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1. The prohibition of bathing/showering on Shabbos in hot water:
A. Bathing in hot water heated through fire:
The Sages forbade bathing one’s entire body or majority of it with hot water whether [the water] is within a vessel [or] whether it is in the ground, [and] even if it was heated from before Shabbos.
The reason for this prohibition is: because [back then] the people in charge of the bathhouses would heat up [the water] on Shabbos and claim that they heated it before Shabbos. Now, although the Jewish people are not [to be] suspected to advertently desecrate Shabbos, nevertheless these [people in charge of the bathhouse] would place wood [in the fire that is] under the cold water before Shabbos, close to dark, and the woods would burn throughout the entire Shabbos thus heating up the water that is above it. Now, [placing the wood so close to Shabbos] is forbidden because of a decree that one may come to forget and stoke the coals after Shabbos has begun.
Not in bathhouse: Therefore [the Sages] forbade anyone from bathing in hot water even if it is not [being done] in a public bathhouse [which is run by caretakers].
B. Showering in hot water heated through fire:
[Furthermore] even to pour water on one’s body to rinse off [is forbidden] even though this is not the usual way of bathing in a bathhouse in which one enters his body and limbs into the water. [This applies even to water that was heated on Erev Shabbos, and even to water that is in the ground.]
C. Bathing in hot water heated through fire one limb at a time or minority of one’s body:
The Sages forbade bathing one’s entire body or majority of it with hot water.
Washing each limb individually: Even to bathe each limb individually and not majority of his body at once [is forbidden].
The reason for this is: because the Sages did not differentiate within their decree [regarding different forms of washing] since [all the forms] slightly resemble bathing in a bathhouse in which one bathes his entire body or majority of it.
Bathing minority of one’s body: However it is permitted to bathe in hot water [that was permissibly heated from before Shabbos] one’s face, hands and feet or other limbs so long as one does not [in total] wash majority of his body. [Regarding washing limbs that contain hair see Halacha 7 Q&A there!]
Washing in a bathhouse: It is forbidden to bathe in a bathhouse, even [minority of one’s body including] one’s face, legs and hands. [This applies towards the Beis Hapenimi of the bathhouse, which is the area of the showers and Mikvaos. In the changing room one may shower these areas but not bathe them.]
Hot water heated on Shabbos: See next!
May one wash minority of his body in hot water heated before Shabbos inside a home bathtub or shower?
Yes. A home bathtub is not defined as a Bathhouse.
D. Bathing in hot water heated on Shabbos:
Hot water which was heated on Shabbos even in a permitted way is forbidden to be used to wash even one limb on Shabbos, even if the [water] was only slightly heated and is not Yad Soledes.
Examples of waters heated on Shabbos in a permitted way:
· Water heated to below Yad Soledes.
· A gentile warmed water on behalf of himself.
· One heated water on behalf of a sick person.
The law if the water was heated in a forbidden way:
It is forbidden in any benefit until Motzei Shabbos. It is forbidden to use such water even for washing dishes or washing hands for Netilas Yadayim.
If one placed cold water onto his blech right before Shabbos, and it was thus only heated on Shabbos, may one bathe minority of his limbs in such water?
Some Poskim rule that such water is considered as if it was heated before Shabbos and is hence permitted to be used to bathe minority of the body on Shabbos. However other Poskim consider such water to have been heated on Shabbos and it is hence prohibited to wash even minority of one’s body with this water. Furthermore some say that even if the water was warmed before Shabbos but retained its heat due to its remaining over a flame and the like, then it is considered as if it were heated on Shabbos. Practically, we rule like the first opinion.
If one mixed hot water that was heated from before Shabbos with cold water [in a way permitted to be done, such as cold pouring water into a Keli Sheiyni], may one bathe minority of his body with this water on Shabbos?
May one use water heated on Shabbos for washing dishes?
Some write it is permitted to do so. Vetzaruch Iyun, as why is this any different than drying the hands near a fire.
May one use water heated on Shabbos for washing hands to eat bread and the like?
Some write it is permitted to do so, according to those that allow immersing in a hot Mikveh on Shabbos.
May one sit next to a heater after immersing in a Mikveh if his body is still wet?
No, due to the reason explained above. See Halacha 13!
Summary-Bathing/Showering on Shabbos in hot water
Water that was heated before Shabbos:
Bathing majority of one’s body: Is Rabbinically forbidden even if the water was heated from before Shabbos, and even if one washes each limb individually.
Bathing minority of one’s body: Is permitted to be bathed/washed with water that was permissibly heated from before Shabbos.
In hot water heated on Shabbos:
Even if the water was heated in a permitted way [such as in the sun, or to less than Yad Soledes] it is forbidden to wash even one limb in that water. Thus, one may not dry his hands near a source of heat as doing so heats up the water on his hands.
E. Bathing Children in hot water:
It is forbidden for an adult to bathe a child [of any age, including a newborn] with hot water on Shabbos, just as it is forbidden for the adult himself. Thus, one may only wash a child using hot water if the water was heated before Shabbos and one is washing minority of his body. [If, however, the child is in pain or is dirty, then it is permitted to bathe him in hot water.]
See Halacha 3 Q&A there regarding if bathing is allowed for healing purposes!
 Admur 326:1; Michaber 326:1; Shabbos 39b
 Admur ibid; M”A 326:2 in name of Kneses Hagedola; M”B 321:2
 Admur ibid [however see Admur 616:1 in parentheses]; Ran 40a, Rashba 40a in explanation of Gemara Shabbos 40a; Yerushalmi 3:3; See Tehila Ledavid 326:1
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the reason behind this prohibition is because one may come to heat up the water on Shabbos and transgress a Biblical prohibition of Sekila. [Implication of Admur 616:1 in parentheses; M”A 326:1; Olas Shabbos 326:1; Tosefes Shabbos 326:1; M”B 326:1; Kaf Hachaim 326:1] As the Balanim [caretakers of the bathhouse] in previous times would heat up the water on Shabbos claiming it was heated before Shabbos. [Gemara ibid] They would place cold water into a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes which is Biblically forbidden on Shabbos. [P”M 326 A”A 4; Menorah Hatehorah 326:1; See Shabbos Kehalacha 18 footnote 56]
Why does this not constitute a Gzeira Legzeira: It is learned from a verse that the Sages may not make a decree upon a decree. [Rashi Beitza 2b; See Admur 511:1] The explanation of Admur and Ran in the above decree form a decree upon a decree, and thus the question is asked as to how this was permitted to be done by the Sages. The following answers can be used to explain this matter: 1) It is permitted to make a decree upon a decree if the original decree will not be fulfilled without the second decree. [Tosafus Brachos 53a] 2) It is permitted to make a decree upon a decree when the original decree is due to a suspicion that involves the item to which the action is being done, such as insulating with items that add heat is forbidden because one may come to insulate with ember which can lead one to stoke the ember. Since the decree against ember involves stoking itself, therefore making a further decree against all material that adds heat is not defined as a decree upon a decree. [Tosafus Rid Shabbos 31a] 3) Any matter which is commonly transgressed the Sages may make a decree upon a decree. [Chacham Tzvi 75; Gra 252]
 Admur ibid; implication of Rambam 26:2
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Shabbos ibid
 M”B 326:4
 Admur ibid; M”A 326:2; M”B 321:2
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Shmuel Shabos 40a
 326:1; Michaber and Rama ibid; Shabbos 40a
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Shmuel in Shabbos ibid
 Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Beis Yosef in name of Rosh; Taz 326:1
 Admur 511:1; Michaber 511:2
 Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; implication of Gemara in Shabbos 40a
The reason: As the main prohibition against bathing was in the actual bathhouse. [M”B 511:16]
 Admur ibid; Orchos Chaim Yom Tov 14; Beis Yosef 511; Levush 511:2
 M”B 511:16
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 511:4
 Admur 326:4; M”A 326:6; M”B 326:5 and 17; Reason of opinion in Michaber 326:5 and perhaps this applies even according to Michaber 326:4 [as explained in Shaar Hatziyon 326:8]; See Halacha 11! Shabbos 134b
 Aruch Hashulchan 326:2; Shevisas Hashabbos Mivasheil 127
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that such water has the same law as water heated on Erev Shabbos. [Tehila Leadavid 326:10]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 133 footnote 3
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 326:2; See Shabbos Kehalacha 18 Biurim 5
 Rav Akiva Eiger on M”A 326:4; Setimas Harishonim; SSH”K 14:3 in name of Rav SZ”A; Final position of Shevet Halevi 3:33; 4:31; 7:32; Shabbos Kehalacha 18:34; Piskeiy Teshuvos 326:2; See Shabbos Kehalacha 18 Biurim 5
 The reason: As since no action was done to the water on Shabbos it is considered heated from before Shabbos. [Rav Akiva Eiger]
 Tosafus Yisehinim Shabbos 39; original opinion of Sheivet Halevy 1:58; Shevisas Hashabbos Mivashel 126 in name of Mahariy Engel 72; Minchas Yitzchak 4:44; Or Letziyon 2:35-1; Betzeil Hachachma 4:136, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvah 226:2 and footnote 27 and 29
 Tosafus Yisehinim Shabbos 39; Sheivet Halevy ibid; See Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 326 footnote 27
 SSH”K 14:3 in name of Rav SZ”A; Final position of Shevet Halevi 3:33; 4:31; 7:32; Shabbos Kehalacha 18:34; Piskeiy Teshuvos 326:2
 Iglei Tal Ofeh 66; Tehila Ledavid 326:10; Ketzos Hashulchan 133 footnote 2; Shabbos Kehalacha 18:36; Piskeiy Teshuvos 326:2
 Minchas Shabbos
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 326:1 and footnote 7
 Shabbos Kehalacha 18:31 based on Karban Nesanel that “Immersion is not bathing”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 326 footnote 7
 Admur 326:4
 Admur 331:11; 616:1 regarding Yom Kippur; Michaber 331:9; M”A 616:1
Admur 331:11 “Today that it is no longer viewed as a medical necessity to bathe a circumcised child, it remains forbidden to do so to the child the same way as is forbidden for an adult. Hence only one’s face, hands and feet [i.e. minority of his limbs] may be bathed in hot water, and only if the water was heated before Shabbos.” Admur 616:1 “Although the oppressions of Yom Kippur do not apply to children, nevertheless they may only be bathed in cold water. However, one may not bathe his entire body in hot water, even if the water was heated before Shabbos, as bathing in hot water on Yom Kippur is not forbidden only due to oppression, but due to the prohibition applicable on every Shabbos of the year in which it is forbidden to bathe in hot warer due to the decree against the bathhouses.”
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to bathe a child in hot water on Shabbos/Yom Kippur. [Bach, brought in M”A ibid] The M”A ibid negates his opinion and so rules Admur. See however Shevet Halevi 5:31 and Piskeiy Teshuvos 326 footnote 10 that one may bathe a child in hot water as this decree does not apply against a child. Vetzaruch Iyun from the Poskim above. Perhaps however they refer only to a acse that the child needs it, such as he is dirty or sick and the like.
The law on Yom Tov: Admur records two opinions regarding if one may bathe a child entire body in hot water on Yom Tov-see 511:1!
 Admur and Michaber ibid which are discussing a child after Mila
 Being that bathing [majority of the body] in hot water is forbidden on Shabbos, it is likewise forbidden to do so to a child just as it is forbidden to feed a child any Rabbinically prohibited food, as explained in 343:1. [Admur 616:1
 As even an adult may bathe in hot water in a case of pain. See also Shevet Halevi and Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
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