. Other Poskim[297] write that one is to use a cooked potato for Karpas, and so is the widespread custom amongst many. Other Poskim[298] write that one is to use radish for Karpas. Other Poskim[299] rule one is to use raw onions for Karpas. Others[300] say one is to take a leek for Karpas. Practically, the Chabad custom is to take a raw onion for Karpas.[301] If this is unavailable, or one is unable to eat a raw onion, a cooked potato is to be taken.[302] The Rebbe used the heart of the onion.[303]]

Raw versus cooked: Initially, one is to specifically use a raw vegetable for Karpas, as opposed to a vegetable that is cooked.[304] Nonetheless, from the letter of the law, it is permitted to use a cooked Hadamah vegetable for Karpas [and thus a cooked potato is used by those who can’t eat an onion].[305]

What vegetable to use if the “Karpas” vegetable is not available:[306] If the Karpas vegetable [of its various accustomed opinions] is not available, then one may choose any Halachically defined vegetable[307] that he wishes [such as cucumbers[308]]. Nonetheless, the chosen vegetable must initially be a vegetable that receives the blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah when eaten in its raw state [and if it is cooked, then it must receive the blessing of Hadamah when eaten in its cooked state[309]].[310] Likewise, one may not choose any of the vegetables which are valid to be used to fulfill one’s obligation of Maror.[311] [Likewise, one should not take a Hadamah dessert food, such as strawberries, bananas, pineapples, or melons, or any Hadamah food which is under debate as to its blessing.[312]]

If a Hadamah vegetable is not available:[313] If one does not have a Hadamah vegetable available for Karpas, such as if the only vegetable that he has available is Shehakol when eaten raw, then he is to use a Shehakol vegetable.[314] In such a case, it is disputed amongst the Poskim as to whether one is now required to recite a blessing of Hadamah over the Maror which is eaten later on. Some Poskim[315] rule that in such a case one is required to recite a blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah on the Maror. However, other Poskim[316] argue on this and rule that one is never required to recite a blessing of Hadamah on the Maror, being that it is eaten during the meal.[317] Practically, Safek Brachos Lihakel, and one is thus not to recite a blessing over the Maror in such a case, in order to avoid saying a blessing in vain according to the second opinion.[318]

If no vegetable is available other than Maror:[319] One who does not have any vegetables available to eat for the [Karpas] dip that is eaten before saying Maggid, with exception to vegetables that are valid for Maror, then one is to use the Maror vegetable for Karpas.[320] In such a case, one is to dip the Maror in vinegar or salt water[321] prior to starting the reading of the Haggadah [i.e. Maggid] and say the blessing of Achilas Maror.[322] One is not required to eat a Kezayis of the Maror at this time.[323] Now, later on after eating a Kezayis of Matzah, one is to dip a Kezayis of Maror in Charoses and eat it without a blessing.[324] Furthermore, even if one ate a Kezayis or more of Maror by the [Karpas] dip prior to beginning the Haggadah [i.e. Maggid], nonetheless, one is required to repeat the eating of a Kezayis of Maror after eating Matzah.[325] Now, regarding reciting a before blessing on the Maror eaten for Karpas: If the Maror vegetable is edible when raw, such as lettuce and the like, then when one eats it prior to saying the Haggadah, one is to say the blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah prior to the blessing of Al Achilas Maror.[326] However, if the Maror vegetable is inedible when raw, such as horseradish and the like, then when one eats it prior to saying the Haggadah, one does not say any blessing at all other than the blessing of Al Achilas Maror.[327] All the above, however, only applies if it is impossible to find other vegetables to use for Karpas. However, if it is possible to find other vegetables, then it is proper to search for them [by asking neighbors and residents of the nearby cities], in order so one not be required to recite the blessing of Al Achilas Maror upon eating it as Karpas prior to Maggid, as some Poskim[328] rule it is improper to do so.[329] Nonetheless, one is to only use Halachically defined vegetables for Karpas, [and not fruits or legumes], even if it means that one will have to use the Maror vegetable for Karpas.[330]

 

Is one to eat the Karpas vegetable that is on the Seder plate for Karpas?[331]

The custom is to use the Karpas that is on the Seder plate for Karpas. [See below Halacha E!]

 

  1. Dipping the Karpas in saltwater:

What to dip the Karpas into-Salt water, vinegar, other dips:[332] The Karpas is to be dipped in vinegar, or salt water, or any other dip [that contains one of the seven liquids that requires washing prior to eating a food dipped in them[333], such as water, wine[334], olive oil, milk, bees honey[335]]. If there is no other dip available, then one is to dip it in the Charoses.[336] [However, based on the Siddur, one is to never dip the Karpas in Charoses even if no other dip is available.[337]]

Making the salt water on Yom Tov/Shabbos if forgot to do so beforehand: See Chapter 2 Halacha 1B!

 

Q&A

How much of the Karpas is to be dipped into the saltwater?[338]

It is initially proper to dip the entire Karpas into the salt water.[339] However, from the letter of the law, it suffices even if it is slightly dipped into it.[340]

 

Should one eat the dipped Karpas with one’s hand, or may/should he eat it with a fork?[341]

One is to eat the dipped Karpas directly with one’s hands and not with a fork or other utensil.[342]

 

 

Drush-The reason we dip:[343]

The reason we dip the Karpas in salt water and the Maror in Charoses is because it corresponds to the two dipping’s that were involved in the Egyptian exile and exodus. The cause of our decent to Egypt was the dipping of Yosef’s garment in blood. The cause of us meriting to experience the exodus was the dipping of the hyssop into the blood and then placing it on the doorposts.

  1. The blessing and eating:

Dip before blessing:[344] One is to first dip the Karpas in the saltwater [or other dip] and only afterwards says the blessing.[345]

Leaning:[346] One does not lean upon eating Karpas.

Hold in right hand:[347] One is to hold to the Karpas in his right hand upon saying the blessing, as is the law regarding all Mitzvos and blessings.[348]

Having the Maror in mind:[349] Upon saying the blessing of Hadamah on Karpas one is to have in mind to also include the future Maror in the blessing.[350] [One is to have in mind both the Maror of Maror and Koreich.[351] If one forgot to do so, nevertheless he is not to say a blessing over the Maror which is eaten later on.[352]]

How much to eat?[353] One is not required to eat a Kezayis of the Karpas vegetable.[354] Furthermore, one is specifically to eat less than a Kezayis of the vegetable, in order to avoid entering a dispute regarding if an after blessing must be said if a Kezayis is eaten, as explained next.[355] [This applies to all vegetables that one chooses to use for Karpas, and not specifically the Karpas vegetable.[356] In this regard, we consider a Kezayis to be approximately between 14.4-17.3 grams for all vegetables that are more dense, and sink in water, such as a potato.[357] However, an onion is lighter than water and hence a Kezayis is slightly less than 14.4-17.6 grams. Thus, one is to eat considerably less than 14 grams of onion, in order to avoid a doubt of eating a Kezayis.[358] Furthermore, due to the above reason, if one is using a small vegetable for Karpas, such as small radish, then one is not to eat the entire radish, but rather leave a small part out.[359]]

The law of the after blessing if one ate a Kezayis:[360] In the event that one went ahead and ate a Kezayis of the [Karpas] vegetable, it is disputed amongst the Poskim as to whether one is now required to recite a blessing of Borei Nefashos Rabos afterwards.[361] Some Poskim[362] rule that one does not recite an after blessing of Borei Nefashos Rabos after eating the Karpas even if one went ahead and ate a Kezayis of the vegetable.[363] Likewise, one is not required to recite a blessing of Borei Nefashos Rabos after eating the Maror even if one ate a Kezayis of the [Karpas] vegetable.[364]  However, other Poskim[365] argue on this and rule that one is obligated to recite a blessing of Borei Nefashos Rabos if he ate a Kezayis of the Karpas vegetable.[366] Practically, Safek Brachos Lihakel, and one is thus not to recite an after blessing of Borei Nefashos Rabos even if one ate a Kezayis of the Karpas, in order to avoid saying a blessing in vain according to the first opinion.[367]

The law if one went ahead and said Borei Nefashos:[368] In the event that one went ahead and said Borei Nefashos Rabos after eating [a Kezayis] of [Karpas] vegetables, it is disputed amongst the Poskim as to whether one is now required to recite a blessing of Hadamah over the Maror which is eaten later on. Some Poskim[369] rule that in such a case one is required to recite a blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah on the Maror. However, other Poskim[370] argue on this and rule that one is never required to recite a blessing of Hadamah on the Maror, being that it is eaten during the meal.[371] Practically, Safek Brachos Lihakel, and one is thus not to recite a blessing over the Maror in such a case, in order to avoid saying a blessing in vain according to the second opinion.[372]

 

Should one cut the Karpas before the blessing?

Seemingly, due to the Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to recite the blessing of Hadamah on a whole vegetable, one is not to cut the onion, or potato [or other whole Karpas vegetable chosen] until after the blessing of Hadamah.[373] However, some Poskim[374] rule that one is to cut the Karpas into small pieces which are less than a Kezayis for both himself and the participants, prior to saying the blessing.

 

May one switch rooms between Karpas and Maror:

In general, one who switches areas after saying a blessing of Hadamah/Haeitz or Shehakol forfeits the blessing, and must repeat it upon eating more of that food, unless one can still see his original area of where the blessing was said, or if he switched rooms within the same house and had intent to do so upon saying the blessing.[375] Accordingly, one is not to initially leave the Seder table and go into another room, and is certainly not to leave the home, after eating Karpas, until one eats the Maror, in order so the blessing of Hadamah continues to count for the Maror, as explained above.[376] [This is in addition to that which was explained above, that one is not to switch rooms between Kiddush and Hamotzi, however, in this case it is more severe, as switching areas even for a need, such as to use the bathroom, would forfeit the previous blessing.] In the event that one did switch rooms after Karpas, but prior to Hamotzi[377], then one should re-eat less than a Kezayis of a Hadamah food [i.e. the Karpas vegetable] with a blessing, and have in mind that it count also for the Maror.[378] Practically, however, this only applies if one left the home and walked outside, or onto the front courtyard[379], and could not see his original area of eating, however within the house itself, it is customary to not require the repeating of a blessing if one went from one room to another, especially if it was done for the sake of the meal, or to use the bathroom.[380] In addition, the need to repeat the blessing only applies if one is eating the Seder by himself, however, if he is eating with others, such as a wife, children, family or friends, then the blessing is never repeated upon return, even if he walked outside and returned much time later.[381] Thus, in conclusion, although one is not initially to switch rooms between Karpas and Maror, if he did so, a blessing is not to be repeated, unless he is eating by himself and the above conditions are fulfilled.[382]

 

  1. Removing the Karpas and saltwater from the table/Kearah:[383]

Once the [Karpas] vegetable has been eaten, the remaining vegetables may be removed from the table [and do not need to be returned to the Kearah[384]]. [It may likewise be removed from the Kearah if any Karpas still remains.[385]] Likewise, the vinegar or saltwater may be removed. [Practically, however, the saltwater is to remain on the table in order to dip the egg into it by Shulchan Orech.]

Summary of the Karpas/Maror relationship debate[386]

 

  Opinion 1 Opinion 2 Final ruling
Must one initially use Hadamah for Karpas? No[387] No Yes
Must one have the Maror in mind by the Hadamah of Karpas? Yes No Yes
May one eat a Kezayis of the Karpas? Yes[388] Yes No
Should Borei Nefashos be said if one ate a Kezayis? No Yes No
If Borei Nefashos was said, should Hadamah be said over the Maror? Yes No No
If a Shehakol vegetable was used for Karpas, should Hadamah be said over the Maror? Yes No No

 

  1. Yachatz:[389]
  2. The breaking of the Matzah:

When is the Matzah broken:[390] After eating from the [Karpas] vegetables dipped [in saltwater], one needs to take the middle Matzah [see next], and break a piece off of it [see next], due to the reason explained in the footnote.[391]

Which Matzah is broken and how? The middle Matzah, of the three Matzos that are resting in front of him on the Kearah [i.e. Levi], is to be broken.[392] It is broken into two pieces making sure that one piece is larger than the other piece.[393] [The Chabad custom is to break the middle Matzah while it rests within the cloth of the three Matzos and is still covered.[394] One is to break the Matzah using his hands, and not using a knife, or any other metallic material.[395]] One is to break the Matzah in a way that even the smaller piece will contain at least a Kezayis of Matzah.[396] [If one did not do so, then one is to add from the larger half, to the smaller half, until it contains a Kezayis.[397] The larger half is broken to five small pieces, as explained next.]

  1. What does one do with the two halves?

The larger half: The custom of all Jewry is to use the piece broken off from the Matzah for another Mitzvah and to thus guard it for [eating to fulfill the Mitzvah of] Afikoman.[398] It is proper that this broken piece which is saved for Afikoman be the piece which contains the majority of the middle Matzah [i.e. the larger half of the middle Matzah is to be used for Afikoman].[399] [The custom of the Chabad Rabbeim is to break the larger half used for Afikoman into five pieces.[400] This is likewise the widespread Chabad custom today. If it occurred by the Rabbeim that it broke into six pieces, then a piece would be set aside, and not included in the bag for Afikoman.[401] Some recall that the Rebbe was accustomed to break the larger piece for Afikoman while it was still inside the cloth.[402]]

The smaller half?[403] The other [smaller] half of the Matzah needs to be returned to the Kearah and placed back in between the two whole Matzos.[404] [According to the Chabad custom stated above to break the Matzah while in the cloth, the smaller half simply remains there and is not taken out.] One is to beware that there remains a Kezayis of Matzah in the smaller half of the middle Matzah.[405] [If the broken smaller half does not contain a Kezayis, then one is to add to it from the larger half used for Afikoman.[406] If necessary, then one can add Matzah from the box for the sake of Afikoman.[407]]

Where to place the Matzah of Afikoman: The custom is to hide the Matzah under the tablecloth.[408] [As an alternative to this custom, some are accustomed to wrap the Matzah in a cloth and then place it between two pillows.[409] Practically, so is the Chabad custom.[410] Accordingly, one should have two pillows by his seat in order to accomplish this. Alternatively, if two pillows are not available, then one is to place it between the pillowcase and pillow. See Q&A regarding stealing the Afikoman.] Others are accustomed to wrap it inside a cloth, and then place it on their shoulders in commemoration of the Exodus.[411] This latter custom is not followed by Ashkenazi Jewry.[412] [The Sephardi custom is to wrap the Afikoman in a cloth and then tie it to the shoulder of a child who steps outside and they then say Ha Lachma Aniya. The child then knocks on the door and states that he is from Egypt and is carrying Matzah, and he then says Mah Nishtana which is followed by Avadim Hayinu. The child remains holding the Matzah on his shoulders until Afikoman, unless he falls asleep in which case it is placed in between the pillows.[413] One is only to place the Matzah in a cloth that has been properly cleaned and washed for Pesach.[414]]

 

Q&A

May one steal the Afikoman on the night of the Seder?[415]

Some [Ashkenazi] communities are accustomed to have the children steal the Afikoman on the night of the Seder [and hold it ransom until the father redeems it with a promissory gift of some kind[416]]. Some Poskim[417] defend this custom.[418] Other Poskim[419], however, negate this custom and thus some communities[420] specifically avoid doing so due to resemblance of the stealing prohibition, and so is the Chabad custom to avoid this Minhag.[421] [Those who follow the former custom, are to instruct their children not to enter the Matzah under a bed or in a bathroom.]

 

Placing all the Afikoman’s together:[422]

The custom of the Rebbe Rashab was to place the Afikoman of all the members of the family together with his Afikoman. The reason for this was to emphasize that the Afikoman is in memory of the Karban Pesach which was eaten together in a group. [This is not necessarily meant to be a directive to the public.]

 

 

Sparks of Kaballah

Breaking the Gevuros of Yitzchak:

The three Matzos correspond to Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov. The reason we break the middle Matzah is because the middle Matzah corresponds to Yitzchak, and Yitzchak has two sides, one of laughter and the second of severity.

 

 

  1. Maggid:[423]
  2. General overview:

The Mitzvah and purpose:[424] The section of Maggid was established in the Haggadah to fulfill the Biblical positive command of telling over the story of the exodus on the night of the 15th.[425] The majority of Maggid, from Avadim Hayinu and onwards, is an answer to the questions asked in the Mah Nishtana and is the fulfillment of the positive commandment to tell over the story of Yetzias Mitzraim. See Chapter 1 Halacha 1A for the full details of the Mitzvah of Sippur Yetzias Mitzrayim.

The main Nussach: The Sages established in the Haggadah the exact Nussach of what one is required to recite. The main Nussach of the Hagdah that the Sages established as an obligation upon all is from Avadim Hayinu until Harei Zeh Meshubach, and then afterwards from Ovdei Avodah Zara Haya Avoseinu until the end of the discussion of the Parsha of Arami Oved Avi.[426] Afterwards, one then says the statement of Pesach/Matza/Maror, Bechol Dor Vador, Veosanu Hotzi Michum, Lefichach until Goal Yisrael.[427] The remainder of the Haggadah is a custom from the generation if the Rishonim.[428] One who does not recite Pesach Matzah and Maror does not fulfill his obligation [appropriately, although he does fulfill the Biblical obligation[429]].[430]

Eating and drinking during Maggid: See Chapter 3 Halacha 8!

Leaving the Seder table during Maggid: See Chapter 3 Halacha 9!

The waiters and waitresses:[431] Jewish servants and waiters and waitresses who are serving at the Seder meal are equally obligated in the Mitzvah of Sippur Yetzias Mitzrayim and are hence to be present by the saying of Maggid, and perform all the necessary steps of the Haggadah.

 

Saying an abridged version of Maggid:

In the event that it is not possible or is extremely difficult to read through the entire Haggadah for oneself or those present then one is to recite in abridged version of the Haggadah including only those parts that are absolute requirement. This includes the following paragraphs:

1.       Avadim Hayinu until Harei Zeh Meshubach.

2.       Ovdei Avodah Zara Haya Avoseinu until the end of that discussion of Arami Oved Avi.

3.       Pesach/Matza/Maror,

4.       Bechol Dor Vador,

5.       Veosanu Hotzi Misham,

6.       Lefichach until Goal Yisrael.

 

 

 

  1. How to say Maggid:

Kavana to fulfill the Mitzvah:[432] Prior to reading the Haggadah, one is to explicitly intend in his mind, or verbalize, that he is doing so for the sake of fulfilling the Mitzvah of telling of the story of the Exodus. [Some suggest that one must also intend the reason behind the Mitzvah, which is to publicize the miracles and greatness of G-d.[433]]

Verbalizing with mouth versus reading in mind:[434] One does not fulfill his obligation of Maggid by reading the words in his mind, and rather it must be verbalized, or heard from another person who is reading it aloud, as will be explained.

Aloud and in a happy tune: The section of Maggid to be read aloud.[435] This applies even if one is performing the Seder alone.[436] It is likewise customary to read the Haggadah in a happy tune.[437]

Must one read Maggid to himself or does it suffice to listen? One fulfills his obligation of Maggid and Sippur Yetzias Mitzrayim through listening to the story telling and Haggadah reading of another person [i.e. male leader of the Seder], and it is not necessary for each and every individual to say the words himself in order to fulfill the Mitzvah. Nevertheless, the widespread custom today is for each person to read the Haggadah quietly to themselves. See Chapter 3 Halacha 4 for the full details of this!

Women leading the reading: It is permitted for a woman to read the Haggadah on behalf of another woman, or children. However, a woman is not to read the Haggadah on behalf of a male above the age of Bar Mitzvah. Thus, those who are accustomed to delegate the saying of the Haggadah to various participants, including women, are to verify [and announce] that every individual is to say the Haggadah quietly to themselves. By a public Seder in which there are commonly participants present who cannot read the Haggadah, one is to make sure that a male recites the Haggadah aloud on behalf of the participants. See Chapter 3 Halacha 4 for the full details of this!

Experiencing the exodus:[438] The saying over of the story of the exodus must be done in a way that one begins to experience the emotions associated with the exodus, and that he actually feels as if he was taken out of Egypt.

Explaining the story to one’s wife and children:[439] One is obligated to recite the Haggadah in a language that the women and children [and all the other people in attendance can] understand.[440] One is to elaborate on the story in accordance to their capability of understanding.[441] If they have a broad potential understanding, one is to explain to them everything.[442] [This obligation begins from the start of Maggid, from the section of Ha Lachma Ania.[443] One great idea that many use is to perform a Pesach skit detailing the miracles and story, in order to get everyone interested and involved.] See Chapter 1 Halacha 1E for the full details of this matter!

Leaning:[444] One is not to recite the Haggadah in a leaning position, as it must be said in a position of fear and trepidation.

Revealing the Matzah during Maggid:[445] As explained in Halacha 2, one is required to say the Haggadah while the Matzah and Simanim [i.e. Maror; Charoses; Zeroa and Beitza] are present on the table. Therefore, the Matzah is to be partially[446] visible and revealed throughout the saying of Maggid. This, however, is with exception to whenever one needs to hold the cup of wine [i.e. by Vehi Sheamda and Asher Goalanu] in which case we cover the Matzos, as will be explained, and then return and reveal it.[447]

  1. Hei Lachma Anaya:

The nussach:[448] The main Nussach printed in all the Sefarim is “Ha Lachma Aniya Di Achalu Avhasana Beara Dimitzrayim/This is the bread that our forefathers ate in Egypt.”[449] Nevertheless, some are particular to say “Kiha Lacham Anya” or “Ha Kilachma Anya”, and those who do so have upon what to rely.[450] [In the Siddur, Admur writes to say “Heiy Lachma Anya”, without a Kuf, and with a Tzeireiy under the Hei. So also rule other Poskim[451] based on Kabballah. This follows the Nussach of the Arizal and comes to fix the sin of Yosef who told the Egyptians “Heiy Lachem Zera,” and thus gave sustenance to the Kelipos.[452] The Rebbe Rashab would say the first Lishana Habah Mileil, which means that he would emphasize the Beis of Habah. In the second Lishanah Habah he would say it Milera, which means he would emphasize the Alef.[453]]

Lifting the Kearah of Matzah:[454] After Yachatz, the custom is to lift the Kearah which contains the Matzos and say “Ha Lachma Aniya” until Mah Nishtana. There is no need to remove the foods [i.e. Simanim] from the Kearah prior to lifting it up, and rather it may be lifted together with the foods that are on it.[455] [In families that the custom is to lift the Kearah together, it should be lifted only by the men.[456] Practically, the custom of the Rabbeim is not to lift up the Kearah, or Matzos, but rather to simply reveal part of the Matzos.[457]]

 

Saying it aloud:[458]

The saying of Hei Lachma Aniya is to especially be done aloud. [This is in addition to the fact that the entire Haggadah should be read aloud, as stated above.] This applies even if one is performing the Seder alone.

 

 

Saying it three times:[459]

The Sephardic custom is to recite the paragraph of Hei Lacham Ania three times.

 

Opening the door:[460]

Some are accustomed to open the door upon saying “Kol Dichfin,” as if the door remains closed then who will come.[461] Other Poskim[462], however, explain that this wording refers to one’s household and not to outside guests [and there is hence no need to open the door]. [Practically, the Chabad custom is to say it while the door remains closed.]

 

Details on the Nussach

The reason it is said in Aramaic:[463]

The invitation of Ha Lacham Aniya was instituted to be said in Aramaic as that is the language that the common folk understood in those times. In addition, the Sages did not desire that the angels, who do not understand Aramaic, hear this invitation and come to the Seder and find fault with the Jewish people.

 

Did the Jewish people really eat Matzah in Egypt?[464]

The Nussach of Hei Lachma Ania states that our forefathers ate Matzah in Egypt. This is puzzling, as in truth they ate the Matzah only after they left Egypt and not in Egypt proper. Thus, some explain that in truth even in Egypt itself the Jewish people ate Matzah as the Egyptians provided the Jews only with Matzah in order to keep them satiated longer, and never allowed them to eat Chametz.

 

  1. Matters done prior to beginning Mah Nishtana:

Removing the table/Kearah:[465] In the Talmudic times when each and every participant had an individual food table in front of him, it was required for the table to be completely removed from the presence of the [leader of the Seder, who is the] person who will be leading the recital of the Haggadah [until after Mah Nishtana, prior to the start of Avadim Hayinu when it would be returned[466]].[467] In the later generations, however, the custom became to have one large joint table for all the participants to eat on. Now, since it is greatly difficult to move the table, it therefore became customary [not remove the table as was done in Talmudic times but rather] to simply remove the Kearah which contains the Matzos from in front of the household leader who will be reading the Haggadah, and to place it at the end of the table.[468] In more recent times, however, [even this custom was abolished and] the custom became to not even remove the Kearah at all.[469] [Instead, some are accustomed to simply read the instructions of moving the table, but do not actually move it.[470] Practically, Admur in the Siddur instructs for the Kearah to be moved to another side of the table and so rule other Poskim.[471] The custom of the Rebbe was to move the Kearah slightly to the side.[472]]

Covering the Matzos:[473] The Matzos on the Kearah [which was moved to the side] are to be covered throughout the recitation of Mah Nishtana.

Pouring the second cup:[474] After the Seder plate is moved, one needs to pour the second cup [of the four cups of wine], immediately prior to starting the saying of Maggid [i.e. Mah Nishtana].[475] [Some Poskim[476], however, rule that it is not necessary to pour the cups for all the participants and it suffices to pour the cup of the leader of the Seder. This especially applies towards the cups of children who may drink it prior to the time or come to spill it if it is poured prior to its time of drinking at the end of Maggid.]

No need to wash the cup beforehand: The cup does not require washing [i.e. Shetifa and Hadacha] as it was already washed before Kiddush.[477] [This was likewise the Rebbe’s custom, to pour the second cup without washing it beforehand.]

 

Summary:

Before Mah Nishtana the second cup is poured and the Kearah is moved to the side and the Matzos are covered. This is done in order to make the children wonder and thus encourage them to ask questions.

 

  1. Mah Nishtana:[478]

Its purpose:[479] The story of the exodus must [initially] be said in the form of an answer to a question, as the verse[480] states “Ki Yishalcha Bincha Machar Leimor Mah Haeidus Vehachukim Vehamishpatim… Viamarta Livanecha Avadim Hayinu.” This is fulfilled through the child asking his father the Mah Nishtana. See Chapter 1 Halacha 1F for the full details of this matter!

The Nussach:[481] One needs to say “Ein Anu Matbilin Afilu Paam Achas” in contrast to “Ein Anu Chayavim Litavel Afilu Paam Achas.”[482]

Who is to ask the Mah Nishtana? One’s son [who has reached the age of Chinuch[483]] is to ask him the questions of Mah Nishtana. If the son is uneducated and does not know how to ask, then the father is obligated to teach him.[484] [Even if the son is already an adult, and is a scholar of his own right, he is to ask his father the questions.[485]] If he does not have a son, then his [daughter[486] who has reached the age of education and/or] wife is obligated to ask him.[487] [Practically, if one has a daughter who has reached the age of Chinuch, she is to ask the questions rather than the wife.[488] If one has an older daughter, and a son under the age of understanding, then the daughter is obligated to ask the questions.[489]] If he does not have a [son, daughter or] wife then he is to have a friend ask him, or he is to ask his friend. If he is by himself, he is to ask himself the questions.[490] [Practically, the custom is to have all the children ask the Mah Nishtana, beginning with the youngest child who is able to speak[491], and then followed by the older children.[492] By the Chabad Rabbeim, the custom was for even the adult children to ask their father, and hence all children and grandchildren asked the Mah Nishtana.[493]]

Does the person being asked the questions of Mah Nishtana also need to say it?[494] After the asking of Mah Nishtana, both the asker and the person being asked are to begin saying Avadim Hayinu.[495] It is not necessary for the person who was asked to also say Mah Nishatana, even if he is doing the Seder alone with his friend and was asked by his friend. Likewise, when a son [or daughter] or wife ask him the Mah Nishtana, he is not required to repeat the Mah Nishtana, and rather begins from Avadim Hayinu. [Practically, however, the Chabad custom is for each person to repeat the Mah Nishtana after the children complete saying it.[496] This is likewise the custom of other communities.[497]]

 

Chabad custom of saying Mah Nishatana in Yiddish

Saying the words Tateh Ich Vil Der Fregen Fir Kashyus:[498]

The Chabad custom is for the asker to preface his questions with the Yiddish statement of “Tateh Ich Vil Der Fregen Fir Kashyus.” This applies even if his father is no longer alive.

 

Reciting the Stanzas in Yiddish:

The Chabad custom is to recite a number of introductory phrases in the Yiddish language prior to each of the four questions. These phrases can be found in select Chabad Haggadah’s and is printed in the commentary of the Rebbe for Mah Nishtana. Some are accustomed to likewise recite Hie Lachma Aniya and Avadim Hayinu in Yiddish, however the Chabad custom is to limit this only to Mah Nishtana.[499]

 

 

  1. Matters done after Mah Nishtana, prior to Avadim Hayinu:

Returning the Seder plate and revealing the Matzos:[500] In previous times when it was customary [prior to Mah Nishtana] to remove the table or Kearah from before the person saying the Haggadah [See Halacha D], it was necessary to return the table/plate in front of him prior to beginning Avadim Hayinu, as one is required to recite the Haggadah over Matzah, Maror, Charoses, and the two cooked foods, as explained above [in Halacha 2]. [In today’s times that it is no longer customary to remove the Kearah/table from in front of the person saying the Haggadah prior to Mah Nishtana, and at most we simply move it to the side, then prior to Avadim Hayinu, the Kearah is to be returned to the front of the person saying the Haggadah.[501]]

Revealing the Matzah:[502] Due to the above reason, from the start of Avadim Hayinu, one is to beware that the Matzos are partially[503] revealed throughout the Seder, until the paragraph of Lefichach is reached. This, however, is with exception to whenever one needs to hold the cup of wine [i.e. by Vehi Sheamda and Asher Goalanu] in which case we cover the Matzos, as will be explained, and then return and reveal it.[504]

 

Summary:

After Mah Nishtana, prior to Avadim Hayinu, one is to return the Seder plate and reveal part of the Matzas.

 

 

G Avadim Hayinu:[505]

The paragraph of Avadim Hayinu is recited in answer to the question of the child, and is the start of the Mitzvah of Sippur Yetzias Mitzrayim. One is required to start this Mitzvah with a disparaging matter, and hence we begin with Avadaim Hayinu, and later on in the paragraph we discuss that our ancestors were originally idolaters.

 

May a convert recite the Nussach of Avadim Hayinu?[506]

Yes.[507]

 

  1. Vehi Sheamda:

Covering the Matzos and lifting the wine:[508] During the recital of Vehi Sheamda, some[509] are accustomed [based on Kabballah[510]] to hold the cup of wine in their hands until the words “VeHakadosh Baruch Hu Matzileinu Miyadam.” [Practically, so is the Chabad custom to lift the cup of wine.[511]] It is proper at this time for the Matzos to be covered until the cup is returned to the table, in which case the Matzos are to then once again be revealed.[512] [The custom of the Rabbeim was to first cover the Matzos and only then to lift up the cup.[513] It is recited in a sitting position.[514]]

 

Summary:

By Vehi Sheamda one is to cover the Matzos and then lift the Kos.

 

  1. Spilling the wine by the Makos:[515]

When:[516] It is customary to spill some of the wine from the cup upon arriving to the words Dam, Esh, ViTimros Ashan. Likewise, the wine is spilled when one says each of the ten Makos, and likewise when one mentions the abbreviations of the Makos as Datzach, Adash, BeAchav.[517] Thus, the wine is spilled from the cup for a total 16 times.[518]

How:[519] It is customary to spill a small amount of the wine using one’s finger.[520] The custom is to use the index finger, closest to the thumb, referred to as the Etzba in Hebrew.[521] However, some are accustomed to use the pinky.[522] Others are accustomed due to reasons known to them to spill the wine using the cup itself [through tilting it] and not through using their finger.[523] [Practically, in the Siddur Admur rules that one is to spill the wine with the cup itself and not with one’s finger, and so is the Chabad custom.[524]]

A broken vessel-The vessel used to collect the spilled wine:[525] The wine is to be spilled into a broken vessel [such as a chipped plate or bowl], representing the Kelipos which is called cursed. [One may not break the dish on Yom Tov for this purpose, and it hence must be done before Yom Tov.]

The intent upon spilling:[526] Upon spilling the wine, one is to intend that the cup represents Malchus, and that through the power of Binah he is spilling the wrath from the wine, into a broken vessel which is Kelipa and cursed. [One is to thus intend that only the spilled wine is wine of wrath while the remaining wine that is in the cup, is wine of joy.[527] One is to also intend that G-d save him from these Makos.[528]]

Refilling the cup and what to do with the spilled wine:[529] After all the above spills are performed, one is to refill the cup with wine. One is not to first discard the remaining wine in the cup, as on the contrary its remains are wine of joy, and hence should simply have more wine added to it. [The spilled wine is to be discarded in a way that no one can benefit from it, similar to water from the morning washing.[530]

  1. Dayeinu:[531]

All fourteen stanzas of Dayeinu are to be recited consecutively, without making any interval in between.

 

  1. Holding the Matzah upon saying Matzah, and holding the Maror by saying Maror:[532]

When one reaches the words “Matzah Zu Sheanu Ochlin” [in the stanza of “Pesach, Matzah, Maror”] one is to hold the middle[533] Matzah in order show it to the participants of the meal.[534] Likewise, when one reaches the words “Maror Zeh” one needs to lift the Maror in order to show it to the participants of the meal. However, when one says the words “Pesach Zeh Shehayu Avoseinu,” he is not to lift the cooked food [i.e. Zeroa] that is in the Kearah in commemoration for the Pesach in order so it does not appear as if it was sanctified for the Pesach.[535] [Nevertheless, he is to look at the Zeroa upon saying it.[536]]

  • Custom of Beis Harav:[537] The custom in the Rebbe’s household is to hold the middle and lower Matzos in their covering until the second על שום of the former paragraph. When mentioning the bitter herbs, it is the custom in the Rebbe’s household to rest one’s hands [both hands] on the Maror, as well as on the Maror to be used for the Korech, until the second על שום of the latter paragraph.
  1. Hallel:[538]

At the end of Maggid, the first two paragraphs of Hallel is read. The remainder is read after the meal and Birchas Hamazon, in the section of the Seder named “Hallel”.[539]

Blessing:[540] A blessing is not recited over the Hallel that is read on this night.[541] [Nonetheless, a blessing is recited at the end of Hallel, as will be explained in Halacha 16.]

Sitting versus standing:[542] This Hallel may be read in a sitting position.[543] Nevertheless, one is not to read the Hallel and Haggadah while leaning on his side and is rather to recite it with awe and fear.[544] [Practically, some are accustomed to stand for its recital[545], although this is not the widespread custom and is not the Chabad custom.]

Mourner/Avel:[546] A mourner/Avel [within Shiva, or prior to burial] is obligated to recite the Hallel on this night [i.e. within the Haggadah], even though in general we are accustomed not to read Hallel in the home of an Avel.[547]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Birchas Asher Gealanu:[548]

Its purpose:[549] The blessing of Asher Gealanu was instituted to be recited in correspondence to the blessing of Sheasa Nissim Lavoseinu which is recited over all miracles. It is therefore recited even if one does not have a cup of wine available to recite the blessing over.

Covering the Matzos and lifting the wine:[550] During the recital of Lefichach, the custom is for each individual to raise the cup and hold it in their hands until the conclusion of the blessing of “Goal Yisrael”.[551] Therefore, it is proper for the Matzos to be covered at this time.[552] [One is to first cover the Matzos and only then to lift up the cup.[553] The custom of the Rabbeim is to lift up the cup until the words “Vinomar Lifanav Hallelukah,” to then put it down and only re-lift it for the blessing of Asher Gealanu.[554]]

Sitting versus standing:[555] The blessing of Asher Gealanu is recited in a sitting position.

Min Hazevachim and Min Hapesachim:[556] In the blessing of Asher Gealanu one is required to first say Min Hazevachim and only afterwards Min Hapesachim.[557] However, when Pesach falls on Motzei Shabbos some are particular to first recite Min Hapesachim and only afterwards Min Hazevachim.[558] Others however are not particular in this matter [to say it in this order when Pesach falls on Motzei Shabbos], and rather they always say Min Hazevachim and only afterwards Min Hapesachim].[559] [Practically, the Chabad custom is like the former opinion.[560]]

Blessing of Hagafen on the second cup: The Ashkenazi custom is to say a blessing of Hagafen on the second cup of wine. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4D for the full details of this subject!

Leaning: Men are required to lean to their left side upon drinking this cup of wine, which counts as the second of the four cups. If one forgot to lean, it is proper to be stringent and repeat the drinking in a leaning position. See Chapter 3 Halacha 7 for the full details of this subject!

May one eat or drink after the second cup? After the end of Maggid, prior to Motzi Matzah, one is not to eat any food, until the start of the meal. However, one may drink any beverage without restriction with exception to wine, alcoholic beverages, coffee, tea, and pure juice, in the event that a new blessing must be recited upon drinking it. If these beverages were already included in the blessing of Hagafen said earlier, then it is permitted to drink them without restriction even prior to Motzi Matzah. See Chapter 3 Halacha 8C for the full details of this subject!

  1. Rachtzah:[561]

After finishing the Haggadah [i.e. Maggid] and reciting [the first two paragraphs of] Hallel [in the end of Maggid], one is to wash his hands [i.e. Netilas Yadayim] for the meal [i.e. for eating the Matzah] and say the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim.[562] [One is not to have in mind at the time of Urchatz to include the washing for Matzah, and is not to be particular to guard his hands in the interim, as explained next.]

If one guarded his hands between the first washing of Urchatz until Rachtza:[563] If at the time that one recited the Haggadah [i.e. Maggid] and Hallel, he did not remove his mind from guarding his hands [that his hands not touch unclean areas of the body], then although he is nevertheless required to re-wash his hands for Matzah, he is to do so without a blessing.[564] [Nevertheless, initially it is not proper for one to do so and thus he should not to guard his hands in between, as explained next.[565] Furthermore, some Poskim[566] rule that in the event that he guarded his hands, then he is to intentionally scratch his head, and the like, in order to be able to wash with a blessing.]

One who had intent that the first washing of Urchatz count also for the Matzah:[567] If at the time that won’t wash his hands for the dip vegetables, he had in mind that this washing count also for the meal [i.e. for the sake of eating Matzah], then he is not required to return and wash his hands now for the sake of the mat so if he did not remove his mind from guarding his hands at the time of saying the Haggadah and Hallel. Nevertheless, initially it is not proper for one to do so [and thus he should not intend to include the eating of Matzah in the first washing by Urchatz, and likewise is not to intend to guard his hands in between[568]].[569] [However, in a time of need that one is ill, or there is not enough water available for washing, then one can intend to include also the Matzah in this washing of Urchatz and guard his hands until the eating of Matzah and thus not be required to rewash his hands prior to eating Matzah, by the Siman of Rachtza.[570]]

 

Summary:

After Maggid, one is to perform Netilas Yadayim with a blessing.

 

Washing the hands of the father and mother:

Some have the custom for the family members to bring the water to their father and mother and wash their hands.[571] This is not necessarily the Chabad custom.

 

Bringing a Kezayis of Matzah to the table for all the participants:[572]

Prior to washing hands, the Kezeisim of Matzah on behalf of all the participants who do not have a Seder plate, is to be prepared and brought to the table. [See Chapter 2 Halacha 4D that it is highly recommended to already prepare the Kezeisim of Matzah within individual bags on Erev Pesach, and not wait until the middle of the Seder to do so.] 

 

Reading the Simanim of Motzi Matzah:[573]

One is to read the Simanim of Rachtzah, Motzi Matzah, Maror and Koreich prior to washing.

 

Not to talk of unrelated matters until Koreich:

Starting from the washing, until after Koreich, one is to avoid talking of matters unrelated to the meal, as explained in Halacha 11. Accordingly, if one needs to speak of such matters, he should do so before washing. The family members and participants are likewise to be forewarned of this prior to the washing.

 

  1. Hamotzi-Matzah:[574]

The Mitzvah of eating Matzah contains many detailed Halachos. The following Halacha is an overview of specifically the laws and customs relevant to eating the Matzah during the section of Motzi Matzah, and does not cover all its general detailed laws. For all the details of the Biblical command of eating Matzah, and the bylaws of its fulfillment, see Chapter 1 Halacha 2 in length.

  1. The Mitzvah:

It is a positive command in the Torah to eat [a Kezayis of] Matzah [within Kdei Achilas Peras] on the night of the 15th of Nissan.[575] It is during this stage of the Seder in which this Biblical command is fulfilled. See Chapter 1 Halacha 2A!

 

 

Kissing the Matzah:[576]

Some are accustomed to kiss the Matzah to show their belovedness of the Mitzvah.

 

  1. Kavanah-Intent:

Everyone is obligated to have in mind upon eating the Matzah to fulfill the Mitzvah of eating Matzah on the night of the 15th. One is to publicize this matter to the attendants of the Seder, especially if they have little Jewish background. See Chapter 1 Halacha 2J for the full details of this subject!

 

Intending the reason behind the Mitzvah of eating Matzah:[577]

At the time of eating the Matzah, it is proper to have in mind the reason behind the command, in addition to the general intent of fulfilling the Mitzvah of Hashem.

 

The reason behind the Mitzvah of eating Matzah and its effects:

The recorded reason behind the Mitzvah of eating Matzah is that it commemorates the exodus, and the fact that our bread did not have enough time to rise upon us leaving Egypt.[578] One is to have this in mind upon eating the Matzah.[579] Regarding its effects, the Zohar[580] states that Matzah is called a food of faith “Michla Dihemnusa” and a food of healing “Michla Diesvasa.” This is because the Matzah has a spiritual effect on the soul to strengthen its faith in G-d, and one’s comprehension of G-dliness. It thus helps mature and develop one’s Daas of holiness.

 

  1. The requirement of Lechem Mishneh:[581]

As on any Shabbos and Yom Tov, one is required to have Lechem Mishneh, which is two Shaleim Matzas, on the night of the Seder. [Thus, the top Matzah of Kohen, and bottom Matzah of Yisrael must be a Shaleim.] See Halacha 2B for the full details of this matter!

If one of the Matzos broke while on the Seder plate: If the Kohen or Yisrael broke, then it is to be switched for a whole Matzah. See Halacha 2B for the full details of this matter!

  1. Holding onto the Matzos:[582]

Upon saying the blessing of Hamotzi, one needs to take hold of the two whole Matzas in his hand[583], with the broken Matzah remaining in the middle between the two whole Matzos.[584]

Which hand?[585] One is to hold to the Matzah with his right hand.[586] However, it is proper to place both hands [i.e. ten fingers[587]] on the Matzah while saying Hamotzi, as they contain ten fingers corresponding to the ten Mitzvos that are associated with bread.[588] [Practically, the widespread custom of the world, as well as the Chabad custom, is to hold on to the Matzos with both hands, and so was the custom of the Rebbe.[589]]

  1. The blessings and its order:[590]

The blessing of Hamotzi as well as the blessing of Al[591] Achilas Matzah is recited over the Matzos.

The order of the blessings: One first recites the blessing of Hamotzi, and only then recites the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah.[592]

On which Matzah is the blessing of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah going on? Although from the letter of the law the blessings of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah can be said over any Matzah [and so is even initially done by those who do not have a Seder plate, as will be explained in the Q&A] nevertheless the sages instituted that these blessings be said over one specific Matzah from within the three Matzos that are on the Seder plate. However, it is debated amongst the Poskim as to which of these three Matzos the blessing of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah is going on. Some Poskim[593] rule that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the top whole Matzah [i.e. Kohen] while the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the broken middle Matzah [i.e.  Levi], which is considered poor man’s bread [i.e. Lechem Oni]. Other Poskim[594], however, rule that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the middle broken Matzah which is considered the poor man’s bread, while the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the top whole Matzah. Other Poskim[595] rule that both blessings of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah are going on the middle-broken Matzah. The practical ramification between these opinions is expressed in a variety of areas, such as 1) Must one hold all three Matzos upon saying the blessing?[596] 2) Which Matzah should be held on top?[597] 3) Which Matzah should be eaten first?[598] 4) How much should be eaten from each Matzah?[599] 5) By the eating of which Matzah should one lean?[600] Practically, the main opinion follows the first opinion that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the whole Matzah while the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the broken Matzah.[601] Nevertheless, whenever it is possible to suspect for both opinions one is to do so, in order to fulfill the obligation according to all.[602] Thus, we 1) hold all three Matzos in our hand by Hamotzi and the top and middle Matzah by Al Achilas Matzah[603], 2) leave the whole Matzah on top[604], 3) eat a Kezayis of both Matzos simultaneously[605], 4) and lean by the eating of both Matzos[606]. The details of these matters will be elaborated throughout the coming Halachos.

Should all the participants recite the blessings of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah to themselves prior to eating the Matzah, or should they fulfill their obligation with hearing it from the leader of the Seder? From the letter of the law, whenever a group of people participate in the same meal, one person is to say the blessing of Hamotzi on behalf of everyone.[607] Accordingly, it would be proper for everyone to listen to the blessing of the leader of the Seder and fulfill his obligation with him. Nonetheless, the general widespread custom during the year is for the participants to say their own blessing of Hamotzi, [and so was likewise followed by many on the night of the Seder[608]].[609] [This is done in the following order: Those who have their own Seder plate are to say the blessings on their own Matzos, just as is performed by the leader of the home. Those who do not have their own Seder plate are to wait until they receive a piece of Matzah from the Matzos of the leader of the Seder, and are then to first say the blessing of Hamotzi and immediately afterwards recite the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah, and then eat the piece of Matzah that was distributed to them from the Seder plate.[610]]

  1. Having in mind the Matzah of Korech and Afikoman:[611]

Upon saying the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah one is to have in mind to also exempt with this blessing the third Matzah that will be eaten by Korech.[612] Likewise, one is to also intend to exempt with this blessing the Matzah that will be eaten by Afikoman.[613]

 

  1. G. Dropping the bottom Matzah after saying the blessing of Hamotzi, prior to saying the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah:[614]

 [Immediately] after completing the blessing of Hamotzi one is to let go of the whole bottom Matzah [i.e. Yisrael] and allow it to drop out of one’s hands.[615] One thus remains holding onto the broken Matzah on bottom and the upper [whole Matzah] on top. One then says the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah [with only the top and middle Matzah in his hand]. [This applies even when Pesach falls on Shabbos.[616]]

Not to drop or break the top Matzah until after the blessing: One is not to drop the upper whole Matzah [i.e. Kohen] from his hands prior to reciting the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah.[617] It goes without saying that one is not to break any piece off the top whole Matzah until after he completes the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah.[618]

 

 

 

  1. The eating: How much Matzah is to be eaten, which of the three Matzos is to be eaten, and within how much time?[619]

Minimum for all participants-Kezayis within Achilas Peras:[620] Every person, whether man, woman, or child who has reached the age of education, is obligated to eat a minimum of a Kezayis of Matzah. This amount is initially to be eaten within 3-4 minutes. It is initially accustomed to eating close to 30 grams of Matzah for the Biblical Kezayis, although one may be lenient with 20 grams if he so chooses. One who is sick may even initially be lenient and eat between 9-17 grams of Matzah. In Matzah size: A Kezayis of 28.8 grams is equal to approximately ¾ of a machine Matzah and about ½ of a handmade Matzah [if there are 17 Matzah’s in a Kilo]. See Chapter 1 Halacha 2G-H and Chapter 3 Halacha’s 5-6 for the full details of this subject! The above minimum amount applies to all participants, although one who has a Seder plate is to try to eat two Kezeisim of Matzah, as explained next.[621] See Q&A below regarding distributing from the Matzah on the Seder plate to all the participants.

One who has a Seder plate-One Kezayis from both the top and middle Matzah:[622] [One who has a Seder plate, in which the blessing of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah was said on the top and middle Matzah, is initially to eat from both the top and middle Matzah. He is to eat the following amount:] Although according to the main opinion one is required to only eat a Kezayis from the middle broken Matzah [which is the main Matzah that the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah was recited over], while eating even a small amount from the top whole Matzah suffices [for the blessing of Hamotzi], nevertheless, it is proper for one to break a Kezayis from the upper whole Matzah and a Kezayis from the broken Matzah and eat both of them for the fulfillment of the Mitzvah of eating Matzah, in order to fulfill one’s [Rabbinical[623]] obligation according to all opinions.[624] [Regarding this matter, it suffices for one to take the smaller measurement of a Kezayis, which is between 9-11 grams of Matzah, from the upper whole Matzah if it is difficult for him to eat 28.8 grams.[625] However, from the middle-broken Matzah one is to try to eat a full Kezayis of 28.8 grams.[626] See chapter 3 Halacha 5C.] This, however, is only initially required, while Bedieved one is Yotzei the Mitzvah of eating Matzah even if he only ate one Kezayis in total, as stated below. [between the two Matzos, or ate a Kezayis from only the top Matzah or only the middle Matzah, or even from other Matzah that was no on the Seder plate]. 

Eating both Kezeisim simultaneously:[627] The two Kezeisim of the top and middle Matzah [which is eaten by those who have a Seder plate, as stated above] need to be eaten together at the same time.[628] This means that he is to enter both of them into his mouth simultaneously.[629] Nonetheless, one is not required to swallow them simultaneously, and hence he may crush them with his mouth and at first swallow one entire Kezayis simultaneously and then swallow the entire 2nd Kezayis simultaneously.[630] [Practically, the ability to enter two Kezeim of Matzah into what amounts simultaneously only applied by Matzos of previous times, which was soft, fluffy, and flexible. However, by today’s hard Matzos, doing so is not possible, and hence one is the follow that which will be explained next.[631]]

If one is unable to eat both Kezeisim simultaneously:[632] If one is unable to [enter and] crush in his mouth both Kezeisim simultaneously, then one should first eat a Kezayis of the top whole Matzah, and only afterwards eat a Kezayis of the middle broken Matzah.[633] [Practically, the custom is to break off small pieces from both Matzos, and eat both pieces simultaneously, until the two Kezeisim have been consumed.[634] See Q&A!]  

Bedieved if one only ate one Kezayis:[635] All the above law [of eating two Kezeisim for one who has a Seder plate] is only initially required, however Bedieved one is Yotzei the Mitzvah of eating Matzah even if he only ate one Kezayis in total. This applies whether he ate a Kezayis of Matzah from only the top whole Matzah or from only the middle-broken Matzah [or between the two Matzos together, or ate a Kezayis from other Matzah that was no on the Seder plate].

Eating the Kezayis in one shot:[636] Initially, all participants are to eat the entire Kezayis in one shot. One is thus to place the entire Kezayis in his mouth simultaneously, chew it until it becomes crumbs, and then swallow the entire Kezayis together. However, Bedieved, even if the Kezayis of Matzah was eaten a little at a time, in many sessions, so long as the time of Achilas Peras, which is three Beitzim, did not pass from the start of the first eating and the end of the last eating, then he is Yotzei. [This amount is approximately 3-4 minutes.[637]]

 

Summary:

One with a Seder plate-Which Matzah is to be eaten and how much is one to eat? One is to break off a Kezayis from both the whole and split Matzah and eat a Kezayis of each at the same time. One is to enter both Kezeiysim into his mouth at the same time, swallowing one entire Kezayis at one time, and then swallowing the next entire Kezayis. If placing two Kezeiysim of Matzah in one’s mouth is not feasible, then one should first eat a Kezayis of the top whole Matzah, and afterwards he should eat a Kezayis of the broken Matzah. Bedieved, if one only ate only one Kezayis of Matzah, within 4 minutes, then whether the Kezayis was from the whole Matzah or from the split Matzah, he has fulfilled his obligation, even if he talked in between.

How much Matzah must be eaten by the other participants? They are each to eat 27 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. One is to distribute a piece of both the middle and upper Matzah to all the participants. [See Q&A]

Q&A

If one cannot place both Kezeisim of the Matzah into his mouth at once, should he eat pieces of each Matzah together until he eats a Kezayis of both?[638]

From the fact that Admur does not suggest this, but rather suggests that if one cannot eat both at same time, then one should eat a Kezayis of the whole Matzah first, we see that for whatever reason Admur negated placing less than a Kezayis of each Matzah together into ones mouth.[639] However, some[640] explain that if one is able to, then he should enter the Matzah piece by a piece into his mouth, chew it, and only then swallow it once he has the two Kezeisim in his mouth. Other Poskim[641] explain that the above ruling [that if one cannot place both Kezeisim into his mouth simultaneously that he should first eat and swallow a Kezayis of the whole Matzah, and only then eat the Kezayis of the broken Matzah], only applies if one plans to eat each Kezayis within a separate count of 4 minutes. If, however, one plans to eat both Kezeisim within a single count of 4 minutes [i.e. one Kezayis per two minutes] then it is preferable for him to eat pieces of both Matzos simultaneously, even though he cannot place the entire amount together in his mouth simultaneously. Other Poskim[642] write that one may eat the two Kizeisim piece by piece at a time, so long as one eats them both within 4 minutes [Pras]. Practically, the custom is to break off small pieces from both Matzos, and eat both pieces simultaneously, until the two Kezeisim have been consumed.[643]

 

If one did not eat a full Kezayis of Matzah from either the whole or the split matzah, but all together ate a Kezayis of Matzah with both of them combined, has he fulfilled his obligation?[644]

Yes.

 

 

Distributing the Matzah to one’s family and participants:[645]

As stated previously[646], prior to washing hands for Rachtza, a Kezayis of Matzah is to be prepared and distributed to all the participants who do not have a Seder plate with three Matzos [i.e. women and children], in order so they can readily eat the correct amount immediately after the blessing is said. This Halacha will discuss whether they are also required to eat a piece of Matzah from the Seder plate, and how the distribution process is to take place. [Ideally, and so was practiced in previous times, the Matzos for the night of the Seder we’re extremely thick and large, containing an Issaron worth of dough which is equivalent to 30 Kizeisim. This Matzah would then be used to distribute the Kezeisim of Matzah to all the participants, for each of the relevant parts of the Seder. It is for this reason that the middle Matzah would be baked extra-large, being that each participant must receive a Kezayis from it for both Motzi Matzah and Afikoman.[647] Practically, however, today’s Matzos contain no more than 2 to 3 Kezeisim and hence can no longer be used for the distribution of the Kezeisim to the participants.[648] This change of the form of Matzos has been around for some 250 years.[649]]

The need to eat from the Matzah on the Seder plate:[650] Those who do not have their own Seder plate, and thus will not be reciting their own Hamotzi on two whole Matzos for Lechem Mishneh, must fulfill their obligation of Lechem Mishneh through hearing the blessing said from one who has a Seder plate and is holding two whole Matzos. In addition, they must eat a piece of the Matzah of the Lechem Mishneh in order to fulfill their obligation, and it does not suffice to simply hear the blessing of Hamotzi and then eat their own Matzah that they already have. They are to be distributed pieces of both the middle[651] and upper Matzah.[652]

The order of eating: The participants who do not have their own Seder plate are to first eat from the pieces of Matzah that are distributed to them from the Seder plate and only then eat from the Kezayis of Matzah that has been pre-distributed to them. Those who are accustomed to recite their own blessings of Hamotzi upon receiving the distributed piece on Shabbos, are to do so here as well, and recite the blessing of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah on the piece that is distributed to them, and then eat their Kezayis of Matzah. [See Halacha E For the full details of the subject!]  

When is the leader of the Seder to distribute the pieces of Matzah to the participants?[653] The leader of the Seder is to distribute pieces of both the middle and upper Matzah to all the participants while he’s eating his own Kezeisim of Matzah. It is best for him not to delay eating his Kezeisim of Matzah until the distribution is finished and he is likewise not to delay the distribution until he finishes eating his Kezeisim.[654]

 

May one give a piece of his Matzah to a gentile guest?[655]

No. One may not distribute from his Matzas Mitzvah, which is the three Matzas of his Seder plate, to a gentile. It is a danger for one to do so.[656] [Other Matzah, however, may be given to a gentile.]

 

May one give a piece of his Matzah to a heretic Jew?[657]

Ideally, just ask the Matzas Mitzvah is not to be distributed to a gentile so too it is not to be distributed to a heretic. This especially applies to the Matzah of Afikoman.[658] Nevertheless, practically, almost all non-religious Jews today are considered a Tinok Shenishba, and on the contrary it is a Mitzvah to distribute Matzah to them and encourage them to fulfill the Mitzvos.

 

  1. Leaning:

One is required to lean upon eating the Matzah for the fulfillment of the Mitzvah. See Chapter 3 Halacha 3A-B for the full details of this matter!

Must one lean for both Kezeisim:[659] One who [has a Seder plate in front of him, and cannot eat both Kezeisim simultaneously, and thus] first eats the Kezayis of Hamotzi and then the Kezayis of Al Achilas Matzah [as explained in H], is required to lean by both by the eating of the Kezayis of Hamotzi, which is the whole Matzah [i.e. Kohen] [and by the Kezayis of Al Achilas Matzah, which is the broken Matzah of Levi].[660]

How to lean: One is to lean on his left side. See Chapter 3 Halacha 3C for the full details of this matter!

Must women lean? Women are not accustomed to lean. See Chapter 3 Halacha 3D for the full details of this matter!

One who forgot to lean: If one forgot to lean by the eating of a Kezayis of Matzah of Motzi Matzah, it is proper to be stringent and repeat the eating of another Kezayis in a leaning position. See Chapter 3 Halacha 3E for the full details of this matter!

 

  1. Eating with salt or other foods or liquids?

Does one dip the Matzah in salt?[661] Some communities are accustomed to dip the Kezayis of Matzah of Hamotzi and of Achilas Matzah in salt.[662] However, in these [Ashkenazi] provinces the custom is not to do so on the first two nights of the Seder [and so is the Chabad custom[663]].[664] [Nevertheless, one is to have salt on the table.[665]] However, during the other times that one eats Matzah through Pesach, the custom is a different in salt.[666]

Dipping in liquid: On the night of the Seder, one does not fulfill his obligation of eating Matzah, with Matzah that is cooked in water being that its taste has been nullified, and thus it cannot be dipped in hot water. Furthermore, Lechatchilah, one may not even fulfill his obligation with Matzah that is dipped in cold water, as the Matzah must be eaten plain. However, Bedieved if one did so, he fulfills his obligation. Furthermore, a sick or old person may be lenient to do so even initially if they cannot eat the Matzah otherwise. One however does not fulfill his obligation with Matzah dipped in fruit juice, even Bedieved, being that it removes the taste of the Matzah. See Chapter 1 Halacha 2I for the full details of this subject!

Eating/swallowing together with another food:[667] One only fulfills the Mitzvah of eating Matzah if he eats it alone without other foods. If he eats it together with other foods, then he does not fulfill his obligation.

 

What does an old or sick person do if he cannot eat hard Matzah?[668]

He may be lenient to eat Matzah dipped in water for the Seder night. One needs to dip a Kezayis in the water, and needs to make sure that the Matzah is not cooked and has not stayed 24 hours in water, otherwise he does not fulfill his obligation.

 

Dipping the Matzah in Charoses:[669]

The Rambam[670] and others[671] rule that one is to dip the Matzah of Motzi Matzah in Charoses. The Raavad and others[672], however, argue and rule that there is no point in dipping the Matzah in Charoses, and as the Ravaad concludes, “This opinion is nonsense.” The Rebbe explains the dispute as follows:  As is readily evident, all agree that at the times of the Temple one dipped the Matzah in Charoses, as Charoses helps one feel the redemption which is represented by the Matzah. However, after the Churban, since we already naturally feel the exile, if one were to eat the Matzah with Charoses he would not be able to fully feel the redemption represented by the Matzah, and thus the Raavad holds that today we do not dip the Matzah in Charoses. However, the Rambam holds that since the type of exile experienced in Egypt, will never be repeated, thus one is able to feel the redemption of the Matzah fully even with eating the Charoses with it.

 

  1. Talking:

Talking between the blessing and eating the Matzah:[673] It is forbidden to speak between saying the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and the eating of the Matzah [even of matters relating to the meal]. If one transgressed and spoke between the blessing in the beginning of the eating of the Matzah, then if he spoke of matters unrelated to the meal that he must repeat the blessing. [If, however, he spoke of matters related to the meal then he is not required to be blessed.] However, even of matters that are related to the meal it is initially forbidden to speak of them between the blessing and the start of the eating.

Talking while eating the Matzah:[674] Initially it is forbidden to talk until one finishes eating a Kezayis of the Matzah. Nonetheless, Bedieved, even if he spoke a lot in middle of eating the Kezayis of Matzah, between the different bites, he does not have to repeat the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah, and it goes without saying that he does not have to repeat the blessing of Hamotzi.[675]

Not to talk of matters unrelated to the meal from Matzah until after Korech:[676] One needs to beware not to talk of matters unrelated to the meal from the time that he says the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah until he eats the Koreich sandwich.[677] Nevertheless, if one transgressed and talked in between, he is not to repeat the blessing prior to Koreich.[678] [However, one may even initially talk of matters relating to the meal, so just to ask someone to pass the Matzah or Maror.[679]]

Stringency not to talk of matters unrelated to the meal from Matzah until after Afikoman:[680] Some are accustomed to beware not to talk of any matter unrelated to the meal from the time of saying the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah, until after eating the Afikoman.[681] Nonetheless, this custom is a mere superfluous stringency.[682] [Practically, the custom of Beis Harav was not to be careful in this matter.[683]]

  1. Maror:[684]

It is a Biblical positive command in the Torah to eat [a Kezayis of] Maror [within Kdei Achilas Peras] on the night of the 15th of Nissan. This Biblical command, however, only applies during [Temple] times when the Pesach sacrifice was eaten, however in today’s times [in which we no longer have a Pesach sacrifice due to the exile] the command is merely Rabbinical. The Mitzvah of eating Maror contains many detailed Halachos. The following Halacha is an overview of specifically the laws and customs relevant to eating the Maror during the section of Maror, and does not cover all its general detailed laws. For all the details of the command of eating Maror, and the bylaws of its fulfillment, see Chapter 1 Halacha 3 in length.

 

 

Kissing the Maror:[685]

Some are accustomed to kiss the Maror to show their belovedness of the Mitzvah.

 

  1. Eating the Maror immediately after finishing eating the Matzah:[686]

Immediately after eating the Kezayis of Matzah one is to eat the Kezayis of Maror.[687]

 

  1. The Kavana-Intending to fulfill the Mitzvah:

Upon eating the Maror one is to have in mind to fulfill the Rabbinical command of eating Maror. One is to publicize this matter to the attendants of the Seder, especially if they have little Jewish background. See Chapter 1 Halacha 3L for the full details of this subject!

 

 

Intending on the reason behind the Mitzvah:

At the time of eating the Maror, it is proper to have in mind the reason behind the command, in addition to the general intent of fulfilling the Mitzvah of Hashem.[688] The recorded reason behind the Mitzvah of eating Maror is that it commemorates the bitterness of the slavery in Egypt.[689] One is to have this in mind upon eating the Maror.[690] Regarding its spiritual effects, the Maror is eaten in order to help us feel the bitterness and disgust of evil.[691]

 

 

  1. What to eat, how much and within how much time:

Which Maror: Every person who has a Seder plate is to use the Maror on the Seder plate for the Koreich sandwich and hence after it is used, it is now lacking from the plate.[692] It is not necessary for all participants to eat from the Maror on the Seder plate, and any additional amounts needed for distribution should be prepared separately.

How much Maror does one have to eat? One is to initially try to eat 28.8 grams of Maror within 4 minutes. If this is difficult, then one may even initially eat 21.2 grams of Maror within 4 minutes. If even this is too difficult, then one may take 17 grams. Furthermore, some rule that one may even initially take only 17 grams worth of leaves, which is approximately one large leaf or two medium leaves. Both the lettuce leaves and horseradish combine to make up this amount, as stated next. See Chapter 1 Halacha 3I and Chapter 3 Halacha 5C for the full details of this matter!]

Using lettuce and horseradish: For the Mitzvah of eating a Kezayis of Maror, the Chabad custom is to take both the lettuce leaves and horseradish.[693] Both the lettuce leaves and horseradish combine to make up this amount and hence one needs to only take a combined amount of 28/21 grams of leaves together with horseradish.[694] [Accordingly, one can take a large amount of lettuce and only a small amount of horseradish for a combined 28/21 grams. This especially applies for women and children who cannot eat a large amount horseradish, that if they do desire to also take horseradish a minimal amount suffices.] 

Preparing a Kezayis for each participant: It is highly recommended for one to prepare Kezayis bags of lettuce for Maror on Erev Pesach, so they can be easily and speedily distributed during the Seder without exhausting any extra time. If one did not do so, then it is to be prepared and distributed at this time. There is no need for the lettuce leaves used for Maror to be dry.

Within how much time is the Kezayis of Maror to be eaten? Initially, one is to try to eat the entire Kezayis of Maror in one shot. [One is thus to place the entire Kezayis in his mouth simultaneously, chew it, and then swallow the entire Kezayis together.] If this is difficult, then one may be lenient to eat the Kezayis a little at a time but within the time of Kdei Achilas Peras [i.e. 3-4 minutes]. A child, and the sick and elderly may be lenient up until nine minutes. If at least 17 grams was not eaten within this time, then one has not fulfilled his obligation. See Chapter 1 Halacha 3J, and Chapter 3 Halacha 6 for the full details of this matter!

 

 

The Rebbe custom:[695]

The Rebbe would measure 4 large spoonsful of horseradish which he would then place in his hand and squeeze out their liquid to the ground. He would then roll it into a ball, and place it within 2 to 3 lettuce leaves. In addition, he would insert a non-grated piece of horseradish into it. 

  1. The Charoses:

Dipping the Maror into the Charoses:[696] Prior to eating the Maror it [was accustomed in previous times for it] to be entirely immersed into the Charoses.[697] However, practically, the custom today is not to dip it entirely, but rather to only partially dip the Maror into the Charoses.[698] [Furthermore, one is encouraged to only dip it in partially, and not dip it in its entirety in order so the Maror retain its bitter taste.[699]] Upon dipping the Maror into the Charoses, one is to beware to immediately remove it, and not allow it to soak in the Charoses. Likewise, one is required to shake the Charoses off from the Maror immediately after it is dipped inside.[700] [If one ate the Maror without dipping it into the Charoses, then he is to eat it again without a blessing.[701]]

Adding wine to the Charoses: The Chabad custom is to only add the wine to the Charoses at this point during the Seder prior to the dipping of the Maror, and not beforehand on Erev Yom Tov.[702] The wine used is from the wine that had spilled onto the plate from the [overflowing of the] four cups.[703] The Charoses is placed into the wine on the plate [rather than to pour some of the wine into the Charoses.[704] We are particular to add only some of the Charoses to the wine rather than its entirety, in order to keep the Charoses used for Koreich free from liquids.[705] All the above only applies when Pesach falls during the week. However, when Pesach falls on Shabbos, the wine must be added before Shabbos. Alternatively, one may make it on Shabbos into a very think batter, through placing a large amount of wine and making the mixture in the opposite order, which is defined as first placing the wine in the vessel and then the Charoses, and to mix it with one’s hand or with the vessel itself, through shaking it. This must be done in order to avoid the kneading prohibition.[706]]

 

Using the Charoses that is on the Seder plate:[707]

Initially, one is to use the Charoses that is on the Seder plate to fulfill the Mitzvah of Maror.

 

  1. The blessing:

When to say the blessing over the Maror?[708] After the Maror is dipped in the Charoses, one is to say the blessing of “Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Achilas Maror.[709]” The blessing is not to be recited prior to the dipping.[710]

Having in mind the Maror of Korech when saying the blessing:[711] Upon saying the blessing of Al Achilas Maror one is to have in mind to also exempt with this blessing the Maror that will be eaten by Korech.[712]

Holding onto the Maror:[713] One is to hold to the Maror with his right hand at the time of the blessing.[714]

Should all the participants recite the blessings of Al Achilas Maror to themselves, or should they fulfill their obligation with hearing it from the leader of the Seder?[715] From the letter of the law, it would be proper for everyone to listen to the blessing of the leader of the Seder and fulfill his obligation with him. Nonetheless, the general widespread custom is for the participants say their own blessing.

 

  1. Leaning:[716]

One is not required to lean upon eating Maror.[717] Nonetheless, if one desires to do so he may.[718] [Practically, the directive of Admur in the Siddur, and subsequent Chabad custom, is to eat the Maror without leaning.[719]]

 

The eating of the Rebbe Rashab:

The Rebbe Rashab would eat the Maror as if he was eating something sweet, however, two tears dripped down his cheek as he ate it.

 

 

  1. Koreich:[720]
  2. The Mitzvah-The reason behind Korech:[721]

The Siman of Koreich consists of eating a Kezayis of Matzah and Maror together, in a sandwich. The following will explain why this is done, and the reason behind why we first eat Matzah alone [i.e. Motzi Matzah] and then eat Maror alone and then eat the Matzah and Maror together.

The rule: A food which is Biblically required to be eaten may not be eaten together with a food which is only Rabbinically required to be eaten, and if one does so then he does not fulfill his obligation of the Biblical food. Similarly, neither a Biblically or Rabbinically required food may be eaten with a food which does not have to be eaten, and if one does so then he does not fulfill his obligation. The reason for this is because the taste of the required food gets nullified in the taste of the less required or non-required food.

Why today we must eat the Matzah alone without the Maror, versus Temple times?[722] Based on the above rule, in today’s times that the eating of Maror is only Rabbinical, if one were to bind a Kezayis of Matzah and a Kezayis of Maror together in a sandwich and chew them together, then he would not fulfill his obligation [of Matzah].[723] However, in the times of the Temple, when both the eating of Matzah and also Maror were a Biblical obligation, one would fulfill his obligation of both Matzah and Maror through eating them together in a sandwich.[724] Furthermore, according to the opinion of Hillel the elder, [in the times of the Temple] one would not fulfill his Biblical obligation [of eating Matzah or Maror] unless he binds a Kezayis of the Pesach lamb, a Kezayis of Maror and a Kezayis of Matzah together, and eats them together.[725] However, in today’s times when the eating of Maror is only Rabbinical while the eating of Matzah is Biblical, even according to Hillel, one would not fulfill his obligation of Matzah if he bound them together and ate them. Accordingly, one is obligated today to first eat a Kezayis of Matzah alone without Maror in order to fulfill his Biblical obligation.[726]

Why today we must first eat the Maror alone without Matzah and then again eat the Matzah and Maror together in Koreich:[727] [There are two opinions regarding how the Mitzvah of Maror was to be fulfilled in the times of the Temple, and it is due to this that there exists two forms of eating Maror during the Seder, one without Matzah and the second with Matzah, known as Koreich. According to Hillel, in Temple times one would only fulfill his obligation of Maror if he bound it together with Matzah and ate it together, as explained above.] Therefore, according to his opinion, even today one does not fulfill his obligation of eating Maror unless he takes another Kezayis of Matzah and binds it together with a Kezayis of Maror and eats them together.[728] [Hence, in his opinion, after eating the Matzah alone without the Maror, as explained above, one is to then immediately eat the Maror with the Matzah.] However, the colleagues of Hillel argue on him and rule that even in the times of the Temple there existed no obligation, neither Biblical or Rabbinical, to eat the Maror together with the Matzah at all [and rather it was only voluntary], and so too today during the times of Rabbinical Maror there is no obligation to do so. Now, according to their opinion, if one first eats a Kezayis of Maror alone and then eats a sandwich of a Kezayis of Maror bound with a Kezayis of Matzah, then he does not fulfill his obligation of Maror with this eating.[729] Now, since there was no arbitration and final ruling given in this dispute neither like Hillel or his colleagues, therefore in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to both opinions a person needs to first eat a Kezayis of the Matzah alone and say the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah [and have in mind the Matzah of Koreich as Hillel requires], as even according to Hillel he fulfills his Biblical obligation with this Kezayis of Matzah. Then he needs to eat a Kezayis of Maror alone without Matzah, and say the blessing of Al Achilas Maror [having in mind also the Maror of Koreich as requires Hillel], as with this Kezayis of Maror he fulfills his obligation according to the colleagues of Hillel. Afterwards he is to bind a Kezayis of Matzah and a Kezayis of Maror together and eat them together in commemoration of the Temple eating according to the opinion of Hillel. One does not recite a blessing over this eating, neither a blessing over the Matzah nor a blessing over the Maror, as perhaps we rule like his colleagues that this sandwich contains no Mitzvah. Furthermore, even according to Hillel [one is not required to say a blessing as] he has fulfilled his obligation of the blessing with the blessing he already said over the Matzah and Maror. It is due to the above reason that one is not the speak between the blessings over the Matazah and Maror until after the Koreich sandwiches eaten in order so the blessings over the Matzah and Maror count also for the Koreich sandwich according to Hillel.

 

 

Summary:

Hillel is of the opinion that in the times of the Temple one only fulfilled his obligation if he eats the Matzah, Maror, and Pesach together. Therefore, according to his opinion, after eating the Matzah alone without the Maror one is to then eat the Maror with the Matzah, and only if one eats them together does one fulfill the Rabbinical Mitzvah of eating Maror. However, since his colleagues dispute his ruling, therefore we first eat the Maror without Matzah as rule his colleagues, and only then eat the Matzah with Maror as rules Hillel.

 

 

  1. What to eat:

Making a sandwich:[730] One is required to eat the Matzah and Maror together in a sandwich.

Which Matzah:[731] [Every person who has a Seder plate] is to use the third Matzah [i.e. Yisrael] for the Koreich sandwich. [One who does not have a Seder plate, such as women and daughters, is to have a Kezayis of Matzah distributed to them. It is not necessary for them to eat from the Yisrael Matzah of the seder plate, although technically, there should be at least two Rabbinical Kizeisim available in the Yisrael Matzah which can be shared with another participant for them to fulfill the Mitzvah of Koreich. After Motzi Matzah, there is no longer a need for the Yisrael Matzah used for Koreich to remain whole, and hence if it broke after Hamotzi, it does not need to be switched.[732]]

Which Maror: Every person who has a Seder plate is to use the Chazeres on the Seder plate for the Koreich sandwich and hence after it is used, it is now lacking from the plate.[733] It is not necessary for all participants to eat from the Chazeres on the Seder plate, and any additional amounts needed for distribution should be prepared separately.

Using lettuce and horseradish: For the Mitzvah of eating a Kezayis of Maror for Koreich, the Chabad custom is to take both the lettuce leaves and horseradish.[734] Both the lettuce leaves and horseradish combine to make up this amount and hence one needs to only take a combined amount of 28/21 grams of leaves together with horseradish.[735] [Accordingly, one can take a large amount of lettuce and only a small amount of horseradish for a combined 28/21 grams. This especially applies for women and children who cannot eat a large amount horseradish, that if they do desire to also take horseradish a minimal amount suffices.] 

 

Preparing a Kezayis for each participant:

It is highly recommended for one to prepare Kezayis bags of dry lettuce for Koreich, and a Kezayis bag of Matzah for Koreich, already on Erev Pesach, so they can be easily and speedily distributed during the Seder without exhausting any extra time. If one did not do so, then it is to be prepared and distributed at this time.

 

Drying the lettuce:[736]

According to the Chabad custom of abstaining from eating Gebrochts, one is to make sure that the lettuce used for the Koreich sandwich is dry. Thus, it is advised that one measure the exact amount of lettuce that will be needed for Koreich for all the participants and to individually dry them before. This should preferably be done before Yom Tov in order not to delay the Seder.

 

  1. The practical amount of Matzah and Maror to eat:

How much Matzah does one have to eat:[737] Every person [whether man, woman, or child who has reached the age of education] is obligated to eat a minimum of a Kezayis of Matzah in order to fulfill the Rabbinical Mitzvah of eating Matzah for Koreich. [Practically, one is to initially try to eat 28.8 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. If this is difficult, then one may even initially eat 19.3cc of Matzah within four minutes, which is equivalent to 10-13 grams of Matzah. In Matzah size: A Kezayis of 19.3 grams is equal to approximately 2/3 of a machine Matzah and about 1/3 of a handmade Matzah [if there are 17 Matzah’s in a Kilo]. See Chapter 3 Halacha 5C for the full details of this matter!]

How much Maror does one have to eat?[738] Every person [whether man, woman, or child who has reached the age of education] is obligated to eat a minimum of a Kezayis of Maror in order to fulfill the Rabbinical Mitzvah of eating Maror for Koreich. [One is to initially try to eat 28.8 grams of Maror within 4 minutes. If this is difficult, then one may even initially eat 21.2 grams of Maror within 4 minutes. If even this is too difficult, then one may take 17 grams. Furthermore, some rule that one may even initially take only 17 grams worth of leaves, which is approximately one large leaf or two medium leaves. Both the lettuce leaves and horseradish combine to make up this amount, as stated above. See Chapter 1 Halacha 3I and Chapter 3 Halacha 5C for the full details of this matter!]

 

  1. How to eat it and within how much time:[739]

Eat as a sandwich and swallow together: The Matzah and Maror of the Koreich sandwich needs to be swallowed simultaneously.

Lechatchila-Swallow both Kezeizim simultaneously: Lechatchilah, one should beware to swallow the entire Kezayis of Matzah together with the entire Kezayis of Maror simultaneously, while they are [chewed and] ground in his mouth.

If difficult: If it is difficult for him to swallow both Kizeisim simultaneously, then he may swallow some of the Kezayis of the Matzah and some of the Kezayis of the Maror simultaneously, and repeat this small quantity of simultaneous swallowing, until one eats the two Kezeizim, which is a full Kezayis of each the Matzah and the Maror. [This amount of two Kezeisim is initially to be eaten within 3-4 minutes. See Chapter 3 Halacha’s 6 for the full details of this subject!]

 

  1. Dipping the Maror of Korech in Charoses?[740]

The dispute: It is disputed amongst the Poskim whether one is required to dip the Maror of Koreich into the Charoses. Some Poskim[741] rule that one is not required to dip the Maror of Koreich into the Charoses.[742] Other Poskim[743], however, argue on this and rule that one is required to dip [even] this Maror into the Charoses.[744]

The final ruling and custom: The custom in these countries [of Ashkenaz] is like the first opinion [to not dip the Maror of Koreich into the Charoses][745], although the main opinion follows like the second opinion [to dip even the Maror of Koreich into the Charoses].[746] [Practically, the final ruling of Admur is that it is to be dipped in Charoses.[747] The Chabad custom is not to dip the Maror into the Charoses, but rather to place onto the Maror a slight amount of dry Charoses that is on the Kearah [that was not mixed with wine].[748] The custom is to then shake it off afterwards.[749] Only the Maror is dipped into the Charoses and not the Matzah.[750]]

  1. Does one need to lean when eating the Korech?

Men are required to lean towards their left side while eating the Kezayis of Matzah and Maror in their Korech sandwich. If one forgot to do so, he is not required to repeat the eating in a leaning position. See Chapter 3 Halacha’s 7 for the full details of this subject!

 

  1. Zecher Lihillel:[751]

It is customary in these provinces to recite prior to eating the Koreich sandwich that “Kein Asa Hillel Bezman Shebeis Hamikdash Haya[752] Kayam, Haya Koreich Matzah Umaror etc/So did Hillel at the time that the Temple existed, he would wrap the Matzah and Maror etc.”[753] However, the term Pesach is not mentioned.[754] Nevertheless, one who does mention it is has not lost out.[755] [Practically, in the Siddur Admur records the Nussach of Pesach together with Matzah and Maror.[756]]

  1. Talking:

Not to talk of matters unrelated to the meal from Matzah until after Korech:[757] One needs to beware not to talk of matters unrelated to the meal from the time that says the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah until he eats the Koreich sandwich.[758] Nevertheless, if one transgressed and talked in between, he is not to repeat the blessing prior to Koreich.[759] [However, one may even initially talk of matters relating to the meal, such as to ask someone to pass the Matzah or Maror.[760]] See A for the full details of this matter!

After finishing eating the two Kezeisim:[761] Some are accustomed to beware not to talk of any matter unrelated to the meal from the time of saying the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah, until after eating the Afikoman.[762] Nonetheless, this custom is a mere superfluous stringency.[763] [Practically, the custom of Beis Harav was not to be careful in this matter.[764]]

  1. Shulchan Oreich:[765]

How to eat

  1. Leaning:

It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to lean upon eating the meal. However, the Chabad custom is not to lean while eating the meal. See chapter 3 Halacha 7B for the full details of the subject.

  1. Being careful with Gebrochts:[766]

Aside for not cooking Matzah, and not dipping it in liquids, the Chabad custom is to be very careful to ensure that the Matzah does not come into contact with liquid, as will be explained:

Covering the Matzahs-Eating in bag: When Matzah is on the table with other foods or drinks, the Matzahs are to be kept covered to prevent water from falling on them, and to prevent Matzah from getting into the food [when one breaks a piece off]. [Due to this, many today are accustomed to eating the Matzahs in a bag. Furthermore, some are careful to not eat Matzah in the same course as other foods, as explained in the Q&A!]

Checking the cups/plates before pouring: Likewise, before pouring food or liquid into a cup or plate one is to check them to make sure they do not contain any Matzah crumbs.

Mayim Achronim: We do not wipe our lips with water during the meal, including by Mayim Achronim.

 

Q&A

May/Should one eat Matzah during Shulchan Oreich and may it remain on the table?

One may eat Matzah during the meal while eating other foods. This applies even according to the Chabad custom.[767] So was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab and Rebbe, who would eat Matzah while eating the soup during the Seder night.[768] The Rebbe Rashab would clean his spoon after each time he removed it from his mouth to wipe off any leftover Matzah crumbs, although this was his personal custom and was not a directive to the public.[769] There never was a custom in Chabad to negate eating Matzah during Shulchan Oreich, and it was simply not eaten together with other foods. Furthermore, one is to be particular to eat Matzah during Shulchan Oreich, in order for the blessing of Hamotzi said on the Matzah to exempt the other courses of foods from their blessing.[770] Nevertheless, some today are accustomed after Koreich to clear/change the tablecloth from the Matzah crumbs, and only then bring the other foods. This is especially done in homes with small children, in which it is virtually impossible to guard the Matzah from contacting liquids if it were eaten when other foods are on the table. Nonetheless, as explained above, one should not be particular against eating Matzah during Shulchan Oreich, as this causes those foods to lose their exemption with the blessing of Hamotzi, and they will now require a new blessing.[771] Thus, one is to periodically get up and eat Matzah during Shulchan Oreich, even if the table was cleared and one no longer brings Matzah to the table.

 

Practical advice for parents:

Being careful with one’s children that they do not get their Matzah into their food, or serving bowls, can be both stressful and infuriating. This can lead to destroying the proper Yom Tov atmosphere at the table, which certainly was never the intent of our Holy Rebbeim. One should be understanding and not be overly particular with the children in this matter, and as the Rebbe already stressed in earlier years that there is room to be lenient with children regarding Gebrochts. One practical advice that many people follow, is to simply serve Matzah before the other foods, and hence avoid the situation from developing to begin with. Nonetheless, as stated above, one must be careful to continue eating Matzah periodically also after this point.

 

May one enter Matzah into his mouth while chewing on other foods?[772]

Yes. Although, the Chabad Rebbeim were careful in this matter, it was not a directive for the public.

 

May one take a bite off a large piece of Matzah or is one to first break off bite size pieces?[773]

One may take a bite from the Matzah. It is not necessary to first break off a bite size piece. [However, from the aspect of the laws of Derech Eretz and meal etiquette, it is proper even throughout the year not to take a bite out from a piece of bread and return it to the table, and rather one is to break a piece off and enter it into one’s mouth, or remain holding it in his hand until he finishes eating the piece.[774]]

 

  1. Leaving the room during Shulchan Oreich:

Leaving for a short time with intent to return:[775] After Hamotzi and the eating of Matzah, it is permitted for one to leave the meal area and step into another room, or outside, for a short while, with intent to return and finish his meal in his original area. Thus, one may leave the Seder area to go to the bathroom, talk to a friend, for a short amount of time, and then return. It goes without saying that one may leave the area for the sake of bringing food and drink for the sake of the meal.

Leaving for a while with intent to eventually return and finish the meal:[776] [After eating the Matzah] one may not switch areas [for a long period of time[777]], even if he already ate the Koreich sandwich [and is now prior to, or in the midst of, the Shulchan Oreich meal].[778] This applies even if his intent is to return to his original place and finish the meal in, and recite Birchas Hamazon there.[779] This applies even if one’s intent is to help lead a Seder in another area for people who don’t know, and then to return.[780] This applies even if one had intent to do so at the time of saying Hamotzi.[781] This applies even if one was eating the meal together with others [i.e. Chabura] in his original area and they will wait for him to return.[782] However, if he eats some Matzah in the second area, then it is permitted for him to go there with intent to return back to his original area and eat more Matzah [i.e. Afikoman], even if he did not intend to do so at the time of Hamotzi, and even if he is eating alone.[783]

Leaving to finish the meal/Seder elsewhere: It is forbidden to leave the Seder prior to, or in middle of, Shulchan Oreich with intent to finish the meal and eat the Afikoman in the second area.[784] However, if one intended to do so at the time of Hamotzi, then it is permitted for him to eat the Afikoman in the second home, as explained in L.[785]

 

Summary:

It is permitted for one to leave the meal area and step into another room, or outside, for a short while, with intent to return and finish his meal in his original area. However, it is forbidden to leave one’s area of the meal for a long period of time. However, if he eats some Matzah in the second area, then it is permitted for him to go there with intent to return back to his original area and eat more Matzah [i.e. Afikoman], even if he did not intend to do so at the time of Hamotzi, and even if he is eating alone. It is forbidden to leave the Seder prior to, or in middle of, Shulchan Oreich with intent to finish the meal and eat the Afikoman in the second area.  However, if one intended to do so at the time of Hamotzi, then it is permitted for him to eat the Afikoman in the second home, as explained next.

 

 

Menu-wHAT to eat

  1. Eggs-Eating an egg during the meal?[786]

It is customary among some communities to eat eggs during the meal in memory of the mourning of the destruction of the Temple.[787] This applies for both the 1st and 2nd night of the Seder.[788] [Some are accustomed to eat the egg in the beginning of the meal.[789] Likewise, some are accustomed to dip it in saltwater prior to eating it[790], while others avoid doing so.[791] Practically, the Chabad custom is to eat the egg in the beginning of the meal, and to dip the egg in saltwater.[792] Some are accustomed to announce prior to eating it that they are doing so in commemoration of the Chagiga sacrifice.[793] Nonetheless, some Poskim[794] rule that one should abstain from explicitly mentioning that he is eating the egg in commemoration of the mourning due to the prohibition of Darkei Emori.]

Which egg to eat and how much:[795] The egg that is on the Kearah is eaten for the above purpose. [Some are accustomed to distribute from this egg that is on the Kearah to all the participants.[796] Others, however, write that each participant should eat a whole egg, and hence it is not distributed to the other participants.[797] Others are accustomed to specifically not use the egg that is on the Kearah, in order so the Kearah remain whole throughout the Seder.[798] This is not the Chabad custom.[799] One is not to eat too many eggs.[800]]

 

  1. Fish:[801]

It is proper to eat fish during the meal. This applies especially if it falls on Shabbos.

  1. Wine and alcoholic beverages:

During Shulchan Oreich, one may drink any beverage, including wine, without restriction, until the eating of the Afikoman. This applies even if a new blessing of Hagafen must be said over the wine. See chapter 3 Halacha 8C for the full details of this matter. [Nonetheless, even during the meal one is not to consume too much wine and alcoholic beverages in order so he does not become drunk and end up not eating the Afikoman.[802] The Rebbe was accustomed to drink wine, but not to say Lechaim, during the meal in order so it does not appear that he is adding to the four cups.[803]]

Menu restrictions

  1. Roasted foods:

One may not eat roasted meat or chicken during the meal. One may eat roasted fish, or roasted fruits or vegetables, or any other roasted food that is not meat or fowl. See Chapter Halacha 2 for the full details of this subject!

  1. The Zeroa:[804]

It is forbidden to eat the Zeroa on the night of the Seder being that it is roasted, and it is forbidden to eat roasted meat on this night. See Chapter 2 Halacha 1E!

  1. Dipping foods during the meal [i.e. saltwater, gravy, wine, Charoses, salad dressing, etc]:[805]

Some are accustomed not to eat on this night of the seder any dipped food aside for the two foods already dipped earlier, which are: 1) the dipping of the Karpas into the saltwater which was done prior to the reading of the Haggadah, and 2) the dipping of the Maror into the Charoses.[806] [Accordingly, during Shulchan Oreich, or any other time of the Seder, one should not dip his Matzah into Charoses, wine, or any other food, even if there is no issue of Gebrochts. Likewise, one should not dip vegetables, or chicken, and meat into gravy, rather pour the gravy over it. It is for this reason that some are accustomed specifically not to dip the egg in saltwater. Practically, the Chabad custom is to do so as explained in Halacha A.]

 

Summary:

Some have a custom not to dip any foods during the meal.

 

  1. Not to eat too much prior to Afikoman:[807]

One must beware not to eat or drink too much during this meal in order to retain an appetite for the Afikoman.[808] [In the Siddur, Admur rules that one is to eat and drink as necessary. This is coming to teach us that: 1) He is specifically to eat to the point of satiation, so the Afikoman which is eating in commemoration of the Pesach sacrifice is eating on a satiated stomach. 2) That one should not eat too much, as stated above.[809] It is due to the above reason that one should not fill up in eating the eggs in the beginning of the meal.[810] The above restriction applies both to the first and 2nd night of the Seder.[811]]  

The law if one did eat too much:[812] If one ate too much and therefore does not have any desire at all to eat the Afikoman, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation through eating it. However, if he is so satiated to the point that he is repulsed by further eating due to his great satiation, then he does not fulfill his obligation even if he forces himself to eat it, as an Achila Gasa of this level is not considered a form of eating at all.

 

  1. Nuts, apples, pears, lettuce or horseradish:

After the completion of Koreich, it is permitted even in the Diaspora for one to eat from the ingredients of the Charoses [i.e. nuts, apples, pears], and Maror [lettuce or horseradish], without restriction. See our corresponding Sefer “The Laws and Customs of Pesach” Chapter 10 Halacha 9C for the full details of this subject.

  1. Leaving to finish the meal/Seder elsewhere:

It is forbidden to leave the Seder prior to, or in middle of, Shulchan Oreich with intent to finish the meal and eat the Afikoman in the second area.[813] However, if one intended to do so at the time of Hamotzi, then it is permitted for him to finish the meal and eat the Afikoman in the second home, as explained in the next Halacha.[814]

 

The last drink-Making sure to drink enough:[815]

Being that it is forbidden to eat or drink after the Afikoiman, one is to make sure to drink enough within the meal prior to eating the Afikomen.

 

Learning Miseches Pesachim:[816]

It is proper to study Miseches Pesachim during the meal, prior to Birchas Hamazon.

 

  1. Tzafun/Afikoman:[817]
  2. The Mitzvah and obligation:

After the meal, every person is required to eat a Kezayis of Matzah, known as Afikoman. [This obligation includes also women, and children who are above the age of Chinuch.[818]]

 

Stealing the Afikoman on the night of the Seder:

Some communities are accustomed to have the children steal the Afikoman on the night of the Seder and hold it ransom until the father redeems it with a promissory gift of some kind. Other communities, however, specifically avoid doing so due to resemblance of the stealing prohibition, and so is the Chabad custom to avoid this Minhag. See Halacha 6B for the full details of this subject!

 

Segulos with the Afikoman:[819]

Some are accustomed to save some of the leftover Matzah of the Afikomen as a Segulah for protection. They place the piece of Matzah in their pocket during travel for protection, and if they enter into a storm while on ship, they throw a piece into the waters in order to calm the waters down. 

 

 

 

Sparks of Chassidus-Driving away the hidden evil:

The Rebbe Maharash explains that the reason why the Matzah for Afikoman is hidden is because it represents the driving away the level of Ra’ah Hanelam, which is the evil inclination which is subconsciously hidden within people and not recognized even by them. 

 

  1. Background of the Mitzvah: What it commemorates, why it is eaten after Shulchan Oreich, and the meaning of the word Afikoman:[820]

The eating of the Afikoman is done in commemoration of the Pesach sacrifice that was eaten in Temple times.[821] The following is the background of this custom and the Rabbinical institution to eat it the end of the meal after Shulchan Oreich.

The Pesach offering was eaten at the end of the meal:[822] In Temple times the Pesach sacrifice was eaten at the end of the meal in order so it be eaten with satiation, which means that the Pesach sacrifice would be the conclusion of all ones satiated eating in order so one receive pleasure from the eating and it be considered important to him.[823]

The term Afikoman-The prohibition to eat other foods after the Karban Pesach:[824] The Mishneh[825] states that it is forbidden to be Maftir after the Afikomen. This means that one should not conclude the eating of the Pesach sacrifice with Afikomen.[826] (The term Afikoman means to bring Mezonos and food to the table.[827]) Thus [the phrase of “We are not Maftir after eating the Pesach with an Afikoman”] means to say that after eating the Pesach lamb we do not eat any type or form of food or produce that exists in the world.[828]

The Mitzvah of eating Matzah today as Afikoman:[829] Today that we no longer have the Pesach sacrifice, every person is required to eat a Kezayis of Matzah in commemoration of the Karban Pesach. This is an addition to the Matzah that was eaten for the sake fulfilling the Mitzvah of eating Matzah. This Kezayis of Matzah is required to be eaten after the conclusion of the meal just as was done with the Pesach sacrifice. Furthermore, one may not eat any food afterword’s just like the Pesach sacrifice. This Kezayis of Matzah is formally called the Afikoman. [Accordingly, while in previous times the term Afikoman referred to the bringing of foods/desserts to the table after the Karban Pesach, which was not allowed, today the actual Matzah is referred to as the Afikoman.[830]]

 

No Blessing:[831]

A blessing is not recited over the eating of the Afikomen.[832]

 

  1. Eating the Matzah with an appetite?[833]

Although as stated in the previous Halacha one is to eat the Afikoman at the end of the meal, nonetheless one must beware not to eat or drink too much during this meal in order to retain an appetite for the Afikoman. If one was full and forced himself to eat the Afikoman he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation Bedieved. However, if he is full to the point that he is disgusted by the eating, then he does not fulfill his obligation. See Halacha 12J for the full details of this matter!

 

  1. How much Matzah does one have to eat for the Afikoman, and within how much time?[834]

The minimum-A Kezayis:[835] Every person [whether man, woman, or child who has reached the age of education] is obligated to eat a minimum of a Kezayis of Matzah in order to fulfill the Rabbinical Mitzvah of eating Matzah for Afikoman. [Practically, one is to initially try to eat 28.8 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. If this is difficult, then one may even initially eat 19.3cc of Matzah within four minutes, which is equivalent to 10-13 grams of Matzah. In Matzah size: A Kezayis of 19.3 grams is equal to approximately 2/3 of a machine Matzah and about 1/3 of a handmade Matzah [if there are 17 Matzah’s in a Kilo]. See Chapter 3 Halacha 5C for the full details of this matter!]

Lechatchila-Eating two Kezeisim:[836] Lechatchilah, it is proper[837] for one to eat two Kezeisim [within the time of Kdei Achilas Pras, which is 3-4 minutes], one Kezayis in commemoration for the Pesach sacrifice and one Kezayis in commemoration for the Matzah that was eaten with the Pesach sacrifice.[838] [Practically, so is the Chabad custom.[839]] However, if it is difficult for him to eat two Kizeisim, then at the very least he is not to eat less than a Kezayis. [Thus, women and children, and older men, may be lenient to eat only one Kezayis.[840] In such a case that one is only eating one Kezayis, one should have in mind that the Kezayis serve to commemorate whichever of the above two matters is ultimately the one requiring commemoration, whether the Pesach lamb, or the Matzah eaten with the Pesach lamb.[841]]

 

Within how much time to eat the Kezayis of Matzah:

As stated above, one is to eat the Kezayis of Matzah within the time of Kdei Achilas Pras, which is within 3-4 minutes. However, some Poskim[842] write that one should initially eat the entire Kezayis simultaneously. Furthermore, some write that one should initially eat both Kezeisim of Matzah simultaneously.[843] At the very least, one should eat each Kezayis within 3-4 minutes.[844]

 

Preparing a Kezayis for each participant:

It is highly recommended for one to prepare a Kezayis bag of Matzah for Afikoman, already on Erev Pesach, so it can be easily and speedily distributed during the Seder without exhausting any extra time. If one did not do so, then it is to be prepared and distributed at this time.

 

 

  1. Which Matzah:

Matzas Mitzvah:[845] For Afikoman one is to use a Matzas Mitzvah, which refers to Matzah that was made with specific intent for it to be used for the Mitzvah.[846] [In today’s times, all bakery Matzos with a Hashgacha for Pesach are considered under this category of Matzas Mitzvah.]

The middle Matzah of Levi:[847] The custom of all Jewry is to use the piece broken off from the Matzah of Levi during Yachatz for the Mitzvah of Afikoman.[848]

Afikoman got lost or fell on floor:[849] If the Matzah set aside for Afikoman became lost, then one is to take any other Matzas Mitzvah and eat it for Afikoman in its stead. It makes no difference if this Matzah is whole or broken. [The same applies if the Matzah for Afikomen fell on the floor, in which case the custom is not to eat it on Pesach[850], that one should simply take other Matzos from the box and eat them in its place.]

 

Distributing the Matzah to one’s family and participants:

On Erev Pesach it is proper for a Kezayis of Matzah to be prepared on behalf of all the participants who do not have a Seder plate with three Matzos [i.e. women and children], in order so they can readily eat the correct amount immediately upon Afikoman being reached. If this preparation was not done on Erev Pesach, then it is to be done now.

Distributing a piece of the Afikoman Matzah to each participant: In addition to the above Kezayis which is individually prepared for each participant who does not have a Seder plate, the leader of the home is to also distribute a piece of his Afikoman Matzah to all of the household members who do not have a Seder plate.[851] The piece should be small, as he must make sure that he retains at least a Kezayis of Matzah in his own Afikomen.

May one give a piece of his Matzah to a gentile guest?[852] No. One may not distribute from his Matzas Mitzvah, which is the three Matzas of his Seder plate, to a gentile. It is a danger for one to do so.[853] [Other Matzah, however, may be given to a gentile.]

May one give a piece of his Matzah to a heretic Jew?[854] Ideally, just ask the Matzas Mitzvah is not to be distributed to a gentile so too it is not to be distributed to a heretic. This especially applies to the Matzah of Afikoman.[855] Nevertheless, practically, almost all non-religious Jews today are considered a Tinok Shenishba, and on the contrary it is a Mitzvah to distribute Matzah to them and encourage them to fulfill the Mitzvos.

 

  1. The eating ceremony:

Walking around the table with the Afikoman on one’s shoulder:[856] Some are accustomed to wrap the Matzah of Afikoman inside a cloth, and then roll it down one’s back and walk around the house a distance of four Amos. While doing so they say, “So did our forefathers, when they walked with their bread bound in their garments positioned over their shoulders.” After this ceremony, the Afikoman is eaten. Practically, in these provinces this custom is not followed and rather the Matzah is removed from its cloth bag in which it was hidden and then eaten.[857]

Hanging the Matzah of Afikoman from a hole:[858] Some are accustomed to make a hole inside of the Matzah for the sake of hanging it. It is permitted to do so even on [Shabbos or] Yom Tov.[859] [Practically, it is not the Chabad custom to do so.]

  1. By what time does the Afikoman have to be eaten by?[860]

One must beware to eat the Afikoman prior to midnight.[861] [Although if he did not have a chance to eat it before midnight then he is still obligated to eat it afterwards.[862] Practically, the Chabad custom is to be particular in this matter to eat it before midnight only on the first night of Seder, while on the second night one can delay its eating until later.[863] On the first night, if one is in middle of Shulchan Oreich and sees he will not be able to eat the Afikoman before Chatzos then he can perform the following Tnaiy/stipulation to fulfill his obligation according to all:[864] As midnight approaches he is to eat a Kezayis of Matzah while leaning with intent to fulfill his obligation of Afikoman only if the ruling follows the opinion of Rebbe Elazar Ben Ezaria, but not if the ruling follows the opinion of Rebbe Akiva. He is then not to eat or drink until midnight. After midnight he is to continue his meal, and Seder as usual. Upon reaching the official Afikoman he is to repeat the eating of Afikoman according to all its laws, fulfilling his obligation if the ruling follows the opinion of Rebbe Akiva. By making the above stipulation he adheres to the warning to eat the Afikoman before midnight, and at the same time does not transgress the prohibition of eating after his initial Afikoman.[865]]

 

Advice for eating the Afikoman before midnight:

In order to facilitate the eating of the afikomen before midnight one should start the Seder right away as is anyways required and not take too much time on the various sections. However if it is already close to midnight and one is not yet up to the section of Afikoman then better than enter into a panic and anxiety over the fact that one will miss the time, and end up ruining ones Simchas Yom Tov, one should simply follow the advice brought above regarding the stipulation, to eat a piece of Matzah right before midnight and then continue the meal as usual.

 

  1. Eating the Afikoman in a different area than the meal:

Leaving the meal area prior to eating Afikoman to eat it elsewhere: It is permitted for one to switch areas prior to eating Afikoman, and eat the Afikoman, and recite Birchas Hamazon and Hallel with a Zimun, in the second area.[866] This, however, only applies if one had in mind upon saying Hamotzi to finish the meal [and eat the Afikoman] and recite Birchas Hamazon elsewhere.[867] If one did not have this in mind, then it is initially forbidden for him to switch areas until after Birchas Hamazon.[868] This applies even if he desires to eat the Afikoman in a second area for the sake of having a Zimun for Birchas Hamazon.[869]

Leaving in middle of Afikoman to continue eating it elsewhere:[870] One may not eat the Afikomen in two different areas.[871] [Thus, one cannot leave his area in middle of eating Afikoman and continue eating the Afikoman elsewhere, as it is forbidden to eat the Afikoman in two places.] This applies even if one did not yet eat a Kezayis of Matzah in his original place [and certainly applies if one already ate a Kezayis in his original place[872]].[873]

May one eat the Afikoman on two different tables?[874] Even when in the same room, one may not eat the Afikoman on two different tables, such as to eat some of it on one table and some of it on another table. [Rather the entire Afikoman must be eaten on the same table within the same room.] This applies even if one did not yet eat a Kezayis of Matzah in his original place [and certainly applies if one already ate a Kezayis in his original place[875]].[876] 

Leaving after Afikoman to say Birchas Hamazon in another home in order to have a Zimun:[877] Those who are accustomed to leave their homes and enter the homes of their friends for the sake of reciting Birchas Hamazon with a Zimun are performing a custom of ignorance.[878] In addition, doing so contains a prohibition if they leave their homes after eating the Afikoman.[879] Likewise, they cannot leave in middle of eating Afikoman and continue eating the Afikoman Matzah there, as explained above.

 

 

Q&A

May one walk around while eating the Afikoman?[880]

No, as it is required to be eaten in one area, on one table.

 

May one who ate on the table eat the Afikoman on the couch or on a different table that is within the same room?

Yes. It is permitted even initially to eat the entire Afikoman in a different seat, table, or on the couch, even though one did not eat the meal in that area, so long as it is all within the same room as where the meal took place.[881] This applies even if he ate Matzah during his meal, nevertheless, now that he desires to eat the Afikoman, he may eat it elsewhere in the room.

 

If one left to another area in middle of eating Afikoman, and then returned, may he continue eating it in his original area?

Seemingly he may continue eating it.[882]

 

May the Afikoman be eaten if it was removed to another room and then returned?

Yes.[883]

 

May one wash again and eat Matzah in another area after Birchas Hamazon?[884]

Some Poskim[885] rule that one is never to eat two meals on the night of the Seder, which is defined as eating Matzah a second time after reciting Birchas Hamazon. Other Poskim[886], however, rule that it is permitted to do so and one may even eat it in a different area or home.[887]

  1. Does one need to lean when eating the Afikoman?

Initially, men are required to lean [to the left] while eating the Matzah of Afikoman.[888] [This initially applies to both Kezeisim.] However, if one forgot and ate the Afikoman without leaning, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and is not required to eat another Kezayis while leaning.[889] [This applies even if one is able to do so.[890] Nevertheless, if one desires, he may re-eat a Kezayis of Matzah while leaning in order to fulfill his obligation according to all opinions.[891]] See Chapter 3 Halacha 7 for the full details of this subject!

 

  1. Eating and drinking after Afikoman, before Birchas Hamazon and the third cup:

*See Chapter 3 Halacha 8D for the full details of this subject!

Food: One may not eat any food after eating the Afikoman. One may however eat as much Shemurah Matzah as he desires, even after eating the initial Matzah of Afikoman.

Drink: One is not to drink any beverage after eating the Afikoman. According to Chabad custom, this applies even to water. However, in a time of need, one may be lenient to drink water or water-based liquids. If water, or water-based drinks, are not available, then in a time of great need one may be lenient to drink any non-alcoholic beverage.

  1. If one fell asleep during eating his Afikoman, may he continue to eat it?[892]

Eating alone:[893] One who fell asleep in the midst of the eating of the Afikomen and then woke up from his sleep, is prohibited from continuing to eat anymore Matzah on behalf of the Afikoman.[894] This applies even if when did not yet eat a Kezayis of Matzah for Afikoman.[895] This law however only applies if one is eating alone, as explained next.

Eating with a group:[896] The above law only applies when one is eating alone, however if a group of people are eating together and some of them fell asleep in middle of the eating of the Afikomen and they then woke up, then they are [all[897]] allowed to return and continue eating.[898] This applies even if they already ate a Kezayis of Matzah.[899] If, however, the entire group fell asleep and then woke up, then they may not continue eating any further. [Accordingly, by a typical Seder table in which there are many participants, even if one member fell asleep in middle of eating his Afikomen he may continue eating after he awakens. Those who woke up are not required to repeat the blessing of Hamotzi over the Matzah, although they are to rewash without a blessing.[900] However, those who slept a Shinas Keva, on their bed, are to re-wash with a blessing.[901]]

Definition of sleep:[902] The above law only applies if one actually fell asleep in the middle of the eating. If, however, one merely dozed off and then woke up, then one may continue the eating [of the Matzah for Afikoman]. [He is not required to repeat the blessing of Hamotzi over it, although is to rewash without a blessing.[903]] This applies whether one was eating alone and dozed off and then woke up, or whether a group was eating together, and the entire group dozed off and then woke up. Now, what is the definition of dozing off versus sleeping?[904] So dozing off is defined as one who is sleeping but not sleeping and awake and not awake. Such as if he is awake enough that if one calls his name he will answer, but is not awake enough to answer a question that requires some thought prior to answering although when he is mentioned the answer he immediately remembers. Such as for example, if he is asked as to in which area he left a certain item, he is unable to think and remember while in his state of dozing off as to in which place he left it. However, the moment that he is reminded and told that he left it in this and this place, he remembers and confirms it or denies it, and the like.         

Fell asleep prior to beginning the eating:[905] All the above only applies if one fell asleep after he began eating the Afikomen. However, if one fell asleep prior to beginning the eating of the Afikomen and he then woke up, then he may return to eat [other foods] as much as he wants and then eat the Afikoman afterwards. [Nonetheless, initially one is to beware not to go to sleep in middle of the meal, prior to finishing eating the Afikomen.[906] Those who slept a temporary sleep and then woke up are not required to repeat the blessing of Hamotzi over the Matzah, although they are to rewash without a blessing.[907] However, those who slept a Shinas Keva, on their bed, are to re-wash with a blessing[908] and repeat the blessing of Hamotzi if they ate alone.[909]]

 

Summary:

If one fell into a light doze, then he may continue to eat the Afikoman. Similarly, if he fell asleep prior to beginning to eat the Afikoman, he may eat it after awakening. However, if one fell asleep after he began eating, then if there are other members of his group which are still awake at the table, then he may continue eating upon awakening. However, if he ate alone, or all of the other members also fell asleep, then one cannot continue eating.

 

 

 

 

  1. Forgot to eat the Afikoman:[910]

Remembered prior to reciting Birchas Hamazon:[911] If one forgot to eat the Afikoman, and he only remembered after washing Mayim Achronim, or after already announcing that they will now recite Birchas Hamazon [or after deciding in his mind to no longer eat any more], then he is to eat the Afikomen at that moment. There is no need for him to repeat the blessing of Hamotzi over this new eating, and therefore he is to eat it without saying a new blessing.[912] Nonetheless, he is to wash his hands a second time without a blessing.[913]

Remembered after reciting Birchas Hamazon-Before drinking the 3rd cup:[914] If one forgot to eat the Afikoman, and he only remembered after reciting Birchas Hamazon, but prior to reciting the blessing of Borei Peri Hagafen on the [3rd] cup of wine, then he is to wash his hands (and recite the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim[915]) and recite the blessing of Hamotzi on the Afikomen [and eat a Kebeitza of Matzah[916]]. He is to then recite Birchas Hamazon after he concludes the eating, and recite the blessing of Borei Peri Hagafen on the [3rd] cup of wine after he concludes the recital of Birchas Hamazon.

Remembered after reciting Birchas Hamazon and drinking the 3rd cup:[917] If one forgot to eat the Afikoman, and he only remembered after reciting Birchas Hamazon and after reciting the blessing of Borei Peri Hagafen on the [3rd] cup of wine, then he is to drink the cup and rewash his hands [and recite the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim[918]] and recite the blessing of Hamotzi on the Afikomen [and eat a Kebeitza of Matzah[919]]. He is to then recite Birchas Hamazon without a cup of wine.[920] (Nonetheless, it is proper for him to pour a cup of wine prior to Birchas Hamazon and not to drink it immediately after Birchas Hamazon and rather recite the Hallel and Haggadah over it and then drink it [as the 4th Cup[.[921])

Remembered in middle of Hallel:[922] If one forgot to eat the Afikoman, and he only remembered after beginning the recital of Hallel, then if he is not particular throughout the year to recite Birchas Hamazon on a cup of wine, then he is to complete the Hallel and Haggadah and drink the [4th] cup, and then rewash his hands [and recite the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim[923]] and recite the blessing of Hamotzi on the Afikomen [and eat a Kebeitza of Matzah[924]]. He is to then recite Birchas Hamazon without a cup of wine.[925] If he is particular throughout the year to recite Birchas Hamazon on a cup of wine, then see the footnote for the exact order that he should follow in this case.[926]

Remembered after the concluding blessing of Hallel:[927] If one forgot to eat the Afikoman, and he only remembered after reciting Hashem’s name in the concluding blessing of the recital of Hallel, then he is to complete the concluding blessing and drink the [4th] cup of wine, and then rewash his hands [and recite the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim[928]] and recite the blessing of Hamotzi on the Afikomen [and eat a Kebeitza of Matzah[929]]. He is to then recite Birchas Hamazon without a cup of wine.[930] This applies even if he is particular throughout the year to recite Birchas Hamazon on a cup of wine.[931]

  1. Beirach:[932]
  2. The third cup of wine:[933]

After eating the Afikoman, one is required to pour the third cup of wine in order to recite on it Birchas Hamazon.[934] [This applies even if one is eating alone.[935]] (If one did not do so, he does not fulfill his obligation of the four cups [even if he pours and drinks the fourth cup after Birchas Hamazon].[936])

 

How to hold the third cup of wine during Birchas Hamazon:[937]

The cup is held from the beginning of Birchas Hamazon until the end of Boneh Berachamav. It is then put down and raised once again for the blessing of Borei Peri Hagafen. [This applies to all the participants, and not just to the person leading the Zimun.[938]]

 

  1. Rinsing the cup:[939]

By the third cup that one uses for Birchas Hamazon one must verify that the cup is clean from any leftover wine that had Matzah dipped in it. If it is not clean, then it requires Shetifa and Hadacha, or to be wiped down with a cloth, as explained in Chapter 1 Halacha 4H. Even one who is not careful in this throughout the year (being that from the letter of the law Birchas Hamazon does not require a Kos Shel Bracha), nonetheless must be careful in this on the night of the Seder. [The above requirement to wash the cup only applies if the cup is dirty with food, as stated above, while if it is clean and simply contains leftover wine, then it does not require any further rinsing.[940] According to Kabbalah, one is to always rinse the cup before Birchas Hamazon, even if it is clean.[941] Practically, the Rebbe was accustomed to have his Kiddush cup rinsed for Beirach by the Seder.[942] However, the cup was visibly dirty on the outside, having contained Charoses which was dipped in the wine.[943]]

  1. The cup of Eliyahu:[944]

It is accustomed in these provinces to pour an extra cup [of wine] in addition to the [four cups] of the diners. This cup is called the cup of Eliyahu. [The cup used for Kos Shel Eliyahu should be extra-large and beautiful.[945] The Chabad Rabbeim were particular to personally pour this cup and not delegate the duty to another.[946] Accordingly, the leader of the Seder should be particular to personally pour this cup.[947]]

When is one to pour the cup of Eliyahu: Originally, the custom was to pour the cup after Birchas Hamazon, prior to Shefoch Chamascha.[948] Practically, however, the widespread Chabad custom today is to pour the cup of Eliyahu before Birchas Hamazon.[949] It is poured prior to the pouring of the 3rd cup.[950]

 

What is one to do with the cup of Eliyahu?[951]

Some are accustomed immediately after pouring it to then distribute from this cup to the 4th cup of wine of each participant. Others are accustomed to wait to do so until after they begin drinking from the 4th cup and then have some of this wine poured into it. Others are accustomed to leave this cup of wine on the table covered until the next morning, when it is then returned to the bottle and used for Kiddush of that day. [The Chabad custom is unlike any of the above, and that rather after the Seder one pours the wine of the Kos Shel Eliyahu back into the bottle.[952] The participants sing the Niggun of Keili Ata of the Alter Rebbe upon doing so.[953]]

 

 

The cup of Eliyahu is the fifth cup:[954]

The four cups which we drink on the night of the Seder correspond to the four Leshonos of redemption from Egypt. The fifth cup corresponds to the redemption from the final exile. It is for this reason that we cannot consume the fifth cup, and it will only be consumed in the future after the coming of Moshiach. It is for this reason that even now we pour a fifth cup in honor of Eliyahu Hanavi who will proclaim to us the redemption.

 

  1. Mayim Achronim:[955]

Prior to reciting Birchas Hamazon, one is to perform Mayim Achronim has this done throughout the year. However, one does not place water on his lips upon performing Mayim Achronim. This applies throughout the entire Pesach.

  1. Zimun:[956]

There is no obligation for one to search for a Zimun for Birchas Hamazon [and rather if three men are present, it should be done, and if not, there is no need for him to go to other homes to gather people for a Zimun].

Who leads the Birchas Hamazon?[957] The custom is to have the person who read the Haggadah to lead the [Zimun and] recital of Birchas Hamazon after the meal.[958] This applies even if a guest is present [in which case one is meant to delegate the honor to the guest[959], nonetheless on this night it is to be led by the leader on the home]. Nevertheless, he may honor someone else to do so in his stead, if he so chooses.[960] [Practically, the custom by the Rebbe’s Seder was to have the person who read the Haggadah lead the Zimun.[961]]

Leaving the home for the sake of a Zimun: Those who are accustomed to leave their homes and enter the homes of their friends for the sake of reciting Birchas Hamazon and Hallel with a Zimun are performing a custom of ignorance.[962] In addition, doing so contains a prohibition if they leave their homes after eating the Afikoman.[963] Likewise, they cannot leave in middle of eating Afikoman and continue eating the Afikoman elsewhere.[964] However, it is permitted for one to switch areas prior to eating Afikoman, and eat the Afikoman, and recite Birchas Hamazon and Hallel with a Zimun, in the second area.[965] This, however, only applies if one had in mind upon saying Hamotzi to eat the Afikoman elsewhere. If one did not have this in mind, then it is initially forbidden for him to switch areas until after Birchas Hamazon.[966]

 

The order for Birchas Hamazon when there is a Zimun:[967]

The person who leads the Birchas Hamazon is to raise his voice by the words of Zachreinu Bo Letova, Zochreinu Vo Lebracha, and by the words Lechaim Tovim. When this is said aloud by the Mivareich, the congregants are to answer Amen after each stanza. However, Amen is not answered after the words Yichasreinu.

 

  1. Leaning while drinking the 3rd cup of wine:

Men are required to lean upon drinking the 3rd cup of wine as explained in chapter 3 Halacha 7B. Nonetheless, if one forgot to lean, he does not re-drink the cup, as explained in Chapter 3 Halacha 7E.

  1. After blessing:[968]

After drinking the first [of the four] cup, an after blessing is not to be recited.[969] This applies even if one drank much more than a Revius, and applies whether one drank wine or other beverages which are considered Chamer Medina.

 

Q&A

What is the order for Sheva Brachos that is taking place on the night of the Seder?[970]

Some Poskim[971] rule one is to recite the Sheva Brachos on the cup of the Chasan and the Zimun on the cup of the Mizamen. The order is as follows: The person leading the Zimun is to delay his blessing of Hagafen and the men then recite the seven blessings over the cup of the Chasan.[972] The cup is then returned to the Chasan, the leader of the Zimun recites Hagafen on his cup and everyone drinks their third cup. The Chasan drinks his cup entirely and it is not given to the Kalah, or anyone else, to drink.

Alternative options given: Some Poskim[973] rule one may recite first Hagafen of the Zimun and then the Sheva Brachos on the same cup [i.e. on the Chasan’s cup, and then have him drink it as his 3rd cup]. Alternatively, the Mizamein is to use two different cups and use the second cup as the 4th cup of the Chasan.[974] Others[975] rule one is to mix the two cups together and the Chasan is to drink it as the third cup. Practically one is to follow the first opinion stated above.[976]

 

If one is repeating Birchas Hamazon due to forgetting Yaleh Veyavo must he pour himself another cup?

The repeated Birchas Hamazon is to be recited without another cup of wine.[977]  Some, however, suggest that one should recite Birchas Hamazon over the cup and then drink it as the 4th cup.[978]

 

  1. Eating and drinking between the 3rd and 4th cup:

*See Chapter 3 Halacha 8E for the full details of this Halacha!

Food: One may not eat any food after reciting Birchas Hamazon. This applies likewise to the 2nd Seder which is observed in the Diaspora.

Drink: One is not to drink any beverage, including wine, after eating the Afikoman, or drinking the 3rd cup. According to Chabad custom, this applies even to water. This applies likewise to the 2nd Seder which is observed in the Diaspora. However, in a time of need, one may be lenient to drink water or water-based liquids. If water or water-based drinks are not available, then in a time of great need one may be lenient to drink any non-alcoholic beverage.

Finishing the 3rd cup of wine:[979] Although it is forbidden to drink more wine after the 3rd cup, nevertheless, one may drink the entire 3rd cup even if it contains much more than a Revius of wine.[980] This applies even if he stops many times in middle of drinking the cup [although still intends to continue drinking, and thus drinks the cup of wine in several gulps].[981] It applies even if he will delay more than Achilas Peras [i.e. 4 minutes] from the start of the first gulp until the last gulp.[982] Nevertheless, if the cup holds a very large amount of wine [to the point that he can get drunk] then he should not drink it entirely, in order so he does not get drunk.[983] Furthermore, the above allowance to drink the cup of wine in intervals only applies so long as one did not decide to end his drinking in middle. However, if after drinking the majority of a Revius or more of the wine, one decided not to drink anymore, and then changed his mind to drink more from it, then it is forbidden for one to continue drinking from the wine of the third cup, even if the cup is small.[984] This applies even if the 3rd cup is not of wine but rather of other beverages which are Chamer Medina, nevertheless one may not drink any more from it once he decides to stop drinking.[985]

 

  1. Shefoch Chamascha:[986]

The custom is to recite Shefoch Chamascha prior to reciting Lo Lanu.[987]

  1. Pouring the 4th cup of wine:[988]

After drinking the 3rd cup for Birchas Hamazon, one is required to pour a fourth cup to complete the Hallel and Haggadah with it.[989] [It is not customary to hold the cup neither during Shefoch Chamascha, or later on by Hallel.]

  1. Opening the doors by Shefoch Chamascha:[990]

Prior to reciting Shefoch Chamascha the door is opened in order to remember that this night is a night that G-d guards and protects us, and we are thus not scared of anything. In merit of this faith, Moshiach will come, and G-d will then pour his wrath on the Gentiles. [Shefoch Chamascha is very auspicious time to ask Hashem for one’s requests.[991] The Chabad custom is to open all the doors leading to the public area, or to the courtyard, prior to saying Shefoch Chamascha. The Chabad custom when Pesach falls during the week, is to bring lit candles to the doorway. Only the emissaries who carry the candles and open the door go to the doorway to say it there, while the remaining participants say it by the Seder table.[992] Some Poskim[993] rule that the prayer of Shefoch Chamascha is to be said in a standing position. Practically, however, the Chabad custom is to recite it even sitting.[994] Some are accustomed to reciting Baruch Haba upon opening the door.[995] When the emissaries return from the door, the participants are to then begin Lo Lanu in unison.[996] The custom is to close the door after Shefoch Chamascha.[997]]

 

Requesting to be a Mentch:[998]

The Rebbe Rashab once related to his son the Rebbe Rayatz that throughout the Seder one needs to concentrate on being a Mentch, and by doing so Hashem will help [him accomplish this]. One is to specially focus on this matter when the doors are open for Shefoch Chamascha. One is to ask for spiritual things and not focus on materialism.

 

 

  1. Leaving one’s doors unlocked throughout the night:[999]

Some communities have the custom not to lock the doors of the home in which they will be sleeping in on the night of Pesach, being that it is a night guarded for all the Jewish people for all their generations for G-d to take them out of this exile. [We thus leave the door unlocked], as if Eliyahu will come, he will find an open door and we will hastily go to greet him. We believe in this, and this faith carries with it a great reward. Nevertheless, if robbers are common in one’s area, then one should not rely on a miracle [and leave his door open]. [By the Rebbe Maharash, indeed the door was left unlocked, and at times was even left open. However, by the Rebbe the door was closed and at times even locked.[1000]]

  1. Hallel & Nirtza:[1001]
  2. Completing Hallel:

After drinking the 3rd cup for Birchas Hamazon, one completes the Hallel and Haggadah. [On the night of the Seder the custom is to split the Hallel, and recite the first half, up until Lo Lanu, during Maggid and then to complete the second half by Hallel Nirtza.[1002]] The Hallel begins from Lo Lanu and is recited from there until the end.[1003] It is recited without a blessing.[1004]

 

Speaking during Hallel:[1005]

One is not to speak in middle of Hallel until its completion, with exception to words of Torah.

 

Matzah on table:[1006]

Some write that one should have a piece of Matzah remain on the table while completing the Hallel.

 

The Rebbe’s Hallel:[1007]

While throughout the Haggadah, the Rebbe was accustomed to say it quietly and inconspicuously, starting from Hallel, the Rebbe would say it aloud and with a lot of fervor and Dveikus. Often, tears would fall from the Rebbe’s eyes.

 

 

  1. Zimun for Hallel:[1008]

It is a Mitzvah to seek a Zimun for the recital of Hallel in order to recite Hodu with three people.[1009] This, however, only applies by Hodu recited in the [long] Hallel. However, the [short stanza Hallel] known as Hallel Hagadol it does not require a Zimun at all.[1010]

Who joins for the Zimun for Hallel:[1011] Initially, it is best to have three men above Bar Mitzvah join for the Zimun for Hallel. One can even have two people who ate in a different home join him for the Zimun. This applies even if they already read the Hallel for themselves, nevertheless they join a Zimun for Hallel. Nonetheless, one is not required to search for two other people to join him and he can suffice with his wife and children who have reached the age of education for them to answer after him.[1012]

Must one search for a Zimun for Hallel:[1013] Although one can have other people join him for his Zimun for Hallel, as stated above, nevertheless one is not required to do so. Accordingly, if there aren’t another two people with him in his home he does not have to search after a total of 3 people from other homes and may suffice with having his wife and children join, as stated above.[1014] [However, if he is eating alone or with only one other person, then seemingly he is required to search for another two people.[1015]]  

Who should lead the Zimun:[1016] The greatest of the three is to say the verses of Hodu while the ones younger than him [in stature] are to answer after him. However, the greatest of the three may give permission for one of lesser stature to lead the Hallel. He may even give permission for a child to lead Ana, and have him answer after him.[1017] However, one should not answer Hodu, and certainly not Imru Nah etc, after a child, and rather he should begin saying it himself and the child will answer after him.[1018] [However, a child may say Ana Hashem Hoshia Nah and have them answer after him.[1019]] However one may give permission to his wife to lead the Hallel, and have her say Hodu, and Vayomar Nah, Veyomru Nah, and have him answer after her and fulfill his obligation through hearing her say the above stanzas of Yomar Nah, Veyomru Nah.[1020]

How Hodu and Ana Hashem is recited with a Zimun:[1021] One person says to the other two that are with him “Hodu LaHashem etc” and they should then answer after him “Hodu LaHashem etc.” The same applies for Ana Hashem.[1022] [The Chabad custom is as follows:[1023] The leader of the Hallel recites Hodu and the listeners then recite Hodu and Yomar Nah. The leader of the Hallel then repeats the verse of Hodu together with the congregation. The leader of the Hallel then recites Yomar and the listeners answer Hodu and Yomru Nah Beis. The leader of the Hallel then recites Yomru Nah Beis and the listeners answer Hodu and Yomru Nah Yirei. The leader of the Hallel then recites Yomru Nah Yirei and the listeners answer Hodu. The four phrases beginning Ana Hashem are each recited aloud by the leader of the Hallel and then repeated by the congregation.[1024]]

Leaving the home for the sake of a Zimun for Hallel:[1025] It is permitted for one to eat the Afikoman and recite Birchas Hamazon at home, and then switch areas for the sake of reciting Hallel with a Zimun of three men, if they wish. See Halacha 14E for the full details of this matter!

 

 

  1. Sitting versus standing:[1026]

This Hallel may be read in a sitting position.[1027] Nevertheless, one is not to read the Hallel and Haggadah while leaning on his side and is rather to recite it with awe and fear.[1028] [This applies even if one is exhausted from the Seder and the late hour. Practically, some are accustomed to stand for its recital[1029], although this is not the widespread custom and is not the Chabad custom, and rather it is recited in a regular sitting position.]

  1. Switching areas-May Hallel be said, and the 4th cup drunk, in a different area:[1030]

There is no requirement to finish Hallel in the area of the meal, or to drink all four cups in the same place. Hence, it is permitted to switch areas after eating the Afikoman and reciting Birchas Hamazon, and then complete the recital of Hallel and drinking of the fourth cup in the second home.

 

Should an after blessing of Al Hagafen be recited if one switches areas after drinking the 3rd cup?

It is disputed amongst Poskim[1031] as to whether leaving to a different area after drinking a Revius of wine require its after blessing to be recited in its area. Accordingly, some write that one should first say an Al Hagafen after drinking the third cup, and only then change areas for Hallel and the 4th cup.[1032] [Practically, however, it suffices to have in mind to drink the 4th cup elsewhere upon saying Hagafen on the 3rd cup, and then to simply recite the after blessing after the 4th cup, just as we rule regarding one who leaves in middle of Birchas Hamazon to finish the meal elsewhere.]

 

  1. By when must Hallel be completed?[1033]

Initially, it is proper for one to hurry himself to complete the Hallel after Birchas Hamazon prior to midday. [Practically, the Chabad custom is not to be particular in this matter and the Hallel may even initially be recited after midnight.[1034]]

 

  1. Hallel Hagadol:[1035]

One is required to recite Hallel Hagadol over [the 4th cup of wine], which is from [Tehillim 136:1] “Hodu LaHashem Ki Tov”, until [the start of] Al Naaros Bavel, which includes 26 stanzas of “Ki Leolam Chasdo.” One does not say the Mizmor of Ranenu Tzadikim.[1036] (However, some Poskim[1037] rule that one is to recite from [Tehillim 135:1] Hallelukah Hallelul Es Sheim Hashem until [the start of] Al Naaros Bavel, and so is the custom today.) [Practically, in the Siddur Admur writes like the former custom, and so is the Chabad custom today.]

When to say the Hallel Hagadol:[1038] Different customs exist in regard to when the Hallel Hagadol is to be recited. Some recite it in the middle of Birchas Hashir, after reciting the paragraph above YeHallelukah, while others will recite it immediately after concluding Hallel. [Practically, in the Siddur Admur writes like the former custom, and so is the widespread Ashkenazi custom[1039] as well as the Chabad custom today. However, Sephardim follow the latter approach. See next!]

  1. Birchas Hashir:[1040]

Yehlelukah, Nishmas, Yishtabach: After Hallel, one is to recite “Birchas Hashir. Some say that this refers to “Yehalilukah [Hashem Elokeinu]” [which is said at the end of Hallel], and that one is to then conclude with Baruch Ata Hashem, Melech Gadol Umehulal etc.[1041] Others, however, say that it refers to the prayer of Nishmas, Yishtabach, and that one is to then conclude with Baruch Ata Hashem, Habocher Bishirei Zimra.[1042] Practically, the custom of the world is like both opinions. One first recites YeHallelukah immediately after Hallel without a concluding blessing, and then says Hallel Hagadol as stated above, and then says Nishmas and then Yishtabach with a concluding blessing as stated above.[1043] [This is the Ashkenazi custom, however the Sephardi custom is] to first say Hallel Hagadol immediately after finishing Hallel, and then to say Nishmas and Yishtabach without a concluding blessing, and then conclude with the blessing of Yehalilukah.[1044]

One who does not have a cup of wine:[1045] The above concluding blessing of YeHallelukah or Yishtabach was only established to be recited over a cup of wine. Accordingly, one who does not have a cup of wine is not to recite this blessing.

 

The term Nirtzah:[1046]

The term Nirtzah comes to say that one who completed the Seder properly is considered accepted and appeasing in the eyes of heaven.

 

  1. The fourth cup of wine:
  2. When to drink the 4th cup of wine:[1047]

Some Poskim[1048] rule that one is required to drink the 4th Cup immediately after completing the blessing of Yishtabach [as follows the Ashkenazi custom to conclude Birchas Hashir with Yishtabach] or immediately after completing the YeHallelukah which is said after concluding Yishtabach [according to the Sephardi custom], prior to saying any of the hymns which are accustomed to be said.[1049] Nonetheless, the custom in these provinces is not like this opinion [and rather they first say the hymns and only then drink the 4th cup of wine].[1050] [Practically, in the Siddur Admur rules like the former opinion that one may not make an interval between the end of Hallel and the drinking of the 4th cup, and rather immediately after concluding the blessing of Yishtabach he is to drink it.]

  1. Leaning:

Men are required to lean upon drinking the 3rd cup of wine as explained in chapter 3 Halacha 7B. Nonetheless, if one forgot to lean, he does not re-drink the cup, as explained in Chapter 3 Halacha 7E.

  1. After blessing:

After drinking at least a Revius of the cup of wine, one is to say an after blessing. [This after blessing likewise includes the wine drunk for the 3rd cup of wine.[1051]]

 

  1. Leshanah Habaah, Piyutim, Chasal Siddur Pesach, Sefiras Haomer on second night:
  2. Leshanah Habah Beyerushalayim:[1052]

After saying the after blessing on the wine, one recites “Leshanah Habah Beyerushalayim” [one time[1053]].

 

 

“Chasal Siddur Pesach”

In many Siddurim the Haggadah concludes with the hymn of Chasal Siddur Pesach. This was omitted from Admur in his Siddur, as according to Chabad philosophy, the message of Pesach never ends.

 

Pouring back the cup of Eliyahu:[1054]

After the recital of Leshanah Habah, one is to pour the wine of the Kos Shel Eliyahu back into the bottle. The participants sing Keili Ata of the Alter Rebbe upon doing so.

 

  1. Piyutim:[1055]

Many are accustomed to say Piyutim after the Seder.[1056] [These Piyutim are a tradition from generation to generation.[1057] Practically, the custom of the Rabbeim is not to say any Piyutim after the Seder.[1058]] Those accustomed to say Piyutim are not to do so prior to drinking the 4th cup, as the 4th cup is to be drunk immediately after Yishtabach, as stated above in Halacha 17.

Shir Hashirim:[1059] Some have the custom to recite Shir Hashirim after the Seder. [This is not the widespread Chabad custom. However, some are accustomed to say it, and so was the custom of the Rebbe’s father, Rav Levi Yitzchak Schneerson.[1060]]

Chad Gadya:[1061] Some have the custom to recite Chad Gadya after the Seder, as it speaks of the redemption from Egypt and the other redemptions from exile. [This is not the Chabad custom. Nonetheless, one is not to G-d forbid ridicule this hymn and one who does so is punished.[1062]]

C. When to count in the Diaspora on the second night of Pesach:[1063]

On the second night of Pesach one begins to count Sefiras Haomer immediately after Maariv.[1064] However, some Poskim[1065] say that those who follow mysticism should count after finishing the entire Seder on the second night in the Diaspora.[1066] [Other Poskim[1067] however negate this and rule one must count after Maariv, before the Seder, both according to Nigleh and Nistar.[1068]] Practically, one who proceeds to say the blessing and count immediately after Davening, is preceded with Divine blessing.  

  1. After the Seder:[1069]
  2. Eating and drinking after the 4th cup & after the Seder:

*See Chapter 3 Halacha 8f for the full details of this Halacha!

One is not to eat or drink anything, including water, after drinking the 4th cup, until morning, on both nights of the Seder. If he is very thirsty, he may drink water or a water-based drink, and if not available, then one may drink any non-alcoholic beverage. Some Poskim rule that once one awakens from sleep, he may eat and drink as usual even if it is before Alos Hashachar. However, other Poskim rule one may not eat or drink until Alos even if he awoke from sleep. Practically, one is to be stringent in this matter, unless one is very thirsty, as stated above.

 

  1. The obligation to continue saying the story of the exodus:[1070]

After the Seder one is obligated[1071] to discuss and deal with the laws[1072] of Pesach and the story of the Exodus, telling over the miracles which G-d has done for our ancestors, until sleep overcomes him. [This means that once one begins feeling himself dozing off, he may say Kerias Shema and go to sleep.[1073] Nevertheless, one who fights falling asleep in order to increase in the Mitzvah of saying the story of the exodus, is praised.[1074] One who finishes the Seder before midnight is at the very least to push himself to be awake until midnight.[1075] Some Gedolei Yisrael were accustomed not to go to sleep regularly on this night, and rather would fall asleep in their chair.[1076] Once one falls asleep, he is no longer obligated to continue saying the story even if he wakes up before Alos.[1077]]

 

 

 

 

  1. Saying an abridged version of Kerias Shema Sheal Hamitah on the 1st night of Pesach:[1078]

 [On the 1st night of Pesach] one only recites the first paragraph of the Shema and [then goes straight to] the blessing of Hamapil.[1079] If, however, one Davened Maariv in Shul prior to nightfall, then he is to repeat and read all three paragraphs on his bed. [On the 2nd night of Pesach, however, one recites the regular paragraphs as is said on every Yom Tov.[1080]] [The blessing of Hamapil may be recited even after midnight[1081], although may no longer be recited after Alos Hashachar.[1082]]

 

  1. Marital relations:

It is forbidden to perform marital relations on the 1st night of Pesach.[1083] This applies to the first night of Pesach; it is however permitted to be performed on the second night of Pesach.[1084] Some Poskim[1085] however rule that in the Diaspora it is not to be performed on the first two nights of Pesach.

Mikveh Night:[1086] If the night of Pesach is the night of Mikvah then one is obligated to have intercourse that night. [One who refrains from doing so is considered as if he is performing a Mitzvah as a result of an Aveira.[1087]]

Strong desire:[1088] Those who feel a strong desire, or are troubled by forbidden thoughts, it is better for them to have intercourse than to come to doing a sin.

 

  1. Mivtzaim Sedarim-Leading a public Seder:

A. May one begin the Seder prior to nightfall?

It is forbidden to begin the Seder [i.e. Kadesh] prior to nightfall [i.e. Tzeis Hakochavim]. If one is making a public Seder in an area that nightfall begins at a very late hour, and fears that people will not attend, he is to start the Seder early, after Plag Hamincha, through Davening Maariv, saying speeches, Pesach skits, and saying parts of Maggid, and then begin Kadesh after Tzeis Hakochavim. If this too is not viable, then some Rabbanim suggest making Kiddush after Pelag Hamincha and beginning the order of the Seder until Maggid. After Tzeis Hakochavim one is to begin Maggid and drink two cups of wine as part of the four cups. See Chapter 3 Halacha 3A for the full details of this matter!

  1. Until how late may one begin the Seder?   

One may not delay eating Matzas Mitzvah [of Motzi Matzah] past midnight. One who does so, enters into a question as to whether he has forfeited the Mitzvah, and he is hence to eat Matzah without a blessing. Thus, those who desire to begin their seder after the Mivtzaim Seder, must beware to at the very least eat their Matzah before midnight. See Chapter 3 Halacha 3B for the full details of this matter!

  1. Saying an abridged version of Maggid:

In the event that it is not possible or is extremely difficult to read through the entire Haggadah for oneself or those present then one is to recite in abridged version of the Haggadah including only those parts that are absolute requirement. This includes the following paragraphs:

  1. Avadim Hayinu until Harei Zeh Meshubach.
  1. Ovdei Avodah Zara Haya Avoseinu until the end of that discussion of Arami Oved Avi.
  2. Pesach/Matza/Maror,
  3. Bechol Dor Vador,
  4. Veosanu Hotzi Misham,
  5. Lefichach until Goal Yisrael.

See Chapter 4 Halacha 7A for the full details of this matter!

 

  1. Saying Maggid in language and way that the attendees can understand:

One is obligated to recite the Haggadah in a language that he and the people in attendance understand, as explained next. Each person is to tell the story according to the flow of his tongue. See Chapter 1 Halacha 1E for the full details of this matter!

 

Practical advice:

Create a game plan. Getting people’s attention for a lengthy period of time can be quite challenging. Review and prepare for the Seder beforehand, tailoring what you will say in a way that will captivate the minds of your audience. One great idea that many use, is to prepare a Pesach skit that will get everyone interested and involved.

 

  1. What does one do if he needs to lead more than one Seder, or plans to make his own Seder before or after the public Seder:[1089]

The following law deals with the scenario of one who desires to lead more than one Seder. Meaning, that in addition to his own seder he also desires to lead a Seder for others, and the question is hence raised as to the order that he is to follow.

Option 1: Do personal Seder at home up until Hallel, or until end of Seder, and then lead and conclude Seder by second area:[1090] One who desires to lead the Seder in many areas on behalf of people who do not know to do so themselves, can do the Seder in his home until after Birchas Hamazon and the drinking of the 3rd cup and then go to lead the second Seder.[1091] Alternatively, he may complete the entire Seder by his home and then go to lead the second Seder.[1092] He may then lead the Seder for the second home and recite for them all the blessings that they do not know how to say themselves, including Hagafen on the wine[1093], Hadamah on the Karpas.[1094] He, however, may not drink any wine in the interim, until after he completes Hallel and reaches his fourth cup.[1095] If he already finished his personal Seder with the drinking of the fourth cup, then he may not eat or drink anything at all.[1096] He is to read the entire Haggadah to them in a language that they understand, and recite for them the blessings of Matzah and Marror.[1097] He, however, may not recite for them Birchas Hamazon, although he may recite with them word for word, having them repeat each word after him.[1098] This order can be done many times in different homes prior to him completing his personal Seder. When one reaches Hallel and the last two cups with the group, he can either perform it with them or go back home and do the rest of the seder at home, and then return to the public Seder to conclude their seder for them, saying the blessings of the last two cups for them. However, it is forbidden for him to drink anything.[1099]

Option 2: Do personal Seder at home up until Afikoman, and then lead and conclude Seder by second area:[1100] One who desires to lead the Seder in many areas on behalf of people who do not know to do so themselves, can do the Seder in his home up until Afikoman if he had intention to do so when he said the blessing of Hamotzi over the Matzah. After having eaten the meal in one’s home, prior to the Afikoman, it is then permitted for him even Lechatchilah to go to another Seder to lead it there for them, and complete his eating of Afikoman, Birchas Hamazon, and remainder of Seder there. See Chapter 3 Halacha 9C for the full details of this matter!

Option 3: Lead the Seder on behalf of the public and then afterwards perform one’s personal Seder at home:[1101] One who desires to lead the Seder in many areas on behalf of people who do not know to do so themselves, can first do the entire seder at the public location, without eating or drinking anything, and then perform his personal Seder at home. Nonetheless, in such a case one must beware to at the very least eat his Matzah for Motzi Matzah prior to midnight, as explained in Halacha B.

Forbidden to switch areas between Kiddush and Shulchan Oreich:[1102] It is forbidden for one to do Kiddush in his home and then go to the other Seder before he eats Shulchan Oreich.[1103] See Chapter 3 Halacha 9D for the full details of this matter!

 

 

Summary of options to follow when leading more than one Seder:

1.       Do personal Seder at home up until Hallel, and then lead and conclude Seder by second area.

2.       Do personal Seder at home until the end of Seder, and then lead and conclude Seder by second area.

3.       Do personal Seder at home up until Afikoman, and then lead and conclude Seder by second area.

4.       Lead the Seder on behalf of the public and then afterwards perform one’s personal Seder at home, making sure to eat Motzi Matzah before midnight.

 

Practically, how is one to run the Seder by Chabad public Sedarim?

If one does not plan to do the Seder together with the public but rather prefers to do a private Seder afterwards in a different area, then the following is the order that should be followed:

Kadeish-Karpas: If they do not know to say the blessing themselves then one says for them the blessings of Kiddush and Hadamah to be Moitzi them for Kadesh and Karpas. However, it is forbidden for him to eat or drink anything.

Maggid: One then says Mah Nishtana and explains the Haggadah to them in a language that they understand. One explains those matters which must be said from the letter of the la, as explained in B. One says for them the blessing of “Asher Gealanu” at the conclusion of Maggid, although he himself may not drink the wine.

Moitzi Matzah-Maror: One recites the blessings of Matzah, Hamoitzi, and Maror for the congregation, although he himself may not eat anything.

Beirach: One may not read Birchas Hamazon for the public being that only one who has eaten can recite Birchas Hamazon on behalf of others. However, he may have them repeat after him word by word just as is allowed to be done when teaching a child.

If one plans to do his personal Seder in the same area, after the public Seder concludes: Then one may say up until Maggid together with the public, and from Maggid and on-words he is to continue the Seder for the public without eating, and after its conclusion he is to continue his own Seder from Maggid.

 

 

Supplement-What is one to do if he accidentally said a blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim by Urchatz?

  1. Background:

The reason for washing without a blessing prior to eating the Karpas dipped in salt water [i.e. Urchatz], is due to the general obligation to wash without a blessing prior to eating foods dipped in water.[1104] The background of this obligation is as follows:

Must one wash upon eating a food dipped in liquid and is a blessing recited?[1105] Some Poskim[1106] rule that it is a complete obligation to wash upon eating foods dipped in one of the seven liquids [and hence a blessing must be recited[1107]]. Other Poskim[1108] rule that in today’s times there is no longer a requirement to was hands prior to eating dipped foods [and hence certainly one may not wash with a blessing]. Practically, although the main opinion follows the former approach, nevertheless, Safek Brachos Lihakel, and therefore one is to wash without a blessing.[1109] Thus, upon washing for Karpas a blessing is not to be recited.

Is an unintentional washing valid for eating bread?[1110] Some Poskim[1111] rule that an unrequired washing is valid for eating bread. Other Poskim[1112] rule that an unrequired washing is invalid for eating bread. Based on this debate, it would also be debated whether washing for dipped foods can also later count for eating bread. According to the Poskim who rule that washing for dipped foods is a requirement, then it also counts for eating bread, while according to those Poskim who rule that washing for dipped foods is no longer a requirement, then it would be debated whether if such a washing would count for eating bread.[1113] Practically, we are stringent like both opinions, and hence one is required to rewash for the bread, but without a blessing.[1114] The above debate is only regarding if an unintentional washing is valid for bread, however, all Poskim agree that a blessing may not be recited on an unintentional washing.[1115]

 

  1. The law:

Initially, a blessing is not to be recited by Urachatz, upon washing for Karpas, due to it possibly being a blessing in vain.[1116] If one began saying the words Baruch Ata Hashem, and then remembered, then he is to conclude with the words Lamdeini Chukecha.[1117] In the event that one accidentally said the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim, the Poskim discuss whether anything can be done in order to save this blessing form being said in vain. The following is the ruling in the Poskim:

The apparent ruling from Shulchan Aruch: One is to [say Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso Leolam Vaed[1118] and] continue the Seder as usual.[1119] One is to eat less than a Kezayis of Karpas, just like everyone else.[1120] By Rachtza, one is to rewash with a blessing, before eating the Matzah.[1121] Some Poskim[1122], however, rule that it is proper for him to guard his hands from Urchatz until Rachtza, and then rewash his hands for Rachtza without a blessing.[1123] Other Poskim[1124], however, negate this ruling.[1125]

The Rebbe’s directive:[1126] On one occasion, during a Seder event in which a participant said the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim by Urchatz, the Rebbe directed him to immediately eat Matzah [i.e. skip to Motzi Matzah].[1127] This directive was later clarified in a talk of Acharon Shel Pesach of that year.[1128] In conclusion the Rebbe suggested the following possible option in such a situation:[1129] One is to right away perform Yachatz and Motzi Matzah, saying Hamotzi on the three Matzos, in order to save oneself from a Safek Bracha Livatalah. One then eats the Karpas [without a blessing of Hadama or first eats a Hadama desert food, such as a banana, and has in mind to exempt the Karpas and Maror, and then eats the Karpas[1130]]. One then continues with Maggid, Goal Yisrael and Maror. Thus, in summary the order according to the Rebbe is: 1) Yachatz; 2) Eat Matzah; 3) Karpas without Bracha; 4) Maggid; 5) Maror. This ruling is indeed puzzling in light of the Halachic background explained above, and it is unclear how it helps save one from a blessing in vain.[1131] While there is no debate that the Rebbe indeed instructed the above to be done at that time, some Rabbanim[1132] claim to clearly remember that on that very next Shabbos, the Rebbe disavowed his previous ruling, and said that in conclusion one should continue the Seder as usual, without eating Matzah right away. Thus, the Rebbe retracted from his ruling, and the final ruling of the Rebbe remains as brought from the Poskim above, that if one accidentally recited Al Netilas Yadayim by Urchatz then he is to continue the Seder as usual. Others, however, deny ever hearing of such a retraction.[1133] 

The final conclusion: The widespread custom of the world is to simply continue the Seder as usual as recorded in the Poskim and as plainly understood from the rulings in Shulchan Aruch. However, amongst Chabad Chassidim, some are accustomed to follow the initial directive of the Rebbe, and to immediately eat Matzah in such a case, and follow the order explained above. Others, however, follow the general custom, and acclaimed retraction of the Rebbe, and therefore continue the Seder as usual. In the various publications of Chabad Hagada’s, some have written like the former approach while others write like the latter approach, and each person is to follow the directive of their Rav.[1134]   

 

Summary:

If one began saying the words Baruch Ata Hashem, and then remembered, then he is to conclude with the words Lamdeini Chukecha. If one accidentally recited Al Netilas Yadayim by Urchatz then many are accustomed to [saying Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso Leolam Vaed and] continuing the Seder as usual [with washing again with a blessing by Rachtza], as is written in many Poskim. However, amongst Chabad Chassidim, some are accustomed to follow an initial directive of the Rebbe, and to immediately eat Matzah in such a case, and follow the order of 1) Yachatz; 2) Eat Matzah; 3) Karpas without Bracha; 4) Maggid; 5) Maror. Others, however, abide by the claim that the Rebbe later retracted from this ruling and hence follow the former, general approach. Each person is to follow the directive of their Rav.

 

 

Supplement – The Karban Pesach

*The laws below are based on the Rambam’s rulings in Mishneh Torah Hilchos Karban Pesach and the Alter Rebbe’s Seder Karban Pesach printed in his Siddur. For further reading on this subject, and to get a clear overview of all the details and opinions, please refer to the Sefer “Karban Pesach Kehilchaso” [2003] by Rav Moshe Zarger [Jerusalem]

  1. The Mitzvos:

There is a total of 16 Mitzvos related to the Karban Pesach, four positive commands and twelve negative commands. These commands involve the Mitzvah of offering the Karban Pesach as well as the Mitzvah of eating the Karban Pesach. These Mitzvos include:

 

Positive commands:

  1. Mitzvah 5/Positive 4: To slaughter the Pesach offering on the 14th of Nissan.
  2. Mitzvah 6/Positive 5: To eat the meat of the Korban Pesach on the night of the 15th.
  3. Mitzvah 380; Positive 151: For anyone who was unable to bring the Karban Pesach before Pesach to perform the Pesach Sheiyni on the 14th of Iyar
  4. Mitzvah 381; Positive 152: For those obligated in the Pesach Sheiyni to eat it’s meat with Matzah and Maror.

Negative commands:

  1. Mitzvah 7/Negative 2: Not to eat the Pesach lamb raw or cooked, but only roasted.
  2. Mitzvah 8/Negative 3: Not to leave leftovers of the Pesach lamb.
  3. Mitzvah 13/Negative 6: Not to feed the meat of the Pesach sacrifice to a heretic Jew.
  4. Mitzvah 14/Negative 7: Not to feed the Pesach lamb to a gentile [even] if he is a Toshev Vesachir.
  5. Mitzvah 15/Negative 8: Not to remove the meat of the Pesach offering from the Chaburah [i.e. group of people that it is being eaten with].
  6. Mitzvah 16/Negative 9: Not to break a bone from the Pesach sacrifice.
  7. Mitzvah 17/Negative 10: That an Aral [i.e. uncircumcised Jew] not eat from the meat of the Pesach offering.
  8. Mitzvah 89; Negative 53: Not to slaughter the Pesach offering on the 14th of Nissan while still owning Chametz in one’s possessions.
  9. Mitzvah 90; Negative 54: Not to leave the parts of the Pesach offering, and other offerings, that need to be offered to the altar, until morning. [i.e. Nosar]
  10. Mitzvah 382; Negative 230: The prohibition to leave any leftovers from the meat of the Pesach Sheiyni.
  11. Mitzvah 383; Negative 231: The prohibition to break the bones of the Pesach Sheiyni sacrifice.
  12. Mitzvah 487/Negative 286: Not to bring the Pesach Sacrifice on a private altar [i.e. Bama].

  1. Who is obligated?[1135]

Both men and women are obligated in this Mitzvah of offering and eating. [Those who are impure, or are

a distance away from Jerusalem, or are uncircumcised, or are a heretic, are exempt from the Mitzvah.[1136]]

  1. The animal:[1137]

Only a sheep or goat is valid for the Karban Pesach. [Majority of people brought a sheep, while a minority brought a goat.]

The gender: The gender of the animal is to be a male. If a female animal was separated, it is invalid.[1138]

The age: The animal must be older than one year of age. It must be younger than two years of age.[1139]

Appointing a group of people to eat the Karban:[1140] Each Karban had to have a certain amount of people appointed to it, to be able to eat it on the night of the 15th. Those who were not appointed could not eat from it.

The offering to the Temple

  1. The slaughtering:[1141]

Where:[1142] The animal is slaughtered in any area of the Azarah.

When: The animal is slaughtered after midday of the 14th of Nissan, and after the slaughtering of the afternoon Tamid sacrifice, and the afternoon cleaning/lighting of the candles. If it was slaughtered prior to the Tamid, it nevertheless remains valid, although one is to halt the sprinkling of the blood of the Pesach until the blood of the Tamid is brought. For this to be accomplished one must mix the blood to prevent it from congealing in the interim.

Treifa:[1143] If the animal was found to be a Treifa or a Baal Mum, one is not Yotzei and a new animal must be brought.

  1. Chametz:[1144]

It is forbidden to own any Chametz when the Karban is slaughtered. Anyone who owns Chametz at the time that his Pesach was sacrificed is liable to receive lashes.

  1. Offering the sacrifice:[1145]

The blood: The blood is sprinkled one time on the foundation of the altar.

The vessel used for the blood:[1146] Some lines had silver vessels while others had gold vessels. The vessel did not have a flat bottom, but was cone shaped, in order to prevent it from being put down and causing its blood to congeal.

The limbs offered: The following limbs are offered

  1. The fat that rests on the innards.
  2. The diaphragm of the liver.
  3. The two kidneys and their fat.
  4. The tail which rests opposite the bone.

 

  1. The order followed in the Temple:[1147]
  1. Passing the blood: There was a line of Kohanim standing who would pass the vessel of blood from one to the other until it reaches the hands of the Kohen closest to the altar, who would then sprinkle it one time on the foundation of the altar. The Kohen would then return the empty vessel through the line of people, until it reached the Kohen performing the slaughtering and once again became refilled. The Kohen first takes the full cup and only then takes the empty cup.
  2. Preparing the animal: After the blood is sprinkled, the animal is completely skinned and torn open. One presses its innards until all of its feces comes out. The limbs to be offered are then removed. The limbs are then placed in a Temple vessel and salted. The Kohen then offers each limb onto the altar. Each limb is offered individually.
  3. Hallel: Hallel is recited [by the Levi’im] while the animals are being slaughtered and offered to the altar. It is repeated until all the people in that group have completed their sacrifices.
  4. Cleaning the Temple: After all the sacrifices are brought, the Temple floor is washed from the blood. This applies even on Shabbos.

  1. The groups:

The Pesach was slaughtered in three groups. Each group had a minimum of thirty people.

  1. The order on Shabbos:[1148]

When Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, the Karban Pesach is nevertheless offered, as it pushes off the Shabbos prohibition. One slaughters the animal, throws the blood, removes the feces and offers the fats on Shabbos. However, any other matters involving the Karban does not push off Shabbos.

Bringing the slaughtered animal home: The slaughtered animal is not brought home on Shabbos. All the three groups remain in different areas of the Har Habayis until after Shabbos, when they then leave and roast their Karban.

Eating the Karban

  1. The Mitzvah to eat:[1149]

It is a positive command in the Torah for both males and females to eat at least a kezayis of meat of the Pesach sacrifice on the night of the 15th.

 

  1. When:

The meat of the Pesach sacrifice on the night of the 15th.

Not before nightfall/Tzeis Hakochavim:[1150] One does not fulfill the Mitzvah of eating the Karban Pesach prior to nightfall [i.e. Tzeis Hakochavim].[1151] Furthermore, if one ate a Kezayis of the meat prior to nightfall, he transgresses a Biblical command.[1152]

Before midnight:[1153] One is required to eat it to midnight.[1154] [If one eats the meat only after midnight, some Poskim[1155] rule he does not fulfill his obligation and has thus lost the Mitzvah. Other Poskim[1156] rule he can nevertheless fulfill the Biblical Mitzvah up until Alos Hashachar. Other Poskim[1157] rule that this matter is left in question, and hence one is to be stringent like both opinions, and eat the meat without a blessing. Practically, if one did not yet eat the meat and it is already after midnight, he is to eat the meat without the blessing.[1158] If it is already close to midnight and one did not yet eat the meat, he is to skip from wherever he is holding and eat the meat before midnight.]

When during the meal:[1159] The Pesach sacrifice is to be eaten at the end of the meal in order so it be eaten with satiation, which means that the Pesach sacrifice should be the conclusion of all ones satiated eating in order so one receive pleasure from the eating and it be considered important to him.[1160] However, it is also eaten at the beginning of the meal together with the Matzah and Maror.[1161]

  1. The cooking:[1162]

Roasting:[1163] The Pesach meat must be roasted. One who eats a Kezayis of the meat raw, or cooked, transgresses a Biblical command and is liable for lashes.

  1. How:[1164]

The blessing:[1165] Upon eating the Karban Pesach one is to recite the blessing of “Al Achilas Hapasach.”

Eating with Matzah and Maror:[1166] It is Mitzvah to eat the Karban Pesach together with Matzah and Maror. Nevertheless, if one did not do so, or if there is no Matzah or Maror available, then one nonetheless fulfills the Mitzvah.

How much to eat:[1167] One is to eat the meat to the point of satiation. At the very least, one is to eat a Kezayis of meat [within Kdei Achilas Peras, which is 4 minutes].

Hallel:[1168] Hallel is recited during the eating of the Pesach offering. Practically, it is recited after Birchas Hamazon.

One area and within one Chaburah:[1169] One may not eat the Pesach meat in two different areas, or with two different groups of people [people appointed over a different Karban]. If the meat left its area then it becomes forbidden to be eaten.[1170]

Fell asleep:[1171] If one fell into a light doze, then he may continue to eat the Pesach. Similarly, if he fell asleep prior to beginning to eat the Pesach, he may eat it after awakening. However, if one fell asleep after he began eating, then if there are other members of his group which are still awake at the table, then he may continue eating upon awakening. However, if he ate alone, or all of the other members also fell asleep, then one cannot continue eating.

Impure people:[1172] Those who are impure may not eat from the Karban Pesach.

May one give a piece of the Pesach meat to a gentile guest?[1173] No. One who does so transgresses a Biblical prohibition.

May one give a piece of the Pesach meat to a Heretic Jew?[1174] No. One who does so transgresses a Biblical prohibition.

May one give a piece of the Pesach meat to a Jew who is uncircumcised?[1175] No. One who does so transgresses a Biblical prohibition.

Breaking bones:[1176] It is forbidden to break any bones of the Pesach sacrifice.

Leftovers:[1177] One must place effort to not leave any meat from the Pesach offering past the morning.

  1. The prohibition to eat other foods after the Karban Pesach:[1178]

The Mishneh[1179] states that it is forbidden to be Maftir after the Afikomen. This means that one should not conclude the eating of the Pesach sacrifice with Afikomen.[1180] (The term Afikoman means to bring Mezonos and food to the table.[1181]) Thus [the phrase of “We are not Maftir after eating the Pesach with an Afikoman”] means to say that after eating the Pesach lamb we do not eat any type or form of food or produce that exists in the world.[1182]

[1] Shlah Hakadosh beginning of Miseches Pesachim

[2] Kaf Hachaim 473:152

[3] Shlah Hakadosh p. 142 beginning of Miseches Pesachim; Kaf Hachaim 473:133; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:7

[4] Lev David 30; Moed Lekol Chaiy 4:14; Kaf Hachaim 473:133

[5] Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach [new] p. 11

[6] Maharil beginning of Seder Haggadah, brought in Haggadah of Rebbe under the phrase “Seder Haggadah”

[7] Maharil; Shlah

[8] Directive of Rebbe Rashab, brought in Sefer Hasichos 5704 p. 92

[9] Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach [new] p. 12

[10] Kaf Hachaim 473:32

[11] Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach [new] p. 12

[12] Likkutei Sichos 22:179, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:315; Hisvadyus 5749 page 36; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Nissan p. 154-155

[13] Yifei Laleiv 2:10; Kaf Hachaim 473:127; Minhagei Chasam Sofer 10:13; Hagadas Imrei Kodesh in name of Rav Sar Shalom of Belz

[14] Poskim ibid

[15] Sefer Hasichos 5702 p. 87; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad ibid]

[16] Sichas 2nd night of Pesach 5715 7

[17] Otzer Minhagei Chabad ibid

[18] Likkutei Sichos 3:1016

[19] Otzer Minhagei Chabad 23:4

[20] Otzer Minhagei Chabad 145

[21] Siddur Yaavetz

[22] Shelah Hakadosh Miseches Pesachim Matzha Ashira 408

[23] Admur 472:1; Michaber 472:1

[24] The reason: The table to be set before Yom Tov in order so one can start the meal immediately after dark. The reason one is to begin the meal immediately upon the entrance of night is in order to be able to perform the Seder [the portion of Maggid] while the children are still awake, as the Torah states “Vehigadta Livincha Bayom Hahu”. [Admur ibid; Michaber ibid] The meal is considered “started” once the Karpas is consumed after Kiddush. [Kaf Hachaim 472:1]

[25] Hagada of Rebbe; See 473:25

[26] Admur 4472:6; Michaber 472:2; Drashos Maharil Agadah; Chok Yaakov 472:4; Kaf Hachaim 472:10-12

[27] Shlah Hakadosh Miseches Pesachim; See Kaf Hachaim 472:11 that one is to especially use silver cups, as it hints to Chesed

[28] Kaf Hachaim 472:11

[29] Admur ibid; M”A 472:2; Maharil p. 88; See

[30] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 472:4

[31] Such as vessels that a gentile never yet used, or that one Kashered before Pesach. Upashut, that it is forbidden to place Chameitz vessels of a gentile on the table, as brought in 451:1.

[32] Admur ibid; M”A 472:2; Maharil p. 88; Chok Yaakov 472:4; See Admur Gezeila Ugeneiva 4 and Kuntrus Achron 6 that using the Mashkon of a gentile is not considered stealing; See also Shach Y.D. 120:19 and Taz Y.D. 120:11; However one may not use the Mashkon of a Jew due to stealing. [Admur ibid] The Mashkon of a gentile does not require Tevila. [Shach ibid]

[33] Shlah Hakadosh Miseches Pesachim

[34] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 472:4

[35] Bach 472; Kaf Hachaim 472:9

[36] Maaaseh Melech p. 196 and 206

[37] See Likkutei Dibburim p. 268; Sefer Hasichos 5705 p. 83; 5696 p. 130; Otzer Minhagei Chabad pp. 113-114

[38] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:28

[39] M”A 473:26; Maharil; Chok Yaakov 473:38 [however he writes the Matzos may be returned again when the Kearah is returned after Mah Nishtana]; M”B 473:66; Kaf Hachaim 473:141; This Halacha was omitted from Admur, Vetzarcuh Iyun!

[40] P”M 473 A”A 26

[41] The reason: This is because if other Matzos remain on the table, then there is no recognition for the children to ask a question upon the Keraha being moved aside prior to Mah Nishtanah. [Implication of Poskim ibid; Chok Yaakov ibid] Alternatively, thereason is in order so participants at the Seder do not come to accidentally eat from it before the end of Maggid. [Possible understanding of M”A ibid] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 154 that due to this latter reason, the above custom is to be followed even today when many no longer move the Kearah at all.

[42] Vayaged Moshe 2:3

[43] Nitei Gavriel 67 footnote 10 in name of Klozinburger Rebbe

[44] Admur 472:1; Michaber 472:1; Rebbe Akiva in Pesachim 109a; Minhagei Marsileo Pesach-Leil Pesach “It is befitting not to delay the stay in Shul, as the Gemara Pesachim 109a states that we “grab” Matzah for the sake that the children do not fall asleep”

[45] The reason: The reason one is to return home immediately upon the entrance of night is because it is a Mitzvah to hurry and begin the Seder for the sake of the children, prior to them falling asleep, as the Torah states “Vehigadta Livincha Bayom Hahu”. [Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Pesachim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 472:2-3]

[46] Sefer Haminhagim p.38 [Hebrew]; Likkutei Dibburim Likkut 23; Hayom Yom p. 45; Toras Menachem 3:15-17 [That “so was the custom of Rabboseinu Nisieinu, and that so is to be done by all their Chassidim , to begin the second Seder at 9:00 and end a few hours after midnight”; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 119-123; Shulchan Menachem 2:315

The reason: Based on Nigleh, there indeed is no reason to differentiate between the two nights, however, based on Chassidus and Kabbalah, evidently there is a difference. [Toras Menachem ibid]

[47] Shlah Hakadosh Miseches Pesachim

[48] Pashut, as the Mitzvah of Mikveh immersion does not push off any positive command in the Torah, and hence since one is required to eat the Matzah before midnight according to many Poskim [See Chapter 3 Halacha 3], therefore the Mikveh immersion must be delayed if one cannot immerse on time. It once occurred in a certain city that the Mikveh malfunctioned on the night of the Seder and women were waiting outside until after midnight to immerse. This was incorrect and they should have been instructed to go home and perform the Seder, and come back later to see if the Mikveh is open.

[49] Admur 472:31; Michaber 472:16; Pesachim 108b; See Kaf Hachaim 472:96-98

[50] Literally “Kelayos and Egozim”

Definition of Kelayos: We find different explanations as to the meaning of the word Kelayos. Some say it means roasted wheat kernels. [Rashi in Pesachim 109a] Others say it refers to a certain species of fruit. [Raavan Pesachim 164, brought in Elya Raba 473:19]

Definition of Egozim: It is unclear what the exact definition of an Egoz is, if it includes all nuts or refers to a specific nut such as the walnut. [See Machatzis Hashekel 583:4; Koveitz Or Yisrael 1:106 for a discussion regarding the exact definition of an Egoz; See also Admur 583:6 “Egozim, or Luzim which are small Egozim”]

[51] Pashut, as the entire purpose is to make the children wonder, and hence as long as one distributes something that makes them wonder the purpose is fulfilled; see also Admur 529:6 who says “Kelyaos or Egozim”  and both of these Halachos of distributing nuts to children on Erev Pesach and are Yom Tov are learned from the same passage of the Gemara in Pesachim 109a; Now, regarding distributing on Yom Tov Admur states in Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:10 “On Yom Tov itself when it is a Mitzvah to rejoice the children with those items that are joyful for them such as Egozim and like, as was explained in Hilchos Yom Tov”; So also writes Beir Moshe 7:3; Chol Hamoed Kehilchaso 1:18; See Rambam Hilchos Yom Tov 18 who adds “Kelayos and Egozim and Migdanos”

[52] Admur ibid; Omitted in Michaber ibid; Pesachim ibid states to distribute on “Erev Pesach”

[53] The reason: This is done in order so the children view a change [from the normal order of a meal] and be aroused to ask questions regarding why this night is any different than the other nights. Now although on this particular question [of why they are receiving nuts] we do not have an answer to tell them, nevertheless through them viewing this change, and being aroused to ask questions, they will likewise become aroused to ask regarding other changes that they see, such as the eating of Matzah and Maror, and the leaning position. When they will ask these questions we will then answer them that “Avadim Hayinu etc.” [Admur ibid; Michaber ibid]

Other reasons: The nuts are distributed to the children to prevent them from sleeping. [Pesachim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 472:97]

[54] Sefer Haminhagim p. 118 [English]; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 142

Original Chabad custom: In the earlier prints of Hayom Yom p. 46 it stated that one does not say Shalom Aleichem or Eishes Chayil at all on Shabbos Yom Tov or Shabbos Chol Hamoed. This was based on an explicit directive of the Rebbe Rayatz that one is not to say it and that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab and the Rebbe Maharash, although there were some years in which they said it. [Reshimos 4:12 and 22]

[55] See Admur 473:14-34; Michaber 473:4-5

[56] Admur 473:20; Michaber 473:4; See Kaf Hachaim 473:45-48

[57] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Tur 473; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 7:1; Tosafus Pesachim 114a and 116a; Hagahos Smak 144

[58] The reason: The reason for why the Matzos are to be present in front of the person reading the Haggadah is because in scripture [Devarim 15:3] the Matzah is called “Lechem Oini” and the Sages [Pesachim 36a, 115b] expounded to mean “Bread which one says many matters over” and these matters refers to the reading of the Haggadah. [Admur ibid; Tosafus ibid] Furthermore, another reason is because the verse [Shemos 13:8] states “Vehigadeta Levincha Bayom Hahu Lamor Bavor Zeh”, and from the word Zeh we learn that the reading of the Haggadah was only implemented to be said when one has Matzah and Maror present before him. [Admur ibid; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 7:1; Mechilta Bo 17] Furthermore, another reason is because in the Haggadah one reads “Matzah Zeh” and hence must have the Maror in front of him in order to say this statement. [Admur ibid; Tosafus ibid]

[59] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Tur 473; Tosafus on Mishneh Pesachim 114a

[60] The reason: The reason for this is because the verse states “Vehigadeta Levincha Bayom Hahu Lamor Bavor Zeh”, and from the word “Zeh” we learn that the reading of the Haggadah was only implemented to be said when one has Matzah and Maror present before him. Furthermore, another reason is because in the Haggadah one reads “Maror Zeh” and hence must have the Maror in front of him in order to say this statement. [Admur ibid; Tosafus Pesachim ibid]

[61] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Tur 473; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 7:11; Mishneh Pesachim 114a

[62] The reason: The reason for this is because the Charoses is in remembrance of the clay used in the slave labor of our forefathers in Egypt. [Admur ibid; Rambam ibid; Rebbe Yochanon Pesachim 116a] As well it is in remembrance of the Tapuach [the apple trees which the women would have children under without any pain. [Admur ibid; Rosh; Rebbe Levi Pesachim 116a] For this reason the Charoses must be on the table upon retelling over the slavery we experienced in Egypt. [Admur ibid] See Kaf Hachaim 473:45 that it is placed on the table for the sake of dipping the Maror into

[63] Admur ibid; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 8:1

[64] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rambam ibid; Mishneh Pesachim 114a

The reason for these two cooked foods: One is to have two different cooked foods in front of him as one is in memory of the Pesach sacrifice and the second is in memory of the Chagigah sacrifice. [From the letter of the law one can use any two cooked dishes for this purpose] however the custom is to take meat for one of the two foods. The second food could be even the gravy in which the meat was cooked. However, the custom dating to the early generations was to take an egg as the second food. [Admur ibid; Michaber ibid]

[65] Admur 473:23; Tur 473 in name of Rabbeinu Peretz; Mordechai Pesachim 38b; Hagahos Maimanis 8:1; Hagahos Smak 144:5; Chok Yaakov 473:14

The reason: In years that Pesach fell on Motzei Shabbos there was no Chagiga sacrifice eaten on the night of the Seder. [Rambam Karban Pesach 10:12; Mishneh Pesachim 69b] The reason for this is because one is unable to slaughter it and offer it on Shabbos [due to the Shabbos prohibitions]. [Pesachim 69b] Likewise, one is also not able to offer it on Erev Shabbos, as it can only be eaten for two days and one night, which refers to the night between the two days [and hence by Motzei Shabbos its eating time has expired]. [Rosh Pesachim 10:25] Nonetheless, one is still required to bring two cooked foods [on the night of the Seder that falls on Motzei Shabbos], one in memory of the Pesach sacrifice and one in memory of the Chagiga, as since they are only brought as a mere remembrance, therefore there is no need to make an issue over the fact that in truth the Chagiga was not eaten on this night. On the contrary, one who is particular in this makes it appear as if he is really making them into a form of Kodshim. [Admur ibid; Poskim ibid] 

[66] Michaber ibid; Admur 473:25-26

[67] The reason: Admur does not list the Karpas in 473:20 as one of the foods that need to be placed before the person saying the Haggadah. The reason for this is simply because the above Simanim must only be brought directly prior to Maggid, as they require the Haggadah to be said in their presence. However, the Karpas is eaten before Maggid and does not require the Haggadah to be said over it. Hence from the letter of the law the Karpas does not have to be on the Seder plate. Nevertheless, being that the custom has become to bring the Seder plate to the table before Karpas [473:25], therefore the Karpas is also positioned on the Seder plate. This explains the diversion of Admur from the wording of the Michaber ibid which listed the Karpas as part of the Seder plate [while Admur in 473:20 omits it] as the Karpas is not relevant to the saying of the Haggadah.

[68] See Rav Sharira Gaon in next footnote “Not more and not less”

[69] Admur 473:20; 26; 458:4-12; Michaber 473:4; Beis Yosef 473 that so is custom; Tur 473 in name of Rosh and 475 in name of Rav Amram; Mordechai Seder Pesach; Rokeiach 283; Maaseh Rokeiach 16:58 in name of Rav Sharira Gaon, brought in Haggadah of Rebbe; Kol Bo; Drashos Maharil Seder Haggadah; Tikkunim 69; Shaar Hakavanos p. 83 and 87; Peri Eitz Chaim 3; Kaf Hachaim 473:44

The reason: The three Maztos correspond to the three Seain of flour that Avraham asked Sarah to make for the three angel guests, and Chazal state that, that day was Pesach. Alternatively, it corresponds to the three Avos, Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov. [Maaseh Rokeiach 16:58 in name of Rav Sharira Gaon, brought in Haggadah of Rebbe p. 6]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is only required to have two Matzos on the Seder plate, one as a Shaleim for Koreich and the second broken in half by Yachatz for Hamotzi and Afikoman. [Tur 475 in name of Rif and some Geonim; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 8:6; Maggid Mishneh ibid; Biur Hagr”a 475]

Pesach falls on Shabbos: When Pesach falls on Shabbos, some Poskim rule that those who are accustomed based on Kabbalah to use 12 breads on Shabbos are to also take 12 Matzos. [Rav Poalim 1; Siddur Rashash] Other Poskim, however, rule there is no need to do so, and rather only three Matzos are taken. [Minchas Elazar 5:16; Nimukei Orach Chaim 473]

[70] Admur 473:26 [in opinion of Kabbalah and Arizal] and in Siddur; However, see Admur 458:4-12 that no mention is made of the words Kohen, Levi and Yisrael, and they are rather simply described as the bottom, middle and top Matzah [Admur 458:12], or first, second and third [Admur 458:7]. Thus, seemingly, the entire concept of the naming of the three Matzos as Kohen, Levi and Yisrael is based on Kabbalah and not Halacha. Regarding other matters of correspondence that the three Mata’s refer to, see previous footnote!

[71] Nitei Gavriel 67 footnote 10 in name of Klozinburger Rebbe; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:28; Unlike Vayaged Moshe 2:3

[72] Admur 458:7; 473:26 “After organizing the Matzos on the Kearah”; Siddur Admur; Arizal in Peri Eitz Chasim Shaar Chag Hamatzos 6; Kaf Hachaim 473:58; Footnote of Rebbe in Sefer Haminhagim p. 75 [English]; Hamelech Bemisibo 1:307; Hiskashrus; Pesach Chasidi 87; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 124; This is unlike the widespread Chabad custom which does not use a plate under the Matzas.

The custom of the Rabbeim: By the Rebbe’s Seder table the three Matzos of the participants are not placed on a plate but rather on a cloth, and only the Rebbe has the Matzas placed on a plate. [Sefer Haminhagim ibid; Rebbe’s Haggadah] This was not intended to be a directive to the public.

[73] Admur 458:7; 12

[74] Siddur Arizal of Rav Yaakov Kopel; Haggadah of Maharal; Pesach Meubin 226; Kitzur SHU”A in Lechem Hapanim 118:8; Tiferes Yisrael end of Pesachim; Taamei Haminhagim 520; Rebbe in Haggadah p. 6; Sefer Haminhagim p. 75 [English]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:11; See Chikrei Minhagim 3:75

Ruling of Admur in Siddur: The three Matzos are to be placed one on top of the other. [Siddur Admur]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that there is no source for the custom of separating the Matzos with a cloth, and doing so is the custom of the ignorant. [Chayeh Adam 130 Dinei Haseder Ketzarah] Many Gedolei Yisrael were not accustomed to separate the Matzos with a cloth. [Orchos Chaim Spinka 473:6; Darkei Chaim Vehsalom 584; Vayaged Moshe 2:9; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 53] Nonetheless, a cloth is to be placed ontop of the Matzos, and some fold it inside a cloth.

[75] Admur 458:7; Admur 473:26; 475:4; Siddur Admur “Three Matzos are placed on top of each other. The Yisrael [first] and on top of it the Levi and on top of it the Kohen.”; Rama 475:7; Tur 473; Levush 473:6; 475:7

The reason the Kohen must be on top: The Kohen is to be placed on top, and Levi in middle in order so one is not required to bypass a Mitzvah. [Admur 458:7; Poskim ibid] Nonetheless, Bedieved, this order does not invalidate, and hence even if one mixed up the entire order, that he placed the first/Kohen Matzah on bottom, and the second Levi Matzah on top, and the third Yisrael Matzah as the first Matzah, it is meaningless Bedieved. [Admur ibid; Rama ibid] The above all refers to three Matzos that were initially baked with a sign of Kohen, Levi Yisrael, however, today that we simply take three Matzos out of the box, whatever Matzah is placed on top automatically becomes the Kohen.

[76] Rebbe in Haggadah p. 6 in name of Sefer Hasichos Rebbe Rayatz that this is the same Roshei Teivos as Yeilech-ילך; See Admur 458:7 “When placing them on the Kearah, they should be placed in the following order: The third Matzah on bottom, the second one on top of it, and the first one on top of the second one”; Siddur Admur “Three Matzos are placed on top of each other. The Yisrael [first] and on top of it the Levi and on top of it the Kohen.”; Siddur Arizal; However, see Admur 473:26 that one is to place the Matzos on the Kearah in the right order, which is the Kohen on top, the Levi under it, and the Yisrael under it.

Other opinions: Some are accustomed to place the Kohen first, and then the Levi and the Yisrael, which is the same Roshei Teivos as Keli-כלי. [Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Hamatzos 6, brought in Haggadah of Rebbe ibid and Kaf Hachaim 473:58]

[77] See Admur 458:12-13 regarding switching the second and third Matzah, that doing so is considered to lower the 2nd Matzah from its Kedusha

[78] See Admur 458:12-13 regarding switching the second and third Matzah, that doing so is considered to lower the 2nd Matzah from its Kedusha; Vetzaruch Iyun if they may be switched for other Matzos in the box, as from Admur 458:13 it is possible to learn that there is no problem to do so, as it is only considered to descend from Kedusha when one uses it for a lower level Mitzvah. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[79] Admur 482:4

[80] Admur 458:7; 1st and main opinion in Admur 475:4-5, 7, 9; 482:4; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 116a; Riy in Tosafus Pesachim ibid; Rosh ibid; Arizal, brought in Kaf Hachaim 473:117, 475:5

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the opposite that the top Matzah is used for the Mitzvah of Al Achilas Matzha, while the middle, broken, Mathza is used for Hamotzi. [2nd opinion in Admur 475:5; Opinion in Tur 475; Ravayah 525 in name of Rabbeinu Chananel and other Geonim; Raavan 166a; Hagahos Maimanis Haggadah 7] Other Poskim rule that both blessings of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah are going on the middle-broken Matzah. [Opinion in Admur 482:4; Tur 475 in explanation of Rif Pesachim 25b; Tosafus Pesachim 116a; Semag Asei 41; See Piskei Dinim Tzeach Tzedek 35:4]

[81] Admur 458:7; 482:4; Rosh Pesachim 10:30; Tur end of 475; Kaf Hachaim 475:28 in name of Tosafus, Bach, Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar 21:4

The reason: In order so each Matzah have a Mitzvah performed with it. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] There are likewise, reasons based on Kabbalah for this, as explained in the Peri Eitz Chaim.

[82] Admur 458:10

The reason: As the middle Matzah requires two Kezeisim of Matzah, a Kezayis for both Achilas Matzah and Afikoman. In addition, this middle Matzah must contain enough Matzah to distribute [at least a small piece] to each one of participants. [Admur ibid]

[83] Sefer Haminhagim p. 75 [English]

The reason: This represents a receptacle which can intake the Divine flow that takes place during the Seder. [ibid]

[84] Admur 475:3

[85] Admur 461:16

[86] 2nd opinion in Admur 475:3 and that so is custom; 473:24; 482:4; Michaber 475:1; Darkei Moshe 475:5; Bach 475; Tosafus Pesachim 116a; Rashi and Rashbam on Pesachim ibid; Rosh Pesachim 10:30; So rule in general regarding Yom Tov: Admur 274:2; 167:3; Michaber 529:1; Rambam Shabbos 30:8; Rif Pesachim 25b; Tosafus Pesachim 116a

Background & Other Opinions-Does one need Lechem Mishna for Hamotzi on the night of the Seder? Some Poskim rule that although on every Yom Tov one is required to say Hamotzi on Lechem Mishneh [which is two Shaleim Matzas] as explained in the Shulchan Aruch Chapter 529:1, nevertheless, on the night of Pesach one does not need to have  two whole Matzos [and should not have it], and rather one is required to have one whole Matzah and a second half broken Matzah. [1st opinion in Admur ibid; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 8:6; Rif Pesachim 25b; Chinuch Mitzvah 21; Beis Yosef 475 in name of Rashba] The reason for this is because the Sages [Pesachim 115b] expounded from the verse [Devarim 16:3] which writes the words Lechem Oni without a Vav that the Matzah needs to be broken, as is common by the bread of a pauper. Now, the entire purpose of their teaching was to instruct us that one should diminish from his usual Lechem Mishneh, and that one of the Matzos is not to be whole. [Admur ibid; Rif ibid] Other Poskim, however, rule that the requirement to have a broken Matzah is in addition to the requirement of Lechem Mishneh. [2nd opinion in Admur 475:3; 473:24; 482:4; Michaber 475:1; Tosafus Pesachim 116a; Rashi and Rashbam on Pesachim ibid; Rosh Pesachim 10:30] They learn that the teaching of the Sages ibid was to instruct us that in addition to the two whole Matzos that one needs for Lechem Mishneh of Hamotzi, as on any Yom Tov, one is also required to have an additional broken Matzah to represent the poor man’s bread. [Admur ibid; Rosh ibid] Practically, the widespread custom is like this latter opinion, [and thus when saying Hamotzi one takes two whole Matzahs for his requirement of Lechem Mishneh and additional broken Matzah for Lechem Oni]. [Admur ibid; Darkei Moshe 475:5; Bach 475] One should not swerve from this custom unless there is a pressing situation [such as it is very difficult to find two whole Matzos], as explained in 482:7. [Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 482:4]

[87] Admur 458:12; Rama 475:7; Maharil Seder Haggadah p. 89; Igur 790; Mateh Moshe 599; Rashal 88; Chok Yaakov 458:28

[88] Admur 458:12; Rashal 88; Chok Yaakov 458:28

[89] See Admur 167:3 [not to cut bread on Shabbos before Hamotzi]

[90] Admur 167:3; M”A 167:5; Aguda Chulin 150 in name of Maharam Merothenberg; Shiltei Giborim  on Mordechai Brachos 6:9; So rule regarding the law of Shaleim for blessings: Michaber 167:1; Rosh Brachos 6:19; Hagahos Maimanis Brachos 7:6 in name of Maharam Merothenberg

[91] Chacham Tzevi 62-63, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 274:1, that according to Riy even a small amount is considered Chaser

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that so long as the missing piece is not more than 1:48th of the bread, it is still considered a Shaleim. [Opinion of Rosh, as explained in Chacham Tzevi 62-63, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 274:1; End of Minchas Yaakov Shut 12; Opinion in M”B 274:2]

[92] See Shaareiy Teshuvah 274:1 [in negation of Makom Shmuel 45]; M”B 274:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:9

Edible burnt areas: Burnt areas that are edible are not considered broken off and hence the Matzah remains Shaleim and is valid for Lechem Mishneh. [Makom Shmuel 45, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; Binyan Olam 9]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that a burnt part is not considered as if it is broken off even if it is inedible. [Shaareiy Ephraim and implication of Chacham Tzevi, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 274:1; End of Minchas Yaakov Shut 12]

[93] M”B ibid regarding burnt piece; Chelkas Yaakov 93 and Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 55 footnote 24 [regarding missing small amount]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:9

[94] Sheileiy Tziyon 9 in name of Rav Pesach Tzevi Frank and Rav Minzberg [that even a toasted slice of bread is considered a Shaleim]; Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 55 footnote 50 [the sides of a cracked piece does not turn it into a Shaleim unless it appears Shaleim in the eyes of people]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:10; 506:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim argue that burning the sides of a cracked piece turns it into a Shaleim even if it does not appear Shaleim in the eyes of people. [Sheileiy Tziyon ibid] Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 55 footnote 50 negates this approach

[95] Some Poskim rule it is permitted to do so on Yom Tov, and there is no prohibition involved of Tikkun Keli. This especially applies if the missing area that needs to be burnt is very minuscule, and is hence in any event valid according to some opinions. [Hilchos Hamoadim 4:7; Nishmas Shabbos 2; Koveitz Beis Aaron Viyisrael] Other Poskim rule it is forbidden to do so due to Tikkun Keli. [Rav SZ”A in Maor Hashabbos 1 Michtav 9:11; SSH”K 55 footnote 35] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:10; 506:7

[96] Piskeiy Teshuvos 506 footnote 33

[97] Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:9 footnote 113

[98] Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:10 due to the cooking prohibition of hardening a soft item; See Admur 318:7; Shoel Umeishiv 2:20; Kaf Hachaim 318:78; Har Tzevi “Ofeh” p.262; SSH”K 1:62; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 179; Daas Torah 318:5

[99] The reason: As the middle/Levi Matzah will in any event be broken by Yachatz, before reading the Haggadah [i.e. Maggid] for the sake of separating a piece for Afikoman, and there is hence no need for it to be whole. [Admur 458:12; Rama 475:7]

[100] Admur 458:12 “Even if the third Matzah broke, and switching it with the middle Matzah will demote the middle Matzah to become the bottom Matzah, and one is demoting it from its holiness”; Rama 475:7; Maharil Seder Haggadah p. 89; Igur 790; Taz 475:12

[101] See Admur 458:12-13 that there is a Hiddur Mitzvah for even the middle Matzah to be whole, and seemingly the only reason we do not switch for another whole Matzah is because it is referring to the special three Matzos baked on Erev Pesach from one Isaron, which have no substitute. However, today that all our Matzos are baked the same, there is no problem with switching the broken one for another whole one, and thus one should do so initially in order to have three whole Matzos. Likewise, one should certainly do so in order not to demote the broken Kohen to a Levi status, or a whole Levi to a Yisrael status.

[102] Admur 473:26

[103] Admur ibid; Rama 473:4; Maharil Seder Haggadah; See M”A 473:15, P”M 453 A”A 6, Kaf Hachaim 473:59 that the intent of Rama ibid [who writes on top” is that they should be in a line of precedence, and not literally stacked on top of each other

[104] Admur ibid; Rama ibid

The reason: It is proper for the order to be arranged in a way that one is not required to bypass a mitzvah, meaning that whichever one comes first in the order of the Seder is to be placed closer on the plate which is near the person. Thus, according to this the order should be Karpas and behind it the Matzah and then the Maror and then the Charoses and then the two dishes for the Pesach/Chagiga, just as is the order of use by the Seder.

[105] Admur ibid

[106] Custom in Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 473:16

The reason: As since these foods are only brought to the table for a mere remembrance [and are thus not truly required to be taken at all for eating], therefore the concept of “bypassing a Mitzvah” does not apply by them. [Admur ibid; See Likkutei Sichos 32:45]

[107] Custom in Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 473:16

The reason: As since the Maror is not a vegetable that is liked by people [i.e. Chaviv], and it therefore does not have precedence in the laws of Birchas Hanehnin, therefore here too we are not particular [regarding the laws of Maavirin Al Hamitzvos] if one will need to bypass it for the sake of taking the vegetables of Karpas first, and then Matzah and then Maror. [Admur ibid; See Likkutei Sichos 32:45]

[108] Admur ibid

[109] 3rd custom in Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; Arizal in Peri Eitz Chasim Shaar Chag Hamatzos 6; Siddur Arizal, brought in Beir Heiytiv 475:8; Kaf Hachaim 473:58

[110] The reason: They do so due to reasons known to them [which is a figurative term for matters done based on Kabbalah, as will be explained in coming footnotes]. [Admur ibid] They do not require the Simanim to be organized in the order of eating to avoid bypassing a Mitzvah, as they rely on the second approach above which holds that there is no problem of bypassing the Maror and Charoses. [Admur ibid]

[111] Siddur Admur

[112] See Kaf Hachaim 473:58 that the intent of the Arizal is not literally on top of the actul Matzah, but near it; M”A 473:15, P”M 453 A”A 6, Kaf Hachaim 473:59 that the intent of Rama ibid [who writes on top] is that they should be near him, and not literally stacked on top of each other.

[113] This was the Rebbe’s custom and the custom he directed others to follow; An incident is recorded that in 5713 the Rebbe entered into the Seder of the Temimim as was his custom and noticed that the Simanim were placed in paper bowls which were then placed on the Matzas. The Rebbe exclaimed “A new custom in Lubavitch! My Father in-law did not do this”. [See Otzer Minhagei Chabad; Sichos Kodesh 5713 p. 397]

[114] 3rd custom in Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; Arizal in Peri Eitz Chasim Shaar Chag Hamatzos 6; Siddur Arizal, brought in Beir Heiytiv 475:8; Haghos Hatur; Moreh Baetzba 206; Kaf Hachaim 473:58

[115] The reason for this order: The Kabalistic reason is for this order is because it follows the ten Sefiros. The three Matzos represent Chabad of Atzilus [unlike Moreh Baetzba ibid who writes Keser, Chochma, Bina; See Kaf Hachaim ibid], while the Zeroa represents Chesed, and is hence placed to the right. The egg represents Gevura and is hence placed to the left. The Maror represents Tiferes and is hence placed in middle. The Charoses is placed lower down to the right, representing Netzah which is a branch of Chesed. The Karpas is placed to the left, under the egg, in the side of Gevura, as it hints to Hod. The Chazeres which is used for koreich is placed under the Maror, and represents Yesod. The Kearah itself represents Malchus. [Arizal in Peri Eitz Chasim Shaar Chag Hamatzos 6; Kaf Hachaim ibid; Rebbe in Haggadah]

[116] Order in Admur ibid; However, see Siddur and Admur 458:7 for the opposite order [Yisrael, Levi, Kohen, and that so is the Chabad custom. [Rebbe in Haggadah; See Halacha B above!]

[117] Perhaps Admur writes that it is only similar to a Segol, as one may not write on Yom Tov, including in the form of vowels, and hence one’s intent should not be to make a Segol, but that simply this is the resulting shape.

The reason the Maror is placed in the middle: As although it represents Gevuros, which is towards the left, it also arouses mercy and is hence placed in the middle. [Likkutei Torah Shir Hashirim Kol Dodi, brought in Rebbe’s Haggadah p. 6]

[118] Siddur Admur; Peri Eitz Chaim ibid; Mishnas Chassidim Seder Leil Pesach 2:2; Siddur Kol Yaakov Siddur Kearah; Siddur Rav Shabsi; Kaf Hachaim ibid; See Haggadah of Rebbe p. 7

[119] Hagdah of Rebbe, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:314; Toras Menachem 178 Reshimos Hayoman that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rayatz; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 134; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:18 that so should be done and that so was custom of Reb Aaron of Belz, and his father the Rebbe of Biala.

The reason: One takes lettuce for both Maror and Chazares due to the directive of the Sages to give it precedence. [Rebbe ibid] One also takes horseradish with the lettuce in order to a) suspect for the opinion [see other opinions above] that one must feel bitterness to be Yotzei Maror and b) to abide by the old age Ashkenazi tradition of using horseradish. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:18]

Other customs: Some are accustomed to use lettuce for Maror and horseradish for Koreich. [See Nitei Gavriel 2:93 footnote 6] The Rebbe ibid negates this custom, stating that one is to take lettuce for both.

[120] Arizal in Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Chag Hamatzos 6; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[121] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[122] Admur 473:24 and 20 “before the person who reads the Haggadah”; Michaber 473:4 “Bring before the person saying the Haggadah”; Tur 115; Rav Huna in Pesachim 115b; Peri Chadash 473; Shulchan Gavoa 473:10; M”B 473:17; Kaf Hachaim 473:42 that so rule Achronim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:11

Other opinions in Talmud: Rav Simi Bar Ashi stated that each participant is to have a Seder plate before him of Matzah, Maror, Charoses. [Pesachim ibid] The reason for this is because back then everyone lied on a bed by a meal and each person would have their own eating table, and hence they would each need their own Seder plate. [Rashbam ibid] Alternatively, it is because each participant is independently obligated in the Mitzvah, and it is hence unfit for them to need to wait until they are distributed the foods by the Baal Habayis, due to it being an interval. [Tosafus Pesachim ibid] Practically, the Gemara ibid concludes that “The Halacha is like Rav Huna”, that only one Seder plate before the Baal Habayis is necessary.

[123] Admur ibid; Tur ibid; Levush 473:5

[124] Admur ibid; 274:4

The reason: Although on Yom Tov one is obligated to say Hamotzi on Lechem Mishneh, nevertheless, since the participants fulfill their obligation of Hamotzi with the Baal Habayis, therefore they also fulfill their Mitzvah of Lechem Mishneh with the Baal Habayis. [Admur ibid]

[125] Minhagei Mahariv 343 “Every person above the age of Mitzvos had a Kearah”; Haggadah Shel Pesach Oheiv Yisrael [Apter Rav] “Each one of the participants had their own Haggadah”; Rav SZ”A in Halichos Shlomo 9; “It is customary for all the married participants to have their own Seder plate, and likewise all Bochurim above Bar Mitzvah have their own Seder plate.”; Moadim Uzmanim 256; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 124 in name of Sefarim and that so was custom in household of Rebbe, for all participants to have their own Seder plate; Heard from Harav Eliyahu Landa Shlita that so is custom; Pesach Chasidi; See Vayaged Moshe 2:3, p. 8-11; Minhag Yisrael Torah Hi p. 274-276; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:11; Nitei Gavriel 2:223

The reason: As today, the widespread custom is for every individual to read the Haggadah to themselves and not be Yotzei with the Baal Habayis [See Chapter 3 Halacha 4], and thus they each should [and perhaps must-see Moadim Uzmanim ibid] have their own Seder plate in order so they fulfill the Mitzvah of saying the Haggadah over the Simanim. [Implication of Admur ibid that the lack of need to have a personal Seder plate is dependent on the fulfillment of the Haggadah through listening to the Seder leader and hence since today we all say the Haggadah to ourselves, therefore we each need our own Seder plate; Moadim Uzmanim ibid; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 124; Suggestions of Rav Landa Shlita; Vetzaruch Iyun, as according to this even women should have their own Seder plate!] Alternatively, the reason is because the Matzos with which one is fulfilling his Mitzvah of eating Maztah must be on the table when the Haggadah is read, thus requiring that each individual have his own Seder plate together with Matzos. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[126] Pesach Chasidi

[127] Admur 473:20 and 24-25; See Haggadah Shel Pesach p. 5, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:312

[128] Admur 473:20; Mishneh Pesachim 114a; Rashbam ibid; Rosh 14:5

[129] Admur 473:25; Michaber 473:4; Rambam 8:1

The reason: This is done in order so the Kiddush take place in close proximation to the start of the meal [i.e. Samuch Lesuadah], which is represented by having the Matzah and Maror brought to the table immediately after Kiddush. [Admur ibid in parentheses]

[130] Implication of Siddur Admur who writes the Seder Keraha before Kadesh; P”M 486 M”Z; Siddur Harash Miroshkov; Rebbe in Haggadah p. 5 that so is the Chabad custom

Other customs: Some are accustomed to arranging the Kearah prior to leaving to Shul on Erev Pesach [for Mincha]. [Siddur Kol Yaakov and implication of Shlah, brought by Rebbe in Haggadah ibid]

[131] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 136, 149; So rule regarding Karpas: Admur 473:25; M”A 473:5; Chok Yosef 473:11; Kaf Hachaim 473:52; Rebbe in Hagada “After Karpas I did not see them return the leftovers onto the Keara, and hence from here onwards there are only five things on the Kearah”; See Vayaged Moshe p. 113; Nitei Gavriel 2:283

Ruling based on Kabbalah: Based on the Kabalistic meanings behind each of the Simanim, it is proper for all the Simanim to remain on the table even after one is finished with that part of the Seder, and hence one should leave some Karpas vegetable on the Kearah even after the Karpas has been eaten. It should remain there until after one eats the Matzah and Maror. [Ben Ish Chaiy Parshas Tzav 32; Kaf Hachaim 473:52; See Darkei Chaim Veshalom 586; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:24; Nitei Gavriel 2:284] Nonetheless, even according to Kabala, the salt water may be removed right after Karpas, as it is not considered part of the Simanim. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] See Hamelech Bemisibo 1:131 that the Rebbe once inquired from the Rebbe Rayatz as why the Karpas is not returned to the Kearah for the sake of the second Segal, and the Rebbe Rayatz did not give an answer, but simply said that so is the custom

[132] To note, however, that the Rebbe Maharash would distribute Karpas and Maror from his Seder plate to the women, and other relatives

[133] Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach [new] p. 13

[134] Maaseh Melech p. 199

[135] Admur 473:1-13

[136] Admur 473:1; Michaber 473:1; Mishneh Pesachim 114a

Forgot to say Kiddush: One who forgot to say Kiddush on the night of Pesach, he can make it up the next day, just as is the law regarding the Shabbos night Kiddush. This is done through saying the blessing of Asher Bachar Banu of Kiddush after the blessing of Hagafen. [Admur 473:3; 271:16; Olas Shabbos 485; Chok Yaakov 473:1; Elya Raba 473:2; Chok Yosef 473:2; Kaf Hachaim 473:15]

Lisheim Yichud Kudsha Berich Hu: The Nussach for the Lisheim Yichud Kudsha Brich Hu of prior to the Seder, for those accustomed to reciting it prior to every Mitzvah [i.e. Kabalists, and some Chassidic groups], can be found in Kaf Hachaim 473:3. The Chabad custom is not to recite this.

[137] See Admur 271:4; Rebbe in Haggadah under “Kadesh”; Kaf Hachaim 473:5

[138] Admur 473:4; 271:23; Rama 473:1; Tur 473; Shut Harosh 14:5; Taz 473:1; Chok Yaakov 473:7; Elya Raba 473:1; Chok Yosef 473:7; Chayeh Adam 130:3; M”B 473:6; Kaf Hachaim 473:27-28

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may wash hands prior to Kadesh even on the night of the Seder. [See Chinuch Mitzvah 21 that he received from the “Sages of the generation” that one is to wash one hands prior to Kiddush, and if one desires, he may wash two hands.”; Leket Hayosher]

The law if there are many Seder participants: Some write that by large public Sedarim in which it would take a very long time to wait for everybody to wash, it is permitted to have people wash before Kiddush. [Seder Hearuch 54:8 based on Leket Yosher that one may even initially wash before Kiddush, and based on those Poskim who rule that only the leader of the Seder must wash; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:21 footnote 121]

[139] Some are accustomed throughout all Yomim Tovim and Shabbasos to wash their hands for Hamotzi prior to Kiddush, as they hold that the Kiddush is not considered an interval between the washing and the meal being that it is done for the need of the meal. [Admur ibid; 271:23; Rama 271:12; Rabbeinu Tam and Riy in Tosafus Pesachim 106b; Minhag Harosh, brought in Tur 271; Shut Rashba 1:188; 752; 826; Mordechai Pesachim ibid; Hagahos Maimanis 29 Kuf] Admur 271:23 concludes that the main opinion follows this opinion and that so is the widespread custom of Ashkenazi Jewry

[140] The reason: As on the night of Pesach there is a long interval between the Kiddush and Hamotzi in order to read the Haggadah, and during this time period one removes his mind from guarding his hands. Therefore, if one were to wash his hands prior to Kiddush it would be worthless, and he would still need to return and rewash his hands for the meal after Maggid. [Admur ibid; Taz 473:1; Mordechai 37b] Now, although this washing could serve of benefit that one would not be required to return and rewash his hands after Kiddush prior to eating the Karpas vegetable dipped in liquid, which requires washing, as will be explained in 473:14, being that all foods dipped in liquids require washing beforehand without a blessing, as explained in 158:3. [Admur ibid; See Taz ibid; M”A 473:3; Shut Rashal 88; M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid] Nevertheless, it is better that they wash their hands after the Kiddush, before the dipping, as if they wash their hands before Kiddush there is room to worry that perhaps some of the participants will end up saying a blessing on this washing, as they will think that this washing is similar to all washings that take place before Kiddush of all the Yomim Tovim and Shabbasos in which they say the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim. [Admur ibid; Taz ibid]

[141] See Aruch Hashulchan 271:33 “In our times, and many generations prior, we have not heard of this custom”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:31; Admur 273:23; M”B 271:62 and Shaar Hatziyon there; Kaf Hachaim 271:76-79

[142] Rama ibid, omitted by Admur; Darkei Moshe 473:11; M”B 473:7; See Kaf Hachaim 473:29

[143] Rama ibid; See M”B 473:8; Kaf Hachaim 473:30

[144] Admur ibid [See also Admur 92:3-4 and 432:12]; Rama ibid; Maharil Seder Haggadah 8;

[145]  Admur 472:16; M”A 472:7

[146] The reason: The re-drinking of the 1st cup in a leaning position does not appear like one is adding to the number of cups established by the Sages, as this second cup is included in the blessing said over the first cup, and thus it is all considered one long drinking session which has been split into two. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[147] Admur 473:1; Rama 473:1; Darkei Moshe 486:1; Levush 473:1; Chok Yaakov 473:8; M”B 473:1; Kaf Hachaim 473:31; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:6; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 141

[148] Lit. tov

[149] Michaber Y.D. 195:10; Vayaged Moshe 6:11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 28

[150] The reason: This is done an act of freedom and aristocracy, in commemoration of the Exodus. [Admur ibid]

[151] See Shaar Hakolel 48:13; Vayaged Moshe 6:11 based on Kitzur SHU”A 119:2

[152] Shaar Hakolel 48:13 [He, however, discourages the custom, saying it’s not Derech Cheirus to do so]; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[153] See Shaar Hakolel 48:13 that Admur in his Siddur retracted from his ruling in 473:1 and holds that pouring for another is not necessary. However, the Rebbe in his Haggadah learns that although Admur in the Siddur does not mention this, nevertheless one cannot infer from this that in the Siddur Admur holds that there is no need to have someone else pour him in today’s wines, unlike the way the Shaar Hakolel inferred. Nevertheless, the custom of the Rabbeim was not to have someone else pour them.

[154] Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach “Minhag Beis Harav: We pour the cup and are not particular that another person pour it”; See Hamelech Bemisibo 1:200; 203 that the Rebbe would pour for himself and said that he would not allow another to pour for him; Otzer Minhagei Chabad ibid

[155] Aruch Hashulchan 472:6 that we are no longer accustomed to be careful in this as it appears like arrogance to command someone to pour for oneself

[156] See Kaf Hachaim 472:59

[157] Kaf Hachaim 473:31

[158] See Admur 271:19; 473:8; Kaf Hachaim 473:5

[159] Admur 271:19; 473:8 regarding Kiddush of night of Seder that it is said sitting; 643:2 regarding Sukkos “They are not particular to stand and rather say Kiddush even sitting”; Rama 271:10 and 643:2 regarding Sukkos; Kol Bo 41, brought in Beis Yosef 271:10; Rosh regarding Sukkos; Gr”a that so is the main opinion; M”B 271:46

The reason: As whenever one is being Motzi others with a blessing, the Yotzei and Motzi need to be in a state of Kevius/establishment and only if one is sitting during the blessing is it considered a state of Kevius. [Admur 213:1; Rashi Brachos 43a; Tosafus Chulin 106b; Tur 174; Kaf Hachaim 296:39-41; M”B 296:27] Nevertheless, from the letter of the law one is not  require to sit for Kiddush despite the above need of Kevius as this rule was only said regarding Birchas Hanehin, however by Birchas Hamitzvos, it is not required. Thus, by the blessing of wine for Kiddush and Havdalah, one is Yotzei another even while standing. Furthermore, the listeners are even Yotzei the blessing of Hagafen to then be able to drink the wine afterwards. [Admur 213:1; Tosafus Brachos 43a; Aguda; Maharil] However, since there are Poskim who argue on this and require even Birchas Hamitzvos to be said in a sitting position in order to be Motzi [see Michaber 296:6 regarding Havdalah; Taz 296:5 that the reason for this is due to Kevius], therefore, it is initially better to sit. [M”B 271:46 in name of Gr”a; Admur ibid motions the reader to look at chapter 296 regarding Havdalah to discover the reason why it’s better to sit. Seemingly his intent is due to this reason of Kevius; Levushei Mordehcai Tinyana Y.D. 44] Alternatively, the reason is because Kiddush is only said Bemakom Seuda, near a meal, and hence it looks humorous and silly to stand for Kiddush and then sit for the meal. [Kol Bo ibid; Levushei Serud 271:10; M”B ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is required to stand when reciting Kiddush. [Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair 271; Orchos Chaim Hilchos Havdalah 27 that so is custom; Possible way of learning Michaber ibid, and so learns Shaar Hamifkad p. 60; Rambam Sukkah 6:12 regarding Kiddush in a Sukkah, brought in Beis Yosef ibid; Seder Hayom]

Ruling of Michaber: The Michaber 271:10 states that one is to stand for Vayechulu but does not mention one way or another regarding the position that Kiddush is to be said in. In the Beis Yosef 271, the Michaber validates both options, and hence so seems to be his position here as well that one may choose to stand or sit. [So understands Aruch Hashulchan 271:25 and Yalkut Yosef Shabbos 27] However, see Shaar Hamfkid ibid who understands the Michaber to rule that one is to stand

[160] Rama ibid; Beis Yosef 2721:10 “In my opinion he may say Kiddush also standing”; See Rambam Sukkah 6:12 that one is to stand for Kiddush in a Sukkah, brought in Beis Yosef ibid and Michaber 643:1; M”B 271:46 concludes that even according to the Gr”a ibid one is Yotzei if he sits

The reason: As since he is close to the table, therefore it is considered Bemakom Seuda. [Beis Yosef ibid, thus negating reason of Kol Bo to sit] See previous footnote that Admur rules that Birchas Hamitzvos does not require Kevius of sitting. For alternative explanations-see Ashel Avraham Butchach 271; Aruch Hashuclhan 271:24; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:254; Igros Moshe 5:16; Mishneh Sachir 2:55

The advantage of standing: There is an advantage of standing over sitting by Kiddush as on Shabbos we are greeting the king, and it is thus proper to stand on His behalf, out of His honor and respect. [Orchos Chaim ibid; Kol Bo ibid, nonetheless due to the second reason stated above the Kol Bo concludes that one should sit; Siddur Shlah in name of Sefer Hamusar 4]

[161] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Darkei Moshe 271:8; M”B 271:46

The reason they sit for Vayechulu: The reason they do not bother to stand for Vayechulu is because they already said it in Shul in a standing position they are therefore not so particular to stand when they say it to be Motzi their sons and household. [Admur ibid; M”B 271:47] 

The reason they slightly lift their bodies for Yom Hashishi: Hashem’s name is hinted to in the Roshei Teivos of Yom Hashishi Vayechulu Hashamayim [Admur ibid] and they hence slightly raise their body in respect of Hashem’s name. [Rama ibid]

[162] Shaar Hakavanos p. 70; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Hashabbos 18:14; 21:6; Siddur Harizal; Mishnas Chassidim p. 97b; Siddur Shlah in name of Sefer Hamusar 4; Kaf Hachaim 271:62; Besamim Rosh 74

[163] Sefer Haminhagim [Hebrew] p. 28 and 39; English p. 55; Haggadah of Rebbe p. 8; Shulchan Menachem 2:316; Ketzos Hashulchan 79:4 footnote 14 that despite the ruling of Admur ibid, the custom by us is to stand as rules the Sifrei Kabalah

[164] Yifei Laleiv 2:1; Kaf Hachaim 472:5 based on Kabbalah; Yalkut Yosef Shabbos 27; Possible way of learning Michaber ibid and so is the ruling of Kabalah; See Yechaveh Daas 4:27

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the Sephardi custom is to sit for the recital of Kiddush of Yom Tov. [Kneses Hagedola 472; Pesach Meubin 208; See Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[165] Siddur Yaavetz that so was the custom of Chacham Tzvi; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:254 that he would stand as did his father;  See Divrei Yatziv 1:125 who explains the Rama’s ruling only applied in previous times when they washed before Kiddush, however today even according to the Rama one is to stand for Kiddush; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:27

[166] Custom of Chofetz Chaim, brought in Sefer Chofetz Chaim p. 911; Chazon Ish, brought in Dinim Vihanhagos 10:2; Rav Y.Y. Kanievsky, brought in Orchos Rabbeinu 1:109; Custom of the Brisker Rabanim, Reb Chaim and Yosef Zev, brought in Haggadah Mibeis Levi p. 92; Igros Moshe O.C. 5:16-5 writes to say Vayechulu standing and then sit for Kiddush; So was the custom of the Chasam Sofer and his children, to stand for Vayechulu and sit for Kiddush. [Minhagei Chasma Sofer; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:130]

[167] Admur 271:19; Rama 271:10; Maharil Shabbos 2 in name of Sechel Tov; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:29

[168] Likkutei Sichos 22:283

[169] The reason: As the words Ner Ner in Hebrew are the numerical value of 500, and [looking at it] brings healing for one having take wide steps, which removes 1/500’th from one’s sight. [Admur ibid; M”A 271:23; Maharil ibid]

[170] Admur ibid; 271:18; 183:9; Rama 271:10; Darkei Moshe 471:8

[171] Otzer Minhagei Chabad 58

[172] See Admur 271:18; 183:1 and 7; Haggadah of Rebbe; Sefer Haminhagim p. 28

[173] See Chapter 1 Halacha 4I in footnotes!

[174] Admur 473:10; Michaber 473:2; Rosh 10:24; Rabbeinu Yona end of Seder Pesach; Rav Sherira and Rav Haiy Gaon, brought in Tur 474; Kaf Hachaim 473:34; See Ashel Avraham Butchach 473; Nimukei Orach Chaim 474; Minchas Yitzchak 5:102; Tzitz Eliezer 12:1; Mikareiy Kodesh Pesach 2:30; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:305; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:9

Other opinions: Some are accustomed to reciting an after blessing, after drinking the wine of Kiddush, if they fear that 72 minutes will pass until they begin the meal. [Kumrana Rebbeon Pirush Mishnayos Maaseh Oreg 8; See Nimukei Orach Chaim 474; Teshuvos Vehanhagos ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 43]

[175] The reason: As the cup drank for Kiddush is considered drunk for the need of the meal, and is considered like foods brought due to the meal, which do not require an after blessing recited after them due to being secondary to the meal, and are exempt with Birchas Hamazon of after the meal, as explained in 174:8 and 177:1. [1st reason in Admur ibid; Taz 473:2] Furthermore, its after blessing is exempt with the after blessing which will be said after the 4th cup. Now, although one ends up drinking [i.e. waiting-Kuntrus Hashulchan] a lot in-between [the first cup and fourth cup], this is meaningless (as so long as the drink has not become digested, he is still able to say an after blessing over it, as explained in 184:3, and so long as the stomach is still open to eat, it does not digest the food, as explained there). [Admur ibid; See Tur 272; M”A 299:11; 174:13; Rosh 10:24; Ramban Milchamos 24b; Ran ibid; Kaf Hachaim 473:34; 174:12] Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol from Admur 184:3 who rules that if one desires to eat or drink more than some Poskim rule one has 72 minutes, while other Poskim rule one has to say the after blessing immediately, and so concludes Admur ibid as Sfaek Brachos Lihakel!

Other reasons: Some Poskim explain that the reason an after blessing is not said after drinking the cup of Kiddush, despite the long delay and possible Shiur Ikkul, is because we only apply the law of Shiur Ikkul in the event that one has no intent to continue drinking. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 473] Practically, we do not rule like this opinion. [M”A 190:3; M”B 190:8; Omitted from Admur ibid and ibid] Other Poskim explain that we do not apply the rule of Shiur Ikul by a Mitzvah food. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos ibid] Other Poskim explain that since we do not know how long the Seder will take, and if we will delay Shiur Ikul by the time we reach the second cup, therefore we do not say an after blessing. [Nimukei Orach Chaim ibid]

[176] Admur 472:22 “Even the household members who hear the Kiddush from the Baal Habayis..”

[177] Shevach Hamoadim in name of Rav SZ Dworkin; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:1 that some women are accustomed to say it themselves while other women are accustomed to hearing it from their husbands, as they do throughout the year

[178] Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:1

[179] Vayeged Moshe 16:7

[180] Vayeged Moshe 16:7; See Admur 213:4

[181] SSH”K 47 footnote 26 in name of Rav SZ”A

[182] Regarding general obligation: See Admur 273:1; Michaber 473:1; Shmuel Pesachim 101a

Regarding obligation to eat immediately afterwards: Admur 273:1; Rama 273:3; Iggur 387 in name of Maharil; Maharil 32; Ginas Veradim 2:20, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 273:2; Ben Ish Chaiy Bereishis 2:4; Kaf Hachaim 273:29

Definition of immediately: Practically, one is to eat the foods within four minutes of Kiddush. [Ketzos Hashulchan 81:3 footnote 10] Some Poskim write that he is to eat the food within the amount of time it takes to walk 22 Amos [30 seconds]. [Siddur Yaavetz, written by publishers] Other Poskim write that within a half hour it is still considered “immediately”. [Or Letziyon 2:20-24] Other Poskim rule one may delay even for one to two hours. [Poskim brought in Birkeiy Yosef 273 Shiyurei Bracha 1 and Kaf Hachaim 273:29]; See Tzitz Eliezer 11:26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4

[183] Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 9; Mikraeiy Kodesh Pesach 2:30; Kumrana Rebbeon Pirush Mishnayos Maaseh Oreg 8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:9; See Aruch Hashulchan 273:4; M”B 273:14; Kaf Hachaim 273:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 10; Ashel Avraham Butchach 273; Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4

 based on

[184] See Ashel Avraham Butchach 273, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:9 footnote 46

[185] See Admur 273:7-9 that if one drinks a Revius of wine, in addition to the Rov Revius that is required for Kiddush, he fulfills his obligation according to all, and even if he drinks only a Revius of wine, some Poskim rule he fulfills his obligation

[186] Background and sources: If one eats in a different home than the Kiddush, the Kiddush is invalid, and must be repeated. [Admur 273:1 and 6] The same applies on the Seder night. [Admur 484:5]; It is even forbidden to make Kiddush in one room and then switch to another room within the same home and eat the meal in the other room, and doing so invalidates the Kiddush, unless one intended to do so to begin with, or one can see the area he made Kiddush, in which case it is valid Bedieved. [Admur 273:2] Initially one is not even to make Kiddush in one end of the room and then eat in the other end of the room. [Admur 273:3] If one made a delay between Kiddush and Hamotzi, then it is forbidden to even switch [rooms within the same home], even if one plans to return and eat in the original area of Kiddush, and doing so invalidates the Kiddush. [Admur 273:5] However, if no delay is made, then some Poskim rule that it does not invalidate the Kiddush, if one switched rooms in-between and returned to eat the meal in the original Kiddush room. [Kneses Hagedola 273 and Yad Melachi, brought in M”B 273:12 and Biur Halacha 273:3 “Lialter”; Possible understanding of Admur 273:5, as explains Biur Halacha ibid; Kitzur Halachos 273 footnote 5 and 12] The reason for this is because Kiddush and wine both require an after blessing to be said in their place of drinking, and hence leaving to another area is not considered Hesech Hadaas. [Biur Halacha ibid] This certainly applies if the matter is being done for the sake of the meal. [M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 273:25] However, other Poskim rule that switching rooms in between does invalidate the Kiddush, even if one returns to eat in the original room, and did not delay at all in-between. [Possible understanding of Admur ibid; Nachals Tzvi and Pesach Davar in length, brought in M”B ibid and Biur Halacha 273:3 “Lialter”] Practically, one is to be very careful in this matter, not to even switch rooms between Kiddush and Hamotzi. [M”B ibid; Biur Halacha ibid]

[187] Admur and Poskim ibid regarding switching rooms between Kiddush; After Karpas, an additional reason to not switch rooms is in order not to lose the blessing over the Karpas, which is also meant to count for the Maror. [Ashel Avraham Butchah Tinayna 475; See Halacha 5D and Admur 178:1] Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as to why the Ashel Avraham ibid makes no mention of the more severe issue of switching areas between Kiddush and Hamotzi, and only relates to the possible loss of blessing caused after Karpas. Perhaps, however, his intent is to say that even if the matter is needed for the meal, such as to use the bathroom, then although it does not pose an issue for Kiddush, as explained next, it may pose an issue for the blessing of Karpas.

Switching rooms after eating the Matzah: Initially, one may not switch areas even after eating the Matzah, until after the 3rd cup, unless one had in mind to do so at the time of Hamotzi. [See Admur 479:8; 484:6; 178:4]

[188] Admur 484:5 “He is not Yotzei with the Kiddush he makes in their home, as he is not having his meal in their home, and Kiddush is only valid in the area of the meal.”; 273:1 and 6

[189] Admur 273:5; Vetzaruch Iyun, as by the Seder there is anyways a large delay between Kadesh and Hamotzi, and hence perhaps any leave of area can invalidate the Kiddush. On the other hand, perhaps we do not consider the time spent on the Haggadah in-between Kadesh and Motzi Matzah as a delay at all, as it is needed for the meal, and hence it only invalidates the Kiddush if one stepped out for a delay of sometime.

[190] M”B ibid; Biur Halacha ibid

[191] M”B 273:12; Kaf Hachaim 273:25; Kitzur Halachos 273 footnote 5 and 12

[192] Admur 600:5 regarding all Yomim Tovim; Admur 473:2 regarding Pesach

The reason why Hatov Vimaeitiv is not recited: The reason we say the blessing of Shehechiyanu by a Yom Tov, and not the blessing of Hatov Vihameitiv, is because the joy is not a joint celebration, as would be the case if it rained on a field that is jointly owned. [Mahariy Molko 101; Birkeiy Yosef 473:2; Kaf Hachaim 473:7; The Holiday is similar to it raining one everyone’s individual field, in which case only Shehechiyanu is recited] Alternatively, in place of Hatov Vihameitiv the Sages established the prayers of Yom Tov, and the blessing of Ata Vechartanu in Kiddush. [Halachos Ketanos 1:58; Kaf Hachaim 473:7]

The reason the blessing of Sheasa Nissim is not recited: The reason that the blessing of Sheasa Nissim is not recited on Pesach [unlike on Purim and Chanukah] is because it is already included in the saying of the Haggadah. [Tur 473; Sefer Hapardes of Rashi; Shibulei Haleket; Rokeiach 283; Rashbatz Mamar Chametitz; Machazik Bracha 473:1; Rebbe in Haggadah p. 10] Alternatively, the reason is because we only say such blessings by Rabbinical commands, and not by Biblical commands celebrating Biblical miracles. [Maharil Seder Haggadah; Rebbe ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because Pesach is a day of salvation which is much greater and larger than a miracle. [Mateh Moshe 619; Perisha 473:2; Elya Raba 473:4] See Kaf Hachaim 473:8

[193] See Q&A!

[194] Admur 473:2; Michaber 472:1

[195] Admur 600:5 regarding all Yomim Tovim; 473:2 regarding Pesach

The reason: The reason for this is because the entire reason of keeping two days in the Diaspora is because of the doubt of their ancestors as to (on which day the month was sanctified and consequently as to) which day is Yom Tov. Now, the ancestors always said Shehechiyanu also on the second day as perhaps the second day is Yom Tov and the previous day was a weekday and hence it was not exempt with the blessing of Shehechiyanu said yesterday. [Admur 600:5]

[196] Mateh Efraim 619:12; Sefer Haminhagim p. 128 [English]

[197] Admur 473:2; See also 643:5 regarding Sukkos; M”A 473:1; Eiruvin 40b; Sukkah 47b

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is Yotzei the blessing of Shehechiyanu in the blessing of Asher Goaleinu in the Haggadah, and thus it is never to be said after Maggid. [Arugas Habosem 144; Haggadah Shel Pesach Chazon Ovadia; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:8]

[198] Admur 643:5; Rabbeinu Chananel on Eiruvin ibid; Shiyurei Kneses Hagedola on Rif end of Bechol Mearvim in name of Riaz; Chok Yaakov 473:1; Chok Yosef 473:1; Kaf Hachaim 473:13-14

[199] Admur ibid; Eiruvin ibid; Chok Yaakov 473:1; Chok Yosef 473:1; M”B 473:1; Kaf Hachaim 473:13-14

[200] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 473:1; Elya Raba 473:3; Kaf Hachaim 473:12

[201] Admur ibid; M”A 473:1; Eiruvin ibid regarding Eretz Yisrael if forgot to say on first day; Chok Yaakov 473:1; Elya Raba 473:3; Chok Yosef 473:1; M”B 473:1; Kaf Hachaim 473:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:8

The reason: As the blessing of Shehechiyanu has Tashlumin for all seven days of the festival. [Admur 643:5]

Other opinions: Some Poskim question whether one who said Shehechiyanu on the first night but forgot to say it on the second night in the Diaspora may say Shehechiyanu on the other days to make it up. [Mor Uketzia 473; Nehar Shalom 473:1; See Shaar Hatziyon 473:3; Kaf Hachaim ibid; Betzel Hachochma 2:68; Kinyan Torah 7:31; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:8]

[202] Admur ibid; Suggestion in P”M 473 A”A 1 [although concludes with Tzaruch Iyun]; M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 473:10; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:8

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to say Shehechiyanu to make up for the first day on the 8th day of Pesach. [Siddur Yaavetz; See P”M ibid] Other Poskim rule it is not to be said even on the night of the 7th, due to it causing confusion, as people may erroneously believe that Shehechiyanu is meant to be said on that day. [Orchos Chaim 473 in name of Yifeil Laleiv; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:8 footnote 40]

[203] Eiruvin ibid; Kaf Hachaim 473:10

[204] Birkeiy Yosef 473:1 in name of Mahariy Molko; See regarding Sukkos: Michaber 643:1; Admur 641:1 and 643:1

[205] Siddur Yaavetz; Kaf Hachaim 473:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:1; See M”A 692:1 in name of Shelah regarding Megillah

[206] Setimas Haposkim regarding Sukkos in Michaber and Admur ibid, who do not mention any need to also intend on the Mitzvah of Sukkah, hence implying it is automatically included; See Igros Kodesh 15:42 that Rav Zevin suggests to the Rebbe that the reason for this is because the Shehechiyanu is going on the day of the Yom Tov and hence includes all its Mitzvos; See Haggadah of Rebbe p. 33

[207] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:1; Shevach Hamoadim-Kadesh

[208]  Har Tzevi 1:154; Mikraeiy Kodesh Pesach 2:38; Haggadah Moadim Uzmanim, Based on Shaareiy Teshuvah 167:11

[209] Shevet Halevi 3:69; Igros Moshe 4:21; 101; Rivivos Ephraim 1:182

[210] The reason: Some Poskim explain that on Sukkos and Pesach, since the Shehechiyanu by Kiddush includes the Mitzvos of that day [Sukkah, Matzah], therefore even women may answer Amen to be Yotzei, as the Shehechiyanu that they said by candle lighting was only on behalf of the holiday. [Shevet Halevi ibid] Other Poskim rule that one should leave the women to follow their custom to answer Amen and that doing so is not considered an interval, as since it is not an interval for the person saying the blessing, so too it is not considered an interval for those being Yotzei with him. [Igros Moshe ibid; Rivivos Ephraim 1:182]

[211] Hayom Yom 19th Nissan, p. 46 [in current print]; Sefer Haminhagim p. 118 [English]; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Nissan p. 142; Mateh Efraim 583:1; Likkutei Maharich 3:40; Kaf Hachaim 583:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:2; Custom of Vizhnitz, Belz, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 9

Original Chabad custom: In the earlier prints [1943] of Hayom Yom p. 46, it stated that one does not say Shalom Aleichem or Eishes Chayil at all on Shabbos Yom Tov, or Shabbos Chol Hamoed. This was based on an explicit directive of the Rebbe Rayatz that one is not to say it and that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab and the Rebbe Maharash, although there were some years in which they said it, but this is not relevant for others. There is a reason of the Baal Shem Tov recorded regarding this matter. [Rebbe in Reshimos Hayoman 4:12 and 22, p. 173; See Hayom Yom Hamevuar p. 419] Practically, the final directive of the Rebbe was to say it quietly, as recorded in the updated printing of Hayom Yom.

Other opinions and customs: Some Poskim rule that the Mizmorim of Shalom Aleichem, Ashes Chayis, Askinu Seudasa, are not to be recited on the night of the Seder in order to be able to begin the Seder right away. [Vayaged Moshe 13:2; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] Others say that the custom is to never recite the above paragraphs on any night of Yom Tov, even if it coincides with Shabbos. [Alef Hamagen 583:1] Otehrs say that the Mizmorim are to be recited regularly [aloud]. [Mateh Efraim 583:1; Likkutei Maharich 3:40; Kaf Hachaim 583:3] Seemingly, the Chabad custom of saying it quietly is a compromise between the various opinions.

Singing Azamer Bishvachin: Some Poskim rule that the song of Azamar Bishvachim is not to be sung when Shabbos coincides with Yom Tov. [Mateh Efraim ibid] Others, however, write that it is to be sung. [See Kaf Hachaim 583:3] Regarding the general Chabad custom of singing these Zemiros-See Sefer Haminhagim p. 29 in the footnotes that it was not always sung by the Rabbeim.

[212] Seemingly, this is due to what was explained in the previous footnote, that the original Chabad custom was not to say it at all, and thus no mention of it was made in the Rebbe’s Haggadah. However, in accordance to the final directive, one is to say it.

[213] Admur 473:5; Michaber 473:1

[214] Siddur Admur; Admur 271:19

[215] The reason: This is said in order to fulfill the obligation of Vayechulu on behalf of one’s children and household who were not present in Shul and thus did not hear it being said by the congregation after the Davening. [Admur ibid]

[216] Siddur Admur; See Admur 487:3 regarding Shemoneh and the same applies regarding Kiddush, as brought in M”A 487:2 that Kiddush is even more severe, and M”B 487:2

[217] See Admur 487:3; M”B 487:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:2; 487:4

[218] Admur 487:3 regarding Shemoneh Esrei; M”B 487:2 that the same applies for Kiddush

[219] Admur 487:1 regarding Shemoneh Esrei; M”B 487:2 that the same applies for Kiddush

[220] This is not considered as if he is adding to the four cups of wine, as he is obligated to say Kiddush, and has not fulfilled his obligation from the current Kiddush recited. [See Seder Hearuch 52 footnote 15]

[221] Admur 487:3 in parentheses; Rama 487:3; Beis Yosef 487 in name of Orchos Chaim

[222] 2nd opinion and conclusion of Admur 487:3 [that it is proper to not repeat the blessing due to Safek Brachos Levatala] regarding if did not mention Shabbos in concluding blessing but mentioned in middle of Shemoneh Esrei and the same applies for Kiddush; Kneses Hagedola 487; Chok Yaakov 487:4; M”A 487 regarding if mentioned in conclusion but not in middle

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one did not conclude Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, which mentions both Shabbos and Yom Tov, then he does not fulfill his obligation of Shemoneh Esrei [or Kiddush] even if he mentioned Shabbos in middle of the paragraph. [1st and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Elya Raba; M”B 487:2;]

[223] Admur ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun if he read the Shabbos Kiddush for the main paragraph, and then concluded Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, if he is Yotzei. Seemingly, however, according to the 2nd opinion ibid he would be Yotzei.

[224] Vayaged Moshe 13:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:2

[225] The reason: As one has an obligation on this night to begin the Seder right away so that the children do not fall asleep, as well as that this night is a Leil Shimurim, and there is thus nothing to fear from the Mazal of Maadim during this night.

[226] Admur 473:6-9; 491:4; 599:1 [regarding R”H]; See Kaf Hachaim 473:18-26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:3-5

[227] 299/17-18

[228] Other Opinions: The Elya Raba rules it does not suffice on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov to simply say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh. Rather one must say the entire blessing of Hamavdil without Sheim Umalchus. [Brought in Kaf Hachaim 299/58]

[229] 473/6; 491/4; 599/1 [regarding R”H]

[230] “When [the night of the Seder] falls on Motzei Shabbos one needs to say Havdalah after Kiddush, and if he has a candle he is to say a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush”, but prior to the blessing of Havdalah. After Havdalah, one is to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu” [Admur 473:6]

[231] Admur 473:6

[232] The reason: The reason for this is because the entire purpose of smelling Besamim on Motzei Shabbos is to comfort the soul which is saddened due to the leave of the extra soul it received on Shabbos. On Yom Tov, however, there is no need for Besamim as the pleasure of Yom Tov and its joy calms and soothes the soul [from its loss]. [Admur ibid; Tosafus Pesachim 102b; Rosh Pesachim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 473:18; Vetzaruch Iyun on some of the wording in Admur ibid]

[233] Admur 491:4                                     

[234] Some suggest this is due to that separating the candles from each other afterwards is similar to extinguishing. [see Admur 502:7; Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 4]

[235] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 298 footnote 59 for a discussion amongst Poskim in how one is allowed to say the blessing of Haeish over the candle lit in honor of Yom Tov. Simply speaking however, it is allowed being that Shabbos and Yom Tov candles are lit for the use of their light on the table as well as for Shalom Bayis.

Benefiting from light prior to Havdalah: It is disputed ion Poskim as to whether one may benefit from light prior to reciting Meoreiy Haeish within Havdalah. Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to do so. [opinion in Kol Bo 41; Beis Yosef 693; 298 Orchos Chaim; Perech Shushan 3:2; Beis Yehuda 107; Mahrkash; Birkeiy Yosef 693:1; Erech Hashulchan 693:2; Yifei Laleiv 2:2] Other Poskim rule it is permitted. [second opinion in Kol Bo 41; Beis Yosef 298; implication of Rama ibid; Levush ibid; Kneses Hagedola; Chabad custom by night of Purim]. However, according to all, one may read from a Siddur prior to Havdalah, as the Nussach is well versed in one’s mouth and there is hence not a lot of benefit involved. [Birkeiy Yosef 599:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 599:1; M”B 5991; Kaf Hachaim 599:6]

[236] Sefer Haminhagim p. 76 [English]

[237] Admur 473:8; Chok Yaakov 473:4; Mateh Moshe 618; See Kaf Hachaim 473:20; See PT 271:27

[238] The reason: Although the custom is to stand for Havdalah on every Motzei Shabbos out of respect for the king whom we are escorting [296:15; See “The Laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Havdalah Halacha 4] nevertheless, by Havdalah of Motzei Shabbos which is Yom To, since one is saying the Havdalah within Kiddush, it is said in a sitting position just like Kiddush. See 271:19 [Admur ibid]

[239] Drashos Mahariy Viyal; Yifei Laleiv 2:2 that even those who generally sit for Havdalah [see Michaber 296:6] are to stand for Kiddush of Yaknahaz; Kaf Hachaim 473:20; See Aruch Hashulchan 271:24

[240] Sefer Haminhagim [Hebrew] p. 39; English p. 55; Haggadah of Rebbe p. 8;

[241] Admur 473:9; Tosafus Pesachim 104a; Rosh and Mordechai, brought in Beis Yosef 473; Abudarham Seder Haggadah; Peri Chadash 473; Machazik Bracha 473:2; Kaf Hachaim 473:19

[242] The middle Nussach of Havdalah: The middle Nussach of Havdalah on Motzei Shabbos which falls on Yom Tov contains seven sets of “Havdalos” [separations] that Hashem made. The normal Nussach of Havdalah on Motzei Shabbos and Motzei Yom Tov only contains four Havdalos. The following is the Nussach read by Yaknahaz versus the regular Nussach. The words in Itallics are the stanzas that are added to the Yaknahaz Nussach versus the regular Nussach:

ברוך אתה ה, אליקינו מלך העולם המבדיל בין קדש לחול, בין אור לחשך, בין ישראל לעמים, בין יום השביעי לששת ימי המעשה. בין קדשת שבת לקדשת יום טוב הבדלת, ואת יום השביעי מששת ימי המעשת קדשת, הבדלת וקדשת את עמך ישראל בקדושתך ברוך אתה ההמבדיל בין קדש לקדש.

Background of this Nussach: From the letter of the law, one is allowed to recite the regular Havdalah of Motzei Shabbos:Yom Tov, which contains 4 stanzas of Havdalos, and simply switch the words of “Bein Yom Hashevi Lesheishes Yimei Hamaaseh” to the words “Bein Kedushas Shabbos Lekedushas Yom Tov Hivdalta” and then conclude Baruch Ata Hashem…”. The reason for the switch is because one needs to conclude the middle blessing of Havdalah with a matter that is similar to the words of the concluding blessings, and hence, since we now conclude Bein Kodesh Lekodesh we therefore switch the ending stanza of the Nussach to one that pertains to it. However, in the later generations [mentioned in Ran], the custom became to recite a total of seven stanzas of Havdalos, adding the stanza of “Bein Yom Hashevi Lesheishes..” [4th Havdalah] and “Bein Kedushas Shabbos…Yimei Hamaaseh Kidashta” [5th Havdalah, as it all counts as one Havdalah] and “Hivdalta Vekidashta..” [6th and 7th Havdalah as it refers to the Kohanim and Leviim being separated from the rest of Klal Yisrael]. The reason for this is because the Sages stated that one may never say less than three Havdalas within the Havdalah of Motzei Shabbos and Yom Tov, and one who desires to add more, may add up to seven Havdalos corresponding to the seven heavens. [This does not include the Havdalah of “Bein Yom Hashevi..” which is said at the end to serve as “Meiyin Chasima”.] Now, on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov, due to the obligations of the day of Yom Tov, it became accustomed to reciting 7 Havdalos in order so one says at least one time seven Havdalos. [Admur ibid]

[243] Admur ibid; Poskim ibid; Tur 473; Rambam Shabbos 29:22; Chulin 26b

[244] Admur 473:6 in parentheses

[245] The reason: The reason for this is because [this order is disputed between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel and] by doing so one followed Beis Shamai over Beis Hillel, and anyone who follows Beis Shamai over Beis Hillel does not fulfill his obligation. [ibid]

[246] Admur 296:11

[247] A dispute in this matter is brought in Admur. Some Poskim rule [Geonim; 1st opinion in Michaber] that since one is allowed to say Kiddush over the bread, and Havdalah is secondary to Kiddush on this night, he may likewise say Havdalah over the bread. Other Poskim [Rosh; 2nd opinion of Michaber] however rule in such a situation it is better to say Kiddush over Chamer Medina than to say it over bread. Practically, the custom in these countries is like the former opinion. [ibid] So is the ruling of Rama in our current wording of the Shulchan Aruch, however some prints have written the Rama rules like the latter opinion. [See Kaf Hachaim 296:28]

Other opinions: Michaber, based on Klalei Haposkim, rules like the latter opinion. [Kaf Hachaim 296:27]

[248] Admur 473:7; See Kaf Hachaim 473:21-26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:5

[249] Admur ibid; Michaber 473:1; Orchos Chaim Tefilos 12

[250] The reason one does not say Havdalah on a separate cup of wine: Although in this method one is performing two Mitzvos on one cup [i.e. Havdalah and the 2nd cup of the Seder], and in general we avoid performing two Mitzvos on one cup, as explained in 271:12 [See also Rav Huna Pesachim 102b], nevertheless, here there is no other choice, and it hence must be done. The reason there is no other choice is because if he says Havdalah on a separate cup in middle of Maggid, he will need to recite the blessing of Borei Peri Hagafen on that cup according to the custom of these provinces which rule that the blessing over the first cup does not exempt one from saying a blessing over the second cup, as explained in 474:2. Now, saying another blessing over a cup will appear as if he is adding to the four cups designated by the sages to be drunk that night. [Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 473:4]

Other reasons: Alternatively, the reason is because once one begins the Haggadah [i.e. Maggid] it is forbidden to make an interval in middle. [Levush 473; Ramban in Milchamos Pesachim that once the 2nd cup is poured one may not make an interval; Ran Pesachim; Biur Hagr”a 473; M”|B 473:4] Other Poskim, however, negate this reason saying there is no prohibition to make a Hefsek of drinking between the cups. [Admur 473:11; Chok Yaakov 473:5; Baal Hamaor; Tosafus Pesachim 103b] See Kaf Hachaim 473:21

[251] Admur ibid in parentheses; Kaf Hachaim 473:21 regarding Ashkenazim; M”B 473:4 regarding before Maggid, however, in Biur Halacha he leaves the matter in question if one remembered before Karpas; Beir Moshe 8:186 regarding if he already said Havdalah in Shemoneh Esrei

The reason: It is better that he eat the Karpas vegetables prior to Havdalah, then to say Havdalah over a cup of wine beforehand, after finishing Kiddush, as by doing so he will need to say another blessing of Hagafen on the wine and this will appear as if he is adding to the four cups designated by the sages to be drunk that night. [Admur ibid in parentheses]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that only if he remembers after Karpas is he to delay Havdalah until the 2nd cup, even if he remembers prior to beginning Maggid and pouring the 2nd cup, as it is proper not to drink extra wine prior to finishing the Haggadah. However, if he remembers prior to Karpas, then he must make Havdalah immediately as it is forbidden to eat before Havdalah. [Shulchan Gavoa 473:4] This follows the opinion of Michaber 474, and the custom of Sephardim, to not say Hagafen on the extra cups, and hence it does not appear like one is adding to the cups established by the Sages upon drinking it. However, the opinion of Admur follows the opinion of Rama 474 and that of the Ashkenazim [Kaf Hachaim 473:22] However, other Poskim rule that even Ashkenazim are to say Havdalah on a cup before eating the Kapras. [See Biur Halacha ibid who leaves this matter in question; Rav Moshe Feinstein in Haggadah Kol Dodi] Other Poskim rule that if he did not yet say Havdalah in Davening then he is to say Havdalah on another cup before Karpas. [Beir Moshe 8:186]

[252] Kaf Hachaim 473:22 that if he remembered after taking a sip he is to stop and say Havdalah over it and then drink it, and if he already drank a Revius, or majority of the cup then he is to refill it and say Havdalah; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:5

The reason: As another blessing is not required in such a case being that he was in the midst of drinking and did not remove his mind from drinking more wine at that moment. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[253] Admur ibid in parentheses; Shulchan Gavoa 473:4; Kaf Hachaim 473:22 and 24; See Admur 472:15; 299:2

[254] Admur ibid [See Admur 174:5; 299:4]; M”A 473:2; Chok Yaakov 473:6; Chok Yosef 473:6; Chayeh Adam 130 Inyanei Seder 3; M”B 473:5; Kaf Hachaim 473:23 

[255] Shulchan Gavoa 473:4; Kaf Hachaim 473:22

[256] The reason: As during the meal itself the Sages did not institute any drinking of cups, and hence there is no apparent addition if he drinks it in middle of the meal for the sake of Havdalah. [Admur ibid in parentheses] We do not say that one should delay Havdalah until after the meal, as then he will need to say Havdalah on a separate cup than the 3rd cup, and he will end up adding to the cups instituted by the Sages. Now, one cannot have him simply say Havdalah over the 3rd cup as we do not say two Mitzvos over one cup with exception to Kiddush and Havdalah. [M”A ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid; omitted by Admur; Vetzaruch Iyun as to the need for this reason as in any event one may not eat prior to Havdalah and hence he must stop in middle of the meal and say Havdalah!]

[257] Admur ibid in parentheses; Kaf Hachaim 473:25

[258] The reason: As if he does so it will appear as if he is adding to the cups instituted by the Sages, as the Sages instituted to drink two cups after the meal, and he will end up drinking three. However, during the meal itself in which the Sages did not institute any drinking of cups, there is no apparent addition if he drinks it in middle of the meal for the sake of Havdalah. [Admur ibid in parentheses]

[259] Machatzis Hashekel 473:2; M”B 472:5; Kaf Hachaim 473:25 

[260] Admur ibid; M”A 473:2; Chok Yaakov 473:6; Chok Yosef 473:6; Chayeh Adam 130 Inyanei Seder 3; M”B 473:5; Kaf Hachaim 473:26 

[261] Admur ibid in parentheses; M”B 473:5; Kaf Hachaim 473:26

[262] SSH”K 62:19; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:5; However see Har Tzevi 1:166 who leaves this matter in question; See Q&A!

[263] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:3

[264] Beir Moshe 6:136; SSH”K 62:16 footnote 27 in name of Rav SZ”A

[265] See M”A 296:4 in name of Shlah

[266] See 2nd opinion in Admur 296:19; Orchos Chaim; Taz; Regarding why this should not be considered an interval between the Kiddush and drinking the wine according to those who say women are exempt from Havdalah-See SSH”K ibid

[267] So rule in general that women may say Meoreiy Haeish: Ketzos Hashulchan 96 footnote 12; So rules also Daas Torah 296; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeitzei 24; Kaf Hachaim 296:54; Igros Moshe 2:47; Kinyan Torah 1:88; Beir Moshe 4:28; Kaneh Bosem 3:17; Sheivet Haleivi 6:42; Yechaveh Daas 4:27; [So is proven from Admur which does not mention anywhere any differentiation regarding women in the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish. Furthermore, even according to those Poskim [M”B in Biur Halacha 296 “Lo Yavdilu Leatzman”] who side women are exempt from the blessing of fire, they are nevertheless permitted to say the blessing as is the law by all Mitzvos that they are exempt from. [Ketzos Hashulchan 96 footnote 12] Regarding why this should not be considered an interval between the Kiddush and drinking the wine according to those who say women are exempt from Haeish-See SSH”K ibid

[268] Beir Moshe ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[269] Vayaged Moshe 15:10

[270] Shevet Halevi 8:118; Rav SZ”A in Maor Hashabbos 2:28; Orchos Rabbeinu 2:111; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296:4

[271] See “The laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Havdalah Halacha 3 in Q&A; Kaf Hachaim 296:44; Shevet Halevi ibid; Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 62 footnote 47; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296 footnote 34; 473:4 footnote 19

[272] See Har Tzevi 1:166; SSH”K 62:19; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:5

[273] As it is forbidden for him to eat until he says Havdalah. [Based on M”B 299:16]

[274] Har Tzevi 1:166

[275] Admur 473:19; Michaber 473:6; Tur 473; Rav Oshiya Pesachim 115a; See Kaf Hachaim 473:104-108; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:21

One who normally washes hands before Kiddush: Even those who are accustomed throughout the year to wash hands for bread before saying Kiddush, are to begin the Seder with Kadesh and are only afterwards to wash hands for Urchatz. [See Admur 473:4; Halacha 3A] Some write that by large public Sedarim in which it would take a very long time to wait for everybody to wash, it is permitted to have people wash before Kiddush. [Seder Hearuch 54:8 based on Leket Yosher that one may even initially wash before Kiddush, and based on those Poskim who rule that only the leader of the Seder must wash; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:21 footnote 121]

The Kabbalistic intents of this washing: See Shaar Hakavanos p. 87; Kaf Hachaim 473:108

[276] Pashut according to Admur and all Poskim ibid that every participant must wash hands and not just the Baal Habayis, as they will all be eating the Karpas dipped in saltwater; Beis Yosef 473 in name of Mordechai; Abudarham; Misgeres Hashulchan on Kitzur SHU”A 119:3; Mikareiy Kodesh Pesach 2:39; Hagahda Chakal Yitzchak; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:21 footnote 118

Other opinions and customs: Some communities are accustomed for only the leader of the Seder to wash his hands, and not for all the participants to do so. [Implication of Rambam 8 who writes Lashon Yachid; Otzer Hachaim Minhagei Tzas that so was custom of Rav Chaim of Tzans being that only the Baal Habayis dips it in the water and then distributes it to each participant; See Vayaged Moshe 24:8; Mikraeiy Kodesh ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:21 footnote 118; Michaber 163:2; Kaf Hachaim 163:19] This follows the ruling of the Chok Yaakov and others that one is not required to wash hands for foods dipped in liquids and is only to do so in order to interest the children to ask questions.

[277] Chayeh Adam 130:4; M”B 158:20; Kaf Hachaim 473:106; 158:13

[278] The reason: As all foods which are dipped in liquids one is required to wash ones hands prior to eating, as explained in Admur 158:3. [Admur ibid; Taz 473:6; M”B 473:51; 158:20; Kaf Hachaim 473:104] Alternatively, this is done in order to make the children wonder and ask questions, and it is thus to be done even by those who are lenient throughout the year to not wash prior to eating foods dipped in liquids. [Chok Yaakov 473:28, brought in Haggadah of Rebbe; Shaar Hatziyon 473; Kaf Hachaim ibid] This latter reason follows those Rishonim who rule that today there is no longer a requirement to wash hands for foods dipped in liquids. [See Tur 473 in name of Maharam Merothenberg; Lechem Chamudos on Perek Kol Habasar; M”A 158:8; Admur 158:3; Eretz Tzevi 1:32; Kaf Hachaim 158:25 and 473:104]

[279] Admur ibid and 158:3; Michaber ibid and 158:4; Beis Yosef 473 “Its good not to say a blessing”; Darkei Moshe 473:12; Opinion in Tur 473; Hagahos Maimanis 8:1; Tashbetz 99 in name of Maharam Merothenberg; Bach 473; Taz 473:7; Elya Raba 473:23; Peri Chadash 473; Chayeh Adam 130:4; Kitzur SHU”A 119:3; Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 3; See Kaf Hachaim 473:106

The reason: As whenever one was his hands for eating foods that are dipped in liquids a blessing is not recited, as explained in Admur 158:3. [Admur ibid] In addition, even accoridng to those who hold that a blessing is required for washing for dipped foods [see next] a blessing is not to be said as some Poskim hold a blessing is never said when eating less than a Kezayis [see Kaf Hachaim 158:20] and here by Karpas one initially needs to eat less than a Kezayis. [Kaf Hachaim 473:106]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is required to wash his hands for Urchatz with a blessing. [Chinuch Mitzvah 21; Opinion in Tur 473; Geonim, Rav Shmaya in name of Rashi; Levush 473:6 that so is custom to wash for Karpas with a blessing even though during general year we wash without a blessing; GR”A 473:30; 158:4 that one should wash with a blessing even throughout the year ]

[280] Shulchan Gavoa 475:1; Mordechai Pesachim 34b; Kaf Hachaim 475:2

[281] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:21 footnote 117 that some write it suffices to pour one time on the hand when washing for foods dipped in liquids.

[282] Vayaged Moshe 24:8 in name of Apei Ravravi; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 118

[283] Maaseh Melech p. 200

[284] Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:21; See Chayeh Adam 130:4, M”B 158:20, and Kaf Hachaim 473:106; 158:13 that this washing is to follow the same laws as washing for bread

[285] Custom of Rebbe ibid; Haggadah Chakel Yitzchak, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:21 footnote 116

[286] Vayaged Moshe 24:8 in name of Noheig Katzon Yosef

[287] Admur 473:14-18 and 475:22-24; Michaber 473:6; Rambam Pesach 8:2; Mishneh Pesachim 114a

[288] Admur 473:14; Michaber 473:6; Rambam Pesach 8:2; Mishneh Pesachim 114a

[289] The reason behind Karpas: Why did the Sages institute the eating of the Karpas? It was instituted in order so the children see everyone eating dipped vegetables prior to starting the meal, which is an anomaly, as throughout the entire year it is most uncommon to eat dipped vegetables prior to the meal. This wonderment of the children will then motivate them to ask questions on why it is done [and thus stimulate the asking of questions throughout the saying of the story of the Haggadah]. Now, the reason we desire to stimulate the children to ask questions is because the Mitzvah of telling over the Haggadah [i.e. the story of the exodus] is to be fulfilled in the form of a question and answer, in which one gives answers to the questions that he was asked. This is learned from the verse [Devarim 6:20-21] “Ki Yishalcha Bincha/When your child asks you….Viamarta Livincga Avadim Hayinu/And you shall tell your son we were slaves.” [Admur ibid; Tur 473; Beis Yosef 473; Rashi and Rashbam on Pesachim 114a; Kaf Hachaim 473:105; See also Admur 472:31; 473:40; 475:22; Likkutei Sichos 12:43]

[290] Admur ibid in parentheses; Implication of Braisa Pesachim 116a

The reason: Although the entire purpose of the eating of Karpas is to make the children wonder and stimulate them to ask questions, nevertheless, even one who is alone and does not have children in front of him to ask him, is obligated to eat it this dipped vegetable, as the Sages did not differentiate in this matter. [Admur ibid]

[291] See Admur 473:41 “As how can one then say “Halayla Hazeh Shtei Peamim/On this night twice” which implies that he is obligated to dip his food twice, while in truth we only dip due to an obligation one time, which is the dipping of the Maror into the Charoses. However, the first dipping [of the Karpas] is not due to an obligation but simply to make the children wonder [at the change and ask questions].; Rav Safra Pesachim 116a; M”A 473:27; Levush 473:7; Bach 472; Beis Yosef 472;

[292] See Admur 484:2

[293] Admur 473:16; M”A 473:4; Levush 473:6; Drashos Maharil Seder Haggadah; Chok Yaakov 473:12; M”B 473:19; Kaf Hachaim 473:45; Shaar Hakavanos p. 83, brought in Kaf Hachaim 473:49, “Although the Poskim write that one may take another vegetable iuf one chooses, in truth one is to take the Karpas vegetable, as the words of the Sages and their custom is considered Torah, and one thus needs to be particular to eat specifically the Karpas vegetable and not other vegetables.”; See Michaber Y.D. 296:4 [second] that a Karpas is the name of a specific vegetable; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:13; Nitei Gavriel 2:279; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 133

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may take Karpas or another vegetable, as one chooses. [Michaber 473:4]

[294] The reason: The reason that people take the Karpas vegetable is because it stands for Samech Perach, which means that 600,000 Jews were forced to work back breaking labor. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Chok Yaakov ibid; Drashos Maharil ibid; M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 473:49] See Shaar Hakavanos p. 83, brought in Kaf Hachaim 473:49, for the Kabalistic reasons behind taking specifically the Karpas vegetable

[295] Yerushalmi Shevi’is 9 “What is Karpas of the rivers? Rebbe Chanina says it is Petrozilian”; Custom of Polish Jewry recorded in M”A 473:4 [although he questions this custom as perhaps raw parsley is Shehakol]; Elya Raba 473:27 that so is the custom; Chok Yaakov 473:12 “The custom is to take Petrozilia, although it is better to take Karpas”; Gloss of Rav Akiva Eiger on M”A ibid in name of Yerushalmi ibid and Tosafus Yom Tov Shabbos 9:5; Chayeh Adam 130:5 that so is the widespread Ashkenazi custom; Kitzur SHU”A 118:2 in 1st option “Many are accustomed to take parsley”; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 589 that so was custom of the Munkatcher; Taamei Haminhagim 517 in name of Riaz Margolis that in Arabic, Karpas is the term used for Petrozilia and that so was custom of the Mekubal Rav Chaim Shaul Hakohen Deweck

Other opinions: Some Poskim question using raw parsley for Karpas, as perhaps its blessing is Shehakol being that it tastes better when cooked than when raw. [See M”A ibid who brings a Limud Zechus after questioning the custom, although nonetheless concludes that it is better not to use a vegetable under debate, if others are available; However, see Chok Yaakov 475:16 and Ritva Seder Haggadah that even raw Shehakol vegetables used for Karpas get elevated to Hadamah] See Aruch Hashulchan 473:10 “The Achronim said to take Petrozilin, but we don’t know what it is.” See also Misgeres Hashulchan 118:1 that Petrozilin is not eaten raw in his country

[296] Machatzis Hashekel on M”A 473:4 “I heard from a great man that he discovered based on medical research  that the Karpas is what we call today celery.”; Chasam Sofer O.C. 132 in name of his teacher Rav Nosson Adler that he researched this matter very thoroughly and came to the conclusion that the Karpas is celery “And so is our custom”; Kitzur SHU”A 118:2 in 2nd option “It is better to take celery”; Hagada Mareh Yichezkal that in Eretz Yisrael the Arabas refer to celery as Karpas

Other opinions: Some Poskim question the use of raw parsley for Karpas, as perhaps its blessing is Shehakol being that it tastes better when cooked than when raw. [See Lehoros Nasan 3:24; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:13] However, see Chok Yaakov 475:16 and Ritva Seder Haggadah that even raw Shehakol vegetables used for Karpas get elevated to Hadamah

[297] Aruch Hashulchan 473:10 in 3rd option; Misgeres Hashulchan 118:1 “Some are accustomed to take cooked potatoes”; Or Yisrael 473:4 in mame of Rav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchiv; Vayaged Moshe 17:7 that so was the custom of many Gedolei Olam; Custom of Belz was to take potato with some parsley

Other opinions: Some Poskim question the use of potatos for Karpas, as perhaps its blessing is Shehakol. [See Vayaged Moshe 17:7 in name of Rav Chaim of Tzans that its blessing is Shehakol; Ruling of other Chassidisher Rebbe’s recorded in Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:13 footnote 71] However, see Chok Yaakov 475:16 and Ritva Seder Haggadah that even raw Shehakol vegetables used for Karpas get elevated to Hadamah

[298] Kitzur SHU”A 118:2 in 3rd and most praised option “And the best is to take radishes”; Aruch Hashulchan 473:10 in 2nd option; Custom of Divrei Chaim and other Chassidisher Rebbe’s recorded in Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:13 footnote 72 and 74; See Kinyan Torah 4:53

Other opinions: Some Poskim negate using radishes for Karpas, as some Poskim [Chochmas Shlomo 473:5; See Chapter 1 Halacha 3E] rule it is a valid vegetable for Maror, and likewise perhaps its blessing is Shehakol when raw. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:13 footnote 73] However, see Chok Yaakov 475:16 and Ritva Seder Haggadah that even raw Shehakol vegetables used for Karpas get elevated to Hadamah

[299] Aruch Hashulchan 473:10 in 1st option; Misgeres Hashulchan 118:1 regarding soft onions that are Hadamah; Yesod Veshoresh Havoda 9:4 [regaridng onion leaves]; Chayeh Adam 130:5 that so is custom because they don’t have other vegetables; Regarding that the blessing over raw onions is Hadamah, see: Seder 6:12; Luach 9:11, and 205:1  [in parentheses], “Even vegetables of which majority of people are not accustomed to eat raw, but rather with bread or another food, such as onions and the like, one recites a blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah upon eating them when they are raw.”; Implication of reason of Chok Yaakov 475:16; Ketzos Hashulchan 51:3; Michaber 205:1 regarding raw garlic

Other opinions: Some Poskim question the use of onions for Karpas, as perhaps its blessing is Shehakol. [Igros Moshe 1:64 and Haggadah Kol Dodi in his name; Binas Adam 51:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:13 footnote 76; The following Poskim rule that the blessing over raw onions is Hadamah: Shaareiy Teshuvah 205:3 concludes like Bach 205 to say Shehakol on raw onions; Binas Adam 51:1; M”B 205:5 based on Shaareiy Teshuvah and Binas Adam, and conclusion of Shaar Hatziyon 205:7 based on implication of M”A 475:10; Kaf Hachaim 205:9; Igros Moshe 1:64; Rav Wozner in Koveitz Mibeis Levi 17:51; Piskeiy Teshuvos 202:35; 205:2; However, see Chok Yaakov 475:16 and Ritva Seder Haggadah that even raw Shehakol vegetables used for Karpas get elevated to Hadamah] Alternatively, it should not be taken as it gives bad breath. [Elya Raba 473:27 “When he could not find Karpas..he would not take garlic or onions as they give bad breath”; See Vayaged Moshe ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 78] To note, that in Breslov they have a tradition from the Baal Shem Tov to never eat raw onions whether plain or with other foods. [See Sichos Rebbe Nachman MiBreslov 265]

[300] Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:13 in name of Otzer Halachos

[301] Haggadah of Rebbe “Our custom is to take an onion (or potato)”; Sefer Haminhagim p. 39; Custom of Rebbe by Seder to use the heart of the onion; Custom of Rebbe Maharash, recorded in Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 134

[302] See previous footnote that potatos are mentioned in parentheses; See Reshimos of Rebbe, brought in Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 133, that a raw onion was the common dish always used for Karpas. It was only in later generation when people became weak natured and could not withstand the taste of raw onion that the cooked potato became introduced as an alternative. The Rebbe Mahrash, however, was not happy with this [when his household began using potatos]. See Hamelech Bemesibo 1:131 that the Rashag stated that they took pottatos for Karpas, and the Rebbe replied that the potatos are for women

[303] See article of Rav Chaim Rapapaort, printed in Koveitz Hearos Ubiurim Ohalei Torah, for attempted explanation

[304] Implication of Admur 473:17, 18 and 475:23 who constantly mentions specifically the use of a vegetable that is “Hadamah when eaten raw”; Implication of Maharil Seder Haggadah 14, brought in M”A 473:4, that specifically a raw vegetable is to be used; So is also implied from  Chasam Sofer O.C. 132 who speaks of taking specifically the raw celery; Vetzaruch Iyun as to the reason! Perhaps, however, one can suggest that since the Karpas hints to the hard work of the Jewish people, therefore a raw vegetable which containa some bitterness is to be used [See Kol Bo 50 “If Karpas is neot available, then take other bitter vegetables”; Ritva Haggadah Shel Pesach  “Eat the bitter vegetables for Karpas”; Divrei Yatziv 209 in name of Sefer Prdes Hagadol 132 that for Karpas one is to use a bitter vegetable]. See also Sefer of Rav Ashkenazi on 473:17 for a marvelous novelty that a cooked vegetable does not exempt the Hadamah of a raw vegetable, or would at least require that the raw vegetable receive precedence in its blessing, and hence since the Maror must be eaten raw one must also take a raw vegetable for Karpas. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol on his novelty!

[305] Chok Yaakov 473:12 “Raw or cooked”; P”M 473 A”A 4 regarding Kavush vegetables; Misgeres Hashulchan 118:1 regarding cooked potato and Kavush vegetables

[306] Admur ibid; Michaber 473:4 “The Karpas or another vegetable”; M”A ibid; See Pesachim 115a

[307] The Halachic definition of a vegetable: A list of foods defined as vegetables [regarding Kilayim, and likewise regarding the Karpas] is listed in Y.D. 296:15 [first] and 296:4 [second]. [Admur 475:24] There it states that all stalks that grow leaves directly on the stalk, are defined as vegetables [296:15] and that the Lefes, Tzenon, Teradim, Betzalim, Kusbar, Karpas, and Maror are all defined as vegetables. [296:4]

Taking a Lefes: Some Poskim rule that a Lefes is initially invalid for Karpas, as it is not considered a Yerek refefred to in the Talmud, which is required to be taken for Karpas. [M”A 473:4; 475:9] However, from the fact Admur omits this ruling of the M”A is implied that a Lefes is a valid vegetable. However, see Admur 205:3, based on Taz 205:1, that the definition of a Lefes is a group of vegetables that are not commonly eaten raw, and are hence Shehakol when eaten raw “So too various species of Lefasos, which are called Ribin and Mirin, are commonly only eaten only cooked”; Accordingly, the Lefes would be initially invalid for Karpas being that we need to use a vegetable that is Hadamah when raw, as stated above in Admur 473:17-18. Now, as for the reason why a cooked Lefes, which is Hadamah, should not be used, perhaps this is due to that the Karpas vegetable is meant to be raw, as stated above. See also Sefer of Rav Ashkenazi on 473:17 for a marvelous novelty that a cooked vegetable does not exempt the Hadamah of a raw vegetable, or would at least require that the raw vegetable receive precedence in its blessing, and hence since the Maror must be eaten raw one must also take a raw vegetable for Karpas. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol on his novelty!

Taking a bitter vegetable: Some Poskim write that since the Karpas hints to the hard work of the Jewish people, therefore a raw vegetable which contains some bitterness is to be used. [See Kol Bo 50 “If Karpas is neot available, then take other bitter vegetables”; Ritva Haggadah Shel Pesach  “Eat the bitter vegetables for Karpas”; Divrei Yatziv 209 in name of Sefer Pardes Hagadol 132 that for Karpas one is to use a bitter vegetable].

[308] Kinyan Torah 4:53

[309] See M”A 473:4 implies that Kavush vegetables is valid; P”M 473 A”A 4

[310] Admur 473:17; Siddur Admur; M”A 473:4; Maharil Hilchos Seder Haggadah; Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 114b; Chok Yaakov 473:12; P”M 473 A”A 4; Kaf Hachaim 473:47; See chart at the end of this Halacha!

The reason: The reason why the vegetable taken for Karpas needs to be of the blessing of Hadamah is in order to exempt the Maror, which is eaten later on in the meal, from needing a blessing of Hadamah. [Admur ibid in 1st opinion, in suspicion for the Poskim that the Maror requires a blessing; Rashi and Rashbam ibid] Now, although there is a long interval of reciting the Haggadah between the blessing over the Karpas and the Maror, nonetheless this is meaningless and the blessing continues to cover the blessing over the Maror, as explained in 474:1. [Admur ibid] However, other Poskim understand that the long interval of Haggadah and Hallel said between the Hadamah blessing of Karpas and the eating of Maror, invalidates the Maror from being Yotzei with the Hadamah said on the Karpas. Nonetheless, in their opinion, the Maror is considered part of the meal and hence regardless does not require a before blessing. [Admur ibid in 2nd opinion] According to this opinion, there is no need to use a Hadamah vegetable for Karpas. Thus, there is a dispute regarding if the Maror which is eaten later on in the meal, needs an independent blessing said over it, and consequently over whether a Hadamah vegetable must be taken for Karpas. Practically, we rule to suspect for both opinions [Admur 473:18] and hence for Karpas we take a Hadamah vegetable and have in mind to be Yotzei the Maror, and we thus remove ourselves from the dispute, and do according to all opinions.

[311] Admur 473:16 and 475:22-24; M”A 475:9; Levush 475; Olas Shabbos 473:2; Hagahos Maimanis 8:60; Rav Chisda in Pesachim 116a; M”B 473:20; Kaf Hachaim 473:48 and 475:41

The reason: The reason for why a Maror valid vegetable may not be eaten for Karpas is because if one eats from the Maror now, then how can he later return and say the blessing of “Asher Kidishani Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Achilas Maror” upon eating the Maror later on in the meal if he already ate it prior! [Admur ibid; Olas Shabbos ibid; Rav Chisda in Pesachim ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[312] Vayaged Moshe 17:7 and Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:13 regarding dessert foods; See Admur 473:16 and 475:24 and M”A 473:4 and 475:9 that the Karpas must be defined as a Yerek/vegetable according to Halacha. Thus, if it is a Safek fruit it should not be used.

[313] Admur 473:17 and 18

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to recite a blessing of Hadamah on all vegetables used for Karpas, even if throughout the year the vegetable is Shehakol when eaten raw. The reason for this is because the Mitzvah of the Sages requiring Karpas itself elevates its blessing status, and hence can turn a normally Shehakol blessing into a Hadamah blessing, if it is a vegetable. Thus, the blessing over Karpas is more like Birchas Hamitzvos than Birchas Hanehnin. [Chok Yaakov 475:16 that this is simple and obvious; Ritva Seder Haggadah]

[314] Bedieved if one said a Shehakol on the Hadamah vegetable: One who said Hadamah on the Shehakol Karpas vegetable nonetheless fulfills his obligation. [See Rav Akiva Eiger 475 on M”A 475:10 that one is Yoztei Bedieved if he said a Hadamah on a vegetable that is Shehakol when eaten raw; See other opinions in previous footnote]

[315] First and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; See M”A 473:4 and Bach 473; Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 114b holds that the Maror is not considered part of the meal and hence requires its own blessing. Consequently, they also hold that if a Shehakol vegetable was used for Karpas, or one said a blessing of Borei Nefashos over the Kezayis, then one is required to repeat the Hadamah over Maror.

[316] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 475:2; Tosafus Pesachim 115a; Tur 473 and 475 in name of Riy

[317] The reason: This opinion learns that the reason one is not required to recite a blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah over the Maror is not because the Maror is exempt with the blessing over the Karpas, but rather because the Maror is considered as part of the meal, as one is obligated to eat the Maror immediately after the Matzah, and it is thus considered like matters which come as the result of the meal, which do not require a blessing beforehand as they are secondary to the bread, and exempt with the blessing of Hamotzi said over the Matzah, as explained in 177:1.

[318] Admur 473:18; Peri Chadash 475:2; Kaf Hachaim 473:109; See chart at the end of this Halacha!

[319] Admur 475:22-24; Michaber 475:2; Tur 475; Rav Chisda Pesachim 115a; See Kaf Hachaim 475:41-48

The law if one only has a single Kezayis of Maror: In such a case one is to skip Karpas and simply eat the dipped Maror after eating matzah. [P”M 475 M.Z. 8; Kaf Hachaim 475:46]

[320] Admur 475:22

[321] Admur ibid; Levush 475; Implication of Michaber 475:2 and Tur 475; Kaf Hachaim 475:48

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to dip the Maror used for Karpas, into Charoses. [Bach 473; Kol Bo; Kaf Hachaim 475:48 that so applies according to Ramban in Milchamos; Ran; Rashbatz, who all hold one fulfills his Mitzvah of Maror with this Maror eaten by Karpas]

[322] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Pesachim ibid

The reason the blessing is recited now: The reason for why the blessing is said over the Maror eaten for Karpas and not over the Maror eaten later on after Matzah, is because if one eats from the Maror now, then how can he later return and say the blessing of “Asher Kidishani Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Achilas Maror” upon eating the Maror later on in the meal if he already ate it prior! [Pesachim 115a; See Admur 473:16; Olas Shabbos 473:2; Kaf Hachaim 475:43]

Having in mind not to fulfil the Mitzvah with this Maror: Some Poskim rule that one is to explicitly intend not to fulfill ones obligation with the eating of this Maror, and that the blessing nonetheless counts for the Maror eaten after the Matzah. [P”M 475 A”A 9; M”B 475:26; Kaf Hachaim 475:47 and that so is implied from Admur ibid, from his explanation of why one must repeat the eating of a Kezayis of Maror later on, that one is not fulfilling any part of the mitzvah with this Maror. Vetzaruch Iyun then as to why it is not considered a Hefesk between the eating and the blessing, if the current Maror is non-Mitzvah Maror, and the blessing has hence not yet begun!]

[323] Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 473:6; M”B 475:26

[324] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Pesachim ibid

The reason a blessing is not recited: One cannot recite a blessing of Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Achilas Maror upon eating this Maror, as one already ate it earlier for Karpas. Now, although there is a great interval between the blessing of Al Achilas Maror [said earlier by Karpas] and the Kezayis of Maror that one eats after the Matzah, nonetheless, this is meaningless, as one already ate a small amount of Maror immediately after the blessing, and thus already began the Mitzvah, and there is thus no interval between the blessing and start of the fulfillment of the Mitzvah. [Admur ibid; Pesachim ibid; Tosafus Pesachim ibid; M”B 475:26; Kaf Hachaim 475:43] Vetzaruch Iyun from the fact that in truth this Maror that one eats now is excluded from the Mitzvah, and hence how can it be considered the start of the Mitzvah. See previous footnotes.

[325] Admur ibid; Pesachim ibid; Tur 473; Tosafus ibid; Rosh; Peri Chadash; Kaf Hachaim 475:44 that so is implied from Michaber and Levush and so rule the Achronim

The reason: As the first eating of Maror was only done to surprise the children [and not for the sake of the Mitzvah of Maror] and thus it is with the second eating that one fulfills his obligation of eating Maror. [Now, the reason that one is not to intend to fulfill  the Mitzvah of Maror with the initial eating of Karpas which is done to surprise the children is because] Lechatchila, the Mitzvah of eating Maror is not to be fulfilled prior to fulfilling the Mitzvah of eating Matzah, as the verse [Bamidbar 9:11] states “Al Matzos Umerorim” [Admur ibid; Tur 473; Pesachim ibid; Tosafus ibid that the second eating is the main eating; Rosh; Peri Chadash; Kaf Hachaim 475:44]

Is one to say a Borei Nefashos if he ate a Kezayis? One is not to say a Borei Nefashos after the Maror even if he ate a Kezayis of it. [Taz 475:8; P”M 475 M”Z 8; Kaf Hachaim 475:45; See Admur 473:17-18]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one does fulfill his obligation with the Maror eaten by Karpas. [Ramban in Milchamos; Ran; Rashbatz Mamar Chametz p. 35, brought in Kaf Hachaim 475:44]

[326] Admur 475:23; Michaber 475:2; Rav Chisda Pesachim 115a

[327] Admur ibid [See Admur 205:1-2; Seder 6:12; Luach 9:11-12]; M”A 475:10; Chok Yosef 475:9; P”M 475 A”A 10; See Biur Halacha 475:2 “Betibul”; Kaf Hachaim 475:42

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one says Hadamah on raw horseradish being that it is eaten with other dips and hence deserves a blessing. Furthermore, the blessing over Karpas is like Birchas Hamitzvos rather than Birchas Hanehnin, and hence it deserves a blessing even if a blessing is not be said from the laws of Birchas Hanehnin. [Chok Yaakov 475:16; Biur Halacha 475:2 “Betibul” that so also rules Chasam Sofer in glosses on 473 and so leans to rule Rav Akiva Eiger; See also Ritva Seder Haggadah] Other Poskim rule that at the very least one is to say a Shehakol on the Maror. [Biur Halacha 475:2 “Betibul”] Kaf Hachaim 475:42 concludes that if the Maror cannot be eaten at all, no blessing is said, while if it can be eaten with a dip then a Shehakol is said, and if it can be eaten plain, a Borei Peri Hadamah is said

[328] Rav Huna in Pesachim 114b

[329] Admur ibid; M”A 475:9; Levush 475; Hagahos Maimanis 8:60; Pesachim 116a; Kaf Hachaim 475:41

[330] See Admur ibid

The definition of a vegetable: See above in footnotes!

Taking a Lefes: Some Poskim rule that although a Lefes is initially invalid for Karpas, as it is not considered a Yerek referred to in the Talmud, nevertheless one is to use it rather than use a Maror vegetable. [M”A 473:4; 475:9; Chok Yosef 475:9; Kaf Hachaim 475:41] Admur ibid omits this ruling. See previous footnotes!

[331] Vayaged Moshe 17:21 in implication of Seder Hayom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:24 

[332] Admur 473:14; Siddur Admur; Michaber ibid; Rama 473:4; Tosafus Pesachim 114a; Rosh Pesachim 10:25; Rashbam Pesachim ibid

[333] Kaf Hachaim 473:51

[334] M”B 473:54

[335] Admur 158:4 Acronym for Yad Shachat Dam/י”ד שח”ט ד”ם

[336] Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 473:6; See Chinuch Mitzvah 21 that one is even initially to dip the Karpas in the Charoses

[337] Siddur Admur as explains the Rebbe in Haggadah [In the Siddur, Admur writes that the dips are to be either salt water or vinegar, and does not mention Charoses. The Rebbe infers from here that Admur in the Siddur holds that Charoses may not be used.]

[338] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:23

[339] Darkei Moshe 473:16 in name of Mordechai Seder Hakatzar 33

[340] As one is required to wash for dipped foods even if they have not bene entirely dipped into liquid. [See Admur 158:3; Beis Yosef 158]

[341] Haggadah Moadim Uzmanim, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:23

[342] The reason: As some Poskim rule that if one eats the dipped food with a fork then it does not require washing. [See Admur 158:3 that washing is required even if one eats it with a fork. However, this only applies if it is abnormal to eat the dipped food with a utensil. Thus, being that it common to eat the Karpas vegetable with a fork, it is seemingly to be eaten with one’s hands in order so one be obligated in the washing.

[343] Hagada Yalkut Shimoni p. 18

[344] Implication of Admur in Siddur “Dip and say the blessing” and of Michaber 472:6 and so explains Rebbe in Haggadah; Admur 475:12 regarding Maror dipped in Charoses; Chok Yaakov 475:8; Mateh Yehuda end of 473; Kaf Hachaim 473:111; Vayaged Moshe 25:19 in name of Leket Yosher that so did the Terumas Hadeshen; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:23 that so is custom of all; See Admur 167:3 regarding partially cutting the bread before the blessing; See also Admur 206:3, Seder 9:2, and Luach 6:2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to dip the Karpas in the saltwater only after saying the blessing, as the blessing is meant to cover also the dipping. [M”A 473:11 in name of Maharil; Levush 473; P”M 473 A”A 19]

[345] The reason: As one is to approximate the blessing to the fulfillment of the Mitzvah, which is the eating, as much as possible. [Admur ibid regarding Maror in Charoses; See M”A 473:19; Chok Yaakov 475:8; See Poskim ibid]

[346] Shibulei Haleket 64; Tzeida Laderech 11; Mateh Moshe 625; Maharal Gevuros Hashem 50; Birkeiy Yosef 473:14 that so applies also based on Kabala; Chukas Hapesach in name of Rabbeinu Yona; Zevach Pesach p. 2 Karpas 7; Kisei Eliyahu 473:4 that so is custom and main opinion; Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 32; Likkutei Maharich that so is the widespread custom; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 589Kaf Hachaim 473:114; Vayaged Moshe 17:19 in name of many Poskim and that so is custom; Sefer Haminhagim and Haggadah of Rebbe “From Admur in the Siddur it is implied that one may lean if he chooses , although there is no obligation to do so. Nevertheless, practically, the custom is not to lean”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:24; Chazon Ovadia 2:141; Nitei Gavriel 2:283; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 148; The Rebbe himself did not lean

The reason: As the Karpas is not eaten as an intrinsic Mitzvah of eating, but simply to arouse the children to ask questions, and thus there is no need to lean by it. Furthermore, the Karpas hints to the hard work of the Jewish people and hence it is not befitting to lean upon eating it.  [Hamelech Bemisibo 2:98]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to lean for the eating of Karpas. [Abudarham Seder Haggadah; Mamar Mordechai 473:4; Kitzur SHU”A 119:3 and Misgeres Hashulchan 119:5; Custom of Brisk; See Kaf Hachaim 473:14 that each community is to follow his custom; Moadim Uzmanim 7:183 that those who eat a Kezayis of Karpas are to lean; Vayaged Moshe ibid writes that some are accustomed to eat some of the Karpas leaning and some of it not leaning]

[347] Admur Seder 9:4; 206:8; 167:7; Michaber 206:4; Brachos 43b; Beis Yosef 212; Mordechai in name of Ravayah; Ataz 162:6

The law by a lefty: Some Poskim rule that even a left-handed person is to hold the item in his right hand, as the right hand is the side of life and is the side of Chesed according to Kabbalah. [Implication of reason of Seder Brachos “Lechoz”; Elya Raba 206:6; Peri Megadim 206 A”A 6 leaves this matter in question; Sdei Chemed Brachos 1; Kaf Hachaim 206:30 that so is custom; Orchos Chaim 206:5 in name of Divrei Mordechai 15; See also P”M 158 A”A 1; M”B 4:22 in name of Artzos Hachaim; Amudei Hashulchan 2:2; Kaf Hachaim 4:35; Miasef Lekol Hamachanos 4:53] Other Poskim, however, rule, that a lefty always gives precedence to his left side. [M”B 206:18 that so is implied from M”A 183 and Rav Akiva Eiger 206; Mur Veahalos 48; Beir Moshe 1:3; Rivivos Ephraim 8:80; Cheishev Haeiphod 3:30; Sefer Dinei Iter p. 182 and 43-46 based on Tzemach Tzedek Orach Chaim 4:6 and 5:8 regarding Netilas Yadayim, and based on Admur 183:7 that a lefty is to hold the Kos Shel Bracha in his left hand; 651:14 that a lefty is to hold the Lulav in his left hand; So writes also Rav Ginzberg in Haaros Ubiurim 783 p. 74]

[348] The reason: As all matters which one says a blessing over must be held in the right hand during the time of the blessing. [ibid] This is due to the importance that the Torah gives the right hand. [M”B 206:18; Levush 297:5; See Admur 183:7; Tzemach Tzedek ibid] Alternatively, it is due to the fact that the right hand represents Chesed and life. [Seder Brachos “Lechoz”, brought in Admur 206:8 regarding holding it with a knife]

[349] Siddur Admur; Kaf Hachaim 473:113; See chart at the end of this Halacha!

May one talk between eating the Karpas and Maror? Yes. [See Admur 473:17] However, some Poskim rule that it is proper not to talk in between. [Shlah Pesachim; Siddur Yaavetz; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:24]

May one walk from one room to another between Karpas and Maror? See Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinayna 475. Vetzaruch Iyun as this should be regardless forbidden due to the prohibition of making an interval of walking from inside to outside or from room to room between the kiddush and Seuda. [See Admur 484:5; 484:1; Admur 273:1-2]

[350] The reason: The reason for this is as follows: There is a dispute amongst Poskim regarding if the Maror eaten later on in the meal is included in the blessing of Hamotzi over the Matzah, and thus does not need a blessing said over it, or if the Maror is not included in the Hamotzi and thus does need a blessing said over it. Therefore, by Karpas we take a vegetable which is Hadamah and have in mind to also include the Maror in the blessing. [See Admur 473:17-18]

[351] Rebbe in Haggadah

[352] Pashut from Admur 473:17-18; Kaf Hachaim 473:113

[353] Admur 473:15; 18; 473:14 “eat a little”; Michaber 473:6; Tur 473; Rosh Pesachim 10:25; Teshuvos Rashba [Ramban] 52; Hagahos Maimanis 8; See Kaf Hachaim 473:109

[354] The reason: Since the eating of the Karpas is simply done for the sake of stimulating the children to ask questions, therefore one is not required to eat a Kezayis, as even a small amount suffices to make the children wonder. It is thus unlike the law regarding other Torah required eatings in which case it is not considered an eating if one consumes less than a Kezayis. [Admur ibid; Tur ibid; Rosh ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is required to eat a Kezayis of Karpas, as all eating Mitzvos have a minimum measurement of a Kezayis, and hence since the Sages obligated one to eat Karpas, one must eat a Kezayis of it. [Bach 473; Rambam 8:2; Chinuch Mitzvah 21; Maaseh Rav of Gr”a; Mor Uketzia 473, unlike his Siddur; Custom of Griz of Brisk and Chazon Ish; See Biur Halacha 473:6 in name of Rashbatz Yavin Shemua p. 35 and Mateh Yehuda that less than a Kezayis does not require washing, as rules Michaber 158:3, and hence the Sages who required one to wash for Karpas must have required one to eat a Kezayis; See Kaf Hachaim 473:109; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:22]

[355] Admur 473:18; Michaber ibid; Maharil 25; 58:2; Chok Yaakov 473:29; Siddur Yaavetz; See Kaf Hachaim 473:109; See chart at the end of this Halacha!

The reason: It is disputed amongst the Poskim as to whether one is required to recite a blessing of Hadamah over the Maror which is eaten later on. Some Poskim [Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 114b] rule that one is required to recite a blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah on the Maror, as it is not considered part of the meal. However, other Poskim [Tosafus Pesachim 115a; Tur 473 and 475 in name of Riy] argue on this and rule that one is never required to recite a blessing of Hadamah on the Maror, being that it is eaten during the meal.  Practically, we suspect for both opinion and hence in order to avoid this debate, we specifically use a Hadamah vegetable for Karpas and have intent to exempt the Maror with it. [Admur 473:17-18] Now, according to the first opinion, one can eat as much as he wants of the Karpas vegetable, as in any event its after blessing is included in Birchas Hamazon which exempts the Maror eaten during the meal. [Admur 473:17] However, according to the second opinion, the Karpas is not exempted with the Birchas Hamazon which exempts the Maror, as the Karpas and Maror have no connection. Accordingly, if one eats a Kezayis of Karpas he needs to say an after blessing for it. Therefore, we avoid eating a Kezayis of the Karpas in order to avoid needing to say an after blessing according to the second opinion. [Admur 473:18; M”A ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to eat a Kezayis of the Karpas, and nevertheless one does not need to recite a Borei Nefashos afterwards, as it will be included in the Maror. [Chinuch Mitzvah 21; This opinion follows the first opinion above!]

[356] Pashut from Admur ibid; Peir Chadash 473; Kaf Hachaim 473:110

[357] See Admur 486:1 that regarding an after blessing one is initially to be stringent like the opinion that a Kezayis is slightly less than 1/3 of an egg; See Shiureiy Torah 3:12-13 p. 194 that this equals to 14.4.-17.3 grams

[358] See Admur 486:1 that in order to avoid the dispute one is to eat “much less” than a 1/3 of an egg. Thus, perhaps one should eat not more than 10 grams of onion, in order so one does not come close to the 1/3 of an egg volume for an onion.

[359] Mikraeiy Kodesh 2:40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:22; See Admur Seder 8:9, Luach 2:10, and Michaber 210:1 that a whole fruit or vegetable is a Berya, of which some Poskim question that perhaps it requires an after blessing.

[360] Admur 473:17; M”A  473:18

[361] See Taz 473:8, Bach 473 and Kaf Hachaim 473:109 that this dispute is not found explicitly in the Rishonim [Riy versus Rashbam] and is rather an offshoot of their debate as to why a blessing is not said over the Maror.

[362] First and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Michaber 473:6; Darkei Moshe 473:14; M”A 473:18; Chok Yaakov 473:29; Tur 473; Rosh Pesach 135 in name of Rashbam; Maggid Mishneh on Rambam 8:2; Rashba 1:72; Chinuch Mitzvah 21 that an after blessing is not recited as it is included in the after blessing that will be said after eating the Maror; See M”A 473:4 and Bach 473; Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 114b

[363] The reason: We do not recite an after blessing over the Karpas in order to avoid the need to recite a blessing of Hadamah later on over the Maror. [Admur ibid; Rashba ibid] 

[364] Admur ibid

The reason: As since the Maror became exempt with the blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah that was said over the vegetable [of Karpas] therefore also the vegetable [of Karpas] is included and exempt with the after blessing said for the Maror, which is Birchas Hamazon. The Maror is exempt with Birchas Hamazon being that it was eaten during the meal, and is secondary to the meal and is hence exempt with Birchas Hamazon, just as is the law with other fruits eaten during a meal, of which we rule that one does not need to say an after blessing, being that they are exempt with Birchas Hamazon. [Admur ibid; Taz 473:8; Bach 473; Tur 473 in name of Rashbam]

[365] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Tur 473 and 475 in name of Riy; Rambam Teshuvos 77 “He is to say a blessing afterwards” [unlike Pirush of Maggid Mishneh on Rambam 8:2]; See Peri Chadash 475:2; Tosafus Pesachim 115a

[366] The reason: This opinion learns that the reason one is not required to recite a blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah over the Maror is not because the Maror is exempt with the blessing over the Karpas, but rather because the Maror is considered as part of the meal, as one is obligated to eat the Maror immediately after the Matzah, and it is thus considered like matters which come as the result of the meal, which do not require a blessing beforehand as they are secondary to the bread, and exempt with the blessing of Hamotzi said over the Matzah, as explained in 177:1. Accordingly, there is no need to have the Maror included in the blessing of Hadamah said over Karpas, and one does not even need to use a Hadamah vegetable at all for Karpas. Therefore, if one ate a Kezayis of Karpas he must say a Borei Nefashos afterwards, as there is no reason to delay its after blessing, and its after blessing is not included in the Birchas Hamazon which exempts the Maror, as the Karpas and Maror have no connection. [See Admur ibid]

[367] Admur 473:18; M”A 473:18; Peri Chadash 475:2; Implication of Michaber 473:6; Darkei Moshe 473:14; Chok Yaakov 473:29; Chok Yosef 473:24; Mamar Mordechai 473:3; Biureiy Hagra; Kaf Hachaim 473:116 [concludes that one who wants to be Machmir should think the blessing in his mind]; See Michaber ibid and Beis Yosef 473 that this would not necessarily be a blessing in vain but rather a Bracha Sheiyno Tzericha

[368] Admur 473:17; See chart at the end of this Halacha!

[369] First and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Tur 473 in name of Rashbam; See M”A 473:4, Taz 473:8, Bach 473, Kaf Hachaim 473:109

[370] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 475:2; Tosafus 115a; Tur 473 and 475 in name of Riy; See Taz, Bach and Kaf Hachaim ibid

[371] The reason: This opinion learns that the reason one is not required to recite a blessing of Borei Peri Hadamah over the Maror is not because the Maror is exempt with the blessing over the Karpas, but rather because the Maror is considered as part of the meal, as one is obligated to eat the Maror immediately after the Matzah, and it is thus considered like matters which come as the result of the meal, which do not require a blessing beforehand as they are secondary to the bread, and exempt with the blessing of Hamotzi said over the Matzah, as explained in 177:1. [Admur ibid]

[372] Admur 473:18; Peri Chadash 475:2

[373] See Admur Seder 9:2, Luach 6:2, and 206:3 that one is to not cut a fruit until after the blessing, as it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to say the blessing on a whole food. Now, this is not considered a Hefsek as it is done for the sake of the eating

[374] Kitzur SHU”A 119:3

[375] Admur 178:1; Seder Birchas Hanehnin 9:11-12

The law of Chaburah-if one is not eating by himself: Although in general we rule that if one is eating with a Chabura [i.e. another person or group of people] then even if he leaves, a blessing is not needed to be repeated upon returning, and he may even initially leave [see Admur 178:2], nevertheless, the status and definition of Chaburah is debated amongst the Poskim, and is hence not to initially be relied upon. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 178:8]

[376] Ashel Avraham Butchah Tinayna 475

[377] However, after Hamotzi, even though one is still before Maror, one can no longer say a blessing on a Hadamah as it is included in the blessing over the meal, unless the Hadamah is a desert fruit, such as a banana, or pineapple.

[378] Ashel Avraham Butchah Tinayna 475; Vetzaruch Iyun why he makes no mention of the law by a Chabura!

[379] See Admur 178:1; Seder ibid 11; However, if one went to his backyard, which is closed from all four sides and not used as an entrance to the home, the practically, it is viewed as another room within the home and the blessing is not repeated. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 178:4 footnote 15]

[380] See Biur Halacha 178:1 “Bibayis Echad”; Shevet Halevi 1:205; Piskeiy Teshuvos 178:7

[381] See Admur 178:2; Seder 9:13

[382] Eating a different Hadamah vegetable in a case of doubt: See Ashel Avraham ibid who suggests removing the Karpas and Maror from the table and eating a new Hadamah vegetable with a blessing, in a case of doubt.

[383] Admur 473:25; M”A 473:5; Chok Yosef 473:11; Kaf Hachaim 473:52; Rebbe in Hagada “After Karpas I did not see them return the leftovers onto the Keara, and hence from here onwards there are only five things on the Kearah”; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 149

Ruling based on Kabalah: Based on the Kabalistic meanings behind each of the Simanim, it is proper for all the Simanim to remain on the table even after one is finished with that part of the Seder, and hence one should leave some Karpas vegetable on the Kearah even after the Karpas has been eaten. It should remain there until after one eats the Matzah and Maror. [Ben Ish Chaiy Parshas Tzav 32; Kaf Hachaim 473:52; See Darkei Chaim Veshalom 586; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:24; Nitei Gavriel 2:284] Nonetheless, even according to Kabala, the salt water may be removed right after Karpas, as it is not considered part of the Simanim. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] See Hamelech Bemisibo 1:131 that the Rebbe once inquired from the Rebbe Rayatz as why the Karpas is not returned to the Kearah for the sake of the second Segal, and the Rebbe Rayatz did not give an answer, but simply said that so is the custom

[384] Sefer Haminhagim p. 39

[385] Reshimos of Rebbe that so was done by Rebbe Rayatz; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad ibid

[386] Throughout this Halacha, a debate was recorded, regarding the five questions mentioned below in the chart. These debates are the result of the root debate over whether the Maaror eaten during the meal needs to have a Hadamah recited over it or is considered part of the meal and is exempt with Hamotzi. The first opinion [See Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 114b] holds that the Maror is not considered part of the meal and hence requires its own blessing. Consequently, they also hold that if a Shehakol vegetable was used for Karpas, or one said a blessing of Borei Nefashos over the Kezayis, then one is required to repeat the Hadamah over Maror. Likewise, they hold that if one ate a Kezayis of Karpas, one is not to say a Borei Nefashos, as it will be exempted with the Birchas Hamazon which covers the Maror. The second opinion [Tosafus 115a; Tur 473 and 475 in name of Riy], however, holds that the Maror is considered part of the meal and hence does not require its own blessing, even if a Shehakol vegetable was used for Karpas, or one already said Borei Nefashos over it. Likewise, they hold that if one ate a Kezayis of Karpas, one must say a Borei Nefashos, as it will not be exempted with the Birchas Hamazon which covers the Maror. Practically, we suspect for both opinions, and hence in order to a) make sure a Hadamah blessing will cover the Maror as rules the first opinion, and b) not enter into a Safek Bracha Levatala, we rule as follows: 1) One never recites a Hadamah over the Maror during the meal [to suspect for the 2nd opinion]. 2) Initially one is to take a Hadamah vegetable for Karpas and have the Maror included in its blessing [to suspect for the 1st opinion]. 3) One is not to eat a Kezayis of the Karpas [to suspect for the 2nd opinion], and 4) if one ate a Kezayis to not say Borei Nefashos [to suspect for the 1st opinion]. 5) Even if one said Borei Nefashos, or ate a Shehakol vegetable for Karpas, the blessing of Hadamah is not said over Maror [to suspect for the 2nd opinion]. [See Admur 473:17-18 and all the footnotes in the Halacha above]

[387] Seemingly, both opinions agree that a Hadamah is not required for Karpas either due to that one can simply recite a Hadamah on the Maror later on [1st opinion] or due to that the Maror does not require a Hadamah [2nd opinion], and it is only due to the final ruling to suspect for both opinions that we conclude that a Hadamah vegetable should be used for Karpas. However, see wording of Admur 473:17 in 1st opinion and Rashi and Rashbam on Pesachim 114a which imply that according to the first opinion, one is to always use a Hadamah for Karpas in order to not need to say a second blessing for no reason. Furthermore, perhaps even according to the second opinion a Hadamah vegetable is to initially be used due to the rule of Kadima, and Chaviv. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[388] Seemingly, both opinions agree that one may eat a Kezayis of the Karpas either due to that its after blessing will be exempted later on in Birchas Hamazon [1st opinion] or due to that one can say the after blessing of Borei Nefashos [2nd opinion], and it is only due to the final ruling to suspect for both opinions that we conclude that a one is to eat less than a Kezayis of Karpas in order to avoid the debate. See Chinuch Mitzvah 21

[389] Admur 473:35-36; See Kaf Hachaim 473:117-125; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:25

[390] Admur 473:35; Michaber 473:6; Kol Bo 50; Ran in name of Rav Haiy Gaon, brought in Bach 473

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Yachatz is to be performed by Motzi Matzah and not before Maggid. [Rambam Chametz Umatzah Chapter 8:1-2 and 6]

[391] The reason for Yachatz/Breaking the Matzah: Yachatz needs to be done in order to say the Haggadah [and Ha Lachma Aniya] over a broken Matzah, as the Haggadah needs to be recited over Matzah that is fit for one to fulfill his obligation with, as the verse [Devarim 16:3] states “Tochal Alav Matzos Lechem Oni,” and the Sages [Shmuel in Pesachim 36a; 115b] expounded this to mean that one recites many words over it. Now, since the word Lechem Oni is written missing a Vav, the Sages [ibid] expounded this to [also] mean “Lechem Ani/poor man’s bread.” Now, just as it is common for a poor man to have only half a loaf, so too here, the Matzah with which one fulfills his obligation with is not to be whole but rather halved, and over it the Haggadah is to be said. [Admur ibid; Kol Bo ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because it needs to be broken by the time we say Hamotzi over it, and one may not break it at the time of Hamotzi itself, so therefore it is broken before the start of Maggid. [See Ran in name of Rav Haiy Gaon, brought in Bach 473 and Kaf Hachaim 473:119; Maggid Mishneh on Rambam ibid in name of Acheirim]

[392] Admur 473:35; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:6; Tur 473; Rosh 10:30; Mordechai Pesachim; Hagahos Maimanis 8; Maharam; Ravayah; Bach 473; Shaar Hakavanos p. 83b; 87b; Peri Eitz Chaim 21:3; Kaf Hachaim 473:117

The reason: One cannot break the first Matzah [i.e. Kohen] as it will be used for the first Mitzvah of Hamotzi and thus must remain whole. One also cannot break the third Matzah, as one may not overpass using the middle Matzah for the Mitzvah of Matzah, and thus the middle Matzah is broken in order so it can be used for the second Mitzvah of Motzi Matzah. [Bach 473; Kaf Hachaim 473:117] This is in addition to the Kabalistic reasons associated with breaking specifically the middle Matzah. [See Shaar Hakavanos p. 83b; 87b; Peri Eitz Chaim 21:3; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to break the top Matzah. Known as the Kohen, as one is not to overpass a Mitzvah. [Semag; Rokeiach 283]

[393] Siddur Admur; Admur 473:35; All Poskim in coming footnotes

[394] Haggadah of Rebbe; Sefer Haminhagim p. 39; Reshimos 5:19; See also Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 142

[395] P”M 473 A”A 20; Kaf Hachaim 473:120

The reason: It is to be broken using one’s hands just as is done by a pauper. [P”M ibid] Likewise, metal should not touch the Matzos, being that one is saying a blessing over it. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[396] Admur 458:10

The reason: As the middle Matzah requires two Kezeisim of Matzah, a Kezayis for both Achilas Matzah and Afikoman. [Admur ibid]

[397] Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:25 in name of Moadim Uzmanim and Rivivos Efraim 4:113

[398] Admur 473:35; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:6 “One is to hand it to another person to guard for Afikoman”; Rosh 10:30

The reason: This is done as we fear that one may end up eating all the Matzah Shmura during the meal and not leave any for Afikoman. [Bach 473] Alternatively, the reason is in order so both Mitzvos of eating Matzah [i.e. Motzi Matzah and Afikoman] be done using the middle, broken, Matzah. [Gr”a] Alternatively, since one half is already being used for Motzi Matzah it is therefore proper to also use the other half for a Mitzvah. [Kaf Hachaim 473:121]

[399] Admur 473:35; Siddur Admur; M”A 473:21; Taz 473:9; Bach 473; Maharil Seder Haggadah; Peri Eitz Chaim 21:4; Rashal 88; Olas Shabbos 473:5; Chok Yaakov 473:30; Elya Raba 473:28; Chok Yosef 473:26; Chayeh Adam 130:6; M”B 473:58; Kaf Hachaim 473:122

The reason: As the Afikoman is a special Mitzvah of significance which comes in place of the Karban Pesach [and hence should have the larger and more significant piece used]. [Admur ibid; Taz ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because one needs to initially eat two Kezeisim for Afikoman. [Bach 473]

Other customs: Some are accustomed to use the right side of the Matzah for the Afikoman and the left side for the first Kezayis. [See Vayaged Moshe 18:3

[400] Haggadah of Rebbe

The reason: This is based on Kabbalah, as the middle Matzah corresponds to Yitzchak, which is Gevurah, and is hence broken into the five Gevuros. [Rebbe ibid]

[401] Rebbe in Haggadah

[402] Maaseh Melech p. 201; See however Haggadah of Heichal Menachem, and Hamelech Bemesibo 1:132 for an alternative account

[403] Admur 473:36; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:6; Rosh 10:30; Kol Bo 50

[404] The reason the Matzah must be placed back: This needs to be done in order to say the Haggadah over it, as the Haggadah needs to be recited over Matzah that is fit for one to fulfill his obligation with, as the verse [Devarim 16:3] states “Tochal Alav Matzos Lechem Oni,” and the Sages [Shmuel in Pesachim 36a; 115b] expounded this to mean that one recites many words over it. Now, since the word Lechem Oni is written missing a Vav, the Sages [ibid] expounded this to [also] mean “Lechem Ani/poor man’s bread.” Now, just as it is common for a poor man to have only half a loaf, so too here, the Matzah with which one fulfills his obligation with is not to be whole but rather halved, and over it the Haggadah is to be said. (In chapter 475:4 it will be explained why it is placed between two whole Matzos). [Admur ibid; Kol Bo ibid] The reason it is placed between the two Shleimos, as opposed to on top, is in order so one reach the Shaleim Matzah first upon saying Hamotzi. [Admur ibid; Tur 473; Levush 473; Kaf Hachaim 473:125]

[405] Admur 458:10

The reason: As the middle Matzah requires two Kezeisim of Matzah, a Kezayis for both Achilas Matzah and Afikoman. [Admur ibid]

[406] Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:25 in name of Moadim Uzmanim and Rivivos Efraim 4:113

[407] Initially, one is to add from the Afikoman half to the smaller half to make up a Kezayis, in order so there is a full Kezayis for the Levi Matzah used for the Mitzvah of Matzah. See Poskim ibid; See Rama 477:2 and Admur 477:10 that one may use other Matzah for the Afikoman

[408] Stam custom in Admur 473:35; Michaber ibid; Tur 473; Rokeiach 283; Zohar 2:158

The reason: This is done in commemoration of the verse [Shemos 12:34] “Our bread which was bound in our clothing.” [Admur ibid]

[409] Beir Heiytivg 473:19; Siddur Yaavetz; Rebbe in Haggadah; Vayaged Moshe 18:7; Mikraeiy Kodesh 2:41 in name of Amudei Or; See also Shut Rashal 88; Kaf Hachaim 473:123; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:26

The reason: This is done in order so one not come to forget and eat from the Matzah. [Siddur Yaavetz ibid; Rebbe in Haggadah p. 11] Alternatively, this is done in play of the words in scripture “Ushmartem Es Hamatzos.” [Vayaged Moshe 18:7; Mikraeiy Kodesh 2:41 in name of Amudei Or based on Brachos 24a] Alternatively, this is done in commemoration of the Karban Pesach, which was also customarily hidden after eating the first Kezayis. [Mikraeiy Kodesh ibid based on Meiri Pesachim 114a] Alternatively, this is done based on Kabbalah. [Hamelech Bemisibo 1:140]

[410] Haggadah of Rebbe; Hamelech Bemesibo 1:140

[411] 2nd custom in Admur 473:35 [seealso Admur 477:5]; M”A 473:22; Shut Rashal 88; Chok Yaakov 473:31; Chok Yosef 473:27; Elya Raba 473:28

Other variations of the custom: Some take a cane in their hands and walk in the same form they did during the exodus. [Pesach Meubin 315, brought in Chok Yaakov 477:1; Kaf Hachaim 473:123]

[412] So rule regarding before Afikoman: Admur 477:5; Chok Yaakov 477:1

[413] Kaf Hachaim 473:123

[414] See Chayeh Adam 130:6; M”B 473:59; Kaf Hachaim 473:124

[415] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:26

[416] Vayaged Moshe 18:9

[417] Chok Yaakov 472:2; Beir Heiytiv 473:19; Aruch Hashulchan 472:2; Mishneh Halachos 11:393; Vayaged Moshe 18:9 in name of Noheg Katzon Yosef that there are mystical reasons behind this custom; See Pesachim 109a “Chotfim Matzos Beleil Pesachim”, and as explained in Rambam Chameitz Umatzah 7:3, Sefer Hamichtam, Nimukei Yosef 109a it means “They grab/steal Matzos from each other”; Maharam Chalvah Pesachim ibid “They steal from each other in a way of joy in order to prevent the children from falling asleep”; Sefer Hamichtam;  Other Rishonim however explain this Gemara differently

[418] The reason: This custom is followed as an incentive to keep the children awake. [Chok Yaakov ibid; Gemara ibid] Alternatively, it is done so the children make sure the adults eat the Afikoman, as they desire to get their prize and will not allow the adults to fall asleep. [Vayaged Moshe 18:9] There is no stealing prohibition involved being it us done as a holy custom, and is as if it is taken with consent of the father. [See Sukkah 45a regarding stealing Esrogim out of Simcha; Rama O.C. 695:2 regarding Purim; C.M.  378:9 regarding damages by Simchas Chasan Vekallah; Asei Lecha Rav 6:35]

[419] Orchos Chaim Spinka 473:19 in name of Meorei Haeish that this custom is nonsense, and the gentiles say of it that the Jews teach their children how to steal in commemoration of the exodus, and it is therefore better to abolish it; Beis Avi 3:26; Halichos Shlomo 9 footnote 210;

[420] Tzans; Brisk; Most Sefardi communities don’t steal the Afikoman

[421] Hagada Shel Pesach of Rebbe “Afikoman”: “In the Rebbe’s home we are not accustomed to grab the Afikoman, and to mention the Mamar Chazal in Brachos 5b regarding tasting the taste of stealing”

[422] Toras Menachem 5710 p. 201; Reshimos 5:19

[423] See Admur 473; Kaf Hachaim 473:126-173

[424] Admur 473:42 “The saying of the Haggadah is a positive command in the Torah”; Admur in Minyan Hamitzvos 8; Sefer Hachinuch Mitzvah 21; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 7:1; Mishneh Pesachim 116a

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that in today’s times the fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Sippur Yetzias Mitzrayim is Rabbinical. [See Admur 296 Kuntrus Achron 3; See Rebbe in Haggadah “Yachol Mirosh Chodesh” that some understand that according to some Rishonim the Biblical Mitzvah applies only if one actually has Matzah in front of him, otherwise one is Biblically exempt. The Rebbe however questions this understanding]

[425] The source: The verse states Vihigadeta Livincha Bayom Hahu, from which we learn that one must tell over the story of the Exodus. [Admur ibid; Chinuch ibid] Alternatively, as the verse states “Zechor Es Hayom Hazeh Asher Yatzasam Mimitzrayim.” [Rambam ibid as the main source for the obligation] See Minchas Chinuch 21:1 for the significance of these two verses and that while the verse of Vehigadeta Livincha serves to teach us that one must teach one’s child the story of the exodus, the verse of Zechor teaches us that if one does not have a child then he must say the story to himself .

[426] It is unclear as to the intent of the end point of this Derush, and if it refers to until the Pasuk of Vayeirau, or until all the Drashos conclude with Datzach, Adash, Beachav

[427] Admur 473:43; Rambam Chametz 7:4-5; Rif Pesachim 25b; Mishneh Pesachim 116b; Kaf Hachaim 473:153

[428] Admur ibid

[429] Ran Pesachim 116b; Implication of Rif, Rashba and Abudarham Rebbe in Hagada

[430] Mishneh Pesachim 116b

[431] See Chayeh Adam 130:7; M”B 473:64; Kaf Hachaim 473:136

[432] M”B 473:7; Maharal Gevuros Hashem 62; Siddur Yaavetz; Chayeh Adam 130:3; See Minchas Chinuch 21:1 “Regarding whether this Mitzvah needs Kavanah, it is like all Mitzvos which are speech dependent [such as Shema, and require Kavanah], and there is no need to lengthen on this obvious matter.” See Admur 60:5 [There Admur records a dispute regarding whether Mitzvos require intent and he rules like the stringent opinion.]; See Biur Halacha 60:4 “Veyeish Omrim”

[433] Derech Pikudecha Mitzvah 21; See Nitei Gavriel 84:18

[434] Kaf Hachaim 473:135; See Admur Hilchos Talmud Torah 2:12

[435] Yifei Laleiv 2:10; Kaf Hachaim 473:127; Siddur Arizal, brought in Likkutei Sichos 22:179

[436] Poskim ibid

[437] Drashos Maharil; Chok Yaakov 473:35; Kaf Hachaim 473:148; Siddur Arizal ibid; Minhagei Chasam Sofer 10:13; Hagadas Imrei Kodesh in name of Rav Sar Shalom of Belz; Likkutei Sichos 22:179, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:315; Hisvadyus 5749 page 36; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Nissan p. 154-155; See Zohar Parshas Bo p. 40, brought in Kaf Hachaim 473:152

[438] See Rambam Chametz Umatzah 7:6; Mishneh Pesachim 116b; Gevuros Hashem of Maharal 62; Batei Nefesh of Chida; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:30; See Zohar Parshas Bo p. 40, brought in Kaf Hachaim 473:152

[439] Admur 473:42

[440] Admur ibid; Rama 473:6; Kol Bo 50; Chinuch 21 “Each person is to tell the story according to the flow of his tongue”

[441] Admur ibid; Rambam 7:2; Mishneh Pesachim 116a

[442] Admur ibid; Rashbam Pesachim 116a

[443] M”B 473:62; Kaf Hachaim 473:134

[444] Admur 473:48; Shelah Pesachim “Ner”; Chok Yaakov 473:35; Elya Raba 473:34; P”M 473 A”A 29; M”B 473:71; Kaf Hachaim 473:151; Nitei Gavriel 84:10

[445] Admur 473:44; Siddur Admur; Rama 473:7; Shut Maharil 58; Levush 473:7; Beis Yosef 473; Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach before Hei Lacham Aniya that we reveal the Matzos; Kaf Hachaim 473:169

[446] Admur ibid; Admur in Siddur before Avadim Hayinu “We reveal part of the Matzah”; See Rama ibid who omits the word “part”

[447] See Admur 473:44 and in Siddur before Vehi Sheamda “We raise the cup and cover the Matzah”; Kaf Hachaim 473:155; 170

[448] Admur 473:37; M”A 473:24; Elya Raba 473:29; Chok Yosef 473:30; Kaf Hachaim 473:128; See Likkutei Sichos 7:260

[449] Admur ibid; Darkei Moshe 473:17; Maharal of Prague; Mateh Moshe 630

The reason: Although the Matzah that we eat is not the same Matzha from thousands of years ago which we ate in Egypt, nevertheless we say this wording as one is required to show on this night that he himself was enslaved, and redeemed, from Egypt, and hence the start of Maggid begins with this statement. [Likkutei Sichos 7:260]

[450] The reason: As it is untrue to say “Ha Lachma Di Achlu Avhasana” as this bread is not the actual bread that our forefathers ate. Therefore, although all the Sefarim write the Nussach as Ha Lacham, nevertheless, one who says Keha Lacham or Ha Kelachma does not lose out. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[451] Machazik Bracha 473:6; Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 33; Kaf Hachaim 473:129

[452] See Sicha of Pesach 1955; Hosafos in Likkutei Sichos 3

[453] Rebbe in Haggadah

[454] Admur 473:36; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:6; Shut Rosh 14:6

[455] Admur ibid; M”A 473:23; Tur 473; Rashal 88; Rashbam Pesachim 115b; Tosafus Pesachim ibid; Chok Yaakov 473:31; M”B 473:60; See Kaf Hachaim 473:126

Other opinions and Customs: Some Poskim rule that one is to lift the Kearah in one hand and the Matzos in another hand. [Pesach Meubin 245; Chok Yaakov 473:31; Elya Raba 473:28] Other Poskim rule that one is to lift the Matzos by themselves. [Drashos Maharil Hilchos Agadah] Others rule that one is to only lift the middle Matzah. [Shulchan Gavoa 473:34; Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 33; Kaf Hachaim 473:126 in name of Shaar Hakavanos] See Kaf Hachaim ibid

[456] Chayeh Adam 130:7; Kaf Hachaim 473:126

The reason: As one’s wife may be a Nida and it can leave to frivolity to have the entire family lift it together. [ibid]

[457] Haggadah of Rebbe; Sefer Haminhagim p. 39

[458] Rashal 88; Chok Yaakov 473:32; Kaf Hachaim 473:127

[459] Ben ish Chaiy Tzav 33; Kaf Hachaim 473:129

[460] See Kaf Hachaim 473:132; See Chikrei Minhagim 3:76

[461] Pesach Meubin 249

[462] Chok Yaakov 473:33; P”M 473 A”A 24

[463] Abudarham; Kaf Hachaim 473:132

[464] Abudarham; Kaf Hachaim 473:132

[465] Admur 473:38; See Michaber 473:6; Tur 473; Pesachim 115b; Kaf Hachaim 473:140-141; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:28

[466] Siddur Admur

The reason: As the Haggadah must be recited over the Matzos. [Pesachim 36a; 115b; Rebbe in Haggadah]

[467] The reason: In the Talmudic times when each participant had an individual food table in front of him [See Rashbam Pesachim 115b], the Sages [Pesachim 115b] required for the personal table of the person who will be leading the recital of the Haggadah, together with the Matzos that are on it, to be removed to a different corner. The reason behind the custom to remove the table, was in order to cause the children who see this to ask the question of why the Matzos are being removed prior to the meal, and through doing so they will be encouraged to ask also the other questions of Mah Nishtana etc, as will be explained in 473:40. [Admur ibid; Tur 473; Levush 473:6; Dvei Rebbe Yanai in Pesachim 115b] Some write that after the children ask the question of why the Matzos were removed, they are to be told that this is done because it is forbidden to eat any Matzah until after the Mitzvah of Sippur Yetzias Mitzrayim is fulfilled. [Maharil; M”A 473:26; Kaf Hachaim 473:141]

[468] Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:6; Tosafus Pesachim ibid; Rashbam ibid

The reason: This is done as if to say that the meal has concluded, in order to encourage the children to ask questions. [Admur ibid]

[469] Admur ibid; M”A 473:25; Chok Yaakov 473:33; Kaf Hachaim 473:140; Aruch Hashulchan 473:21 writes the custom today is to cover the Matzos during Mah Nishtana, and then uncover them before Avadim Hayinu, rather than to move it to the side; The Minhag of moving the Kearah is omitted from Chayeh Adam 130 and Kitzur SHU”A 119, hence implying like the M”A ibid; On the other hand, this statement of the M”A ibid is omitted from M”B 473; See however Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 158 that the Chofetz Chaim did not move the Kearah to the side by his Seder

The reason: As the children already know that their main food of the meal will not be from the Matzos that are on the Kearah, and therefore they in any event will not ask any questions if the Kearaha is removed from the table. [Admur ibid]

[470] Chok Yaakov ibid; P”M 473 A”A 25; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[471] Siddur Yaavetz; Maaseh Rav that so was custom of Gr”a; Implication of M”B brought in previous footnote

[472] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 90, p. 159 that the Rebbe moved it slightly to the side, although the Rebbe Rayatz was not particular to move it.

[473] Implication of Admur in Siddur who writes before Avadim Hayinu “Meglain Miktzas Hapas”; Aruch Hashulchan 473:21; Custom of Rebbe as witnessed during his Seder, recorded in Haggadah of Heichal Menachem, unlike the records brought in Hamelech Bemesibo 1:201 which states that the Matzos remained revealed

[474] Admur 473:39-40 [See also Admur 472:25 that the Haggadah is recited over the second cup]; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:7; Tur 473; Mishneh Pesachim 116a; M”B 473:67; See Kaf Hachaim 473:143-145

[475] The reason: Although one is not required to hold the cup [of wine] in one’s hands until one reaches the section of Lefichach [at the end of Maggid], as explained in 473:44, nevertheless, one is required to pour the wine immediately prior to starting the reading of the Haggadah. The reason this is done is in order to engage the children to ask the question of why we are drinking the second cup prior to starting the meal, being that it is not common to do so throughout the year. [Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Tur ibid; Rashi and Rashbam on Pesachim ibid] Now, through the children being engaged in asking this question they will be motivated to also ask the other questions of Mah Nishtana, and thus fulfill with his children the verse [Devarim 6:20] of Ki Yishalcha Bincha Machar Leimor Mah Haeidus Vehachukim Vehamishpatim…Veamarta Livincha Avadim Hayinu.” [Admur ibid]

[476] Kaf Hachaim 473:144

[477] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 473:34; Maharshal 88; Bach 473; Olas Shabbos 473:6; Elya Raba 473:32; Chok Yosef 473:31; Kaf Hachaim 473:142

[478] See Admur 473:40-42; Kaf Hachaim 473:146-148 

[479] Admur 473:40

[480] Devarim 6:20

[481] Admur 473:41; Siddur Admur; Tur 473; Rambam 8:2; Rav Safra Pesachim 116a; M”A 473:27; Taz 473:9; Elya Raba 473:33; Levush 473:7; Kaf Hachaim 473:147

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may say the Nussach of “Ein Anu Chayavim Litavel.” [Drashos Maharil Hilchos Haggadah]

[482] The reason: As how can one then say “Halayla Hazeh Shtei Peamim/On this night twice” which implies that he is obligated to dip his food twice, while in truth we only dip due to an obligation one time, which is the dipping of the Maror into the Charoses. However, the first dipping [of the Karpas] is not due to an obligation but simply to make the children wonder [at the change and ask questions]. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Levush ibid; Bach 472; Beis Yosef 472; Pesachim ibid]

[483] Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 161; See Admur 472:25

[484] Admur 473:40; Michaber 473:7; Mishneh Pesachim 116a

[485] See Rambam 7:2; Toldos Shmuel Mitzvah 21:1; Lehoros Nasan 9:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:29

[486] Aruch Hashulchan 473:21; Admur 472:25 that there is an obligation to educate the daughters just as the sons

[487] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 7:3

[488] Aruch Hashulchan 473:21; See Admur 472:25 that there is an obligation to educate the daughters in Sippur Yetzias Mitzrayim just like the sons

[489] Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 161

The reason: Being that the son is too young to understand an answer and thus, even if he has memorized the Mah Nishtana, the father does not fulfill his obligation in his explanation to him. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[490] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rambam ibid; Braisa Pesachim 116a

The reason: As since the obligation on the night of Pesach is for one to say the Haggadah to others, therefore, if he does not have anyone to ask him the questions, he is required to ask himself, as by asking himself he becomes like a third person to himself, and through him answering his question he fulfills the Mitzvah of Vehigadeta. [Likkutei Sichos 12:43]

[491] Whether it be a boy or girl. [so is implied from the Sicha in the next footnote]

[492] Sichas Acharon Shel Pesach 5740 2:698, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:326; See Nitei Gavriel 2 86:4

[493] Sefer Hasichos 5704 p. 87

[494] Admur 473:40; Rama 473:7; Darkei Moshe 473:18 in name of Maharil; Story of Abayey in Pesachim 115b; Kaf Hachaim 473:146

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the leader of the Seder is to repeat the Mah Nishtana after he is asked. [Rambam 8:2 “Also the reader says Mah Nishatan”; Hagahos Chasam Sofer on Rama ibid; Toras Menachem 5743 3:1226]

[495] This refers to if both people are Torah scholars and one is not saying the Haggadah on behalf of the other, however by a family in which the father is the Seder leader, then he can say Avadim Hayinu aloud on behalf of his family and have them be Yotzei with him, as explained in Chapter 3 Halacha 4.

[496] Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach p. 13 that so was custom of the Rebbe Rayatz; Toras Menachem 5743 3:1226, brought in Shulchan Menachem 2:325, that so was the custom of Chabad Rabbeim, and it follows the opinion of the Rambam; Sefer Hasichos 5704 p. 87 that so was custom of the Tzemach Tzedek

[497] Vayaged Moshe 21:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:29

[498] Haggadah Shel Pesach p. 13; Igros Kodesh 2:240, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:325

[499] Rebbe in Haggadah

[500] Admur 473:44; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:7; Tosafos Pesachim 114a; Hagahos Maimanis 7:3; Levush 473; Olas Shabbos 473:6; Kaf Hachaim 473:149

[501] Siddur Admur

[502] Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; Rama 473:7; Shut Maharil 58; Levush 473:7; Beis Yosef 473

[503] Admur ibid; Admur in Siddur before Avadim Hayinu “We reveal part of the Matzah”; See Rama ibid who omits the word “part”

[504] See Admur 473:44 and in Siddur before Vehi Sheamda “We raise the cup and cover the Matzah”; Kaf Hachaim 473:155

[505] See Pesachim 116a that one must begin with a matter of belittlement, and Shmuel holds that one is to say Avadim Hayinu while Rav holds that one is to say Ovdei Avoda Zara. Practically, today we are accustomed like both and recite both paragraphs. [See Rif; Rosh; Rambam; Kaf Hachaim 473:150; Haggadah of Rebbe]

[506] Or Hachaim Parshas Behalosecha; Birkeiy Yosef 473:17; Shaareiy Teshuvah 473:27; Kaf Hachaim 472:138; See Haggadah of Rebbe p. 5

[507] The reason: The reason for this is because indeed the soul of the convert was also in slavery in Egypt and the redemption helped redeem his soul as well. The explanation is as follows: When the Jewish people were ensalvened in Egypt, the entire side of holiness was submersed within the impurity of Egypt, and hence the redemption redeemed also the soul of the convert. [Or Hachaim ibid; Rebbe ibid]

[508] Admur 473:44; Siddur Admur “One needs to lift the cup and cover the Matzah-so writes the Arizal..The cup is put down and the Matzah is revealed”; M”A 473:27; Shelah Pesachim p. 142 in name of Rokeiach; Chok Yaakov 473:34; Chok Yosef 473:32; Kaf Hachaim 473:155

[509] Siddur Admur that so writes Arizal

[510] Rebbe in Haggadah

[511] Rebbe in Haggadah

[512] The reason: The Matzos are to be covered while the cup of wine is raised in order so it does not witness its shame. [Admur ibid]

[513] Rebbe in Haggadah; Sefer Haminhagim; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 166

[514] Otzer Minhagei Chabad 98

[515] Admur 473:50-51; See Kaf Hachaim 473:163-168; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:31

[516] Admur 473:50; Rama 473:7; Maharil Seder Haggadah p. 106 in name of Rokeiach

[517] Regarding the meaning these abbreviations: See Abudarham; Kaf Hachaim 473:166; The Yerushalmi states that these abbreviations were inscribed on the staff of Aaron.

[518] The reason: The wine is spilled for a total of 16 times as it corresponds to the sword of Hashem which is called Yo-hach and is the angel which is appointed over retribution [i.e. Nekama]. [Admur ibid; M”A 473:29; Darkei moshe 473:18; See Kaf Hachaim 473:167]

[519] Admur 473:51; See Kaf Hachaim 473:163

[520] Admur ibid; Rama 473:7; Maharil Seder Haggadah p. 106; Minhagei Mahrash 399:7; M”A 473:28

[521] 1st custom in Admur ibid; Poskim ibid; Darkei Moshe 473:18; Elya Raba 473:35; Chok Yaakov 473:37; Chok Yosef 473:34;

The reason: The reason this finger is chosen is because its Hebrew name Etzba correlates to the verse “Etzba Elokim Hi” [which was written in reference to the Makos]. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Darkei Moshe 473:18; See Kesubos 5b]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to dip the ring finger into the wine for the sake of the spillage. [M”A 473:28 in name of Yalkut Vaeira in name of Pirkei Derebbe Eliezer 48]

[522] 2nd custom in Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Hagahos Maimanis, brought in Darkei Moshe 473:18

The reason: The reason this finger is chosen is because it is with this finger that Hashem smote the Egyptians. [Admur ibid; See Pirkeiy Derebbe Eliezer 48]

[523] 3rd custom in Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; Arizal in Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Chag Hamatzos 6 and chapter 7 Hagahos Tzemach; Mishnas Chassidim Leil Pesach 11:1; Siddur Arizal; Shelah; Shevach Pesach Kadesh 6; Maggid 12; Yifei Laleiv 2:12; Kaf Hachaim 473:163; Likkutei Maharich in name of of Shaareiy Rachamim in name of Gr”a; Shaar Hatziyon 473:81

The reason: The main reason is based on Kabalah. However, some suggest the reason is because when dipping a finger in the wine, it is possible for some of the wine to drip back into the cup. [Vayaged Moshe 22:11]

[524] Siddur Admur

[525] Siddur Admur; Mishnas Chassidim 11:2; Nehora Hashaleim; Kaf Hachaim 473:164

[526] Siddur Admur

[527] Haggadah of Rebbe

[528] Pesach Meubin 261; Kaf Hachaim 473:168

[529] Admur in Siddur; Chok Yaakov 473:37; Mishnas Chassidim 11:16

Other customs: Some are accustomed to discard the remainder of the wine and refill the cup anew. [Chok Yaakov ibid in name of Pesach Meubin 261; brought in Haggadah of Rebbe] Others are accustomed to use a different cup of wine for the sake of the pouring, as opposed to the second cup that was poured by Mah Nishtana. [Kaf Hachaim 473:165]

[530] Haggadah Chaim Lerosh; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:31; So is the widespread custom

[531] Rebbe in Haggadah

[532] Admur 473:45; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:7; Pesachim 36a; See Kaf Hachaim 473:157-159

One who is blind: One who is blind is not to say Matzah Zo or Maror Zeh, but rather simply Matzah Sheanu Achlim. [Chok Yaakov 473:39; P”M 473 M”Z 9; Kaf Hachaim 473:159]

[533] Admur ibid; Siddur ibid; Rama ibid; Mahariy Viyal 193

[534] The reason: This is done in order to make the Mitzvah beloved onto the participants. Now, one is to lift the middle Matzah, as it is called the Lechem Ani with which one fulfills one’s obligation as explained above. [Admur ibid]

Kissing the Matzah: Some are accustomed to kiss the Matzah when taking it into their hands in order to show their belovedness of the Mitzvah in their eyes. [Chayeh Adam 130:7; Kaf Hachaim 473:157]

[535] Admur ibid; Tur 473; M”A 473:27; Chok Yaakov 473:36; Olas Shabbos 473:6; Elya Raba 473:36; Chayeh Adam 130:7; Kaf Hachaim 473:158

[536] Maryu 193; Bach 473; Olas Shabbos ibid; Chok Yaakov ibid; Elya Raba 473:36; P”M 473 A”A 27; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[537] Sefer Haminhagim p. 40

[538] See Admur 473:46-47; Kaf Hachaim 473:156; 160-162

Shira Chadasha: Some are accustomed to reciting the Nussach of Venomar Lefanav Shirah Chadasha Hallelukah. [Admur 473:46; Rashal 88; Tosafus Pesachim 116b; Mordechai Pesachim 38] Others, however, write that one is to say Vinomar Lefanav Hallellukah. [Nussach of the Mishneh in Pesachim ibid; Rif; Rambam 8; Tur 473; Levush 473; Derisha 473:8; Rashbatz Pirush Haggadah; Erech Hashulchan 473:15; Kaf Hachaim 473:156] Practically, Admur in the Siddur omits these words of Shirah Chadasha, and simply writes Vinomar Lefanav Hallellukah.

Grammatical discussion on the word “Vinemar” versus “Venomar”: The Nun of Vinemar Lefanav Shirah Chadasha Hallelukah is to be said with a Segol under the Nun, meaning to say that Moshe and the Jewish people have already said the Shirah Chadasha, which refers to Shiras Hayam, upon leaving Egypt. Likewise, some opinions [Rebbe Yossi Pesachim 117a] say that Moshe and Yisrael said the Hallel [upon leaving Egypt]. [Admur 473:46; Taz 473:9; M”A 473:27; Rashal 88; Bach 473; Olas Shabbos 473:6; Chok Yaakov 473:35; Elya Raba 473:31; Chok Yosef 473:36; Kaf Hachaim 473:156] However, the Nun is not to be said with a Cholam, as it implies that the saying of the Shira Chadasha is going on the future redemption, in which case we would need to grammatically say “Vinomar Lifanav Shir Chadash” in a male tense. The reason for this is as follows: The Midrash [Shemos Raba 23:11] states that all the songs are referred to as Shira in a feminine tense, as their salvation is like a woman who gave birth to a son, and ridded herself from the birth pains, although she repeats this pattern and once again gives birth in pain. This is a metaphor to all the previous redemptions, which were followed by exile and suffering. However, the final redemption will not have any suffering following it at all. It is for this reason that the verse states “Shiru LaHashem Shir Chadash” in a male tense. [Admur ibid; Levush 473:7] Practically, Admur in the Siddur writes Vinomar Lefanav Hallellukah, writing the word Venomar with a Cholam, although omitting the words Shirah Chadasha. So rule also other Poskim, as recorded in the previous footnote. See Kaf Hachaim 473:156

[539] Admur 473:48; All Poskim in coming footnotes regarding blessing

The reason: The reason that the Hallel is split to be read at two different times during the Seder is because the first two paragraphs of Hallel relate to the exodus from Egypt, and therefore we recite it together with Magid, which discusses the exodus, and the second cup. The remainder of the Hallel, however, being that it speaks of the future redemption, therefore we say it near Shefoch Chamasecha, towards the end of the Seder, which also discusses the future redemption. [Seder Hayom; Nehora Hashaleim; Shelah; Yaavetz] Alternatively the reason we say part of it during maggot is in order to recite a Shira also over the second Cup. [Yaavetz ibid] See Kaf Hachaim 473:161

[540] Admur 473:47; Beis Yosef 473 that so is custom of whole world; Bach 473; Ravayah 525; Rosh Pesach 135 Teshuvah 14:5; Tur 473 in name of Maharitz Geios 2:200

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that a blessing is to be recited over the Hallel that is said during the night of the Seder. The blessing is said twice, once prior to eating during Maggid and the second time after eating during Hallel. [Ritzba; Maharam Merothenberg; Rav Haiy Gaon, Rav Tzemach Gaon, Rav Amram Gaon; See Kaf Hachaim 473:160]

[541] The reason: As the Hallel is not read in a single session, consecutively, as some of it is read prior to the meal [during Maggid] while the remainder is read after the meal and Birchas Hamazon. [Admur ibid; Poskim ibid] Alternatively, it is not recited due to Safek Brachos. [Tur 473; Levush 473:7] Alternatively, a blessing is not recited as it is simply viewed as someone reading from the Torah. [Rav Haiy Gaon; Haggadah of Rebbe]

[542] Admur 473:48; Shibulei Haleket 179; Taz 422:4; Beis Yosef 422; Peri Chadash 422:7

[543] The reason: Although in general the reading of Hallel must be performed in a standing position, as ruled in Michaber 420:7, nevertheless, the Hallel of this night may be read even in a sitting position as all the actions of this night are to be done in a way of freedom. Therefore, we do not trouble one to stand. [Admur ibid]

[544] Admur ibid; Beir Heiytiv end of 473 in name of Shelah Hakadosh; See Admur 63:1; See Halacha A! 

[545] Vayaged Moshe 31:7

[546] Admur 472:5; Chok Yaakov 480:2; See Admur 131:5

[547] The reason: As this Hallel is an actual obligation. [Admur ibid]

[548] See Admur 473:44; 49; Kaf Hachaim 473:162; 169-173

Shir Chadash: In the blessing of Asher Goaleinu one is to say Venodeh Lecha Shir Chadash in a male tense, rather than Shirah Chadashah in a female tense. [Admur 473:46; Siddur Admur; Levush 473:7; Tur 473; Tosafus Pesachim 116b] The reason for this is as follows: The Midrash states that all the songs are referred to as Shira in a feminine tense, as their salvation is like a woman who gave birth to a son, and ridded herself from the birth pains, although she repeats this pattern and once again gives birth in pain. This is a metaphor to all the previous redemptions, which were followed by exile and suffering. However, the final redemption will not have any suffering following it at all. It is for this reason that the verse states “Shiru LaHashem Shir Chadash” in a male tense. [Admur ibid; Levush ibid]

[549] See Admur 484:3; Darkei Moshe 483:1; Chok Yaakov 483:4

[550] Admur 473:44; Siddur Admur “One covers the Matzah and raises the cup and holds it his hands until the conclusion of the blessing”

[551] Admur ibid; Siddur ibid; Michaber 473:7; Hagahos Maimanis Haggadah 3; Tur 473; Levush 473; Kaf Hachaim 473:171

The reason: This is done in order so the Shirah can be said over the wine. [Tur ibid; Levush ibid; Kaf Hachaim 473:172]

[552] Admur ibid; Siddur ibid; Rama ibid; M”A 473:30; Beis Yosef 473; Iggur 798; Levush 473; Kaf Hachaim 473:173

The reason: The Matzos are to be covered while the cup of wine is raised in order so it does not witness its shame. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[553] Order of Admur in Siddur; Rebbe in Haggadah regarding Vehi Shemda

[554] Rebbe in Haggadah; Sefer Haminhagim p. 40

[555] Otzer Minhagei Chabad 114

[556] Admur 473:49; Taz 473:9; Tur 473; Levush 473:7; Mordechai Pesachim 38; Tosafus Pesachim 116b; See Kaf Hachaim 473:162

[557] The reason: The reason for this is because the Zevach is the Chagiga offering which is eaten prior to the Passover sacrifice in order so the Passover sacrifice be eaten with satiation [And with us first mention the Zevachim and only afterwards the Pesachim]. 

[558] Opinion in Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; Taz ibid; M”A 473:30; Bach 473; Mahariy Viyal 193; Olas Shabbos 473:7; Elya Raba 473:36; Chok Yaakov 473:40 that so is final ruling

The reason: The reason for this is because the Chagiga offering is not eaten on this night as explained in 473:23 [that when Pesach would fall on Motzei Shabbos, the Chagiga offering would not be brought on Shabbat which is Erev Pesach, nor on Erev Shabbos]. Instead the Zevachim, which refers to the Chagiga and Simcha Shelamim would be offered the next day. [Admur ibid; See Beitza 19a]

[559] Opinion in Admur ibid; Opinion in Chok Yaakov 473:40; Pesach Meubin 268; Kneses Hagedola 473 that so is the custom; Chok Yosef 473:3; Kneses Yechezkal 23, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 473:27; Kaf Hachaim ibid

The reason: The reason for this is because we request from G-d to help us reach the coming Holidays in a rejoiced spirit to serve him, and there we will eat the next year when Pesach will not fall on Saturday night first from the Zevachim, which is the Chagiga that is eaten on this night, and then from the Pesachim. Now, even if according to our calculation of the set months which we have received, also the following years Passover will fall on Saturday night, nevertheless [the order is not changed, as] when the temple will be rebuilt we will once again sanctify the month based on testimony of sighting of the moon, and then it will once again become possible that Pesach will not full on Saturday night. [Admur ibid; Kneses Yechezkal ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[560] Admur in Siddur

[561] Admur 475:1; Michaber 475:1; Rambam 8:6; Rav Chisda Pesachim 115b

[562] The reason: Although one already washed his hands [by Urchatz] for the sake of eating the dipped vegetables [i.e. Karpas], nevertheless, he is required to return and wash his hands for the meal and say the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim after reading the Hagdah and saying Hallel. The reason for this is because at the time that he read the Haggadah and Hallel, he removed his mind from guarding his hands, and we thus suspect that perhaps he touched an impure area, as the hands are constantly moving [i.e. Askaniyos Hein]. [Admur ibid; M”A 475:1; Rosh 10:26; Rav Papa Pesachim ibid]

[563] Admur 475:2; See M”A 475:1; Mordechai 34b; Biur Halacha 475:1 “Litol”

[564] The reason why he must nevertheless rewash: The reason he must nevertheless rewash is because at the time that he washed his hands for the sake of the dipped vegetables he did not have intent that this washing count also for the sake of the meal [of eating the Matza], and whoever washes his hands for the sake of a food that is dipped in liquid, that washing does not count for the eating of bread if he did not have this in mind at the time of the washing, as explained in chapter 158:13. [Admur ibid] There it is explained that there are opinions who say that the washing for a dipped food does not count for bread, and one thus must rewash when he plans to eat bread. Now although here one knew to begin with that he would be eating bread, nevertheless, since he did not have in mind to eat it right away, and rather planned to rewash and eat it later, therefore it is not considered as if he had in mind to eat bread when washing for the dipped food, and he must thus rewash.

[565] Kaf Hachaim 475:3; See Admur ibid who can be interpreted as only negating the aspect of having the Matzah in mind by Urchatz, and not the guarding of the hands. Vetzaruch Iyun

[566] Biur Halacha 475:1 “Litol”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:1

[567] Admur 475:2; M”A 475:1; Bach 475; Mordechai Pesachim 34b; Kaf Hachaim 475:3

[568] Kaf Hachaim 475:3; See Admur ibid who can be interpreted as only negating the aspect of having the Matzah in mind by Urchatz, and not the guarding of the hands. Vetzaruch Iyun

[569] Admur ibid; Beis Yosef 475; Bach 475; Chok Yaakov 475:1; Chok Yosef 475:1; Kaf Hachaim 475:1

The reason: As today the custom is to no longer wash Al Tnaiy for future eating, and it is only done in a time of need. [Admur 164:1, cited in Admur ibid to be the reason behind why it is initially not to be done] Alternatively, the reason that it should not be done is in order to not make an interval between the washing and Hamotzi and require one to say a blessing right away, and have in mind ton include the bread in the washing, and not everyone is expert in this. [Bach 475; See M”A ibid] Alternatively, the reason that it should not be done is because one is not to initially nullify the Takana of the Sages to wash twice on the night of Pesach. [Beis Yosef 475; Chok Yaakov 475:1; See Bach and M”A ibid who negate this reason] See Kaf Hachaim ibid

[570] Shulchan Gavoa 475:1; Mordechai Pesachim 34b; Kaf Hachaim 475:2

[571] Vayaged Moshe 23:3 in name of Siach Yitzchak; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:1

[572] See Vayaged Moshe 24:28; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2

[573] Custom of Rebbe in Maaseh Melech p. 203; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:1 for a dispute on the subject

[574] See Admur 475:3-10; Kaf Hachaim 475:5-19

[575] Admur 475:15; 32; Mitzvah 7 in Minyan Hamitzvos of Admur; Chinuch Mitzvah 10; Rambam Sefer Hamitzvos Aseh

The source: As the verse [Shemos 12:18] states “Baerev Tochlu Matzos.” [Admur ibid]

[576] Ateres Zekeinim 12 in name of Shelah; Kaf Hachaim 24:19; 475:9

[577] Derech Pikudecha Mitzvah 10 Machshava; Moadim Uzmanim 3:18 based on Bach 625 regarding Sukkah; Piskeiy Teshuvah 475:9

[578] Haggadah Shel Pesach “Al Shum Mah”; Braisa; See Derech Pikudecha Mitzvah 10 Machshava

[579] Derech Pikudecha Mitzvah 10 Machshava

[580] Zohar 2 Tetzaveh 183b

[581] 2nd opinion in Admur 475:3 and that so is custom; 473:24; 482:4; Michaber 475:1; Darkei Moshe 475:5; Bach 475; Tosafus Pesachim 116a; Rashi and Rashbam on Pesachim ibid; Rosh Pesachim 10:30; So rule in general regarding Yom Tov: Admur 274:2; 167:3; Michaber 529:1; Rambam Shabbos 30:8; Rif Pesachim 25b; Tosafus Pesachim 116a

Background & Other Opinions-Does one need Lechem Mishna for Hamotzi on the night of the Seder? Some Poskim rule that although on every Yom Tov one is required to say Hamotzi on Lechem Mishneh [which is two Shaleim Matzas] as explained in the Shulchan Aruch Chapter 529:1, nevertheless, on the night of Pesach one does not need to have  two whole Matzos [and should not have it], and rather one is required to have one whole Matzah and a second half broken Matzah. [1st opinion in Admur ibid; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 8:6; Rif Pesachim 25b; Chinuch Mitzvah 21; Beis Yosef 475 in name of Rashba] The reason for this is because the Sages [Pesachim 115b] expounded from the verse [Devarim 16:3] which writes the words Lechem Oni without a Vav that the Matzah needs to be broken, as is common by the bread of a pauper. Now, the entire purpose of their teaching was to instruct us that one should diminish from his usual Lechem Mishneh, and that one of the Matzos is not to be whole. [Admur ibid; Rif ibid] Other Poskim, however, rule that the requirement to have a broken Matzah is in addition to the requirement of Lechem Mishneh. [2nd opinion in Admur 475:3; 473:24; 482:4; Michaber 475:1; Tosafus Pesachim 116a; Rashi and Rashbam on Pesachim ibid; Rosh Pesachim 10:30] They learn that the teaching of the Sages ibid was to instruct us that in addition to the two whole Matzos that one needs for Lechem Mishneh of Hamotzi, as on any Yom Tov, one is also required to have an additional broken Matzah to represent the poor man’s bread. [Admur ibid; Rosh ibid] Practically, the widespread custom is like this latter opinion, [and thus when saying Hamotzi one takes two whole Matzahs for his requirement of Lechem Mishneh and additional broken Matzah for Lechem Oni]. [Admur ibid; Darkei Moshe 475:5; Bach 475] One should not swerve from this custom unless there is a pressing situation [such as it is very difficult to find two whole Matzos], as explained in 482:7. [Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 482:4]

[582] Admur 475:4; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475; Rosh Pesachim 10:30; Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 116a; M”A 475:2; Maharil Seder Haggadah p. 109; Hilchos Uminhagei Mahrash 398:9; Chok Yaakov 475:2; Shelah p. 142; Mateh Moshe 645; Chok Yosef 475:2; P”M 475 M”Z 2; Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 1:34; M”B 475:2; Kaf Hachaim 475:6

[583] Admur ibid; 274:2; 167:6-7; Michaber 167:3; Shabbos 117b; Rokeiach 329; Ketzos Hashulchan 37:6

The reason: As one may only recite a blessing over a Mitzvah in close approximation to the Mitzvah, when the Mitzvah is prepared in his hand for him to fulfill it and not prior, as explained in 25:17. [Admur 167:6; M”A 167:9]

[584] The reason that the broken Matzah is held in-between: One is not to hold the broken Matzah on top of the two whole Matzos as one first needs to say the blessing of Hamotzi, and only afterwards the blessing of Achilas Matzah. Now, the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the whole Matzah while the blessing of Al Achila Matzah is going on the broken Matzah, which is considered poor man’s bread [i.e. Lechem Oni]. [Admur ibid and 5 that so is main opinion; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 116a; Riy in Tosafus Pesachim ibid; Rosh ibid] [It is for this reason that the broken Matzah is held in between] as if it were to be on top, we would be required to bypass the mitzvah upon him first saying the blessing of Hamotzi. [Admur ibid; See Admur 475:5; 458:7; 274:2; Tur 473; Beis Yosef 475; Levush 4743:6 and 475:7; Bach 475]

The reason that all the Matzos are held: The reason why all three Matzos are to be held in one’s hand during the blessing of Hamotzi is in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to all opinions, as it is disputed as to on which Matzah the blessings of Hamotzi and Al Achilas Matzah are going on. [Kaf Hachaim 475:5] The reason why the whole top and bottom Matzah is to be held in one’s hand during the blessing of Hamotzi is in order to fulfill one’s obligation of Lechem Mishneh, and so the blessing of Hamotzi go on the top Matzah. [M”A 475:2 regarding Lechem Mishneh; Maharil Seder Haggadah also regarding Hamotzi on top Matzah; Kaf Hachaim 475:6] The reason why the middle Matzah is to be held in one’s hand during the blessing of Hamotzi is due to that it is Lechem Oni [M”A ibid; Maharil ibid], and in order to fulfill ones obligation according to the opinion who says the blessing of Hamotzi is going on it and not on the whole Matzos. [Kaf Hachaim 475:5] See Halacha G in footnotes!

[585] Admur 167:7; Seder 9:4; Michaber 206:4; Brachos 43b; Rebbe in Haggadah

[586] The reason: As all matters which one says a blessing over must be held in the right hand during the time of the blessing. [ibid]

[587] Some Poskim rule one is to hold it in a way that one places eight fingers on top of the bread, and the two thumbs under the bread. [Maharil brought in M”A 167:2]

[588] Admur 167:7; Michaber 167:4; Rokeiach 329; Shivlei Haleket 141

The ten Mitzvos: These ten Mitzvos are: 1) Not to plow with an ox and donkey together; 2) Not to plant Kilayim; 3) Leket; 4) Shicha 5) Peiah; 6) Bikurim; 7) Terumos; 8) Maaser Rishon; 9) Maaser Sheiyni; 10) Challah. [Admur ibid; Tur in name of Rokeiach]

The ten words in Birchas Hamotzi: It is for the above reason that there are ten words in Birchas Hamotzi, and ten words in the verse Matzmiach Chatzir Labeheima, and ten words in the verse Einei Chol Eilecha Yisabeiru, and ten words in the verse Eretz Chita. [Admur ibid; Michaber ibid] And ten words in the verse of Vayiten Lecha. [Michaber ibid; omitted in Admur ibid]

Kabbalistic reason: The ten fingers represent the ten Sefiros that draw Elokus into Malchus. [Kaf Hachaim 167:32 and 34]

[589] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 176

[590] Admur 475:4; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; Rebbe in Haggadah

[591] Admur ibid; Siddur ibid; Michaber ibid; Maharitz Geios 2:103 in name of Rav Amram Gaon; Machzor Vitri p. 282; Chametz Umatzah 8:6; Maggid Mishneh on Rambam 8:12; Rebbe in Haggadah; See Encyclopedia Talmudit Vol. 1 “Achilas Matzah”

[592] The reason: Ask the blessing of Hamotzi is said more often and the rule is that Tadir Vieino Tadir, Tadir Kodem. [Peri Chadash 475; Kaf Hachaim 475:7; Rebbe in Haggadah ibid]

[593] 1st and main opinion in Admur 475:4-5, 7, 9; 482:4; 458:7, 10; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 116a; Riy in Tosafus Pesachim ibid; Rosh ibid; Arizal, brought in Kaf Hachaim 473:117, 475:5

[594] 2nd opinion in Admur 475:5; Tur 475 in name of Yeish Omrim; Ravayah 525 in name of Rabbeinu Chananel, Geonim, Raavan 166a; Hagahos Maimanis Haggadah 7

[595] Opinion in Admur 482:4; Tur 475 in explanation of Rif Pesachim 25b; Tosafus Pesachim 116a; Semag Asei 41; See Piskei Dinim Tzeach Tzedek 35:4

[596] According to the first opinion only the two whole Matzos must be held for the blessing of Hamotzi, and only the middle-broken Matzah must be held for the blessing of Achilas Matzah. According to the second and 3rd opinion, seemingly all three must be held for the blessing of Hamotzi, and only the whole Matzah must be held for the blessing of Achilas Matzah. [See M”A 475:2; Maharil Seder Haggadah; Kaf Hachaim 475:5-6]

[597] According to the first opinion the whole Matzah is to be held on top while according to the second and 3rd opinion the broken Matzah is to be held on top, in order so one does not bypass the mitzvah. [See Admur 475:5]   

[598] According to the first opinion, the whole Matzah is to be eaten first, while according to the second and 3rd opinion the broken Matzah is to be eaten first. [See Admur 475:7]   

[599] According to the first and third opinion, one is only required to eat a Kezayis from the middle-broken Matzah, while according to the second opinion one is only required to eat a Kezayis from the top whole Matzah. [See Admur 475:4]

[600] According to the first and third opinion, one is only required to lean when heating the middle-broken Matzah, while according to the second opinion one is only required to lean when eating a Kezayis from the top whole Matzah. [See Admur 475:9]

[601] Admur 475:5, 7, 9 in parentheses; Stam opinion in 458:7, 10

[602] Admur 475:5 and 9

[603] Admur 475:5

The reason: This is done to satisfy all three opinions, as some Poskim rule that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the broken Matzah which is considered part of the poor man’s bread, while the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the whole Matzah, And others hold the opposite. Therefore, in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to all opinions, which is the proper thing to do, one is to first recite the two blessings [over the two Matzos]. [Admur ibid]

[604] Admur 475:4

The reason: This is done to satisfy the first opinion, as the main opinion follows the first opinion, and we are unable to satisfy both opinions in this matter. [See Admur ibid and 9]

[605] Admur 475:5

The reason: This is done to satisfy all opinions, as some Poskim rule that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the broken Matzah, while the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the whole Matzah, and others hold the opposite. Therefore, in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to all opinions, which is the proper thing to do, one is required to break off and eat a Kezayis from both the top whole Matzah and the middle-broken Matzah. [Admur ibid]

[606] Admur 475:9; This is done to satisfy all opinions

[607] Admur 167:14

The reason: As Berov Am Hadras Melech. [Admur 167:18]

Regarding the second blessing of Al Achilas Matzah, do we also say that it’s preferable to fulfill one’s obligation with hearing it from another? No. We only apply the rule of Berov Am Hadras Melech by the blessing of Mitzvos did are fulfilled collectively, such as blowing shofar. However, by Mitzvos that are fulfilled individually, such as eating matza, the advantage of fulfilling the blessing through another due to Berov Am is cancelled out by the advantage of one saying the blessing on his own. Accordingly, there is no advantage one way or the other. [See Admur 213:6] Furthermore, in the event that a Minyan is not present it can be argued that there is no advantage at all in fulfilling one’s obligation with another and hence one should specifically say the blessing himself, even from the letter of the law. [See M”A 213:7 and Tosefta Brachos 6:20 “Ten people who are doing a Mitzvah together”; Implication of Admur 489:1]

[608] See Nitei Gavriel Pesach 90:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2

[609] Admur 167:18 regarding Hamotzi; Admur 619:8 regarding Shehechiyanu, Birchas Hallel and Lulav; M”B 213:12

The reason regarding Hamotzi: As from the letter of the law a person is allowed to exclude himself from the group and say his own blessing rather than to fulfill his obligation with another, and since people are accustomed to talk and make an interval between the blessing said by the leader of the table and their eating, therefore it became accustomed for everyone to say their own blessing. [Admur 167:14]

The reason regarding Birchas Hamitzvos: As in majority of instances, the Chazan does not have in mind to be Motzi the congregation. [Admur ibid; Chayeh Adam ibid; M”B ibid]

Is one Yotzei Lechem Mishneh if he says the blessing of Hamotzi on the distributed piece of Matzah? Some Poskim rule that one cannot fulfill his obligation of Lechem Mishneh with another person’s Hamotzi unless he also fulfills his obligation with the blessing, and does not say the blessing on his own. [Implication of Admur 274:4; 473:24; Chayeh Adam Shabbos 7; Toras Chaim Sofer 213:8 in name of Chasam Sofer; Karban Nesanel on Rosh Arvei Pesachim 68 in name of manuscript Kesav; Ketzos Hashulchan 37 footnote 9 and 82 footnote 6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:6 footnote 76] Other Poskim, however, rule that one can have fulfill his obligation by simply eating a piece of his bread even if he says his own blessing of Hamotzi. [Possible understanding of Admur 167:18; Shut Tiya Viyal 26 that so was custom by Karban Nisanel; Minchas Shabbos in name of Ashel Avraham of Butchach 274] Practically, the widespread customers like the latter opinion. [Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 14:29, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:83; Milameid Lehoil 1:24; See Daas Sofer 34; Lehoros Nasan 6:9; SSH”K 55 footnote 14; Shevet Halevi 8:241; Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:6 footnote 76]

[610] See H in Q&A that those who do not have their own Lechem Mishneh must hear are the blessing of Hamotzi and partake in the Matzah of the leader of the Seder in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Lechem Mishneh. See Nitei Gavriel Pesach 90:6-7 for other alternative ways of how the distribution and blessing should be done in a way that does not cause an interval between the blessing and the eating of the participants  

[611] Siddur Admur; Shlah p. 142; Kaf Hachaim 475:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2 and 7; See Admur 475:18 that the eating of Matzah by Koreich is included within the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah.

[612] The reason: For the reason behind why one is to have this in mind, See Halacha 11 regarding the reason for why we eat Koreich!

[613] Siddur Admur; Shlah ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid; See Admur 475:18 That some are careful not to talk from the time of the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah until after eating the Afikoman, in order so its blessing count also for the Matzah of Afikoman. Admur however concludes that this is a mere stringency. 

[614] Admur 475:5; Siddur Admur; Maharil Seder Haggadah p. 109; Hilchos Uminhagei Mahrash 398:9; Chok Yaakov 475:2; Shelah p. 142; Mateh Moshe 645; Chok Yosef 475:2; P”M 475 M”Z 2; Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 1:34; M”B 475:2; Kaf Hachaim 475:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2 that so is the wordily custom; Custom of Rebbe; Omitted from Michaber/Rama 475:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to hold onto all three Matzos also during the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah. [Birkeiy Yosef 475 in name of Radbaz 1:481; Brought in Vayaged Moshe 24:12, Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2; The above law is omitted in Chayeh Adam 130:19] The reason that this is done is in order so the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah also go on the bottom Matzah. [Vayaged Moshe ibid]

[615] The reason: The reason that one is to have the 3rd bottom Matzah slip from one’s hands prior to saying the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is in order to show that the main mitzvah is going on the 1st and 2nd Matzah, as the 3rd Matzah is only used for Koreich in accordance with the opinion of Hillel. Alternatively, it is put down in order so one does not accidentally eat from it instead of the 1st or 2nd Matzah. [Rebbe in Haggadah] Alternatively, it is dropped in order not to belittle it. [P”M 475 M”Z 1]

[616] Meaning that although in general the Poskim rule that on Shabbat one is to break from the lower loaf for Lechem Mishneh, practically on Pesach we always break from the top loaf. [M”A 475:3] However, according to Kabbalah, one is to always break from the Top loaf even on Shabbos.

[617] Admur ibid; Michaber 475:1; Rosh Pesachim 10:30

[618] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov ibid; Maharil ibid

The reason that one is to have the top and middle Matzah in his hands during the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah: As some Poskim rule that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the broken Matzah which is considered part of the poor man’s bread, while the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the whole Matzah. [Opinion in Admur 475:5; Ravayah 525; in name of Rabbeinu Chananel, Geonim, and Raavan; Hagahos Maimanis Haggadah 7; Tur 475 in name of Yiesh Omrim] Therefore, in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to all opinions, which is the proper thing to do, one is to first recite the two blessings [over the two Matzos] and only afterwards break a Kezayis from the upper whole Matzah and a Kezayis off from the broken Matzah. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: Some are accustomed to break the 1st and second Matzah after the blessing of Hamotzi, prior to the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah. [Minhag Chasam Sofer 17; See Mishnah Sachir 2:1; Lehoros Nasan 6:27; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2 footnote 14]

[619] See Admur 475:5-8; Kaf Hachaim 475:17-19; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:4

[620] See Admur 475:8

[621] See Orchos Rabbeinu 2 p. 70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:4 that those who do not have at their own Seder plate, such as women and children, need to only eat one Kezayis, and so seems to be the forced conclusion today being that there isn’t enough Matzah by the Seder plate for a Kezayis both the top and middle Matzah to be distributed to every participant. Hence, they only need to eat one Kezayis, as the eating of 2 Kezeisim is only meaningful if one is eating a Kezayis from both the top and middle Matzah.

Other customs: See Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2 in 3rd custom that every participant is to eat two Kezeisim of Matzah

[622] Admur 475:5; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475; Rosh Pesachim 10:30; M”A 475:4; Chok Yaakov 475:6; Peri Chadash 475:2; Kaf Hachaim 475:17

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is not required to eat one Kezayis from each Matzah, and rather it suffices to eat half of a Kezayis from each Matzah, from the letter of the law. [Orchos Rabbeinu 2 p. 70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:4]

[623] See Admur 475:8 that from a Biblical perspective, one fulfills his Biblical obligation with a Kezayis of any Matzah, even if it was not present by the Seder plate.

[624] The reason one needs to eat a Kezayis from both Matzos: Although on behalf of the blessing of Hamotzi from the letter of the law it is not necessary to break off [and eat] a Kezayis of Matzah, and rather even the eating of a small amount suffices for saying the blessing of Hamotzi [Admur ibid; See Admur 167:4;168:7], nevertheless, since on behalf of the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah one must break off and eat a Kezayis of Matzah, as one does not fulfill his obligation with less than a Kezayis of Matzah and hence cannot say a blessing over it, therefore he is required to eat a Kezayis of both Matzos. The reason is as follows: Some Poskim rule that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the broken Matzah which is considered the poor man’s bread, while the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the top whole Matzah. [Opinion in Admur 475:5; Ravayah 525; in name of Rabbeinu Chananel, Geonim, and Raavan; Hagahos Maimanis Haggadah 7; Tur 475 in name of Yiesh Omrim] According to this opinion, one is only required to eat a Kezayis of Matzah from the top whole Matzah on which the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on, while eating even a small amount from the middle Matzah suffices for Hamotzi. Other Poskim, however, rule that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the whole Matzah while the blessing of Al Achila Matzah is going on the broken Matzah, which is considered poor man’s bread [i.e. Lechem Oni]. [Admur 475:4 and 5 that so is main opinion; See also 475:7, 9, 458:7, 10; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 116a; Riy in Tosafus Pesachim ibid; Rosh ibid; Arizal, brought in Kaf Hachaim 473:117, 475:5] According to this opinion, (which is the main opinion) one is required to break and eat a Kezayis of Matzah from the middle broken Matzah, as this is the Matzah on which the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah it was recited over [while eating even a small amount from the top Matzah suffices for Hamotzi]. Therefore, in order to fulfill his obligation according to both opinions one is required to break off and eat a Kezayis from both the top whole Matzah and the middle-broken Matzah. [Admur ibid; Taz 475:2; Peri Chadash 475:2; Kaf Hachaim 475:11; 17]

[625] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 486:1

[626] The reason: As according to the main opinion the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and the mitzvah of eating Matzah is fulfilled with the middle Matzah. Vetzaruch Iyun, as seemingly so long as one eats a full Kezayis of any Matzah he fulfills his Biblical obligation, and hence the need to eat a Kezayis specifically from the middle Matzah, is merely Rabbinical and hence it should suffice to take the smaller measurement of Kezayis for both the middle and top Matzah.

[627] Admur 475:6; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475; Rosh Pesachim 10:30; M”B 475:9

[628] The reason that both Kezeisim are to be eaten simultaneously: The reason the two Kezeiysim of both Matzoss are to be placed in one’s mouth at the same time, is in order to facilitate that according to both opinions, an interval between the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and the Matzah which it is going on, does not take place. The explanation is as follows: If one were to first eat a Kezayis of the Matzah on which the blessing of Hamotzi was going on, and only then eat the Kezayis of Matzah on which the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah was going on, then there would be an interval between the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and the eating of its Matzah. For example, if one were to for first eat from the top whole Matzah and then eat a Kezayis from the middle broken Matzah, then according to the main opinion who says that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the top Matzah, then the eating of a Kezayis from the top whole Matzah is considered an interval between the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and the eating of a Kezayis from the middle Matzah. Likewise, if the contrary is done and one were to for first eat from the middle broken Matzah and then eat a Kezayis from the top whole Matzah, then according to the Opinion who says that the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the middle broken Matzah, then the eating of a Kezayis from the middle-broken Matzah is considered an interval between the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and the eating of a Kezayis from the top whole Matzah. Therefore, he is to enter both Matzos into his mouth simultaneously. [Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 475:5; M”B 475:8, 10; Kaf Hachaim 475:15]

The reason that it does not suffice to first say Hamotzi and eat the top Kezayis and then say Al Achilas Matzah eat the middle Kezayis: Even according to the opinion who holds at the blessing of Hamotzi is going on the top Matzah while the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the middle Matzah, it does not suffice to first say Hamotzi and eat the top Matzah and then say Al Achilas Matzah and eat the middle Matzah, as once Matzah has been eaten you can no longer say the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah. Likewise it is obvious that one cannot first say the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and eat the middle Matzah and only then say Hamotzi on the top Matzah being is forbidden to eat Matzah without a blessing, and that’s what is required to say both blessings at the same time, one after the other. [Chok Yaakov 475:5; Kaf Hachaim 475:15]

[629] Admur ibid; M”A 475:4; M”B 475:9

[630] Admur ibid; M”A 475:4 based on Terumas Hadeshen 139

[631] Some Poskim write that the intent of the above law is to say that one should enter a little bit of Matzah at a time into his mouth, chew it, and only after both Kezeisim have been chewed, should one swallow one Kezayis at a time. Accordingly, it is possible to do so even today. [Sefer Matzos Mitzvah 12 footnote 20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:4] This explanation however seems to be directly negated by the words above which state that he is to enter both Kezeisim into his mouth simultaneously.

[632] Admur 475:7; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475

Other opinions: According to the second opinion [in Admur, see previous footnotes], if one is unable to [enter and] crush in his mouth both Kezeisim simultaneously, then one is required to first eat a Kezayis of the middle-broken Matzah, which is the Matzah of Hamotzi in their view, and only afterwards eat a Kezayis of the top whole Matzah. As one is the first eat the Matzah on which the blessing of Hamotzi was said over, and according to the second opinion, the middle-broken Matzah is the Matzah onto which the blessing of Hamotzi was said over while the top whole Matzah is the Matzah onto which the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah was said over. [Admur 475:9; Taz 475:3] Nevertheless, if the opposite is done there is no complete prohibition here even in their opinion and it is only that it is initially properly in their opinion to precede the eating of the Kezayis of the middle broken matzah, being that the blessing of Hamotzi which he said first is going on the broken Matzah. However, the main opinion is like the first opinion that a blessing of Hamotzi which he first said is going on the top whole Matzah, and therefore he needs to place the broken Matzah under the whole Matzah prior to saying the blessing, in order so he will not need to bypass the Mitzvah, as explained above, and it is likewise for this reason that he first eats a Kezayis from the whole Matzah. We only suspect for the latter opinion regarding matters that are permitted even according to the first opinion such as to eat a full Kezayis from the whole Matzah in a leaning position. [Admur 475:9; Chok Yaakov 475:5; M”B 475:8, 10; Kaf Hachaim 475:15]

[633] The reason: As one is the first eat the Matzah on which the blessing of Hamotzi was said over, and according to the first (and main) opinion, the top whole Matzah is the Matzah onto which the blessing of Hamotzi was said over while the middle broken Matzah is the Matzah onto which the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah was said over. [Admur ibid]

The reason that the eating of the Kezayis of the Matzah of Hamotzi is not considered an interval: The eating of the Kezayis of Hamotzi is Bedieved not considered an interval between the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and the eating of the Kezayis from the middle broken Matzah, as the first Kezayis of the top whole Matzah is considered to have been eaten for the sake of the Kezayis of the middle broken Matzah, as one is also required to recite the blessing of Hamotzi on the Kezayis of the broken Matzah, and thus by eating first from the top Matzah for the sake of Hamotzi [one exempts the blessing of Hamotzi from needing to be said over the middle broken Matzah]. [Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 475:5; See Psikei Dinim Tzemach Tzedek 36b]

[634] Vayaged Moshe 24:22; Custom of Rebbe, recorded in Maaseh Melech p. 203; Sefer Matzos Mitzvah 12 footnote 20 brought in previous footnotes; Orchos Rabbeinu 2:37 that one is to eat in a normal way of eating and that so was the custom of the Chazon Ish; Haggadah Shel Pesach Moadim Uzmanim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:4 that so is the custom of the world; See Admur 475:21 who rules similarly regarding eating the Matzha and Maror of the Koreich sandwich, that if he cannot swallow the entire two Kezeisim [one of Matzah and one of Maror] simultaneously, then he is to swallow a small amount of each together [To note however, that Admur did not mention this advice regarding the 2 Kezeisim of Matzah by Motzi matzah, Vetzaruch Iyun. See Q&A!]

[635] Admur 475:8; M”A 475:4; Kaf Hachaim 475:19

[636] Admur 475:6 and 14 “Even though Lechatchila one must eat the entire Kezayis simultaneously”; M”A 475:4; Taz 475:11; Terumas Hadeshen 139; Chok Yaakov 475:7 and 22; Chok Yosef 475:4; Chayeh Adam 130:9; M”B 475:9; Kaf Hachaim 475:18; 67

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even initially one may eat the Kezayis of Matzah a little bit at a time, and there is no need to consume the entire Kezayis simultaneously. [Opinion brought in Admur 475:14 regarding Maror; M”A 475:4 in name of Maharil Seder Haggadah p. 110 even regarding Matzah]

[637] See Chapter 3 Halacha 16

[638] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:4

[639] This is unlike his ruling in 475:21 regarding the Korach sandwich, in which he rules that if he cannot swallow the entire two Kezeisim [one of Matzah and one of Maror] simultaneously, then he is to swallow a small amount of each together

[640] Sefer Matzos Mitzvah 12 footnote 20

[641] Vayaged Moshe 24:22; See Admur 475:21 who rules similarly regarding the Koreich sandwich

[642] Orchos Rabbeinu 2:37

[643] Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:4; Custom of Rebbe, recorded in Maaseh Melech p. 203

[644] See Admur 475:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:4; Halacha above!

[645] See Haggadah Moadim Uzmanim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2; Nitei Gavriel Pesach 2:90

[646] See Chapter 2 Halacha 4D; Chapter 4 Halacha 8

[647] Admur 458:10; Chok Yaakov 458:26; Mahariy Viyal 193

[648] Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2 in 3rd custom

[649] Admur in Shut 6 writes “It was not mentioned in the previous Poskim as it was not common at all with their dough, and in the previous generations they would wait a long time in the kneading and rolling until it was well kneaded. However, approximately 20 or more years ago, the custom spread to the Jewish people who are holy to be very quick with the kneading, and it is hence not kneaded well.”

[650] See Admur 274:4 “As they fulfill their obligation of Lechem Mishneh through hearing the blessing of Hamozti said over the Lechem Mishneh, and through then eating from that Lechem Mishneh; Implication of Tosafus; M”B 167:83; Shaar Hatziyon 167:72; Ketzos Hashulchan 37 footnote 9; 82 footnote 6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:6; See also Admur 167:20 [Which could be understood to rule likewise that the participants must eat from the bread of the Lechem Mishneh, although possibly one can argue that it only refers to the prohibition to eat their bread prior to him eating]; 473:24 [From where it can be implied that eating from the same bread is not necessary, So long as they hear the blessing of Hamotzi from him]; See Admur 458:10 which writes that every participant is to receive from the middle Matzah

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it is not necessary to eat from the actual Matzah of the Lechem Mishneh to fulfill one’s obligation of Lechem Mishneh, and it rather suffices to simply hear him say the blessing over it. [Possible implication of Michaber 274:3, Admur 473:24, M”B 274:8; See Rav Tiyah Viyaal 26; Ashel Avraham Butchach 274; Eiyn Habedulach 61; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:259; Migdanos Eliyahu 1:147; Lehoros Nasan 6:9; Nesivos Adam 2:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 82] According to this approach, there is no need for the leader of the seder to distribute his Matzos to the participants if they each have a Kezayis of their own . 

[651] 458:10 “The middle Matzah must be larger than the others as one needs to distribute two Kezeisim from it to each one of the participants, one for Al Achilas Matzah and the second for Afikoman”; Pesach Chasidi p. 23 “Distribute from the middle and top”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475 footnote 13; See next!

[652] See Pesach Chasidi p. 23 “Distribute from the middle and top”

The reason for distributing from both the top and middle: As the custom [even during the year] is to distribute to all the participants a part of the Matzah [or Challah] that Hamotzi was said over [Admur 167:21], and since there is a dispute as to which Matzah the Hamotzi was said on, the middle or the top, therefore one is to distribute a piece from both. Alternatively, the reason for distributing also from the middle Matzah is for Chivuv Mitzvah. [See Vayaged Moshe 24:28; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475 footnote 13. Vetzaruch Iyun as to why no mention was made of the first reason!]

[653] Nitei Gavriel 90:7 that so is the advice of Gedolei Horah; See Vayaged Moshe 24:28 and 3rd custom in Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2 and that so is custom

Other customs: Some are accustomed to have the leader of the Seder first eat his entire portion of two Kizeisim and only then distribute the pieces to the participants and have them say their blessing and eat. [Vayaged Moshe 24:28; Drakei Chaim Veshalom 604; Kinyan Torah 5:55; 1st custom in Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2; Nitei Gavriel ibid] Others are accustomed for the leader of the seder to first distribute the pieces to the participants and only then does he eat his pieces together with the participants. [Mishnas Sachir 2:1; Orchos Rabbeinu 2:69; 2nd custom in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; See Kitzur SHU”A 119:5]

[654] The reason: In order to avoid a Hefsek from taking place either for him or for the participants.

[655] Taz 167:18; Rikanti in Taamei Hamitzvos; Shlah Miseches Pesachim Matzah Ashirah Derush 5; Besamim Rosh 169; Siddur Yaavetz; Kaf Hachaim 167:140; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:3

[656] Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Ben Ish Chaiy that it is a danger to do so and one time an individual who gave Matzah to a gentile was told by the Ben ish Chaiy that the gentile can cause him injury and indeed he was chased by that gentile with a sword later on that year

[657] Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:3

[658] Vayaged Moshe 27:16 in name of Derech Pikudecha

[659] Admur 475:9; Chok Yaakov 475:7 that so is custom; Michaber 475:1; Implication of Tur 475; Chok Yaakov 475:7; Kaf Hachaim 472:45

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is not required to lean upon eating the first Kezayis of Hamotzi [i.e. top Matzah], and is only required to lean by the second Kezayis of Matzah [i.e. middle Matzah]. [Terumos Hadeshen Pesakim Ukesavim 152 that so is implied from all Poskim, brought in Beis Yosef 472 and Chok Yaakov 472:15]

[660] The reason: The reason that one is to lean even upon eating the first Kezayis of the whole Matzah [i.e. Kohen], which is eaten on behalf of the blessing of Hamotzi, is in order to fulfill one’s obligation even according to the opinion who says that in truth the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah is going on the Kezayis that is eaten from the top whole Matzah, and it is with that Matzah that he fulfills his obligation, and he thus does not fulfill his obligation without leaning. Now, although according to their opinion one is required to first eat a Kezayis from the middle broken Matzah, which is the Matzah of Hamotzi in their view, and only afterwards is he to eat a Kezayis from the top whole Matzah, nevertheless if the opposite is done there is no complete prohibition here even in their opinion and it is only that it is initially properly in their opinion to precede the eating of the Kezayis of the middle broken matzah, being that the blessing of Hamotzi which he said first is going on the broken Matzah. However, the main opinion is like the first opinion that’s a blessing of Hamotzi which he first said is going on the top whole Matzah, And therefore he needs to place the broken Matzah under the whole Matzah prior to saying the blessing, in order so he will not need to bypass the Mitzvah, as explained above, and it is likewise for this reason that he first eats a Kezayis from the whole Matzah. We only suspect for the latter opinion regarding matters that are permitted even according to the first opinion such as to eat a full Kezayis from the whole Matzah in a leaning position. [Admur ibid]

[661] Admur 475:10; See Kaf Hachaim 475:12-14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:3

[662] 1st custom in Admur ibid; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475; Ravayah 525; Rokeiach 283; Opinion of Arizal, brought in Beir Heiytiv 475:3, Kaf Hachaim 475:12 and 14, that we needs to always dip the bread of Hamotzi in salt in order to sweeten the severities, even if it is bread made from fine flour; Kaf Hachaim 475:14 concludes the one who wants to do like both opinions is to dip it in salt in order to sweeten the severities and then shake it off prior to eating it

[663] Sefer Haminhagim p. 40; Pesach Chasidi p. 23

[664] 2nd custom in Admur ibid; Rama 475:1; Maharil Seder Haggadah p. 110; Pesach Meubin 279; Chok Yosef 475:3; Daas Torah 475 in name of Zohar, brought in Vayaged Moshe 24:18; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:3 footnote 15

The reason: As clean bread [made from fine flour] does not require salt. [Admur ibid; 167:8; Rama ibid] Now, although during the remaining days of Pesach we do dip the Matzah in salt even though it is made of fine flour, nevertheless on these first two nights of Pesach the custom is not to do so in order to show once belovedness to the Matzah, and fulfill the Mitzvah of eating Matzah using Matzah that does not have any additives and that does not have any other taste with it at all. Nevertheless, from the letter of the law there is no Halachic issue involved in doing so [i.e. in eating it together with salt]. [Admur ibid; Drashos Maharil ibid; Levush 475:1; Chok Yaakov 475:4] As the prohibition to place salt on Matzos is only when the Matzah is still dough. However, once the Matzah has baked, it certainly is permitted to place salt on it. [See Admur 455:33; M”B 455:41; Although the M”B in 455:41 also says that one should beware from placing salt water on the Matzahs of the night of the 15/16th, nevertheless seemingly there it is because of the water aspect, as it may give the Matzah a din of Mevushal, however regarding plain salt, perhaps the M”B would agree that it is fine even on the 1st two nights.] Alternatively, the reason we do not dip the Matzah in salt is because it needs to retain the status of poor man’s bread. [Levush 475, brought in Kaf Hachaim 475:13] Seemingly Admur came to negate this latter approach in his explanation. See Kaf Hachaim 475:13

[665] Pesach Chasidi

[666] Admur ibid; Levush 475:1

[667] See Admur 475:16 and 26

[668] Admur 461:12-14

[669] See Likkutei Sichos 32:34, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:329

[670] Rambam Chametz Umatzah 8:8

[671] Maharitz Geios, brought in Maggid Mishneh ibid; Rav Amram Gaon, brought in Hamanhig Pesach 78, Tur 475, Hagahos Maimanis on Rambam ibid Ches; Abudarham in name of Rav Sadya and Rav Amram Gaon

[672] Tur 475; Hamanhig ibid

[673] Admur 475:18; 167:9; 432:6; 475:8; 692:7; Rama 167:6

[674] Admur 475:8; 432:7; 167:9

[675] As one is only required to repeat the blessing if he spoke between the blessing and the start of the eating. [Admur ibid]

[676] Admur 475:18; 482:2; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475 in name of Baal Hamanhig

[677] The reason: As according to the opinion of Hillel, a person does not fulfill his Rabbinical Mitzvah of eating Maror unless it is eaten together with Matzah. [See Halacha 11A] Therefore, in order so the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and Al Achilas Maror also count for the Matzah and Maror eaten in Koreich according to the opinion of Hillel, one is therefore required to beware against making an interval. [Admur ibid] Based on the above, we also rule that one is to have in mind the Matzah of Korech when saying the blessing of Matzah, and therefore one should not talk of matters unrelated to the meal until after Korech, as otherwise the blessing is considered interrupted and does not count for the Matzah eaten by Korech.

[678] Admur ibid; Taz 475:7; M”A 475:8; Taz 475:7; Bach 475; Chok Yosef 475:8; Mamar Mordechai 475:10; M”B 475:24; Kaf Hachaim 475:39

The reason: As perhaps we rule like the colleagues of Hillel who do not require the eating of Koreich sandwich to take place. [Admur ibid]

[679] Admur ibid; Taz ibid; Kaf Hachaim 475:40

[680] Admur 475:18

[681] Admur ibid; Shelah Hakadosh beginning of Tractate Pesachim; See Siddur Admur that upon saying the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah one is to intend to also exempt with it the Matzah of Afikoman.

The reason: This is done in order so the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah count also for the Matzah eaten for Afikoman. [Admur ibid; See P”M 487 M.Z.; Shaar Hatziyon 477:4]

[682] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 475:14; Kaf Hachaim 475:38

[683] Hagdah of Rebbe

[684] See Admur 475:11-15; Kaf Hachaim 475:20-27; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:5

The law if one accidentally performed Koreich before Maror: In such a case, he is to eat Maror without a blessing after eating Koreich. [See Mamar Mordechai 475:2; Kaf Hachaim 475:26, unlike Yifei Laleiv 5:3 who rules to say a blessing]

Why we eat the Maror which represents the slavery after Matzah which represents the freedom: See Avnei Nezer

[685] Ateres Zekeinim 12 in name of Shelah; Kaf Hachaim 24:19; 475:9

[686] Admur 475:11 [Admur in Siddur omits word immediately]; Michaber 475:1

[687] The reason: Seemingly, this is done in order not to make a Hefsek between the blessing of Matza and that of Koreich.

[688] Derech Pikudecha Mitzvah 10 Machshava; Moadim Uzmanim 3:18 based on Bach 625 regarding Sukkah; Piskeiy Teshuvah 475:9

[689] See Admur 473:30; Levush 473; M”B 473:43; Kaf Hachaim 473:90; Haggadah Shel Pesach “Al Shum Mah”; Braisa; See Derech Pikudecha Mitzvah 10:5; See Shelah Pesachim Derush Matzah Shemurah 214

[690] Derech Pikudecha Mitzvah 10:5

[691] Derech Pikudecha Mitzvah 10:5

[692] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 136, 149; So rule regarding Karpas: Admur 473:25; M”A 473:5; Chok Yosef 473:11; Kaf Hachaim 473:52; Rebbe in Hagada “After Karpas I did not see them return the leftovers onto the Keara, and hence from here onwards there are only five things on the Kearah”; See Vayaged Moshe p. 113; Nitei Gavriel 2:283

Ruling based on Kabalah: Based on the Kabalistic meanings behind each of the Simanim, it is proper for all the Simanim to remain on the table even after one is finished with that part of the Seder.

[693] Haggadah of Rebbe, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:314; Toras Menachem 178 Reshimos Hayoman that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rayatz; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 134; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:18 that so should be done and that so was custom of Reb Aaron of Belz, and his father the Rebbe of Biala.

The reason: One takes lettuce for both Maror and Chazares due to the directive of the Sages to give it precedence. [Rebbe ibid] One also takes horseradish with the lettuce in order to a) suspect for the opinion [see other opinions above] that one must feel bitterness to be Yotzei Maror and b) to abide by the old age Ashkenazi tradition of using horseradish. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:18]

Other customs: Some are accustomed to use lettuce for Maror and horseradish for Koreich. [See Nitei Gavriel 2:93 footnote 6] The Rebbe ibid negates this custom, stating that one is to take lettuce for both.

[694] Admur 473:28; Michaber 473:5; Mishneh Pesachim 39a; Ran Pesachim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 473:86; So rules Shevach Hamoadim, Rav Shuchat in English Hagada, “Pesach Chassid” and other Hagaddas; See Halacha E above!

[695] See Maaseh Melech p. 204 for the full details of how the Rebbe would eat it

[696] Admur 475:11; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1; Rav Papa Pesachim 115b; See Kaf Hachaim 475:23-24

[697] The reason: The reason why [the entire Maror is to be dipped in the Charoses] is because there is a dangerous worm found in Maror called the Kafa which is killed by dipping it in the Charoses. We thus dip the Maror in the Charoses in order to prevent it from injuring anyone. [Admur ibid; Taz 475:4; Rashbam Pesachim ibid; Rabbeinu Chananel ibid; Rav Papa ibid] This worm is a type of worm that is Kosher, although cannot be eaten due to danger. [Mamar Mordechai 475:3; Kaf Hachaim 475:23] Alternatively, it is to dissipate a poisonous extract found in the Chazeres, and not to kill any worm. [Rashi ibid; Chok Yaakov 475:8; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[698] Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; Peri Chadash 475:1; Kaf Hachaim 475:23

The reason: Some justify today’s custom of not dipping the entire Maror into the Charoses being that this worm is no longer commonly found amongst us. The reason for why even today some part of the Maror is nevertheless dipped into the Charoses, is because it is a Mitzvah to commemorate the clay used in Egypt during the slavery. [Admur ibid; Peri Chadash ibid; Rebbe Yochanon in Pesachim 116a]

The reason a blessing is not said over the Charoses: Although dipping the Maror into the Charoses is a Mitzvah as explained above, nevertheless, a blessing is not recited over it being that it is it is secondary to the Maror, and is exempt with the blessing of the Maror. [Admur ibid; Tur 475]

[699] Haggadah of Rebbe

[700] Admur 475:12; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475 in name of Rabbeinu Yona; Rav Papa Pesachim 115b; Iggur in name of Mahariy Mulin, brought in Beis Yosef 475, and Kaf Hachaim 475:32

The reason: The Maror is to be immediately removed after dipping it in the Charoses as otherwise the bitterness of the Maror may dissipate due to the fermentation of the Charoses. It is for this same reason that it is to be immediately shaken off. [Admur ibid]]

[701] Chazon Ovadia 2:174; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:5

[702] Rebbe in Haggadah  “Prior to the dipping one is to soften the Charoses with the wine”; Toras Menachem 5746 3:181; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 133 and 179; See Tosafus Pesachim 116a “So is the widespread custom to soften it, and this is done at the time of the eating”; Hagadas Square; Vayaged Moshe p. 33; Nitei Gavriel 2:337

[703] Haggadah of Rebbe “Prior to the dipping one is to soften the Charoses with the wine that is in the vessel”; Directive of Rebbe based on custom of Previous Rebbe, recorded in Toras Menachem 5746 3:181 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:328 and Otzer Minhagei Chabad ibid], that one is to use the spilled wine of the four cups.

[704] Rebbe in Toras Menachem ibid that so was custom of Previous Rebbe; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 179 for the exact way the Rebbe performed this dipping by the Seder

[705] See Haggadah of Rebbe p. 35; Sefer Haminhagim p. 41; Shulchan Menachem 2:328

[706] See Chapter 2 Halacha 1C!

[707] Vayaged Moshe 25:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:5

[708] Admur 475:12; See M”A 473:19; Chok Yaakov 475:8; Kaf Hachaim 475:24

[709] Admur ibid; Rambam 8:8

[710] The reason: The blessing is to be said only after he has already dipped the Maror in the Charoses as one is to approximate the blessing to the fulfillment of the Mitzvah, which is the eating, as much as possible. [Admur ibid; See M”A 473:19; Chok Yaakov 475:8]

[711] Rebbe in Haggadah that so is our custom; See Admur 475:18 that the eating of Maror by Koreich is included within the blessing of Al Achilas Maror; So rule regarding having in mind the Matzah of Koreich by Al Achilas Matzah: Siddur Admur; Shlah p. 142; Kaf Hachaim 475:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:2 and 7; Vetzaruch Iyun why Admur in the Siddur did not explicitly mention this here as well.

[712] The reason: For the reason behind why one is to have this in mind, See Halacha 11 regarding the reason for why we eat Koreich!

[713] Admur 167:7; Seder 9:4; Michaber 206:4; Brachos 43b; Rebbe in Haggadah

[714] The reason: As all matters which one says a blessing over must be held in the right hand during the time of the blessing. [ibid]

[715] See Halacha 9E regarding Matzah and the same applies regarding Maror.

[716] Admur 475:13; 475:20; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1; Pesachim 108a; Kaf Hachaim 475:27

[717] The reason: This is due to the reason explained in 472:14 [Admur ibid] that we only require leaning by those actions which were instituted to be performed in commemoration of the redemption and freedom.

[718] Admur ibid; M”A 475:6; Chok Yaakov 475:9; Beis Yosef 475:3; M”B 475:14

[719] Siddur Admur “Eat it without leaning”; Implication of M”A ibid, as brought in Kaf Hachaim 475:27, that initially one is not to lean; Hamelech Bemisibo 2:98; Sefer Haminhagim p. 39 regarding Karpas and certainly this would apply even more so to Maror

[720] See Admur 475:15-21; 26-27; Siddur Admur; Kaf Hachaim 475:28-30; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:6

[721] See Admur 475:15-18; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475; Pesachim 115a; Kaf Hachaim 475:29

[722] Admur 475:16-17; Rambam 8:6; Pesachim 115a; Zevachim 79a

[723] The reason: Since today Maror is no longer Biblically required to be eaten, and is merely a Rabbinical Mitzvah, therefore the Maror may not be eaten together with the Matzah as the Maror nullifies the taste of the Matzah [which is Biblical]. [Admur 475:17]

[724] The reason: As Biblical Mitzvos do not nullify each other, as they are both considered equal, as they are all the fulfillment of the command of G-d. [Admur 475:16; Rashbam ibid]

[725] Admur 475:16

The reason: This is done in order to fulfill the verse “Al Matzos Umerorim Yochluhu.” [Admur ibid]

[726] Admur 475:16

[727] Admur 475:17-18; See Braisa Pesachim 115a; Tur 475; Chok Yaakov 475:10; Kaf Hachaim 475:29

[728] Admur 475:17; Rosh 10:27; Tosafus Pesachim ibid

The reason: As the eating of Maror in today’s times was established by the sages to be done in commemoration of the Temple, at which time it’s eating was a Biblical obligation. Now, just as during Temple times one would not fulfill his Biblical obligation of eating Maror, according to Hillel, Unless it was bound together with Matzah, therefore so too now it needs to be bound together with Matzah [in order to fulfill one’s Rabbinical obligation]. [Admur 475:17] However, according to the opinion of Hillel that the Matzah in this sandwich is a Rabbinical obligation, it does not nullify the taste of the Maror which is also a rabbinical obligation, and are hence of equal status and do not nullify each other. [Admur 475:18]

[729] Admur 475:18

The reason: As once the Kezayis of Matzah has been eaten, one has already fulfilled the mitzvah of Matzah and the Matzah in this sandwich is merely voluntary and does not contain any Mitzvah involved in eating it, according to their opinion. Therefore, one may not eat the Maror together with the Matzah, as the Matzah nullifies the taste of the Maror which is in the sandwich when he chews them together. However, according to the opinion of Hillel that the Matzah in this sandwich is a Rabbinical obligation, it does not nullify the taste of the Maror which is also a rabbinical obligation, and are hence of equal status and do not nullify each other.  [Admur ibid]

[730] Siddur Admur

[731] Admur 458:7; 482:4; Siddur Admur; Rosh Pesachim 10:30; Tur end of 475; Kaf Hachaim 475:28 in name of Tosafus, Bach, Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar 21:4

[732] To note, however, that the Rebbe Maharash would distribute Karpas and Maror from his Seder plate to the women, and other relatives

[733] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 136, 149; So rule regarding Karpas: Admur 473:25; M”A 473:5; Chok Yosef 473:11; Kaf Hachaim 473:52; Rebbe in Hagada “After Karpas I did not see them return the leftovers onto the Keara, and hence from here onwards there are only five things on the Kearah”; See Vayaged Moshe p. 113; Nitei Gavriel 2:283

Ruling based on Kabalah: Ruling based on Kabalah: Based on the Kabalistic meanings behind each of the Simanim, it is proper for all the Simanim to remain on the table even after one is finished with that part of the Seder.

[734] Haggadah of Rebbe, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:314; Toras Menachem 178 Reshimos Hayoman that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rayatz; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 134; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:18 that so should be done and that so was custom of Reb Aaron of Belz, and his father the Rebbe of Biala.

The reason: One takes lettuce for both Maror and Chazares due to the directive of the Sages to give it precedence. [Rebbe ibid] One also takes horseradish with the lettuce in order to a) suspect for the opinion [see other opinions above] that one must feel bitterness to be Yotzei Maror and b) to abide by the old age Ashkenazi tradition of using horseradish. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:18]

Other customs: Some are accustomed to use lettuce for Maror and horseradish for Koreich. [See Nitei Gavriel 2:93 footnote 6] The Rebbe ibid negates this custom, stating that one is to take lettuce for both.

[735] Admur 473:28; Michaber 473:5; Mishneh Pesachim 39a; Ran Pesachim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 473:86; So rules Shevach Hamoadim, Rav Shuchat in English Hagada, “Pesach Chassid” and other Hagaddas; See Halacha E above!

[736] Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:6 footnote 31

[737] Admur 475:16, 17; Tur 486; Rokeiach 283; Drashos Maharil Seder Haggadah; Shaagas Aryeh 100; Machazik Bracha 475:1; Shaareiy Teshuvah 475; Yeshuos Yaakov 475:1; Mamar Mordechai 475:6; Chayeh Adam 130:11; Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 34; M”B 475:16; Kaf Hachaim 475:30

[738] Admur 475:16, 17; Tur 486; Rokeiach 283; Drashos Maharil Seder Haggadah; Shaagas Aryeh 100; Machazik Bracha 475:1; Shaareiy Teshuvah 475; Yeshuos Yaakov 475:1; Mamar Mordechai 475:6; Chayeh Adam 130:11 Kesav Sofer 86; Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 34; M”B 475:16; Kaf Hachaim 475:30; 473:89

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is not required to eat a Kezayis of Maror by Koreich. [See Haggadah Maaseh Nissim of Chavos Daas; Shaareiy Teshuvah 475; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:6 footnote 33]

[739] Admur 475:21; M”A 475:8; Terumas Hadeshen 139; Pesachim 115a; Kaf Hachaim 475:37; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:6

[740] See Admur 475:19; Kaf Hachaim 475:31-34

[741] First and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Opinion in Rama 475:1; Tur 475 in name of Ravayah 525; Hagahos Miamanis 8 Zayin; Rokeiach 283;

[742] The reason: As the Mitzvah of Charoses was already fulfilled upon dipping the first Maror into it [which is eaten prior to Koreich]. There is likewise no need to worry of the Kafah [i.e. dangerous worm] that is found in this Maror being that it is eaten together with the Matzah in this sandwich. [Admur ibid; Hagahos Maimanis ibid and Biur Hagr”a 475 in name of Yerushalmi; Levush 475:2]

[743] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1; Beis Yosef 475 in name of Ramban and that so is custom; Tur 475 in name of Rashi and Rosh; Hagahos Maimanis ibid in name of Maharam and Rabbeinu Tam; Rosh 10:27; Rashi in Machzor Vitri p. 282

[744] The reason: As this sandwich is eaten in commemoration of [how the Matzah and Maror were eaten in the times of] the Temple according to the ruling of Hillel. Now, Hillel would fulfill the Mitzvah of Charoses with the Maror that is found in this sandwich, as he did not eat any Maror at all prior to eating the sandwich. [Admur ibid; Taz 475:6] Accordingly, it only makes sense that since the entire reason of this eating is to commemorate the eating of Hillel, that it should be done as he did it which is through dipping it in Charoses. 

[745] Admur ibid; Rama ibid “And so I saw to be accustomed”

[746] Admur ibid; Taz 475:6; Bach 475; Rashal 88; Chok Yaakov 475:11; Peri Chadash 475:1; Olas Shabbos 475:2 in name of Maharal of Prague; Siddur Yaavetz; Maaseh Rav; M”B 475:19; Darkei Chaim Veshalom

[747] Siddur Admur

[748] Rebbe in Haggadah that so is followed by all those who are meticulous regarding Matzah Sheruya; See below regarding reason and for custom of Rebbe

The reason: This is due to the worry of Matzah Sheruya. [Rebbe ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun, as if the mixture does not contain any wine added to it, then there is no worry of Matzah Sheruyah. Furthermore, if the wine is 100% wine there is no worry even if it is added to it. perhaps then we must say that a) it refers to wine that contains some water, and b) We nevertheless shake off even the dry Charoses being that in the processing it most likely contain water such as if one did not dry off the fruits prior to grinding. Alternatively, one can suggest this refers to people who are careful to not even eat fruit juice together with Matzah, and hence even if there is no water added at all to the Charoses, it is still not eaten together with the Matzah. Vetzaruch Iyun. Practically, it is recorded that the Rebbe himself would spread Charoses three times onto the pieces of horseradish and eat it together with the leaves and Matzah. He did not shake it off beforehand. [See Otzer Minhagei Chabad letter 133]   

[749] Mamar Mordechai 475:7; M”B 475:17; Kitzur SHU”A 119:7; Kaf Hachaim 475:32; Rebbe in Haggadah; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; So rules Iggur in name of Mahariy Mulin, brought in Beis Yosef 475, and Kaf Hachaim 475:32, regarding Maror, however not regarding Koreich, which would imply that by Koreich it is not necessary. It is likewise omitted from the Michaber and Admur ibid, even though they ruled earlier regarding Maror that it is to be shaken off. [Admur 475:12; Siddur Admur; Michaber 475:1] Nonetheless, the Poskim ibid rule that even by Koreich one is to shake it off, although some are accustomed to not shake it off as is the simple implication of the above Poskim. [See Pesach Meubin 308; Kaf Hachaim 475:32; Piskeiy Teshuvos 475:6 footnote 30]

[750] Rebbe in Haggadah

[751] Admur 475:18; Chok Yaakov 475:13; See Michaber 475:1 “Zecher Lamikdash Kihillel”; Darkei Moshe 475:3; Levush 475; Maharshal 88; Kaf Hachaim 475:35

The Sephardi custom: The Sephardi custom is to simply recite “Zecher Lamikdash Kihillel” and not mention Matzah or Maror, or Pesach. [Olas Shabbos; Mamar Mordechai 475:8; Kaf Hachaim 475:35]

Other opinions: Some Poskim question the reciting of this Nussach prior to eating Koreich as perhaps it consists of a Hefsek between the blessing over the Maror and Matzah, and the Koreich. [See Biur Halacha 475:1 “Veomer”]

[752] Siddur Admur, omitted in Admur ibid

[753] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov ibid

[754] The reason: Although Hillel would also wrap a Kezayis of the Pesach [lamb] into this sandwich [of Matzah and Maror], nevertheless, since we are saying that “so was done,” and we do not have the Pesach [lamb], therefore we do not mention it. [Admur ibid]

[755] Admur ibid; Taz 475:9 mentions it in his Nussach

[756] Siddur Admur; See Rebbe in Haggadah

[757] Admur 475:18; 482:2; Michaber 475:1; Tur 475 in name of Baal Hamanhig

[758] The reason: As according to the opinion of Hillel, a person does not fulfill his Rabbinical Mitzvah of eating Maror unless it is eaten together with Matzah. [See Halacha 11A] Therefore, in order so the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah and Al Achilas Maror also count for the Matzah and Maror eaten in Koreich according to the opinion of Hillel, one is therefore required to beware against making an interval. [Admur ibid] Based on the above, we also rule that one is to have in mind the Matzah of Korech when saying the blessing of Matzah, and therefore one should not talk of matters unrelated to the meal until after Korech, as otherwise the blessing is considered interrupted and does not count for the Matzah eaten by Korech.

[759] Admur ibid; Taz 475:7; M”A 475:8; Taz 475:7; Bach 475; Chok Yosef 475:8; Mamar Mordechai 475:10; M”B 475:24; Kaf Hachaim 475:39

The reason: As perhaps we rule like the colleagues of Hillel who do not require the eating of Koreich sandwich to take place. [Admur ibid]

[760] Admur ibid; Taz ibid; Kaf Hachaim 475:40

[761] Admur 475:18

[762] Admur ibid; Shelah Hakadosh beginning of Tractate Pesachim; See Siddur Admur that upon saying the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah one is to intend to also exempt with it the Matzah of Afikoman.

The reason: This is done in order so the blessing of Al Achilas Matzah count also for the Matzah eaten for Afikoman. [Admur ibid; See P”M 487 M.Z.; Shaar Hatziyon 477:4]

[763] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 475:14; Kaf Hachaim 475:38

[764] Haggadah of Rebbe

[765] See Admur 476:5-7

[766] Rebbe in Haggadah by Shulchan Oreich; Sefer Haminhagim p. 79-80 [English]

[767] So is evident from Sefer Haminhagim ibid

[768] Heard from Rav Eli Landau regarding the Rebbe Rashab and Rav Y.Y. Ofen regarding the Rebbe

[769] Heard from Rav Eli Landau Shlita

[770] See Admur 177:6; Tosafos Brachos 41b; P”M 200 A”A 3; Chazon Ish 32; Piskeiy Teshuvos 177:10

[771] See Admur 177:6; Tosafos Brachos 41b; P”M 200 A”A 3; Chazon Ish 32; Piskeiy Teshuvos 177:10

[772] Heard from Rav Eli Landau Shlita; See Admur 459:26; Shaareiy Teshuvah 460:10

[773] Some are accustomed to only enter bite pieces of Matzah into their mouth at a time, in order to prevent saliva [which is equivalent to water] from coming into contact with the bitten area, and become Gebrochts. Rav Leibel Groner corresponded that he has never witnessed such a custom amongst the Rebbe or Chassidim.

[774] See Michaber O.C. 170:10 and 15; P”M 170 A”A 15

[775] See Admur Seder 9:18, 178:8, Rama 178:7, that a short Hefsek is not a Hefsek at all by a matter of Kevius and footnote 141 of Rav Elyashvili that it is understood from here that it is even initially permitted; M”B 178:34 in name of Tosafus and Rosh; Kaf Hachaim 178:24; Piskeiy Teshuvos 178:9

[776] Admur 484:6 [See Admur Seder 9:16-17; 178:4-5; 184:1]; M”A 484:1; 479:2; Beis Yosef 484; Abudarham ibid; Peri Chadash 484; Chok Yosef 484:1; Kaf Hachaim 484:5

[777] See previous footnote!

[778] The reason: As it is forbidden for one to uproot himself from his area of the meal prior to reciting Birchas Hamazon, and to go to another home, even if he plans to return, unless he is going for the purpose of a Mitzvah, as explained in 178:4 and 6 and 184:1. [Admur ibid; See Admur Seder 9:16-17; 178:4-5; 184:1]

[779] Poskim ibid

The reason: As he must recite Birchas Hamazon in the area that he ate the Matzah, and he may forget to return and end up reciting Birchas Hamazon in another area than the area of the meal. [See Admur 178:4-5]

[780] Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Beis Yosef 484; Abudarham ibid; Peri Chadash 484; Chok Yosef 484:1; Kaf Hachaim 484:5

The reason: As this is not considered a Mitzvah Overes, as he can do the Seder in the other home after he finishes his meal and says Birchas Hamazon in his home. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it is permitted to leave the home to lead the Seder in another area once the Koreich sandwich has been eaten, prior to eating his meal, and he may then return home and finish his meal. [Kol Bo; Derisha 484; Elya Raba 484:3; Erech Hashulchan 178:2; 484:1; See Kaf Hachaim 484:5]

[781] Admur 178:5; Seder 9:17; Rama 178:2

The reason: As he must recite Birchas Hamazon in the area that he ate the Matzah, and he may forget to return and end up reciting Birchas Hamazon in another area than the area of the meal. [See Admur 178:4-5] The idea of intent is only valid in the case explained next, where one plans to eat Matzah also in the second home.

[782] See Admur 178:5; Seder 9:16

The reason: As he must recite Birchas Hamazon in the area that he ate the Matzah, and he may forget to return and end up reciting Birchas Hamazon in another area than the area of the meal. [See Admur 178:5] In other words, although a Chabura helps to save one from Hesech Hadaas by a Shehakol/Hadama/Haietz product, it does not protect one from not forgetting to return to bench, and therefore we decree that he may not leave.

[783] Admur 178:4 “However, if he leaves with intent to return and finish the meal in his original area, then it is not considered Akirah, even if he did not leave any friends there waiting for him. Nonetheless, he must go with intent to eat there.”; 178:5 “As if he goes to eat there, in the worst case scenario, even if he forgets to return to his home to recite Birchas Hamazon, he will at the very least recite it there, as we only suspect for Akirah Limikomo Belo Bracha if his intent is not to return and Bench there, and did not intend to do this to begin with” Admur Seder 9:16 explains that one must go there with intent to eat bread, and with intent to return and eat bread in his original area; Vetzaruch Iyun from Admur in Seder ibid who completely omits this Halacha of 178-4-5 and implies that one may never switch areas if he did not have in mind to do so upon saying Hamotzi, even if he plans to return to his original place and will eat bread in both areas. It is likewise omitted from Ketzos Hashulchan 41 and from Piskeiy Teshuvos 178. However, see footnote 124 of Rav Elyashvili in Seder ibid who records this ruling of Admur 178:4-5 as binding even according to the Seder. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[784] Admur 178:4; 184:1

The reason: As one is required to recite Birchas Hamazon in the area of his meal, and if one eats in two areas, he is unable to recite Birchas Hamazon twice, in

[785] May one leave prior or in midst of Shulchan Oreich if he intended to do so by Hamotzi? From the wording of Admur and the Poskim ibid it is implied that one may never leave in middle of the meal, or prior to the Shulchan Oreich, even if he intended to do so at the time of Hamotzi, and he may only go to another area for the Afikoman. Vetzaruch Iyun, as we rule that whenever one intends at the time of Hamotzi to continue the meal in a second area that he is permitted to do so, and continue to eat the meal in the second area. [Admur 178:4]

[786] Admur 476:6; 473:21; Rama 476:2; Darkei Moshe 473:10; M”A 476:4; Taz 473:4; Chok Yaakov 473:17; See Kaf Hachaim 476:23-27; Piskeiy Teshuvos 476:2

[787] The reason: As when the temple was around, we would offer the Pesach sacrifice, and eat it during this night. However, now that we do not have the Pesach sacrifice, therefore we mourn over this at this time. It is for this reason that we eat eggs also on the second night. [Admur ibid; Rama ibid in 2nd reason; M”A ibid]

Other reasons: As the night of Tishe Beav always falls in the same weeknight as Pesach. [1st reason in Rama ibid, omitted by Admur ibid] This means that if Pesach falls on a Saturday night then so too that year Tishe Beav likewise fall on a Saturday night. This is hinted to in the verse “Al Matzos Umerorim Yochluhu” that both the Matzah and the bitterness of Tishe Beav is on the same night. [Kaf Hachaim 476:25] Alternatively, the reason is because the word Beiya in Aramaic also can mean supplication, and represents that we request from G-d to redeem us from the exile. [Maharil, brought in Vayaged Moshe 27:1 and Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Chok Yaakov 476:6; Kaf Hachaim 476:25; See Admur 473:20; Chapter 2 Halacha 1F!] Alternatively, the reason is because Avraham Avinu passed away on Erev Pesach, and we thus eat eggs in commemoration of this mourning. [P”M 476 M”Z 3 in name of Yad Yosef Parshas Toldos; Kaf Hachaim 476:26] Alternatively, it is in commemoration of the Chagiga offering. [Biur Hagr”a; Kaf Hachaim ibid] 

[788] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 476:6; Haggadah of Rebbe; Sefer Haminhagim p. 41; So follows according to the 2nd reason of Rama ibid, and other reasons mentioned above; See Kaf Hachaim 476:27

Other opinions: According to the first reason of the Rama ibid, there is no need to eat eggs also on the second night. [Kaf Hachaim 476:25]

[789] Maharil, brought in Vayaged Moshe 27:1 and Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Siddur Yaavetz

The reason: As the eating of the egg is done as a prayer to G-d to redeem us. [Maharil ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because one should approximate the eating of the egg which is done in commemoration of the Chagiga offering to the eating of Koreich which is also done in commemoration of the temple. [Siddur Yaavetz ibid] 

[790] Likkutei Maharich; Likkutei Pinchas of Rav Pinchas of Koreitz; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[791] See Admur 476:7 and Rama 576:2 that some are accustomed not to dip more than twice throughout the Seder night. See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid for various customs regarding this and how to avoid the issue of it appearing like two dips [i.e. using a fork, sprinkling the saltwater onto it rather than dipping]

[792] Haggadah of Rebbe; Sefer Haminhagim p. 41

[793] Kaf Hachaim 476:26

[794] Ruach Chaim 476:2 based on Sefer Chassidim; Kaf Hachaim 476:24

[795] Admur 473:21 “And it is eaten within the meal”; Taz 473:4; Chok Yaakov 473:17; P”M 473 M”Z 4; M”B 476:11; Kaf Hachaim 473:61; 476:26; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

The reason it is allowed to be eaten: Although we avoid eating the Zeroa due to its correspondence to the Karban Pesach, nevertheless we permit eating the egg even on the night of the Seder, as although it corresponds to the Chagiga sacrifice, it also represents the mourning of the destruction of the Temple. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[796] Vayaged Moshe 27:7 based on Shelah

[797] Seder Hayom

[798] Mamar Mordechai 473:1

[799] See Halacha 5E regarding Karpas

[800] Chayeh Adam 130:9; Kaf Hachaim 476:27

[801] Yifei Laleiv 2 476:2; 473:5; Kaf Hachaim 476:23; See Admur 242:7; Rav Yehuda in Shabbos 118a; M”A 242:1 in name of Tikkunei Shabbos; M”B 242:2

[802] Rama 476:1; Shulchan Gavoa 473:8; Kaf Hachaim 473:41; See Admur 476:5 that one should not drink too much, although no mention is made if it refers specifically to alcoholic beverages, as writes the Rama ibid

[803] Hamelech Bemisibo 1:281; 2:121

[804] Admur 473:21; Gra 476; Kaf Hachaim 476:26

[805] Admur 476:7; Rama 476:2; Maharil Seder Haggadah

[806] The reason: This is done in order to make a recognition that the above two dipping’s we’re done for the sake of the Mitzvah. [Admur ibid; Levush 476] Now, although we also dip the second set of Maror [of Koreich] into Charoses, this is only done due to doubt that perhaps it fulfills the Mitzvah of Maror, as rules Hillel, and is hence considered one with the dipping of Maror. [Taz 475:6; Kaf Hachaim 476:28]

[807] Admur 476:5; Rama 476:1; Maharil Seder Haggadah; Tosafus Pesachim 107b; Nazir 23a; Bach 471; M”A 476:2; Rokeiach 283; See Kaf Hachaim 476:15-19

[808] The reason to not eat too much: One should not eat too much during the meal in order not to eat the Afikoman as an Achilah Gasa. It is considered an Achila Gasa if one is full to the point that he does not desire to eat any more food at all. If a person eats the Afikoman in such a state, then he does not fulfill the Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar. Now, although the eating of the Afikoman was done in commemoration of the Pesach sacrifice, and the Pesach sacrifice was eaten after satiation from the meal, and it is for this reason that the Afikomen is specifically eaten after eating the entire meal as explained in chapter 477:1 and 3, nevertheless, it needs to be eaten with at least a slight appetite and desire to eat. However, when he does not desire at all to eat, and he nevertheless eats then this is considered Achila Gasa and is not a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Tosafus ibid] Accordingly, there exists there types of eating 1) A desire an appetite to eat which is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar. 2) No desire or appetite to eat but is not repulsed from food, in which case it is not a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar. 3) Is repulsed from the food, in which case it is not considered an eating at all. [P”M 476 A”A 2; Kaf Hachaim 476:17] One who eats the Afikoman in a state of Achila Gasa is coined under the verse “Upshim Yichshilu Bam.” [M”A ibid; Beis Yosef 477; Rokeiach ibid]

The reason to not drink too much: What is not to drink too much alcohol in order so he does not get drunk and fall asleep [Rama ibid] and end up not eating the Afikoman, or staying awake to continue saying the story of the exodus after the conclusion of the Seder [Biur Hagara 476], or end up falling asleep and not saying the Hallel. [Levush 476; Kaf Hachaim 476:19] Vetzaruch Iyun why this matter was omitted by Admur ibid 

[809] Rebbe in Haggadah; See also Bach 471; M”A 476:2; Kaf Hachaim 476:15

[810] Chayeh Adam 130:9; Kaf Hachaim 476:27

[811] Chok Yaakov 476:4; Kaf Hachaim 476:18

[812] Admur 476:5 [See also Admur 612:6; 197:9]; M”A 476:2; Tosafus Nazir 23a and Pesachim 107b; Rokeiach 283; Chok Yaakov 476:4; Elya Raba 476:3; Chok Yosef 476:2; M”B 476:6; Kaf Hachaim 476:16

[813] Admur 178:4; 184:1

The reason: As one is required to recite Birchas Hamazon in the area of his meal, and if one eats in two areas, he is unable to recite Birchas Hamazon twice, in

[814] Admur 479:8; 484:6 regarding Afikoman and so rule also regarding Shulchan Oreich: M”A 478:2; Taz 479:3; Chok Yosef 478:2; M”B 478:3; Kaf Hachaim 478:7

May one leave prior or in midst of Shulchan Oreich if he intended to do so by Hamotzi? From the wording of Admur and the Poskim ibid it is implied that one may never leave in middle of the meal, or prior to the Shulchan Oreich, even if he intended to do so at the time of Hamotzi, and he may only go to another area for the Afikoman. Vetzaruch Iyun, as we rule that whenever one intends at the time of Hamotzi to continue the meal in a second area that he is permitted to do so, and continue to eat the meal in the second area. [Admur 178:4]

[815] Rebbe in Haggadah in implication of Admur in Siddur who writes that one is to be careful not to drink after the Afikomen which is coming to teach us that one is to drink enough beforehand, so he is not thirsty afterwards

[816] Kaf Hachaim 481:10

[817] See Admur 477:1-11; Kaf Hachaim 476:3; 476:15-18; 477:1-30; Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:5; Shulchan Menachem 2:338  

[818] See Admur 472:25; 479:7; Siddur Admur “Distribute a Kezayis to the entire household”; Kaf Hachaim 477:2; Chapter 3 Halacha 10!

[819] Sefer Derech Yeshara p. 83; Sefer Chaim of Rosh p. 77; Yifei Laleiv 5:1; Kaf Hachaim 476:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:5

[820] Admur 477:1-3

[821] Admur 477:3; Michaber 473:1; Rosh, brought in Bach 477; Kaf Hachaim 476:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the eating of the Matzah for Afikoman is not in commemoration for the Pesach lamb but rather for the Matzah that was eaten with the Pesach lamb. [Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 119b, brought in Bach 477; Kaf Hachaim 477:1]

[822] Admur 477:1; Rambam 8:9; Rashbam Pesachim 119b; Pesachim 70a; Levuch 4776:1

[823] The reason: The reason for this requirement is because all Kodshim are required to be eaten with great importance and aristocracy, as the verse [Bamidbar b18:8] states “Kodshei Bnei Yisrael Lecha Nasatim Lemishcha.” This means to say that the meat had to be eaten in a way of greatness and aristocracy like kings and princes eat it. [Admur ibid; See Sotah 15a]

Other reasons: Some suggest that the reason that the Karban Pesach was eaten at the end of the meal is because it is forbidden to eat anything afterwards, as well as because if it were eaten when people were still hungry, they may come to break bones from the offering. [Levush 477; Kaf Hachaim 476:3]

[824] Admur 477:2; Rambam Pesach 8:9; Shmuel Pesachim 119b; See Kaf Hachaim 478:2

[825] Pesachim 119b

[826] The term Maftirin here comes from the word Yaftiru Besafa, which means to open the mouth and as. Alternatively, it comes from the word Niftar Meichaveiro, which means to depart, and hence it is saying that one should not depart from the Pesach with Afiokoman. [Levush 478; P”M 478 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 478:2]

[827] Admur ibid

Other interpretations: Some say that the word Afikoman means Afiku Mani, which is to say that one should not ask [i.e. Maftirim] for dessert [i.e. Afikoman] after eating the Pesach sacrifice. [Levush 478; P”M 478 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 478:2]

[828] The reason: After eating the Pesach sacrifice it was forbidden to eat any other food and produce in the world in order so its taste not be removed from ones mouth through the taste of another food. [Admur 478:2; Rambam Pesach 8:9; Shmuel Pesachim 119b]

[829] Admur 477:3 [see also 473:35]; Michaber 477:1; 478:1; Rosh end of Perek Arvei Pesachim; Rambam Pesach 6:11; 8:9; Shmuel Pesachim 119b; Tur 478:1; Taz 478:1; P”M 478 M.Z. 1; Kaf Hachaim 478:1-2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the eating of the Matzah for Afikoman is not in commemoration for the Pesach lamb but rather for the Matzah that was eaten with the Pesach lamb. [Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 119b] 

[830] Some suggest that the reason we call the actual Matzah Afikoman is because the word Afikoman refers to the desserts and sweets, as stated above, and hence due to our belovedness of the Mitzvah we refer to the actual Matzah as Afikoman, as if it were a sweet dessert. [Levush 478; P”M 478 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 478:2]

[831] Michaber 477:1

[832] The reason: As it is only eaten in commemoration of the offering and is not the actual offering. [Levush 477] Alternatively, the reason is because one has already included in the blessing over the Matzah. [Kaf Hachaim 477:8]

[833] 476

[834] See Admur 477:3; Kaf Hachaim 476:1-2

[835] Admur 477:3 “every person is required to eat a Kezayis of Matzah in commemoration of the Karban Pesach”; 458:10 “One needs a Kezayis for every family member”; Siddur Admur “One is to distribute a Kezayis to every family member”; Michaber 477:1; Rambam 6:11; 6:9; Rosh

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that eating any amount of Matzah suffices, even less than a Kezayis. [Implication of Chinuch Mitzvah 21]

[836] Admur 477:3; Taz 477:1; M”A 477:1; Bach 477:1; Darkei Moshe 477:1; Maharil Seder Haggadah; Ben Ish Chaiy Tazv 35; Kaf Hachaim 476:1

[837] Lit. Tov

[838] The reason: The reason that this is to be done is because there are Poskim [Rashi and Rashbam Pesachim 119b] who rule that the eating of the Matzah for Afikoman is not in commemoration for the Pesach lamb but rather for the Matzah that was eaten with the Pesach lamb. Hence, in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to all opinions, we eat two Kezeisim. [Bach 477; Kaf Hachaim 476:1] Alternatively, the reason is due to Chivuv Mitzvah. [Maharil ibid, brought and negated in Bach 473]

[839] Haggadah of Rebbe that so is custom of Beis Harav

[840] Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:2

[841] Rebbe in Haggadah

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that in such a case one is to only have in mind the Mitzvah of eating it in commemoration of the Karban Pesach. [Ben Ish Chaiy Tzav 35; Kaf Hachaim 476:1]

[842] Vayaged Moshe 28:7 based on Mateh Efraim 625:52; See Admur 475:21 regarding Koreich; Halacha 11D!

[843] Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:2 that so was the custom of the Chasam Sofer

[844] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:2

[845] Admur 477:10

[846] Admur 477:10 [See 453:14]; Darkei Moshe 477:3; Or Zarua 2:249

If one does not have any Matzas Mitzvah available: (If one does not have any more Matzas Mitzvah available, then he may eat any Matzah which has been guarded from leavening from the time of harvest or from the time of kneading and onwards. Practically, all of our Matzos today are considered to have been guarded from at least the time of kneading and onwards and are thereby valid for use for Afikomen. Now, although there is worry that perhaps they were made by a person who is a deaf-mute, insane, or child, who do not have the knowledge to guard it from leavening for the sake of Matzas Mitzvah, nevertheless all Rabbinical doubts are ruled leniently. Nonetheless, in the event that one has three Matzas Mitzvah on behalf of the second night, then he should break a piece off the middle Matzah and eat it on the first night for Afikomen. [Admur ibid; Michaber 477:2; Rama 477:2; Rokeiach 283; Shut Harosh 14:5; See Admur 477:10; 453:14; 15 and 19; 460:1; 458:12]

[847] Admur 473:35; Siddur Admur; Michaber 473:6 “One is to hand it to another person to guard for Afikoman”; Rosh 10:30

[848] The reason: This is done as we fear that one may end up eating all the Matzah Shmura during the meal and not leave any for Afikoman. [Bach 473] Alternatively, the reason is in order so both Mitzvos of eating Matzah [i.e. Motzi Matzah and Afikoman] be done using the middle, broken, Matzah. [Gr”a] Alternatively, since one half is already being used for Motzi Matzah it is therefore proper to also use the other half for a Mitzvah. [Kaf Hachaim 473:121]

[849] Admur 477:10; Rama 477:2; Darkei Moshe 477:3; Or Zarua 2:249; Kaf Hachaim 477:30

[850] See our corresponding Sefer “The Laws & Customs of Pesach”

[851] Ideally, and so was practiced in previous times, the Matzos for the night of the Seder we’re extremely thick and large, containing an Issaron worth of dough which is equivalent to 30 Kizeisim. This Matzah would then be used to distribute the Kezeisim of Matzah to all the participants, for each of the relevant parts of the Seder. It is for this reason that the middle Matzah would be baked extra-large, being that each participant must receive a Kezayis from it for both Motzi Matzah and Afikoman. [Admur 458:10; Chok Yaakov 458:26; Mahariy Viyal 193] Practically, however, today’s Matzos contain no more than 2 to 3 Kezeisim and hence can no longer be used for the distribution of the Kezeisim to the participants, And rather they are to receive a small piece from the matzah of the leader of the seder.

[852] Taz 167:18; Rikanti in Taamei Hamitzvos; Shlah Miseches Pesachim Matzah Ashirah Derush 5; Besamim Rosh 169; Siddur Yaavetz; Kaf Hachaim 167:140; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:3

[853] Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Ben Ish Chaiy that it is a danger to do so and one time an individual who gave Matzah to a gentile was told by the Ben Ish Chaiy that the gentile can cause him injury and indeed he was chased by that gentile with a sword later on that year

[854] Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:3

[855] Vayaged Moshe 27:16 in name of Derech Pikudecha

[856] Admur 477:5; Chok Yaakov 477:1; Rashal 88; See regarding after Yachatz: 2nd custom in Admur 473:35; M”A 473:22; Shut Rashal 88; Chok Yaakov 473:31; Chok Yosef 473:27; Elya Raba 473:28

[857] Admur ibid; Michaber 477:1; Chok Yaakov 477:1

[858] Admur 477:11 [See Admur 500:11]; M”A 500:7; Beir Heiytiv 477:4; Chok Yaakov 477:3; Elya Raba 477:1; P”M 477 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 476:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:5 footnote 18

Other opinions: Some Poskim discourage this custom. [Shaareiy Teshuvah 477 in name of Kitzur Shelah]

[859] The reason: Making a hole inside of the Matzah does not consist of a prohibition of making a hole on Yom Tov, as even on Shabbos This prohibition is not applicable to foods but rather to wood stones and metals and the like (of items which are fit to make vessels out of them. See chapter 314:2). [Admur ibid]

[860] Admur 477:6; Siddur Admur; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 75; Michaber 477:1; Levush 477; Peri Chadash 477; Chayeh Adam 130:13; This follows the opinion of Rebbe Elazar Ben Azaria in Pesachim 120b; Zevachim 57b; Tosafus Zevachim ibid; Megillah 21a; Piskeiy Tosafus Pesachim 334, Zevachim 33; Rosh 10:38 in name of Rabbeinu Tam; Rabbeinu Chananel in Arvei Pesachim; Semag in name of Riy; Mordechai end of Pesachim; Rabbeinu Yerucham 5:4; Conclusion of Or Zarua; Hapardes 9:16-26 “It is forbidden to eat Matzah after midnight”; See Biur Halacha 477:1 “Viyihei Zahir”; Kaf Hachaim 477:9-12; Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the Pesach may be eaten until Alos Hashachar, and accordingly, one fulfills his obligation of Matzah until Alos. [Rebbe Akiva in Pesachim and Zevachim ibid; Rambam Karban Pesach 8/15; Chametz Umatzah 6; Rif [brought in Mishkanos Yaakov 139] Rav Hamaggid; Baal Haitur; Or Zarua in name of Rav Yaakov of Krubil; Kol Bo 90; See Biur Halacha 477:1 “Viyihei Zahir”] Accordingly, there are those who are even initially lenient to eat the Afikoman after midnight even on the first night. [Minhagei Chasam Sofer; Netziv; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 605; Minchas Yitzchak 9:48; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 477:3; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 122 that so is custom of Sadigora]

The Rebbe’s custom: Rabbi Shmutkin of Chabad Michigan told over that he participated in many Sedarim at the Rebbe’s household. He was appointed in charge of letting the Rebbe know the time in order to keep track of Chatzos. The Rebbe would ask him the time at various segments of the Hagada. Hence, we see the Rebbe was very particular to eat the Afikoman prior to Chatzos, unlike those who are lenient in this matter.

[861] The reason: Just as the Karban Pesach was only eaten until midnight [so too the Matzah]. [Admur ibid] As the verse states Al Matzos Umerorim Yochluhu, thus teaching us that the eating of Matzah is connected, and follows similar laws, to the Pesach regarding its conclusion of eating. [Admur 458/2]

[862] P”M 477 A”A 1; Shulchan Gavoa 477:4; Yifei Lalaeiv 2:3; Kaf Hachaim 477:12

[863] Sefer Haminhagim ibid; Likkutei Dibburim p. 269; Sefer Hasichos 5701 p. 93; Reshimos 5:19; Hamelech Bemisibo 2:97; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 120; So was also custom of Darkei Chaim Veshalom 605; Tzas Viznitz

Other customs: Some are accustomed to eating the Afikoman before midnight on both nights. [Minhag Komrana; Ger; See Admur 481:1]

[864] Avnei Nezer 381; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 477 footnote 5; See previous footnotes and opinions mentioned there for the full understanding of this stipulation.

[865] The reason: As according to Reb Elazar Ben Ezaria, the prohibition of eating after the Afikoman only applies so long as the Mitzvah is still applicable, which in his opinion is only until midnight. Thus, when one intends to eat the Afikoman before midnight only according to his opinion, then the prohibition of eating afterwards only applies until midnight. After midnight he may resume eating according top all, as if we rule like Rebbe Akiva, then he did not yet fulfil the Mitzvah of Afikoman, per his stipulation, and if we rule like Reb Elazar Ben Azaria, the obligation was already fulfilled and expired.

[866] Admur 479:8; 478:6 “So too one may eat the meal in his house and then go and eat the Afikomen in another home”; 484:6 “It is permitted for him to uproot himself prior to eating the Afikoman and to go to another home and make for them the entire Seder and eat with them the Afikoman and recite with them Birchas Hamazon”; M”A 478; 479:2; Taz 479:3

[867] Admur 484:6; 178:4; 184:1; Seder 9:17 [Vetzaruch Iyun why Admur omitted this in 479:8]; Rama 178:1; M”A 178:8

[868] Admur 178:4; 184:1

[869] 2nd opinion, and final ruling, of Admur 178:6; Implication of Admur in Seder 9:17

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to finish the meal in a second area for the sake of reciting Birchas Hamazon with a Zimun, even if he did not have intent to do so at the time of Hamotzi. [1st opinion in Admur ibid; Aruch Hashulchan 178:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 178:11]

[870] Admur 478:2; 479:8; Rama 478:1; Rosh 10:34; Rashbam 120a

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it is permitted to eat the Afikoman in two different areas, as this was only prohibited to be done when eating the Pesach lamb and not when simply eating Matzah in its commemoration. [Tosafus Pesachim, brought in Beius Yosef 478 and Kaf Hachaim 478:8]  

Opinion of Michaber and Sephardim: Some Poskim rule that even according to the Michaber it is forbidden for one to eat the Afikoman in two areas, as is proven from the fact that he likewise prohibits eating after falling asleep which itself is prohibited due to it being considered like eating in two areas. [Mamar Mordechai 478:1; Kaf Hachaim 478:8] Other Poskim, however, rule that perhaps according to the Michaber it is permitted to eat it in two different places, nonetheless he himself concludes that initially it is proper to suspect for the opinion of the Rama. [Shulchan Gavoa 478:2; See Kaf Hachaim 478:8]

[871] The reason: As the Afikoman is eaten in commemoration of the Pesach sacrifice and it is forbidden to eat the Pesach sacrifice in two different areas, as the verse [Shemos 12:46] states in a single home it shall be eaten. [Admur ibid; Chayeh Adam 130:14; M”B 478:4; Kaf Hachaim 478:5; See Pesachim 86a; Rambam Karban Pesach 9:1 and Kesef Mishneh there]

[872] So is implied from Admur 479:8 that certainly if he ate a Kezayis already, he may not continue eating in another area and so is also implied from Admur 478:3-4 that the prohibition of eating in two areas applies both to the original Kezayis and also to any more Matzah that he eats. Vetzaruch Iyun, as why don’t we say that once the minimum amount has been eaten, we no longer consider the further amount to be part of Afikoman or its bylaws. Perhaps, however, even Admur would agree that if one ate Afikoman and said Birchas Hamazon, and then decided to eat again that night [which Admur 478:1 rules is permitted] then it would be allowed to eat it elsewhere. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[873] Admur 479:8; Admur 478:3 regarding sleeping

[874] Admur 478:2; M”A 478:2; Chok Yaakov 478:2; Elya Raba 478:4; Chok Yosef 478:2; Chayeh Adam 130:14; M”B 478:4; Kaf Hachaim 478:6

[875] Seemingly, this applies even if one already ate the minimum measurement of Matzah, nevertheless one may not eat any Matza on a different table then the Matzah eaten for Afikoman, as implied from Admur 479:8; Vetzaruch Iyun, as perhaps once the minimum amount has been eaten we no longer consider the further amount to be part of Afikoman or its bylaws. See previous footnotes!

[876] Admur 479:8 regarding eating in two separate areas and the same would apply here; Admur 478:3 regarding sleeping

[877] Admur 479:8

[878] Admur ibid; Bach end of 479; Peri Chadash end of 479; Maharal in Gevuros Hashem 63

[879] Admur ibid; Taz 479:3; M”A 479:2

The reason: As after Afikoman, it is forbidden for them to taste anything in the home that they entered [See Admur 478:1], and if so, how can they recite Birchas Hamazon there, as does not Birchas Hamazon need to be recited in the area that one finished eating! [Admur ibid; See Admur 184:1] Likewise, they cannot leave in middle of eating Afikoman and continue eating the Afikoman Matzah there, as one may not eat the Afikoman in two areas. [Admur ibid]

[880] Nitei Gavriel 97:18

[881] The reason: As the prohibition is only to switch areas in middle of the eating of Afikoman, and it is permitted to switch areas beforehand and eat it entirely elsewhere. Nonetheless, it is forbidden to go to a different room, as stated above, unless one had in mind to do so upon washing. However, if it is all within the same room then one mays witch areas even if he did not have in mind to do so upon washing and saying Hamotzi, as it is all considered a single area of the meal where Birchas Hamazon is permitted to be recited in.

[882] Setimas Kol Haposkim who only restrict one who slept from continuing to eat and omit this law regarding one who left the area, as the prohibition only applies if one physically eats the Matzah in two different areas, or if one slept and had complete Hesech Hadaas, as opposed to if one simply left to another area and then returned.

[883] This invalidation is only recorded regarding the Karban Pesach and not regarding the Matzha of Afikoman. See Nitei Gavriel 97 footnote 29 for a similar discussion regarding two Chaburos

[884] See Kaf Hachaim 479:6

[885] Implication of Michaber 484:1 and Beios Yosef 484 and Admur 484 who do not mention an option of reciting Birchas Hamazon in one home, and then repeating the eating of Matzah in the second home; Kneses Hagedola 484; Chok Yosef 484:2 that so rule the Achronim; Birkeiy Yosef 484 in name of Kneses Hagedola; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[886] Radbaz 1:480; Baal Hadibros; Shibulei Haleket 68

[887] As the initial prohibition is only regarding the Matzah eaten as Afikoman, which includes all Matzah eaten at the end of the meal, as explained above. However, once he has recited Birchas Hamazon, it is considered a new setting, and hence the Matzah may be eaten elsewhere. Vetzaruch Iyun,

[888] Admur 477:4; 472:14; Michaber 477:1

Background: One is required to lean upon eating the Afikoman. [Admur 472:14; first opinion in 477:4; Rosh 10:20; Tur 478; Michaber 477:1] However there are Poskim [Rambam 7:8] who rule that one does not need to lean. Practically, Admur rules that Lechatchilah one must lean, although Bedieved if one ate it without leaning, one may rely on the lenient opinion. [Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 477:1]

[889] Admur 477:4; 472:15; Peri Chadash 477:1

The reason: As Bedieved one may rely on the lenient opinion who does not require leaning for Afikoman. [Admur 477:4]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one is able, one is to eat another Kezayis while leaning. [M”B 477:4; 478:1; Minchas Yitzchak 9:46-47; Igros Moshe 3:67; Sheivet Halevi 5:60]

[890] So is implied from Admur ibid

Other opinions: See other opinions in previous footnote.

[891] See Admur 478:1 that one may eat as Much Shmurah Matzah as he desires, after finishing the Afikoman. Hence, it is permitted for him to eat another Kezayis while leaning in order to fulfill his obligation according to all. Some Poskim rule that if one is able, he should re-eat it.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it is forbidden to eat another Kezayis of Matzah being that it is forbidden to eat the Afikoman twice. [M”B 473:22 in name of Chayeh Adam]

[892] Admur 478:3-6; See Kaf Hachaim 478:9-17

[893] Admur 478:3; Michaber and Rama 478:2; Rambam Chametz Umatzah 8:14; Raba in Pesachim 120b

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it is permitted to continue eating the Afikoman even after falling asleep in middle, as this was only prohibited to be done when eating the Pesach lamb and not when simply eating Matzah in its commemoration. [Tosafus Pesachim, brought in Beis Yosef 478 and Kaf Hachaim 478:15; Baal Hamaor; Reia; Maharam Chalvah]  

[894] The reason: As sleeping is considered an interval between the two eating’s, and hence when he eats a second time after his sleep it is considered as if he is eating in another area and not in his original area of the eating, and it is forbidden to eat the Afikomen in two places, as explained above. [Admur ibid’ M”A 478:3; Levush 478:2; Rashbam Pesachim ibid; M”B 478:7; Kaf Hachaim 478:10]

[895] Admur ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one did not yet eat a Kezayis of Matzah for Afikoman then he may continue to eat up to a Kezayis even after falling asleep. [Peri Chadash 478; Kaf Hachaim 478:11]

[896] Admur 478:4; Michaber ibid; Rambam ibid; Ravad; Mishneh Pesachim 120a; Beis Hillel 478; Kaf Hachaim 478:15 that so is the main opinion

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may not continue eating the Afikoman Even if he is eating with a group and he’s the only one who fell asleep, unless he only dozed off as explained next. [Tur 478; Rokeiach 283; Rashbam; Ovadia Bartenura; Rosh; Aguddah; Levush 478; Chok Yaakov 478:3; ]

[897] Meaning, whether those who did not fall asleep, or those who fell asleep and then woke up. [Levush 478; M”B 478:8; Kaf Hachaim 478:12]

[898] The reason: Their sleep is not considered an interval being that some of their group has remained awake. [Admur ibid; Levush 478:2]

[899] Admur ibid; Kaf Hachaim 478:13

[900] Erech Hashulchan 478:2; P”M 478 A”A 5; Chayeh Adam 40:16; See Admur 178:8 that by a permanent sleep a new blessing of Hamotzi is required. However, seemingly, this only applies if one ate alone, or the entire group fell asleep. See Admur 164:2 regarding rewashing without a blessing if touched Makom Hatinofes, although perhaps this case of falling asleep is more like the case of one who was Maflig Bedvarim and hence should require re-washing with a blessing, Vetzaruch Iyun

[901] M”B 178:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 164:5

[902] Admur 478:5; Michaber 478:2; Rambam ibid; Rebbe Yossi in Mishneh Pesachim 120a

[903] Erech Hashulchan 478:2; P”M 478 A”A 5; M”B 178:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 164:5; See Admur 178:8 that a temporary sleep does not require Hamotzi to be repeated

[904] Admur ibid; M”A 478:4; Rashi Taanis 12b; Rashbam Pesachim ibid

[905] Admur 478:6; Rama 478:2; Rabbeinu Yerucham 5:4; Tur 478; Riy; Implication of Beis Yosef 478; M”A 478:5; Chok Yaakov 478:4; Chok Yosef 478:4; Peri Chadash 478; P”M 478 A”A 5; Chayeh Adam 130:14; Kaf Hachaim 478:9 and 17

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it is forbidden to eat the Afikoman even if one fell asleep prior to starting to eat it. [Maharil; Shulchan Gavoa]  

[906] Kaf Hachaim 478:17

[907] Erech Hashulchan 478:2; P”M 478 A”A 5; Chayeh Adam 40:16; See Admur 164:2 regarding rewashing without a blessing if touched Makom Hatinofes, although perhaps this case of falling asleep is more like the case of one who was Maflig Bedvarim and hence should require re-washing with a blessing, Vetzaruch Iyun

[908] M”B 178:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 164:5

[909] See Admur 178:8 that by a permanent sleep a new blessing of Hamotzi is required. However, seemingly, this only applies if one ate alone, or the entire group fell asleep.

[910] See Admur 477:7-9; Michaber 477:2; Kaf Hachaim 476:15-30

[911] Admur 477:7; Michaber 477:2; Tur 477 in name of Rabbeinu Peretz; Hagahos Semak; Hagahos Maimanis; M”A 477:2; Kaf Hachaim 476:16 that so is the final ruling

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one did not remember until after doing Mayim Achronim or deciding tro conclude his meal, then he is not required to eat the Afikoman and rather rely on the Matzah that was guarded from the time of kneading that he ate in middle of the meal. [Baal Haittur, brought in Tur 477, and M”A 477:1; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 476:16]

[912] Admur and Poskim ibid

The reason: Although he has already removed his mind from any further eating and the general rule states that whenever one removes his mind from further eating and then changes his mind to recontinue eating that he needs to say a new before blessing prior to this continued eating, as explained in chapter 179:2, 4, 5 [that there are opinions who rule that in all cases that one decided to no longer eat more he must repeat the before blessing, although practically we rule that only in a case that he already washed Mayim Achronim must he repeat the blessing, and not in a case that he simply decided to Bentch, due to Safek Brachos Lihakel], nevertheless the Afikomen is to be eaten without saying the blessing of Hamotzi. The reason for this is because the eating of the Afikomen is not dependent at all on the opinion of the individual, as he is obligated according to law to eat it whether he likes it or not. Therefore, even if he removed his mind from eating it this is meaningless, as the matter is not dependent [at all] on his opinion. [Admur ibid; M”A 477:2; Levush 477:2; Tur ibid; Kaf Hachaim 476:15] 

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that he is to repeat the blessing of Hamotzi over it. [Tur 477 in name of Rosh and Ravayah; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 476:15]

[913] Admur ibid; Admur 179:5 [that whenever the blessing of Hamotzi needs to be repeated over a new eating one is likewise obligated to rewash his hands, being that once one has removed his mind from eating, he no longer guards his hands.]; Admur 164:2 in parentheses [that whenever he does Hesech Hadaas he must rewash with a blessing]; 178:7 [that whenever he does Hesech Hadaas he must rewash]; See Kaf Hachaim 476:15

The reason a blessing is not recited: In Admur 178:7 and 179:5 and Seder 5:6 he simply writes that the washing is to be repeated, and does not mention anything regarding if one is to also repeat the blessing. However, in 164:2 in parentheses he explains that the blessing is to be repeated, which seemingly contradicts the ruling here that the blessing is not to be repeated. Some suggest that since in this case he is not required to repeat the blessing of Hamotzi, therefore he is likewise not to say a blessing over this washing. However, in the event that he would be required to repeat the blessing of Hamotzi then he would likewise be required to say the blessing over the washing. [Footnotes in new Shulchan Aruch on 477:7; and so can seemingly be implied from Admur 179:5 and Seder 5:6 who depends the rewashing on the Hamotzi, and hence one must say that this refers to rewashing with a blessing as otherwise it will contradict 477:7 where one is required to rewash even though the blessing of Hamotzi is not repeated. Likewise, so is implied from 477:8 in which Admur rules of the blessing over the washing is to be repeated when eating the afikoman after Birchas Hamzon, and hence also repeating the blessing of Hamotzi.] Vetzaruch Iyun, as in 164:2 no mention is made at all regarding the fact that it refers to a case that he must also repeat the blessing of Hamotzi, and there also does not seem to be any reason to depend this matter on whether the blessing of Hamotzi is repeated or not. Vetzaruch Iyun [See Ketzos Hashulchan 42 footnote 1 for a similar question as to how the concept of repeating the blessing of Hamotzi has any relevance to the need to re wash; See also Ketzos Hashulchan 42 footnote 5]

[914] Admur 477:8; Michaber and Rama 477:2; Ravayah 525; Bach 477; Kaf Hachaim 477:19

[915] Admuir ibid in parentheses; See also Admur 164:2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that he is not to repeat the blessing over the washing. [P”M 477 A”A 3; M”B 477:9] See Shaar Hatziyon on M”B 477:9 that if he did not have Hesech Hadaas then even Admur would agree that  a blessing is not repeated; See Kaf Hachaim 477:18

[916] One is not to suffice with simply eating a Kezayis of Matzah, as a) one is to initially eat two Kizeisim, as explained in Halacha E, and b) One cannot say a blessing over the washing if he eats less than a Kebeitza, as explained in Admur 158:2 and Seder Netilas Yadayim 18.

[917] Admur 477:8; M”A 477:4; Chok Yaakov 477:4; Peri Chadash 477; Rashba 1:237; Rabbeinu Yerucham 5:4 in name of Raavad and Rashba; Chok Yosef 477:4; Chayeh Adam 130:15; Olas Shabbos 477:2; ; Biur Hagr”a; M”B 477:17; Kaf Hachaim 477:20 [regarding the need to eat the Afikoman] and 29 [regarding not repeating the blessing over a cup of wine after Birchas Hamazon]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one did not remember until after reciting the blessing over the wine then he is not to eat the Afikoman and rather rely on the Matzah that was guarded from the time of kneading that he ate in middle of the meal. However, in those areas that it is a custom to make Matzas Mitzvah from the time of the harvest, then even if you only remember after the saying of Hallel, he is to wash his hands and say a blessing of Hamotzi and eat the Afikoman. [Michaber ibid; Tur in name of Ravayah; See M”A 477:4 and 6 that even this only applies if one did not eat Matzas Mitzvah during the meal; See Kaf Hachaim 477:20-25 for full details of this approach and its various opinions; Admur ibid completely negates this opinion. Furthermore, some Poskim rule that even this opinion only held of its approach according to those who rule that Birchas Hamazon requires a cup of wine, and hence being that today we rule that it does not require a cup of wine, this opinion no longer exists, and everyone agrees that one must eat Afikoman during later on. See Kaf Hachaim 477:20 for the various opinions on this matter. Practically, the Sephardi ruling follows that of the Michaber ibid to only eat the Afikoman if Matzas Mitzvah was not eaten during the meal.]

[918] See previous case and Admur 164:2

[919] One is not to suffice with simply eating a Kezayis of Matzah, as a) one is to initially eat two Kizeisim, as explained in Halacha E, and b) One cannot say a blessing over the washing if he eats less than a Kebeitza, as explained in Admur 158:2 and Seder Netilas Yadayim 18.

[920] The reason: Another cup of wine is not poured for this Birchas Hamazon in order so it does not appear as if he’s adding to the number of cups instituted by the sages to be drunk. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid] Now, although there are Poskim who rule that every Birchas Hamazon requires a cup of wine to be drunk immediately after its conclusion, nevertheless today we are no longer careful in this throughout the year and on occasion we recite Birchas Hamazon without any cup of wine at all, being that we rely those opinions who rule that Birchas Hamazon does not require a cup of wine as explained in chapter 182:1 [Admur ibid; See Admur 182:1; 299:7] Accordingly, on this night as well one may rely on this opinion in order so it not appear that one is adding in the number of cups drunk on this night, and therefore not pour the cup at all or to pour it as suggested but not drinking immediately afterwards as explained next in the parentheses.  

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that in such a case he is to say another blessing over a cup of wine after Birchas Hamazon and not worry over the fact that it appears as if he’s adding to the cups. [Rama ibid; See Taz 477:3; M”A 477:7; M”B 477:15; Kaf Hachaim 477:26]

[921] Admur ibid; M”A 477:7; Maharam Chalvah 119a

[922] Admur 477:9; M”A 477:4 and 7; Maggid Mishneh 8:13; Rashba Hameyuchasos 202; Raavad in Tamim Deim 32

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one did not remember until after reciting the blessing over the wine then he is not to eat the Afikoman and rather rely on the Matzah that was guarded from the time of kneading that he ate in middle of the meal. However, in those areas that it is a custom to make Matzas Mitzvah from the time of the harvest, then even if you only remember after the saying of Hallel, he is to wash his hands and say a blessing of Hamotzi and eat the Afikoman. [Michaber ibid and Sephardi ruling; See previous footnotes for the full details of this opinion]