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4. Heating uncooked foods and liquids on Shabbos to less than Yad Soledes Bo:
A. Placing cold liquids on top of a kettle:
Is hot enough to make liquid Yad Soledes: It is forbidden to place cold [liquid] on top of a kettle even in order to just warm it up [as opposed to making it hot] so long as it’s hot water is so hot that if the cold [liquid] were to be left on top of it for a long time then it would be able to cook, which means that it would become Yad Soledes, as the law of placing [food] on top of a kettle is the same law as that of placing [food] near a bonfire. [See Q&A 1-3]
Is not hot enough to make liquid Yad Soledes: However, if [the water in the kettle] is not so hot [to the point that it can warm up the food to Yad Soledes even if left there for a long time] then it is allowed [even if the water has never been cooked].
B. Placing hot uncooked food on top of a hot pot so the uncooked food retain is heat:
A vessel which contains a hot food which is Yad Soledes is permitted to be placed on top of a pot which is insulated in clothes in order so it retain its heat and not get cold. This applies even if [the food in the upper pot] is not yet completely cooked in which case doing something to hasten its [further] cooking contains the cooking prohibition, nevertheless [here it is allowed to place it on top of another insulated pot which is not on a source of heat] being that it is impossible for it to become completely cooked through doing so and it cannot even further cook it, and it rather only retains its heat.
If the lower pot will heat the food to the point of Yad Soledes: However one may not place a vessel which has in it [food that] is not hot to the point of Yad Soledes on top of [another] pot which is so hot that it can heat the upper [pot] to the point that it will become Yad Soledes. The same law applies to placing [a pot] on top of a kettle which is this hot. However, this only applies when the [food in the] upper [pot] has not yet fully cooked in which case it contains the cooking [prohibition] even when hot.
C. Placing uncooked foods near a fire on Shabbos:
Cold Water: It is permitted to place a bottle of water or of other liquids opposite a bonfire in order to thaw out its coldness, as long as that one places it a distance from the fire to the extent that it will not be able to heat up in that place to Yad Soledes even if it were to remain there for a long time. However, it is forbidden to place it near the fire in an area where it can heat up to the point of Yad Soledes. [Furthermore] to even leave it there for a short amount of time so it merely thaws the coldness alone, is forbidden due to a decree that one may come to forget and leave it there to the point that it will reach Yad Soledes. [See Q&A 4]
Placing raw fruits and the like near a fire: This same law applies for fruits or other foods which are eaten raw, that even though they do not need to be cooked nevertheless if one cooks them, he is liable. Therefore, it is forbidden to place these [fruits] by an area where they can cook if left there for a long time. This is defined as any area where it can reach Yad Soledes.
Regarding placing a cooked food very near a bonfire see “The laws of Chazara” chapter 1 Halacha 5.
Summary-Placing foods near an open fire:
Foods that have a cooking prohibition: All foods that have a cooking prohibition may not be placed near a fire if they can reach Yad Soledes in that area, even if one plans to remove it from there prior from it reaching this temperature. If the food will not be able to reach Yad Soledes in the area of heat that it is placed in [even if it remains there the entire day], then one may place it there. This is with exception to placing it inside a Keli Rishon. Thus, one may place any food over a pot or near a fire if the food cannot reach Yad Soledes even if left there for a long time.
Foods that do not have a cooking prohibition: May be placed opposite the fire but are forbidden to be placed very close to the fire due to that one may come to stoke the coals.
Summary-Placing foods on top of the cover of a hot pot that is not on the fire:
Is permitted even if the food is uncooked if it cannot reach Yad Soledes, or even if it can reach Yad Soledes, but the food is already hot to the point of Yad Soledes and will not become further cooked thru placing it on top of the pot. If the food does not have a cooking prohibition it is allowed even if it will reach Yad Soledes.
A food which will be damaged if warmed to Yad Soledes may it be warmed near a fire if one will remove it prior to it reaching Yad Soledes?
Many Poskim rule it is permitted to leave it there with intent to remove it prior to reaching Yad Soledes.
May one place a baby bottle into a Keli Rishon or near a fire, with intent to remove it prior to it reaching Yad Soledes?
One should not do so. Although if one simply desires to thaw down the bottle and not heat it up, then if one is in a pressing situation this may be done on condition that one supervises that it does not begin to heat. [see next]
In a pressing situation may one be lenient to slightly thaw down the food in an area that it can reach Yad Soledes if left there for a long time?
In a pressing situation, such as for one who cold drinks are bad for his health [or a child that will not drink the cold drink], it is permitted to place a cold drink near the fire to simply thaw it down, and not to warm it up, even if it can reach Yad Soeldes in that area, if leaving it in a different area will take a very long time to thaw it. One who is lenient in this fulfills the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. It is however forbidden according to all to do so if one’s intent is to warm up the bottle.
May one melt a frozen baby bottle in the sun or near heat in an area that it will not reach Yad Soledes?
See “The laws of Melting ice and snow” [Chapter 320] and Q&A there.
May one warm or dry his wet hands near a heater or fire?
No. This applies even if the water on his hand will not reach Yad Soledes. See the laws of bathing Chapter 126.
May one defrost frozen Chalah near a flame, such as on top of other pots?
Yes, however one must verify that there is no liquid or ice on the bread in order to not transgress a cooking prohibition.
 Admur 318:29; Michaber 318:17
 M”B 318:112
 Admur 318:14; Taz 318:9; See also 257:8 that allows adding insulation so long as the pot is not on top of a constant heat source. However, see 254:4 which rules it is forbidden to place uncooked foods on top of an insulated pot; Tehila Ledavid 254:4 establishes the case there [254:4] to be referring to a pot that is on the fire and is insulated in a permitted way, such as with a board over the top of the pot, and the insulation is thus not touching the walls of the pot.
 Tzaruch Iyun why Admur mentions that the lower pot is insulated? Perhaps this is because if the lower pot were not covered with insulation, it would be able to further heat, and further cook the upper pot and hence be forbidden. However, when there is a cloth insulation separating, it will never be able to further cook it.
 Admur 318:15
 Tzaruch Iyun on the novelty in this additional statement.
 Admur 318:24; Michaber 318:14
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid
Other opinions: Some Rishonim rule that the decree was only made in a case that one desires to warm the food. If however one simply desires to thaw it down then it is permitted. Practically one may be lenient like these opinions in a case of need, and one who does so fulfill the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. [Tzemach Tzedek Orach Chaim 37; Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 36; Tehila Ledavid 318:29; Chayeh Adam 20:13; Shabbos Kehalacha 4:23 p. 211]
 Admur ibid; Rama 318:14
 Halacha 24
 Halacha 14 and 15
 Tosefus Yesheinim Shabbos 37b; and so explains Shabbos Kehalacha 4:19 in Admur.
 Halacha 24 and 29
 Halacha 14-15
 Halacha 15
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 210
 Magen Avraham 318:37; Elya Raba 318:34; M”B 318:91 regarding a vessel. Vetzaruch Iyun why no mention of this is made in Admur.
 The reason: As here one can say that one will not come to forget to remove it prior to it reaching that point.
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 210
 Some, based on the above answer, have ruled that here too it is allowed being that one will not come to forget to remove the bottle since he does not want it to become Yad Soledes and burn the child. However practically one should not be lenient to do so being that no damage will come about if one heats it too much as it can always be cooled off. Thus, one may come to forget to remove it. [This can also be understood from the ruling that even when the Keli Rishon is not Yad Soledes one may not place food in it, hence certainly when it is Yad Soledes even though one for sure will remove it before it reaches Yad Soledes should this be forbidden.]
 Tzemach Tzedek Orach Chaim 37; Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 36; Tehila Ledavid 318:29; Chayeh Adam 20:13; Shabbos Kehalacha 4:23 [p. 211]
 The reason: Some Rishonim rule that the decree was only made in a case that one desires to warm the food. If, however, one simply desires to thaw it down then it is permitted. Practically one may be lenient like these opinions in a case of need, and one who does so fulfill the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. [ibid]
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