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8. Heating a dry solid which was previously cooked/roasted/baked to the point of Yad Soledes:
Important note A: Wherever explained here that it is allowed to heat a food, it may only be heated through being on or very near a fire if the conditions that are explained in “The laws of Chazara” are fulfilled. See there!
Important Note B: The following cases only refer to dry foods which do not dissolve in heat. Regarding dry foods which dissolve-see the next Halacha!
Important Concepts: In the following Halachas one must be aware of the following terms. Cooked = Heated with liquid. Roasted = Heated directly on or near the fire without liquid, such as a barbecue. Baked = all doughy substances which are baked in an oven. Thus if one is allowed to re-cook a food on Shabbos it means that he is allowed to place it in a Keli Rishon of liquid and not directly near a fire unless stated otherwise. As well a cooked food means that it was cooked through liquid, as opposed to baked or roasted.
Re-heating in water a food that was precooked: A dry food [See Q&A for the exact definition] which was fully cooked [See Q&A with regards to chicken bones] [in liquid] and [now] contains no liquid at all is [permitted to be] heated [in a liquid Keli Rishon] even if it completely cooled down. [However, as will be explained it may not be heated near a fire, as doing so constitutes roasting after cooking.]
Reheating in water a roasted or baked food-First Opinion: There are opinions who say that although there is no [prohibition in] cooking an already cooked [food] that is dry, nevertheless there is [a prohibition to] cook [food] that has been previously baked or roasted, and [thus according to them] if one places baked or roasted [food] even while still burning hot into a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes, he is liable. Accordingly, even regarding [placing these foods] into a Keli Sheiyni one needs to be stringent Rabbinically. One therefore needs to be careful not to place baked bread even into a plate [of food] that is a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes.
Second Opinion by a roasted and baked food: However, there are opinions which permit placing a baked and roasted food, even if cold, even into a burning hot Keli Rishon, being that [according to them] there is no [prohibition to] cook [a food that has been] already baked or roasted.
The Final Ruling: It is the custom to initially be careful like the first opinion to not place bread even into a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes. However, if one did so it is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos] even [if one placed it] in a Keli Rishon, as rules the latter opinion.
Baking and roasting an already cooked food: According to the first opinion that there is [a prohibition in] cooking an already baked and roasted [food] there is also [a prohibition to] bake and roast [a food that has] already been cooked. Meaning [that according to them] any [food] that is cooked is forbidden to be placed without [warm and precooked] liquid near a fire by an area that it is able to heat up to the point of Yad Soledes.
Baking and roasting an already baked or roasted food: According to all opinions there is no [prohibition to] bake and roast an already [fully] baked and roasted [food] and [thus] a food which is baked or roasted is allowed to be placed near a fire in the way that will be explained [in 318/24], even if it has already completely cooled down.
Warming a dry cooked food by placing it on top of a pot: If [the food] is dry and fully cooked, then even if it has cooled off completely, there is no cooking [prohibition] involved in [heating] it, and it is [thus] permitted to heat it on top of the [pot and kettle], even if it will become Yad Soledes.
Summary: Re-heating a fully cooked solid food that does not contain liquid:
Note: Whenever a cooking prohibition applies to a food it is forbidden to heat it to Yad Soledes on or near a fire. Regarding placing it in a Keli Rishon etc, these laws will be elaborated later on and any food which here is explained to have a cooking prohibition is with regards to those laws considered uncooked, and thus one is to follow whatever rulings apply to uncooked foods.
If it does not contain fat/oil and will not dissolve, then the following are its laws:
· Re-heating in liquid a food that was originally cooked in liquid: There is no cooking prohibition involved in re-heating in liquid [such as putting it into a Keli Rishon] a food that was originally cooked in liquid [and was now taken out and dried] even if the food fully cooled down. [If it has not dried yet, such as it is still within the liquid it was cooked in, then if it is still warm it may be reheated in ways explained in chapter 253].
· Heating without liquid a food that was cooked with liquid: However if it was cooked in a pot with liquid it is initially forbidden to roast it or bake it, which is defined as heating it without liquid directly near the fire [See Q&A], due to it containing a roasting/baking prohibition. However, if one did heat it without liquid one may be lenient like the opinions which holds that it does not contain a roasting/baking prohibition [and thus if it was heated in a permitted way as explained in chapter 253, it may be eaten on Shabbos].
· Heating with liquid a food that was originally baked or roasted [without liquid]: Has the same ruling as the previous scenario that initially it is forbidden to re-heat it in liquid [that is Yad Soledes or will become Yad Soledes, with exception to those foods allowed in a Keli Shelishi or to be poured on from a Keli Sheiyni, as will be explained]. However, Bedieved, if one already did so the food remains permitted.
· Heating without liquid a food that was cooked or baked without liquid: Does not contain a baking/roasting prohibition even if it fully cooled down, and thus one may heat it near a fire [but not too close to the fire]. [See Q&A]
· To heat the food in an area that it will not be able to reach Yad Soledes: The above restrictions mentioned in this scenario are only with regards to reheating the food in an area that it can reach the point of Yad Soledes. However, if the food will not be able to be heated to the point of Yad Soledes it is allowed to heat it in any of the above cases [with exception to placing it in a Keli Rishon], as explained in Halacha 4.
· To heat with heat of a fire food which was cooked with solar heat: See Q&A
· To heat a food which was previously Kavush or Maluach but never yet cooked or baked: See Q&A
In one sentence:
According to all one may reheat a dry food in the same form of cooking in which it was originally cooked in. It is disputed whether one may reheat a dry food in a different form of cooking than it was originally cooked in. Practically one is to be stringent even in a Keli Sheiyni, however Bedieved one may be lenient.
What is the definition of a fully cooked food?
A food is defined as fully cooked when the physiological change that occurs due to cooking has reached completion. For example, when a potato is cooked to the point that it is soft throughout then it is defined as fully cooked even if further cooking will make it even softer.
What is the definition of a dry solid?
If a food has enough moisture to be Tofeiach Al Menas Lehatfiach, it receives the same law as a liquid. This means that a solid food must be dry to the point that it’s moisture cannot wet one’s finger enough to make a further finger wet. In such a case it is considered dry, even if it contains liquid inside of it, such as by a piece of meat. If any part of the solid contains this amount of moisture, then it has the same laws as a liquid even if majority of the solid is dry as explained.
· Example: Spaghetti for soup may not be placed in a Keli Rishon if it has the amount of moisture stated above. [It may however be placed in a Keli Sheiyni and even have soup from a ladle taken from a Keli Rishon poured onto it in any case.]
What foods are considered cooked as opposed to baked or roasted?
· Cooked: Any food which was submerged in a pot of liquid and cooked, whether the liquid was oil or water or fat and the like, is considered cooked.
· Roasted: Any food which was roasted directly over fire [without the medium of a pot].
· Baked: Any food which received a change of texture through heat, and is placed in a pot without liquid, such as dough and eggs, is considered baked.
· Fried with a very small amount of oil: If only a minute amount of oil was placed in order to prevent the food from sticking the following is its definition: By foods which are usually baked, such as pastries and dough, they are considered baked. By foods that are normally cooked, such as meat and vegetables, it is disputed whether it is defined as baked or cooked. One is to be stringent like both opinions [and thus not heat it to Yad Soledes near a fire, or place it in a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni] although one may place it in a dry pot that is near a fire and let it simmer within its own juices.
· Fried with a nice amount of oil-but not deep fried: If a large amount of oil was placed in, to the point that it fries within the oil [but not deep fried], then some Poskim rule that even foods which are normally baked, or which change from liquid to solid through cooking, are considered cooked even if they are not submerged within the oil. [Thus, one may place such a food into a Keli Rishon so long as it is dry from the oil]. However, other Poskim rule that all foods which are not completely submerged within the oil are questionable whether they are defined as “cooked” or “baked”.
· Deep fired: Has the same status as cooked.
· Simmered within its own juice: If the food was placed in a pot without any liquid and it simmered within its own juice the following is its definition: It is disputed whether it is defined as baked/roasted or cooked. One is to be stringent like both opinions [and thus not heat it to Yad Soledes near a fire, or place it in a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni.]
· A food which was both cooked in liquid and baked/fried: Is considered to be both baked and cooked and thus does not have a cooking or baking/roasting prohibition on Shabbos. It makes no difference whether it was first baked and then cooked or vice versa. [See Q&A 9]
Is there Tzeliyah after Afiyah?
Is placing a food that is defined as cooked, into an empty pot near the fire, considered roasting?
No. So long as the food is not directly receiving the heat from the fire it is not considered as if one is now roasting it on Shabbos. Thus, any dry food which was previously cooked may be placed in an empty pot near a fire.
May one place a food that is defined as cooked to warm on top of a pot that is on the fire?
May one place a food defined as roasted or baked into an empty pot near the fire?
May one place bread on top of a cooked hot potato or hot piece of cooked meat?
So long as there is no liquid on the potato or meat it is permitted as this form of heating is defined as baking and not cooking.
May one pour hot gravy onto a Bureka or other baked product?
If the gravy is defined as a Keli Rishon or Iruiy Keli Rishon, then it is forbidden to do so being that it will cook the baked product.
May one place rice into a bread bowl?
Seemingly, hot dry rice may be placed in a bread bowl, as since it is dry it is unable to cook the bread.
May one heat near a fire, water which was cooked using sun heat if the water is still warm?
This matter requires further analysis.
May food cooked through a microwave be later heated through heat of a fire?
Whether the food was baked or cooked in the microwave it may not be baked or cooked through fire. This however may be done through a gentile.
May one heat on Shabbos, to Yad Soledes, a raw food which was salted or pickled?
No. Pickled and salted foods are not considered cooked with regards to being allowed to re-cook it on Shabbos. They thus maintain all the regulations of an uncooked food.
May one move a pot of fully cooked food, which is on the blech, closer to the flame in order so its liquid condense?
There is no cooking prohibition involved in doing so, although at times it is not allowed due to the Chazara restrictions. See the laws of Chazara Chapter 1 Q&A.
Important Note-The status of a Bowl of soup and Chulent:
In all cases that a ladle or spoon was used to pour the soup or chulent into one’s bowl, the chulent or soup in the bowl has a Keli Shelishi status.
May one place Schnitzel into a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni, such as into his chulent?
Baked Schnitzel: May not be entered either into a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni. May be entered into a Keli Shelishi.
Fried Schnitzel: If it was deep fried it may be placed even into a Keli Rishon if the schnitzel is dry. If it just simmered in oil one is to be stringent against placing it even in a Keli Sheiyni.
May one place a barbecued hot dog in his Keli Rishon or Sheiyni such as into his Chulent or soup?
May one place cold Yerushalmi Kugel into a bowl of hot chulent and the like?
The Kugel is moist: If the Kugel is moist from liquid to the point of Tofeiach Al Menas Lehatfiach, then if the Kugel is cold it may not be placed into a hot Keli Rishon in any circumstance. Regarding placing it into a Keli Sheiyni it has the same law as dry Kugel. It may be placed into a Keli Shelishi in all cases.
Dry Kugel: If the Kugel is dry then whether it may be placed into a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni depends on how it was cooked. If the noodles of the Kugel were previously cooked and then baked it is allowed to be placed into both a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni. If it was only baked, then if the chulent has liquid it is forbidden to be placed either into a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni. It may however be placed in a Keli Shelishi.
May one place potato Kugel in a Keli Sheiyni?
Tzaruch Iyun if potato Kugel is defined as baked or cooked.
May one swipe his Challah into hot gravy of meat or chicken?
It is forbidden to swipe one’s Challah into the gravy of a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni which is Yad Soledes. Hence, one may not dip his Challah into a tray of chicken gravy which has come out of the oven, or into the spoon which he uses serve the chicken gravy with.
May one place soup nuggets into soup that is a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni?
This depends on whether the nuggets were baked or fried. If baked, it is forbidden. If fried with enough oil to define it as cooked [see above Q&A] then it is allowed.
May one place bread into soup that is a Keli Rishon/Sheiyni?
No, as explained above. Although one may pour on to it from a Keli Sheiyni and place it into a Keli Shelishi.
 Admur 318:12; Michaber 318:5
 Admur 318:11
 Yireim 274; Michaber 318:5 first opinion
 This follows the explanation that in this part of the text Admur is not giving a final ruling but is rather quoting the ramifications of the first opinion. This matter will be explained in further footnotes.
 Michaber 318:5 second opinion; Rama 318:5; Ravayah 197
 Admur ibid; Rama 318:5
Ruling of Michaber and Sephardim: Some Poskim rule that according to the Michaber it is forbidden to cook a baked or roasted product. [Shemesh Umagen; Nishmas Hashabbos 21 in name of Sefer Hazichronos] Other Poskim, however, learn that according to the Michaber it is permitted to cook a prebaked or roasted food. [Kneses Hagedola 318; See Kevod Chachamim Ateres 7 p. 363] Other Poskim conclude that according to the Michaber, the main opinion follows the lenient approach, although he is initially stringent. [Or Letziyon 2:30-4] Some Sephardi Poskim rule that it is forbidden to enter the food into a Keli Rishon, although it is permitted to enter it into a Keli Sheiyni. [Minchas Kohen 2:4; Ginas Veradim 3:9; that so is custom] See Shabbos Kehalacha 3:18 p. 168 footnote 39 who concludes like this latter opinion for the Sephardim.
 Regarding why by meat Admur says that one is to be stringent while by bread he simply says “the custom is” the Chidushim and Biurim Kolel Tzemach Tzedek learn that the ruling regarding roasted meat was all in accordance to the stringent opinion which holds that there is always a cooking prohibition after roasting, however in accordance to the final ruling which takes into account the lenient opinion, this is simply a custom.
 To note that Admur omitted the case of roasted meat here in the custom. Some suggest this is because Admur only rules by bread which is more of a light food that one must be stringent by a Keli Sheiyni, however by roast there is no need to be stringent as requires the 1st opinion.
 Admur ibid; M”B 318:46
 Admur 318:13; 318:24; M”A 318:17; M”B 318:41
Ruling of Michaber: The Michaber 318:15 states that it is permitted to heat a cooked dry food opposite the flame. The Biur Halacha “Vehu yaveish” brings that the Beis Meir and Mamar Mordechai 318:15 question why this is permitted as the Michaber brought earlier in 318:5 that there are opinions that forbid roasting after cooking. He remains with a Tzaruch Iyun. The Chazaon Ish 37:14 and Igros Moshe 2.85 answer that when it is palced at a distance from the fire it is not considered roasting, as it simply dries it. However Admur in 318:24 explicitly writes that the above allowance in Michaber is only ina case that the food was baked or roasted: “However any [food or liquid] which does not have a cooking prohibition [applicable to it], is permitted to even be boiled near a bonfire. For example …………… or [another example] even if [the food] has completely cooled down but it is a food which was baked or roasted [and is thus dry] [in which case we hold] that there is no [prohibition] to bake or roast an already baked or roasted food even if it has completely cooled down, as explained above [in Halacha 13] [then in the above cases it is allowed to even boil these foods near the fire].”
 Admur 318:13; M”A 318:17
 Admur 318:15-16; This refers even to a food that was cooked in liquids as is understood from the wording there and from the contrast to the wording in 318:24 and so rules Tehila Ledavid 318:24; Chazon Ish 32:14; Az Nidbaru 8:10; Iglei Tal Ofeh 9 that there is no prohibition of roasting after cooking when there is a pot interfering. See Shabbos Kehalacha 3:24 Biurim 18; Piskeiy Teshuvos 318:14
Other Opinions: The M”B 318:41 rules it is forbidden to place a cooked dry food on top of a pot and the like due to the prohibition of roasting after cooking. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 318:14]
 Halacha 11
 Halacha 12
 Halacha 13
 Halacha 13
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 24 and p. 142.
 Admur 613:14
 Based on Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 37, although there he leaves this with a Tzaruch Iyun.
 So rules the Divreiy Nechemiah. However, the Minchas Kohen as well as other Poskim argue on this and hold that we follow majority.
 Shabbos Kehalacha p. 145
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 159-167
 Admur Seder Birchas Hanehnin 2:11; Shabbos Kehalacha p. 164
 Shabbos Kehalacha p. 159-161; The Peri Megadim 318 M”Z 7 rules that Tzeli Kedeira has a status of cooked.
 Shabbos Kehalacha p.164-166; Cheishev Haeifod 1:135; Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 1 footnote 182
 Such as an egg. [Shabbos Kehalacha p. 166]
 Peri Megadim 318 M”Z 7 “oil possibly”; Ketzos Hashulchan 124:54; See Shevet Halevi 7:12
The Ketzos Hashulchan [124:54] brings the Peri Megadim which questions whether it is considered like roasted or cooked, and concludes based on this Per Megadim that it is forbidden to cook an item that was fried, and thus soup nuggets which are fried may not be placed into soup from a Keli Sheiyni. Rav Farkash however disputes this ruling based on Admur in Seder Birchas Hanehnin which clearly defines fried as cooked and not baked. The Ketzos Hashulchan however challenges this source explaining that a) By a Biblical prohibition Admur agrees that one must be stringent to consider it as roasted, and it was only regarding blessings that he was lenient. B) Admur never meant that it is considered like actually cooked but rather that regarding the laws of bread it is not considered bread.
 Shabbos Kehalacha ibid; See SSH”K 1 footnote 182; Maor Hashabbos 2:8; Shevet Halevi 7:12
 Shabbos Kehalacha p. 159-161
 The Peri Megadim 318 M”Z 7 rules it has a status of cooked.
 So rules the Peri Megadim 318 A”A 7, brought in Biur Halacha “Yesh”, although the M”B himself argues there on the Peri Megadim and holds that it does have a cooking prohibition. The Igleiy Tal however rules like the Peri Megadim. The Ketzos Hashulchan 124:54 rules like the Peri Megadim based on the Igleiy Tal, and so rules also Rav Farkash [Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 171]
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 178
 Peri Megadim 318 M”Z 7
 Shabbos Kehalacha 3:27 p. 177
 Kaf Hachaim 318:78; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 174-176; See Tehila Ledavid 318:24 which explicitly differentiates between placing food on top of a pot which is allowed and placing it directly across a fire which is not allowed and so is implied from Admur 318:15 in his wording which contrasts his ruling in 318:24.
Other Opinions: The M”B 318:41 rules it is forbidden to place a cooked dry food on top of a pot and the like due to the prohibition of roasting after cooking. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 318:14] See also Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 54 that forbids placing a soup or chulent which had all its gravy consumed near a fire due to Tzeli after Bishul, hence implying he forbids it.
 Admur 318:15-16 [This refers even to a food that was cooked in liquids as is understood from the wording there and from the contrast to the wording in 318:24]; Tehila Ledavid 318:24; Chazon Ish 32:14; Az Nidbaru 8:10; Iglei Tal Ofeh 9; Shabbos Kehalacha 3:24 Biurim 18; Piskeiy Teshuvos 318:14
Other Opinions: The M”B 318:41 rules it is forbidden to place a cooked dry food on top of a pot and the like due to the prohibition of roasting after cooking. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 318:14]
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 162
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 177
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 179
 The Peri Megadim and Minchas Chinuch discuss this question and although they seem to lean towards permitting it to be done, they remain with doubt.
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 180
 As a microwave is considered solar heat which as explained in the previous question that it is questionable whether food heated through such heat may be heated through fire. However the Igros Moshe argues on this and rules that a microwave is not considered solar heating but is like heating with a flame.
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 181
 As hot dogs are previously cooked.
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 167
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 169