Chapter 20: Shabbos during Shiva

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Chapter 20: Shabbos during Shiva[1]

1. Shabbos counts as part of the Shiva:[2]

The day of Shabbos does not cease the practice of mourning and the seven days of Aveilus thus includes Shabbos. The reason for this is because some of the laws of mourning are applicable also on Shabbos, such as private mourning laws, as will be explained.[3]

Discovered the death/burial on Shabbos: See Chapter 13 Halacha 8E!

 May an Onen cry on Shabbos/Yom Tov over the passing of a loved one?

Many Poskim[4] rule that if one is saddened, and by crying over the matter it will release the pain, then it is permitted to cry on Shabbos. Thus, an Onen/Avel may cry on Shabbos.[5]

2. Mourning laws applicable on Shabbos:[6]

All private mourning laws are applicable on Shabbos, while the public mourning laws cease to be practiced until the conclusion of Shabbos. [This is due to that it is forbidden to show public mourning on Shabbos. Thus, even those matters which are generally listed as part of the private mourning laws applicable on Shabbos, are not to be followed if the circumstance is public.[7]]

 

A. List of private mourning customs that continue to apply on Shabbos:

  • Marital relations: Marital relations is forbidden on Shabbos during Shiva, just like during the week of Shiva.
  • Bathing: Bathing is forbidden on Shabbos during Shiva, just like during the week of Shiva.
  • Learning Torah: It is forbidden to learn Torah on Shabbos during Shiva, just like during the week of Shiva. See Halacha 10!

B. list of public mourning customs of Shiva that cease to apply on Shabbos:

  • Wearing leather shoes:[8] One is to wear leather shoes on Shabbos during Shiva.
  • Wearing Keriah garment:[9] One may not wear the Keriah garment on Shabbos. [One is to wear his regular Shabbos clothing, as explained in Halacha 4]
  • Sitting on a regular chair:[10] The mourner may sit on a regular chair on Shabbos.

3. Erev Shabbos:[11]

When do the public mourning laws cease?[12] All the laws of mourning, such as sitting on a low stool, and not wearing leather shoes [and not learning Torah], apply on Erev Shabbos even past midday and Mincha Ketana, until the start of Shabbos. [Nevertheless, upon the arrival of Mincha Ketana, the mourner may accept Shabbos early and cease practicing the public Aveilus laws that do not apply on Shabbos.[13] However, until he accepts Shabbos, or in close proximity to it, he must keep all the laws of mourning, as stated above. Nonetheless, he may begin preparing the house for Shabbos, and remove the mourning stools, from the time of Mincha Ketana.[14] Certainly, house work may be performed throughout the day in honor of Shabbos.[15]]

Shabbos clothing:[16] A man and woman may change into their Shabbos clothing slightly prior to candle lighting.

Bathing:[17] Bathing on Erev Shabbos during Shiva follow the same laws and restrictions as all bathing during Shiva and hence one may not bathe any part of his body in hot water, although may wash minority of his body in cold water. See Chapter 19 Halacha 7 for further details on this matter.

Mincha Erev Shabbos:[18] The mourner does not go to Shul for Mincha and rather makes a Minyan at home, or Davens there alone. [Nevertheless, some are accustomed to go to Shul for Mincha as usual.[19]] The mourner recites Hodu and Patach Eliyahu as is normally done.[20]

Psalm 49 by Mincha: By Mincha of Erev Shabbos, Psalm 49 is not recited in the house of the Avel.[21] Many are accustomed to reciting Psalm 16 in its place, which is then followed by Kaddish Yasom.[22]

Shnayim Mikra:[23] A mourner may not recite Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum before Shabbos. See Halacha 9 regarding Shabbos!

 Q&A

May a man immerse in a Mikveh on Erev Shabbos?[24]

It is forbidden to immerse in even a cold Mikveh on Erev Shabbos, even if he is particular to do so every Erev Shabbos.[25] However, some Poskim[26] are lenient in this matter.[27] [Practically, there is a tradition from elderly Chabad Chassidim to immerse close to sunset.[28] Those who are lenient are to do immerse discreetly while other people are not around. Likewise, they may not remain in the Mikveh water and are to immerse and then leave.[29]]

Shabbos: It is forbidden to immerse in even a cold Mikveh on Shabbos, even if he is particular to do so every Shabbos.[30] However, some[31] are lenient in this matter. Those who are lenient are to immerse discreetly while other people are not around. Likewise, they may not remain in the Mikveh water and are to immerse and then leave.[32] If the last day of Shiva falls on Shabbos, the Avel may immerse prior to Shacharis.[33]

 

May an Avel during Shiva travel home on Erev Shabbos in order to be with his wife and children for Shabbos?[34]

He may travel starting from the time of Mincha Ketana. If his house is very far, then he may travel starting from midday. Initially one is to travel in privacy by car or taxi, although if this is difficult to achieve [either due to monetary concerns or other reasons] then one may travel in public transportation and keep to himself during the journey. He is to remain wearing all of his mourning garb especially when traveling prior to Mincha Ketana.

 

May one cut his nails Erev Shabbos?[35]

No. It is forbidden to cut the nails using a vessel even on Erev Shabbos during Shiva.

 The Shiva candle:[36]

The candle that was kindled for the Shiva should remain lit throughout Shabbos. Some move the candle to another room before Shabbos if it was in the dining room, to avoid dampening the Shabbos atmosphere. If one forgot to light the candle before Shabbos, one may not ask a gentile to light this candle on Shabbos, although one may only do so prior to Tzeis Hakochavim on Erev Shabbos.[37]

4. Shabbos clothing:

Some Poskim[38] rule it is forbidden for an Avel to wear Shabbos clothing during Shiva even on Shabbos. Other Poskim[39], however, rule an Avel is to wear Shabbos clothing on Shabbos during Shiva/Shloshim.[40] Practically, the custom is to wear Shabbos clothing on Shabbos even during Shiva.[41] This applies even if the Shabbos clothing is freshly laundered.[42] It is best however to have another person wear the clothing first if it is freshly laundered.[43] See Chapter 19 Halacha 11H for the full details of this subject!

Shabbos tablecloths:[44] It is permitted to place freshly laundered tablecloths on a table on Shabbos during Shiva.

New bed sheets:[45] It is forbidden to spread new, or freshly laundered, bed sheets on the beds for Shabbos Shiva.

Tallis Gadol:[46] The regular Shabbos Tallis Gadol is to be worn by the mourner for Shacharis.

Q&A

When on Erev Shabbos may one begin to wear the Shabbos clothing?[47]

One may begin wearing Shabbos clothing some time close to Mincha/candle lighting, after Pelag Hamincha, as explained in Halacha 3! If one changes his clothing too early, he becomes obligated to perform Keriah onto the changed garment, if he is mourning the passing of a parent.[48]

May one shine his Shabbos shoes?[49]

Yes.

When on Motzei Shabbos is one to remove his Shabbos clothing?

See Halacha 13!

5. Leaving the Shiva home on Shabbos:[50]

An Avel during Shiva may leave his house on Shabbos to go to Shul or to the Beis Midrash. [This applies for both men and women.[51] He may not however leave the house simply for purposes of leisure and pleasure.[52] Some communities are accustomed to make a Minyan at home on Shabbos Shiva.[53]]

6. Switching seats in Shul:

Some Poskim[54] rule that those Aveilim who are accustomed not to change their seats in Shul on Shabbos are doing the proper thing. [So was the custom of the Arizal.[55]] Other Poskim[56], however, rule that even on Shabbos the Avel is to change seats [on the second Shabbos, and according to the custom, throughout the entire period of Aveilus], and so is the common custom [of Ashkenazi Jewry] and one is not to swerve from the custom.[57] Some Poskim[58] however rule that this only applies if one arrived to Shul prior to the start of Shabbos, if however the Minyan already recited Kabalas Shabbos, then he is not sit in a different seat than usual. [Likewise, the Rav of the city is not to change seats.[59] Many Chabad Chassidim are accustomed not to change their seating area on Shabbos, as rules the first opinion above. See Chapter 19 Halacha 18!]

7. The Shabbos Davening:

Mincha Erev Shabbos: See Halacha 3!

Friday night:[60] The mourner Davens a regular Davening on Shabbos night and day.

Leading the prayers as Chazan:[61] It is customary for an Avel [even of a father or mother] not to lead the prayers as Chazan on Shabbos or Yom Tov [throughout the Shiva and the mourning period], even though there is no prohibition in the matter. [Due to this custom, it is forbidden to do so.[62] If there is no better Chazan available, then an Avel may lead the prayers.[63] Likewise, if he is the set Chazan in Shul every Shabbos, then he may lead the prayers.[64] If one has a Yahrzeit of one parent on Shabbos, he is nevertheless to Daven for the Amud as usual.[65]]

Shacharis: The mourner Davens a regular Shacharis. Birchas Kohanim is said/performed even if the Minyan is taking place in the house of the mourner.[66] Likewise, Av Harachamim [prior to Ashreiy] is recited in his home as usual.[67] The regular Shabbos Tallis is to be worn by the mourner.[68] [The Sephardim are accustomed to visit the home of the mourner after Shacharis and read Zohar there and then say Kaddish Derabanon.[69]]

Av Harachamim:[70] The prayer of Av Harachamim is recited on Shabbos Shiva even if the Avel is present.

Getting an Aliyah: See Halacha 11!

Mi Shebeirach:[71] It is permitted for a Mi Shebeirach to be said on behalf of the mourner.

Mincha: The mourner Davens a regular Mincha. Viani Tifilasi[72] and Tzidkasecha[73] is said even if the Minyan is taking place in the house of the mourner.

Pirkei Avos:[74] Pirkei Avos is not to be recited after Mincha.

Psalm 49 and 16:[75] On Shabbos, Psalm 49 or 16 is not recited even if the prayers take place in the house of the Avel.

 

8. The Shabbos meals:

Blessing children on Friday night:[76] Those who have the custom to bless their children on Friday night do not do so during Shiva.

Singing Shalom Aleichem: The Avel may sing Shalom Aleichem as usual on Friday night[77], although some rule that it is to be omitted.[78]

Zemiros:[79] The Avel may recite Zemiros regularly on Friday night.

Having guests and eating out: Some Poskim[80] rule it is forbidden for an Avel to invite guests, or to be invited out as guests [for a meal] throughout his mourning period. However, on Shabbos, it is permitted to do so in an area that is accustomed to greeting Aveilim on Shabbos.[81] Practically, one is to be stringent on Shabbos Shiva not to invite guests over or be invited as guests.[82]

Participating in a public meal:[83] It is forbidden for the Avel to participate in a public meal even on Shabbos, unless his lack of participation will be considered public Aveilus [such as by close friends or relatives], or it is taking place inside of his home. If a meal will not take place by the Simcha, but rather mere refreshments, [i.e. a basic Kiddush], it is permitted to participate.[84]

Shalosh Seudos: Some Poskim[85] rule one is not to participate in the Shul’s Shalosh Seudos. Other Poskim[86], however, rule that one is to follow his usual pattern, and hence if he usually eats this meal in Shul, then he is not allowed to refrain from doing so.[87] [Practically, the custom is for the mourner to go home before Shalosh Seudos and eat the meal at home.[88]]

 

 Q&A

May people who are Menachem Avel eat food in the Shiva home?[89]

Although some are accustomed not to eat any food, or take any item, from the Shiva home throughout the seven days of Shiva [as explained in Chapter 19 Halacha 1], seemingly on Shabbos there is room to be lenient according to all.

May one drink from the cup of an Avel?[90]

Although the custom is not to drink from the cup of an Avel unless one washes the cup in-between, this however does not apply on Shabbos.[91]

9. Greeting and comforting on Shabbos Shiva:

People greeting Avel:[92] Those areas that are accustomed to greeting an Avel on Shabbos [and Yom Tov] may do so.[93] [This applies even during Shabbos Shiva. Many places however are accustomed to being stringent within the Shloshim, not to greet the Avel even on Shabbos and hence avoid meeting the Avel in order so it not be Aveilus in public.[94] Some[95] rule that even in such places, one may nevertheless wish the person a Gut Shabbos.]

Avel greeting people:[96] The Rambam rules that an Avel may greet all people on Shabbos [and Yom Tov, and so is the practical ruling[97]].[98] [One may answer the greeting of the Avel even if he is generally accustomed not to greet the Avel on Shabbos.[99]]

Comforting on Shabbos:[100] It is permitted to comfort an Avel on Shabbos.[101] It is even permitted to comfort the Avel in the same wording as used during the week “May Hashem comfort you.”[102] Nevertheless [one is not to arrange to comfort the Avel specifically on Shabbos and is rather to arrange to visit him during the week as] it was with difficulty that the Sages allowed comforting an Avel on Shabbos.[103] It is therefore improper to do like those who do not visit the Avel throughout the week, and only visit him on Shabbos.[104] [Practically, it is no longer customary to comfort the Avel on Shabbos.[105] Nevertheless, if one feels that doing so will gladden the mourner, then one is not to hesitate to do so.[106]]

 

 Q&A

Wishing good Shabbos and good Yom Tov:

As stated above, on Shabbos and Jewish holidays, the mourner may wish someone “Good Shabbos/Shabbat Shalom,” and the like. One may likewise greet a mourner with the same expressions unless he is accustomed to being stringent.

 

Interacting with others:[107]

The mourner may interact with other on Shabbos Shiva as is normally done.

10. Learning Torah:[108]

A mourner is forbidden to learn Torah on Shabbos, just as he is prohibited to do so during the weekday, throughout the seven days of mourning.[109] [This applies even towards set Shiurim that he normally learns on Shabbos.[110] However, some are lenient regarding set Shiurim that one learns every day, or on Shabbos, that he may learn it on Shabbos during Shiva.[111]] This is with exception to those subjects that are permitted to be learned even during the week of mourning, as discussed in Chapter 19 Halacha 15.

Shnayim Mikra:[112] A mourner may review the weekly Parsha.[113] He may thus recite Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum.[114] This, however, may only be done on Shabbos. He may not read it before Shabbos.[115] He may not however read the Shnayim Mikra of the Yom Tov reading, in a case that the Yom Tov did not nullify the Shiva.[116] [He may not read the commentary of Rashi or any other commentary.[117] However, one may look up a verse in English to understand its meaning.[118] However some Poskim[119] rule he may learn the commentary of Rashi if he is accustomed to do so every Shabbos. In the event that the last day of Shiva falls on Shabbos, some Poskim[120] rule the mourner may only read Shnayim Mikra beginning from after Shacharis, prior to the meal.]

 Q&A

May a Rav give his usual public Shabbos shiur on Shabbos during Shiva?[121]

He may do so if otherwise it would be considered public mourning, and he does not have another excuse for why the Shiur was canceled.

May the mourner remain in Shul for the Shabbos Drasha?[122]

He may only remain in Shul if leaving the Shul before the Drasha would be blatant to others that he is doing so due to the mourning, and thus be considered a sign of public mourning.

11. Getting an Aliyah:[123]

It is forbidden for an Avel to receive an Aliyah even on Shabbos. If, however, he is the only Kohen [or Levi] available in the Minyan, then he may receive an Aliyah.[124] [Some Poskim[125] however rule that it best for the Kohen to leave the Shul and have a Yisrael called up in his place, if this is not an uncommon practice in the Minyan. However, it is disputed amongst Poskim[126] if this likewise applies to a Levi.] Likewise, in any case in which not getting an Aliyah on Shabbos will cause the mourning to be publicized to the Minyan, it is an obligation for him to get an Aliyah. Thus, if the Avel was accidently called up for an Aliyah on Shabbos, he must go up.[127] Likewise, if he is accustomed to always receive a certain Aliyah, then he must go up for that Aliyah even if the Gabaiy does not call him by name.[128] 

 

 Q&A

May an Avel during Shiva receive an Aliyah if he has a Chiyuv, such as a Yahrzeit, or a Baal Bris, Chasan, or naming new born daughter, and the like?

Some Poskim[129] rule he may not receive an Aliyah even on Shabbos. Other Poskim[130] rule he may receive an Aliyah on Shabbos, if lack of doing so will be a sign of public mourning.[131]

 

May an Avel receive an Aliyah on Shabbos day if it is the 7th day of Aveilus?[132]

Shacharis: Although from the letter of the law he is allowed to receive an Aliyah during Shacharis, practically, he is not to do so.

Mincha: He may receive an Aliyah by Mincha. 

 

May an Avel be the Baal Korei on Shabbos Shiva?[133]

An Avel may not read the Torah even on Shabbos.[134] If an Avel is the set Baal Korei in Shul for Shabbos, then he is to avoid Davening in that Shul during Shiva.[135] If he does Daven in that Shul then some Poskim[136] rule he may read the Torah for the Minyan. Other Poskim[137], however, rule he is not to read it.

No other Baal Korei available:[138] In the event that there is no other Baal Korei available, the Avel may read the Torah for the congregation. This applies both on Shabbos and during the week.[139]

May an Avel on Shabbos Shiva be the Gabaiy in Shul to call up the Aliyos and recite Mi Shebeirach?[140]

Yes.

12. Sleeping regulations:[141]

Although during Shiva it is proper to turn over the pillow and blanket as recognition of the mourning [See chapter 19 Halacha 3], on Shabbos however one is to sleep regularly.

13. Maariv of Motzei Shabbos:

Where to Daven:[142]  The custom is for the Avel to go home prior to Maariv, and Daven Maariv with a Minyan at home.[143] If a Minyan is not available at his home, then he may Daven Maariv in Shul and return home immediately afterwards.

Switching shoes:[144] Immediately after the conclusion of Shabbos, one says Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol[145] and then switches his shoes. One may not switch his shoes prior to the conclusion of Shabbos.[146]

Changing Shabbos clothing: In general, it is forbidden to wear Shabbos clothing during Shiva [with exception to Shabbos].[147] Accordingly, some Poskim[148] rule that the Avel is to remove his Shabbos clothing immediately after the conclusion of Shabbos [after reciting Baruch Hamavdil], prior to Maariv, and change into his Keriah clothing. However, other Poskim[149] negate the above and rule that one may remain wearing his Shabbos clothing until after Havdalah on Motzei Shabbos.[150] Practically, the widespread custom in many communities on Motzei Shabbos Shiva is like the former opinion, although some follow the latter approach.[151] The Chabad custom is like the latter opinion, to continue wearing the Shabbos clothes until after Havdalah, and so was the custom of the Rebbe.[152] Those who follow this custom are to wear their Shabbos clothing [i.e. hat, shtreimal, Kapata] before the conclusion of Shabbos, and continue wearing it after Shabbos.[153] They are to then change into the weekday and Keriah clothing immediately after Havdalah.[154] According to all, one may not change his Shabbos clothing before the conclusion of Shabbos. According to all, leather shoes must be removed immediately after Shabbos, and the above discussion is limited to other Shabbos garments.

Vayehi Noam: Some Poskim[155] rule that in the house of a mourner one is to skip Vayehi Noam, and Yosheiv Beseiser and is rather to start from Veata Kadosh. Other Poskim[156] write one is to skip Vayehi Noam and begin from Yosheiv Beseiser.[157] Other Poskim[158] rule one is to say Vayehi Noam as usual, and so seems to be the opinion of Admur.[159] Practically the widespread custom is to recite it as usual.[160]

 

14. Havdalah:[161]

An Avel is obligated to recite Havdalah or to hear it recited by others. When an Avel recites Havdalah, some rule that he is to omit the verses of Hinei Kel Yeshuasi and rather begin from “Borei Peri Hagafen”.[162] The custom is for an Avel to recite the blessing over Besamim as is usually done.[163]

Vayiten Lecha: It is disputed whether an Avel is to recite Vayiten Lecha, as explained in the Q&A.

Havdalah for an Onen and after burial: See Chapter 3 Halacha 24D!

Q&A

Are the Pesukim of Hinei Keil Yeshuasi recited when an Avel says Havdalah?[164]

No.[165] However, when others are saying Havdalah for an Avel, the verses are recited.[166] Some Poskim[167] write that those Aveilim who are accustomed to wear Shabbos clothing until after Havdalah even during Shiva, may recite the verses of Hinei Keil Yeshuasi in Havdalah. Practically, this was the Rebbe’s custom.[168]  

 

Is a mourner to say the blessing over Besamim in Havdalah?

Some Poskim[169] rule a mourner is to omit the blessing of Besamim.[170] Others[171] rule he is to say it as usual. Practically, the custom is to recite the blessing on Besamim.[172]

 

May the Avel sit down on a regular chair to drink the wine?[173]

He is to sit on a low stool, although, if doing so is difficult, he may sit on a regular bench.

May the Avel recite Havdalah over wine, or is he to use another beverage?[174]

An Avel is permitted to drink wine, and he is to say Havdalah over wine as usual.

 

May an Avel recite Vayiten Lecha?

Some Poskim[175] rule he may recite Vayiten Lecha. Others[176] rule he may not recite Vayiten Lecha.

 ____________________________

[1] See Pnei Baruch 23; Nitei Gavriel Chapter 116-118; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287

[2] Michaber 400:1; Mishneh Moed Katan 19a

[3] Michaber ibid

[4] Rama ibid; Elya Raba 288:3; Tosfos Shabbos 288:3; Mateh Yehuda 288:10; P”M 288 M”Z 2; Aruch Hashulchan 288:6; M”B 288:4; Kaf Hachaim 288:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 288:2

The source: As it states in the Midrash and Yerushalmi that Rebbe Akiva was crying due to sadness, due to the passing of his son. [Tosfos Shabbos ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to cry out of sadness on Shabbos, even if one desires to do so in order to release the pain. [Taz ibid]

[5] Amudei Or 76, brought in Kaf Hachaim 288:10

[6] Michaber 400:1; Chochmas Adam 169:19; Kitzur SHU”A 219:1; Nitei Gavriel 115:15, 17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

[7] The definition of private versus public mourning: See Ashel Avraham Butchach 551 who writes that he has not found the exact definition for this. Some write that in front of two non-family members it is considered public, while in front of family members alone it is never considered public. [Tuv Taam Vadaas 2:217; See Nitei Gavriel 115:26-30]

[8] Michaber 400:1

[9] Michaber ibid “One may not wear it and is thus to change his garment. If he is unable to change, then he is to turn it around.”

Other customs: Some were accustomed to wear the torn garment even on Shabbos, as wearing leather shoes suffices to denounce the public mourning and he is thus not obligated to also not wear the torn shirt. [Shach 400:3 based on Hagahos Maimanis]

[10] Michaber ibid regarding Zekifas Hamita

[11] See Nitei Gavriel Chapter 114;

[12] Admur 606:14 regarding Erev Yom Kippur; So rule regarding Erev Yom Tov: M”A 548:14; Nemukei Yosef; M”B 548:39; So rule regarding Erev Shabbos: Tur 400; Meiri Moed Katan 27a; Givat Shaul 72 [cannot cease Aveilus after midday and one is to protest against those who do so]; Shivas Tziyon 60, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 400:1; Kinas Sofrim Hashmatos 28; Halef Lecha Shlomo 318; Daas Kedoshim 400; See Mateh Ephraim 625:13; Devar Moshe 3:21; Daas Kedoshim 399:4; Nitei Gavriel 119:8; 114:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim are lenient beginning from Mincha Ketana to permit all public mourning customs. [Elya Raba 548:11 in name of Raavan; Bigdei Yesha 548; Shulchan Gavoa 400:9; Chaim Bayad 125 Ayin; Sdei Chemed 61 that so is custom; Aruch Hashulchan 400:5; Yeshuvos Yaakov 548; Dvar Moshe 3:14; Gesher Hachaim Kaf Hachaim 548:54; brought in Shaar Hatziyon 548:29] Some Poskim rule one may cease the mourning customs from midday and that so is the custom. [Ikarei Daat 36:14; Beis David 178] See Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 114 footnote 4; Nitei Gavriel 14:2 concludes to be lenient to cease all mourning customs from Mincha Ketana in a time of need even if one did not yet accept Shabbos. Some Rabbanim direct the mourner to first Daven Mincha and he can then cease the mourning customs.

[13] Shivas Tziyon 60, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 400:1

[14] Moed Katan 27a; Meiri ibid; Nitei Gavriel 114:2

[15] See Halacha 6E; Nitei Gavriel 114:4

[16] Nitei Gavriel 114:3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:3

[17] See Michaber 400:1 that even on Shabbos bathing remains forbidden, and certainly on Erev Shabbos; Nitei Gavriel 114:6

[18] See Taz 526:1; Minhagei Maharash 523; Beir Hagoleh 393; Aruch Hashulchan 393:10; 400:5; Nitei Gavriel 115:2 footnote 4; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:3

[19] Nitei Gavriel 115:2 that so is widespread custom today amongst all Chassidim and so is Minhag Yerushalayim

[20] Darkei Chaim Vehsalom 1031; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287 footnote 43

[21] Daas Kedoshim 376; Custom of Rebbe in 1988, see Hiskashrus 789 [However, see Reshimos p. 413 that Kapital 49 was said also by Mincha of Erev Shabbos, when the Rebbe Rayatz was in Shiva]; Gesher Hachaim p. 162; Nitei Gavriel 99:2; Pnei Baruch 10:29

[22] Gesher Hachaim p. 162; Nitei Gavriel 99:2; Pnei Baruch 10:29

[23] Taz 400:1; Rashal; See Nitei Gavriel 115:18

[24] Nitei Gavriel 114:7; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:3; 260:1

[25] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 1031; Mishnas Yaakov 3:400; Atzmos Yosef 18; Nitei Gavriel 114:7

The reason: This is not similar to the allowance to immerse in a Mikveh on Erev Shabbos of the nine days, as Shiva is prohibited in bathing from the letter of the law as opposed to a mere custom. [ibid]

[26] Mishmeres Shalom 25:3; Custom of many Yerushalayim, as heard from Rav A.L. Hakohen; brought in Nitei Gavriel 114:7 footnote 11 that so is the custom of Chassidim [heard from Satmar Rav] and of Square and Viznitz

[27] The reason: As the entire purpose of Aveilus is to respect the deceased and certainly the deceased are particular that Shabbos not be blemished due to their Aveilus. [ibid]

[28] Heard from Rav Leibel Groner, that he was told to immerse close to sunset; Rav Asher Lemel Hakohen

[29] Nitei Gavriel ibid

[30] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 1031; Minchas Elazar 2:26; Nitei Gavriel 114:8

The reason: This is not similar to the allowance to immerse in a Mikveh on Erev Shabbos of the nine days, as Shiva is prohibited in bathing from the letter of the law as opposed to a mere custom. [ibid]

[31] Sefarim brought in Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 15

[32] Nitei Gavriel ibid

[33] Minchas Elazar ibid

[34] Tzitz Eliezer 7:19; Nitei Gavriel 112:20 and 114:5 as so is the ruling regarding other matters of Aveilus.

[35] Piskeiy Teshuvos 260:5

[36] See Nitei Gavriel 115:36

[37] See Admur 261:2

[38] Implication of Rama 400:2 and 389:3; Kitzur SHU”A 211:4; 10; Daas Kedoshim 389; Aruch Hashulchan 389:5; See Divrei Nechemia ibid that from the letter of the law it is not forbidden to wear Shabbos clothing on Shabbos even during Shiva, even according to the Rama, however the custom of people became to not wear it even on Shabbos, and doing so is not considered public Aveilus as explained there; See Nitei Gavriel 10 footnote 35

[39] Radbaz 2:693 [forbidden to wear weekday clothing]; M”A 262:2 in name of Arizal [See Machatzis Hashekel there, although see Divrei Nechemia who negates his explanation]; Maaseh Rav 193; Birkeiy Yosef 400; Shaareiy Yehoshua 10:4; Rashal 106, brought in Gilyon Maharasha regarding a freshly laundered undershirt; Daas Kedoshim 389:8 that even the Rama only intended to prohibit during the week; Divrei Malkiel 2:91; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 114:12 and Volume 2 10 footnote 37

[40] The reason: As it is considered public Aveilus. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid; See Divrei Nechemia ibid]

[41] Divrei Nechemia ibid “In previous generations people were stringent, however today many people, amongst them great Sages are lenient, and on the contrary are stringent not to make any difference between this Shabbos and any other Shabbos of the year”; Aruch Hashulchan 389:11 “For already 100 years the Gedolei Hador are not pleased with allowing one to walk with weekday clothing on Shabbos”; Pnei Baruch 23:4; Nitei Gavriel 2 10:23; See Likkutei Sichos 4:1091; See Reshimos 5 [printed in Toras Menachem Tziyon p. 28] that when the Rebbe Rayatz sat Shiva for his mother he wore his regular Shabbos clothing, and Shtreimal; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:3; 262:4

[42] Daas Torah 389 in name of Pnei Yehoshua regarding undershirt; Pnei Baruch 23:4

[43] Daas Torah 389 in name of Pnei Yehoshua; Pnei Baruch ibid

[44] Taz 389:1 in name of Rashal; Kitzur SHU”A 211:4

[45] Kitzur SHU”A 211:4

[46] Nitei Gavriel 115:23

[47] See Nitei Gavriel 114:15

[48] Orchos Chaim Avel 6; Pnei Baruch 1:20

[49] See Shevet Halevi 6:244; Nitei Gavriel 103:22; 114:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287 footnote 16

[50] Michaber 393:3

[51] Nitei Gavriel 115:3

[52] Yosef Ometz p. 330; Nitei Gavriel 112:21; 115:33

[53] See Aruch Hashulchan 400:5; Nitei Gavriel 115:1 footnote 2

[54] Michaber 393:4; Rambam Avel 13; Panim Meiros 2:123, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 393:4-5; Maharam Shick 369; Rav Poalim 4:33; Igros Moshe Y.D. 257

[55] Birkeiy Yosef 393

[56] Rama ibid in name of Nimukei Yosef; Radbaz 2:662; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287 footnote 26 regarding women

[57] Rama ibid; Kitzur SHU”A 211:15

The reason: As this is not considered a matter of public Aveilus being that often people change seats in Shul for a variety of reasons. [Levush in name of Nemukei Yosef, brought in Shach 393:7] Alternatively, Aveilus that applies during Shloshim applies also during Shabbos. [Shach ibid based on Michaber 400]

[58] Taz O.C. 526, brought in Rav Akiva Eiger 394; Nachalas Shiva 73 regarding a Yoledes; Panim Meiros 2:124

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one must sit in a different area even if he arrived to Shul on Shabbos. [P”M 526 M”Z 1; Pischeiy Teshuvah 393:6]

[59] See Gilyon Maharsha that he did not switch seats on Shabbos, with exception to the second Shabbos in which case he did not go to Shul.

[60] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

Saying Shir Hashirim: See Nitei Gavriel 115:4 that it may be recited after Kabalas Shabbos; See also Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

Meiyn Sheva: The Minyan that is accustomed to take place in the house of an Avel or Chasan is not considered a set Minyan and hence Meiyn Sheva is not to be recited. [See Admur 268:15; Michaber 268:10; Mahriy Abuhav; Rivash 40; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 268 footnote 100]

Bameh Madlikin: See Nitei Gavriel 115:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 270:1; 287:4

[61] Rama 376:4; Teshuvas Maharil

[62] Shach 376:14

[63] Shach 376:14; Maryu 47

[64] Nitei Gavriel 115:25

[65] Igros Kodesh 14:430 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:304]; Minchas Yitzchak 9:134; Betzeil Hachochmah 4:199; See Hiskashrus 569:18; Dudaei Hasadeh 44; Vayilaket Yosef 14:41; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 56:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287 footnote 73; However, see Divrei Malkiel 6:23

[66] Nitei Gavriel 115:22

[67] P”M 131 A”A 10; Nitei Gavriel 116:14

[68] Nitei Gavriel 115:23

[69] Machazik Bracha 287:4; Kaf Hachaim 287:2; Nitei Gavriel 116:15

[70] See Reshimos 5 [printed in Toras Menachem Tziyon p. 27] that when the Rebbe Rayatz sat Shiva for his mother Av Harachamim and Tzidkasecha Tzedek was recited; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

[71] Nitei Gavriel 115:24

[72] Noam Megadim 9 that so is custom; See Nitei Gavriel 117:1 footnote 2

Other opinions: Some communities are accustomed to omitting Viani Tefilasi in the house of the Avel on Shabbos. [Kneses Hagedola 292 in name of Abudarham; Shalmei Tzibur p. 186; Kaf Hachaim 292:8; Mishmeres Shalom Zayin 6]

[73] P”M 131 A”A 10; Daas Kedoshim 376; Kitzur SHU:A 76:15; See Nitei Gavriel 117:1; See Reshimos 5 [printed in Toras Menachem Tziyon p. 27] that when the Rebbe Rayatz sat Shiva for his mother Av Harachamim and Tzidkasecha Tzedek was recited

Other opinions: Some communities are accustomed to omitting Tzidkasecha in the house of the Avel on Shabbos. [Elya Rava 292:17]

[74] Arba Tureiy Even 11; Leket Yosher p. 93; See Rama 553:2 regarding Tishe Beav that falls on Shabbos; Nitei Gavriel 115:35; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Pirkeiy Avos may be recited. [Lechem Hapanim 400; See Taz 553:2 regarding Tishe Beav that falls on Shabbos]

[75] Nitei Gavriel 117:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

[76] Maharil Semachos brought in Darkei Hachaim 8:1; Nitei Gavriel 115:11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287 foootnote 43

[77] Nitei Gavriel 115:12 that so is custom of Chassidim; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4 footnote 45

[78] Shut Magidos 51 and Noam Megadim 9; Teshuras Shaiy 2:172; Beir Moshe 4:78; Gesher Hachaim p. 238

[79] Nitei Gavriel 115:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

[80] Taz 385:1; Bach 385 in name of Rabbeinu Yehuda; See Pnei Baruch 31 footnote 13 in name of Gesher Hachaim and Nitei Gavriel 33:4 footnote 8 and 33:7 footnote 13 for an analysis on this ruling and the fact it is omitted in other Poskim

[81] Beir Heiytiv 385:2 in name of Darkei Moshe

[82] See Sheilas Yaavetz 2:180; Pnei Baruch 20:15; Nitei Gavriel 28:8

[83] See Sheilas Yaavetz 2:180; Adnei Paz 10, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 391:4; Yad Halevi 230-2; Gesher Hachaim p. 186; Igros Moshe 3:161; Poskim in Pnei Baruch 20 footnote 32; Nitei Gavriel 28:3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:5

[84] Teshuvah Meahava 3:413; Nitei Gavriel 23:28; 28:10

[85] So rule regarding Tishe Beav that falls on Shabbos: M”A 552:14; Elya Raba 552:13

[86] So rule regarding Tishe Beav that falls on Shabbos: Bechor Shor brought in M”B ibid; Birkeiy Yosef 553:4; Shaareiy Teshuvah 553:11; Mishmeres Shalom Shin 11

[87] The reason: As otherwise this is considered showing public mourning on Shabbos. [ibid]

[88] Nitei Gavriel 117:3

[89] See Shivlei Haleket 23 that the adherence of not drinking form the cup of an Avel does not apply on Shabbos; See Nitei Gavriel 92:1 footnote 21

[90] See Nitei Gavriel 92:8; Pnei Baruch 10:12

[91] Shivlei Haleket ibid

[92] Michaber 385:3

[93] If one who is accustomed to greeting Aveilim on Shabbos visits a different community for Shabbos, he may greet the Aveilim of that community. [Shach 385:4 based on Yerushalmi and Poskim that Rav Oshiya Raba greeted the Aveilim of a different community despite not knowing their custom.]

[94] Gesher Hachaim 21:7-4

[95] Nitei Gavriel 107:6 footnote 7 as it’s not really a Sheilas Shalom and avoiding doing so appears like public mourning. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4; See Reshimos 5 [printed in Toras Menachem Tziyon p. 28] that when the Rebbe Rayatz sat Shiva for his mother he did not answer the Rebbe when he was wished Good Shabbos, and stated that on Shabbos we only say Tisnachem

[96] Michaber 385:3

Other opinions: The Maharil did not wish Good Shabbos to any of the congregants when he was in Aveilus. [Maharil Semachos]

[97] Derech Hachaim; Chochmas Adam 165:14; Kitzur SHU”A 210:8; Nehar Mitzrayim 124; Nitei Gavriel 107:5;  Pnei Baruch 16:12

[98] Michaber ibid; Tur; Kesef Mishneh

The reason: As this is included in the public matters of mourning that may not be kept on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid]

[99] Gesher Hachaim ibid

[100] Admur 287:2-3; See Kaf Hachaim 287:1-4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:1; Pnei Baruch 11:10; See Reshimos 5 [printed in Toras Menachem Tziyon p. 28] that when the Rebbe Rayatz sat Shiva for his mother he did not answer the Rebbe when he was wished Good Shabbos, and stated that on Shabbos we only say Tisnachem

[101] Admur 287:2; Michaber 287:1; Shabbos 12a

[102] Admur ibid; M”A 287; Tur Y.D. 393

The reason: As through saying it in this language, which is a request that Hashem comfort him, one will not come to arouse him to cry. [Admur ibid; Derisha Y.D. ibid; Machatzis Hashekel 287:1]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to change the normal form of comforting on Shabbos and say, “Shabbos Hi Melinachem Unechama Kerova Lavo.” [Bach and Rashal brought in M”A 287:1; Taz 287:1; M”B 287:2-3] Other Poskim rule one is to say “Shabbos Shalom” and not more. [Kneses Hagedola 287:2; Kaf Hachaim 287:4]

[103] Admur 287:3; Shabbos 12b; M”A 287:1; Elya Raba 287:1; Machazik Bracha 287:3;

The reason: As this may lead one to become saddened together with the Avel. [Admur ibid]

[104] Admur ibid; M”A 287:1

[105] Aruch Hashulchan 287:3; Nimukei Orach Chaim 287:1; Daas Kedoshim 395:1; Darkei Hachaim 4:13; Gesher Hachaim; Kol Bo [Greenwald]; Pnei Baruch 11 footnote 21; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Nitei Gavriel 86:8

[106] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid based on Nimukei Orach Chaim ibid; Seder Hayom; Shevet Halevi 4:53; Betzeil Hachochma 2:44

[107] Nitei Gavriel 115:32

[108] Michaber 400:1; Tur in name of Rosh; Hagahos Maimanis 4 in name of Maharam; See Aruch Hashulchan 400:6a

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to learn Torah on Shabbos, as one is required to be joyous on Shabbos. [Mordechai Moed Katan in name of Riy, brought in Aruch Hashulchan ibid; Opinions in Beis Yosef 400] Practically, the majority of Poskim rule as above, that it is forbidden.

[109] The reason: As Torah learning is considered a private matter and all private matters of mourning are forbidden on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid]

[110] Arba Turei Even 11; Pischeiy Teshuvah 400:3; Hagra”z Margaliyos 18; See Aruch Hashulchan 400:7; Nitei Gavriel 115:21

[111] Karban Nesanel Moed Katan 75:57; Aruch Hashulchan 400:6b-7 concludes that one who is lenient has upon whom to rely; Nitei Gavriel 115:21

[112] Michaber 400:1; See Nitei Gavriel 115:18-20

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to recite Shnayim Mikra even on Shabbos. [Aguda, brought in Taz 400:1; Rav Poalim 1:52] Other Poskim rule that if the Shiva will end on Sunday/Monday, then he is obligated to delay reading Shnayim Mikra until the end of Shiva, as it is permitted to read Shnayim Mikra until the Wednesday after Shabbos. [Beis Hillel, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 400:3] The Poskim however negate this opinion, being it is a Mitzvah to read the Parsha on Shabbos itself. [Arba Turei Even 11, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid]

[113] The reason: As since he is obligated to review the Parshiyos together with the congregation, it is similar to reading the Shema and is hence permitted. [Michaber ibid]

[114] Shach 400:4; Derisha 400 in name of Maharshal

[115] Taz 400:1; Rashal

[116] M”A 548:5; See Chapter 27 Halacha 1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if the Shiva will begin only after the Yom Tov, then one may read the Parsha of the Yom Tov, even though there is no obligation of Shnayim Mikra. [Shaareiy Teshuvah 548:2]

[117] Beis Lechem Yehuda 400; Birkeiy Yosef 400; See Nitei Gavriel 115:19

[118] Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid; See Nitei Gavriel 115:20

[119] Lechem Hapanim 400:1; Aruch Hashulchan 400:6; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

[120] Rav Akiva Eiger 400 in name of Ashel Avraham 285:4

[121] Nitei Gavriel 115:29-30 based on Daas Kedoshim 376; Rebbe in Toras Menachem 5748 2:564 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:275] that it is permitted to do so and so did Avnei Nezer; See Chapter 19 Halacha 15C!; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

[122] Nitei Gavriel 115:31 in name of Minhagei Maharash 475; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287 footnote 42

[123] 400:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

[124] Rama ibid; Shach 384:3; Hagahos Maimanis 3

The reason: As otherwise it would be public Aveilus which is forbidden on Shabbos. [Shach ibid]

[125] Hagahos Maimanis in name of Maharam; Chasam Sofer 352, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 401:3; Poskim brought in Nitei Gavriel 116:2 footnote 3

[126] Some Poskim rule the Levi is to also leave the Shul. [Aruch Hashulchan 400:9] Other Poskim rule the Levi may receive the Aliyah. [Minchas Yitzchak 9:130] See Nitei Gavriel 116:3 footnote 5

[127] Michaber ibid

The reason: As if he does not go up it would be public Aveilus which is forbidden on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid]

[128] Michaber ibid that so did Rabbeinu Tam when he sat Shiva. Rabbeinu Tam was accustomed to always receive Shelishi, and during his Shiva he went up on his own for the Aliyah of Shelishi, even though the Gabbai did not call up him up. He said the reason he did this is because since he receives Shelishi every Shabbos, one who now sees that he is not going up for Shelishi will say that he is not going up due to his Aveilus, and it is forbidden to show public Aveilus on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid]; Daas Kedoshim 400; Chochmas Adam 169:19; Kitzur SHU”A 219:2; Makor Chaim 135:6; See Nitei Gavriel 116:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the Rav is to leave the Shul prior to his Aliyah being called. [Maharshal 71; Nachalas Shiva 17; Elya Raba 128:81; Teshuvah Meahavah 3:449; See Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 6]

[129] Taz 400:1 in name of Rashal 71; Beir Hagoleh 400; Maharit; Kneses Hagedola, Nachalas Shiva 17; Neman Shmuel 39, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 400; Poskim brought in Nitei Gavriel 116 footnote 11 and 136:6; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287 footnote 47

[130] Peri Chadash; Daas Eish 6 brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 400:5; Nitei Gavriel 116:7-8, 11

[131] The reason: As otherwise it is considered public Aveilus. [ibid]

[132] Taz 402:5 based on Rabbeinu Yechial in Tur 402; Gilyon Maharsha 384:1; Daas Torah 400; Shaareiy Ephraim 8:109; Nitei Gavriel 116:13

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he may not receive an Aliyah even on Mincha of Shabbos, as we do not say Miktzas Hayom Kekulo on Shabbos. [Bach, brought in Taz ibid; The Taz negates his opinion]

[133] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:4

[134] Birkeiy Yosef 400; Dvar Moshe 70

[135] Kitzur SHU”A 219:3; Pnei Baruch 23:23; Nitei Gavriel 116:9

[136] Birkeiy Yosef ibid; Devar Moshe 70; Poskim brought in Pnei Baruch 23:23

[137] Poskim brought in Pnei Baruch 23:23

[138] Nitei Gavriel 97:5

[139] The reason: As this is similar to a case of Rabim Tzerichim Lo”

[140] Yehuda Yaaleh 20; Nitei Gavriel 116:12; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287 footnote 59

[141] Nitei Gavriel 108:12

[142] Nitei Gavriel 118:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:3

[143] See Minhagei Maharash 523 that he went home before Barchu.

[144] See Rama 553:2 regarding Shabbos Tishe Beav; Nitei Gavriel 118:2 footnote 3

[145] M”B 553:7 in regard to the Chazzan which removes his shoes prior to Barchu; Alef Hamagen 599:5 in name of Achronim; Nitei Gavriel 28:7; Hiskashrus 1025

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is not required to recite Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol prior to switching clothing. [Elya Raba 299:22; Shaareiy Teshuvah 299:2; M”B 299:40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 299 footnote 110]

Ruling of Admur: Regarding the need to say Baruch Hamavdil prior to performing Melacha, Admur 299:15 states “Likewise, some permit performing, after Shabbos is over but prior to saying Havdalah, all Rabbinical prohibitions which are forbidden simply due to them being a mundane act.” Thus, if preparing from Shabbos to a weekday is considered a mundane act prohibition it would be permitted according to this opinion. In 338:8 Admur rules that the prohibition of preparing on Shabbos for a weekday is due to it being a mundane act, and hence accordingly it would be permitted to be performed according to this opinion. However, Tzaruch Iyun if Admur’s final stance on the matter follows this opinion, as a) The first opinion holds that one may not do any of his preparations or work prior to escorting the king through Havdalah. This seems to imply that even preparations of Uvdin Dechol are forbidden according to this opinion. Likewise, b) Admur never concludes that we rule like the second opinion and simply states that regarding Yom Kippur we are lenient to follow it. Vetzaruch Iyun if one can learn from Yom Kippur to other places. From here can be understood the source of the ruling of the Alef Hamagen ibid that rules stringently in this matter. It is a wonderment on the Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid that he omitted this first opinion brought in Admur. It is also a wonderment on Nitei Gavriel ibid who completely omits all the Poskim that are lenient in this matter.

[146] Admur 254:10 [regarding removing Challah from oven, wine from cellar]; 302:10 [regarding making the beds]; 319:18 [regarding removing fat from soup]; 321:6 [regarding watering vegetables]; 323:6 [regarding washing dishes]; 324:11 [regarding switching plate of food from ox to donkey]; 338:8 [regarding moving fruits from roof]; 611:5 [regarding preparing vegetables on Yom Kippur]

The reason: As it is forbidden to prepare on Shabbos for the sake of a weekday. [254:10; 302:10; 323:6; 503:3; 611:5] And it is forbidden to trouble oneself on Shabbos for the sake of a weekday. [319:18; 321:6; 323:6; 324:11; 338:8; 611:5] Doing so is Rabbinically forbidden [302:10] being that it is a mundane action and a belittling of Shabbos. [338:8]

[147] Rama 389:3; See Chapter 19 Halacha 11H!

[148] See regarding Tishe Beav: Maharil, brought in M”A 559:10 “After the Mila they remove the clothing”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 553:1; Nitei Gavriel 94:5; Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 118:2 that so is custom

[149] Ashel Avraham Butchach Mahadurah Tinyana 551 regarding Motzei Shabbos Tishe Beav

[150] The reason: As the accustomed prohibition of wearing Shabbos clothing is only the initial wearing, while if he already wore it under allowance, such as on Shabbos or for a Mila, then there is no prohibition to continue wearing it. [Ashel Avraham ibid]

[151] Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 118:2; Nitei Gavriel 94:5 regarding Tishe Beav

[152] Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 5 that so did the Rebbe on Motzei Shabbos of Shiva; So is also recorded regarding Motzei Tishe Beav: Yoman of Rav Groner that the Rebbe stated that so was the custom of Jewry in Russia, and of Lubavitch Chassidim; Rav Eli Landa confirmed with his brother Rav Y.L. Landa that the custom is to remain wearing Shabbos clothing until after Maariv/Eicha. However, see Reshimos 5 [printed in Toras Menachem Tziyon p. 25] that the Rebbe Rayatz Davened Maariv on Motzei Shabbos of Shiva in his weekday garments and non-leather shoes

[153] May one even initially put on the Shabbos clothing after Tzeis if he was not wearing it beforehand? If one removed his Shabbos clothing, such as he removed his Kapata, and it is now after Tzeis, it is questionable as to whether he may even initially put on his Shabbos clothing for Maariv, as the entire Heter of the Ashel Avraham ibid was based on the fact one remains in his Shabbos clothing into Shabbos, however to initially put on, who says is allowed? Accordingly, ideally one is to wear the clothing before Tzeis. Nevertheless, even if one took it off and is now putting it on for Maariv, there is room to learn that he may wear it. This is similar to the Heter written in Shulchan Aruch for a Baal Simcha to wear [put on] Shabbos clothing on Tisha B’av itself [See Rama 400:2; Bigdei Yesha, brought in Kaf Hachaim 559:65], and the reason is because it is only a Minhag not to wear Shabbos clothing on Tisha B’av and not forbidden for the letter of the law, and the same applies during Shiva. [See Rama 400:2] This is why we wear Shabbos clothing on Shabbos even though the same Rama writes its forbidden. The same way the custom allows wearing it on Shabbos Lekavod Shabbos, it allows wearing it even initially on Motzei Shabbos Lekavod Motzei Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[154] Nitei Gavriel 118:3

[155] Kaf Hachaim 295:3 in name of Kneses Hagedola 295 [Vetzaruch Iyun as the source of the Kaf Hachaim is from the Kneses Hagedola, which is the same source as the M”A and they both say different customs. After researching within the text of the Kneses Hagedola [295] the following was discovered: The Kneses Hagedola first records a custom of a community to omit both Vayehi Noam and Yosheiv Beseiser in the house of a mourner, and they would begin from Orech Yamim. He then concludes that he accustomed his community to omit only Vayehi Noam and not Yosheiv Beseiser. Hence both customs are written in the Kneses Hagedola.

[156] Kneses Hagedola 295, brought in M”A 295:1 [This was the personal opinion of the Kneses Hagedola, as explained in previous footnote]; Elya Raba 295:1; M”B 295:1

[157] The reason: The reason for skipping Vayehi Noam is because it mentions work, and a mourner is forbidden in work.

[158] Tanya Rabasi 68; Sefer Hacham p. 7; Halef Lecha Shlomo 119; Ketzos Hashulchan 93 footnote 15

[159] From the fact that Admur omitted this ruling of the M”A in name of the Kneses Hagedola. [ibid]

[160] Gesher Hachaim p. 203; Piskeiy Teshuvos 295:3; Nitei Gavriel 118:5

[161] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:3

[162] See Q&A

[163] See Q&A

[164] Piskeiy Teshuvos 296:6; Nitei Gavriel 118:5

[165] Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:2 and 391:1 in name of Har Karmel 20; Darkei Hachaim 8:10; Pnei Baruch 20:2

[166] Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 17; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[167] Nitei Gavriel ibid in name of Mishnas Yaakov 192b

[168] Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 18; Heard from Rabbi Leibel Groner

[169] Kneses Hagedola; Peri Megadim 297 A”A 5

[170] As a mourner does not merit an extra soul on Shabbos due to his state of sadness. [Peri Megadim A”A 297:5]

[171] Birkeiy Yosef 297:2; Kaf Hachaim 297:8; P”M 297 A”A 5 explains there is no prohibition involved for the mourner to smell it, it is just that he is not obligated to do so.

[172] Maharam Shick 363; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 1031; Piskeiy Teshuvos 297:1 [See also 287 footnote 26]; Nitei Gavriel 118:10

[173] See Nitei Gavriel 118 footnote 21 in name of Mishnas Yaakov

[174] See Michaber 378:8-9; Kitzur SHU”A 196:10; Darkei Hachaim 3:9; Gesher Hachaim 20:2; See Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 83 footnote 7 and 29:7 and 118:8

[175] Shivlei Haleket 22; Tanya Rabasi Avel 68; Peri Megadim 295 M”Z 3 and Noam Megadim 16; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 118:7 footnote 14; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 287:3

[176] Gesher Hachaim 20:3-3 based on Rama 559:2; Rav SZ”A SSH”K 62 footnote 155; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 118:7 footnote 15

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