Tuesday, 6th of Nissan 5783/March 28, 2023
- The laws of the Shlamim, Toda:
- The following is the law of the Shelamim:
- The Todah and its breads: If a Todah Shelamim offering is brought, it is to have [four types of breads, three which are] Matzah breads offered with it. The breads are to be mixed with oil [type #1], and contain Matzah crackers which are smeared with oil [type #2], and fine broiled flour which is mixed with oil [type #3]. In addition, Chametz bread is also to be brought with the Karban. [type #4]
- Distributing the breads and eating the meat: One loaf of each of the breads of the Todah offering are to be donated to Hashem and given to the Kohen who throws the blood of the Shelamim. The meat of the Toda is to be eaten that day and is not to remain until morning.
- The laws of Nosar, Pigul, Tuma:
- Neder and Nedava-Nosar: If one donates a Shelamim offering, it may be eaten that day and the next day, however any leftovers may not be eaten. The leftovers [i.e. Nosar] of the third day are to be burnt in a fire.
- Pigul: If the meat is [intended] to be eaten on the third day, the sacrifice is invalid for the person who brought it, as it is considered Pigul [distanced]. One who eats it is liable [for punishment].
- Impure meat: If the meat become impure, it may not be eaten and is to be burnt in the fire.
- Impure person: The meat of the Karban may only be eaten by a person who is pure. One who eats the meat while he is in a state of impurity, receives the penalty of Kareis. A person who touches anything that is impure due to man [i.e. Tumas Meis] or animal [i.e. Niveila] is considered impure.
- The laws of Cheilev/forbidden fats:
- The Cheilev of an ox, sheep or goat may not be eaten. The Cheilev of a Niveila of Treifa may be used for all ones needs, although may not be eaten. Whoever eats the forbidden fats of a Karban [or Chulin, non-Karban, animal] receives the penalty of Kareis.
- The law of blood:
- One may not eat any blood of a bird or animal in any of the encampments. One who eats any of the blood receives the penalty of Kareis.
- Offering the Shelamim:
- The Shelamim is to have its fat rest on its breast and be waved before Hashem.
- The Kohen is to offer the fat on the altar and the breast is distributed to the Kohanim [to eat].
- The right leg is to be given as a present to the Kohen. It is given to the Kohen who offers the blood and Cheilev of the sacrifice. This is an eternal gift to the priests from Hashem.
- The above is the laws of all the Karbanos of the Olah, Mincha, Chatas, Asham, and Shlamim which Hashem commanded Moshe on Har Sinai, and the Jewish people were told to offer in the desert of Sinai.
Tanya end of Chapter 38
1. “Human” Kavana-Intellectual:
- The first, higher, level of Kavana is intellectual love and fear.
- This refers to one who has ability of knowing G-d, to contemplate His greatness and as a result of his understanding to arouse higher fear in his mind and love of G-d in the right chamber of his heart.
- The soul thirsts to attach to G-d: The love is aroused to the point that his soul thirsts for G-d, to attach to Him through fulfilling the Torah and Mitzvos which draw the infinite light of Ein Sof onto his soul.
- Human Kavana: When such an individual learns Torah and fulfills Mitzvos and prays to Hashem and says blessings, then this Kavana is like the soul of a human who contains intellect and freedom of choice and can speak with knowledge.
2. “Animal” Kavana-Emotional:
- The second, lower, level of Kavana is a natural and instinctive love and fear.
- Lack of intellectual capability: This refers to one who does not have the intellectual ability of knowing G-d, to contemplate His greatness and as a result of his understanding to arouse a revealed love in his heart or fear of Hashem in his mind or heart.
- Arousing hidden love: Rather, such a person through remembering his love can only arouse the natural love that is hidden in his heart. He brings out this love from its concealed state to its revealed state, at least in his mind.
- The soul agrees to attach to G-d: This means that the will of his mind and the hidden chambers of his heart readily agree and desire with complete and true compliance to actually give up his life for the sake of G-d’s unity, in order to attach to Him his G-dly soul and its garments and incorporate them in His unity which is found in the Torah and Mitzvos.
- Fear of G-d: This hidden love also includes fear of Hashem, to accept the yoke of Heaven to not rebel against Him Heaven forbid.
- Animal Kavana: When one then uses this intent to abstain from performing transgressions and to perform the commands, and he learns and Davens and says blessings with the simple meaning of the words without love and fear aroused in his heart and mind, then this Kavana is like the soul of an animal which does not contain intellect or freedom of choice, and all of its emotions are natural instincts.
- Natural instinctive emotions like animals: The fear an animal has for matters that threaten it and the love it has for matters that it lusts, are all natural to it and not a result of his understanding or knowledge. Similarly, the fear and love that is hidden in the hearts of every Jew is an inheritance from our forefathers and is like a nature in our souls.
Rambam, Hilchos Aveilus Chapter 1
Number of mitzvahs in this section:
Four. There is one positive commands and thee negative commands.
- To mourn for the death of a loved one.
- For the high priest not to defile himself to a dead relative.
- For a priest not to enter into a tent with the corpse.
- For a priest to not defile himself to the dead.
Halacha 1: The Mitzvah to mourn
- It is a positive command for one to mourn the death of a relative.
- The biblical obligation-The first day: Biblically, one is only required to mourn on the day of the death and burial.
- The Rabbinical obligation-The remaining days: The remaining six days of mourning are rabbinical.
- In total there are seven days of mourning with the first day being biblical and the rest of the seven days being rabbinical.
- An institution of Moshe: Moshe instituted for the Jewish people the seven days of mourning after the death of a relative, as well as the seven days of rejoicing for a newly married couple .
Halacha 2: When is one to begin the mourning laws?
- The mourning laws only begin after the completion of the burial which starts from when the grave is covered.
- Prior to this point, one is not obligated in any of the mourning laws.
- It is for this reason that King David bathed his body and smeared it with oil after his child die, prior to his burial.
Halacha 3: When to begin mourning if the burial is delayed
- By relatives which were executed by the government, which are not permitted to be buried, one is to begin the seven and 30 days of mourning after he gives up hope in getting permission from the king to bury them.
- He is to begin mourning even if he has not given up hope in trying to steal the body and bury it himself.
Halacha 4: When to mourn for a relative whose body is lost
- If the body of the relative is not able to be buried, such as if he drowned at sea, or was eaten by wild animal, then one is to begin mourning after he gives up hope in retrieving the body.
- Even if limbs of the body were found, one is not to begin mourning until he gives up hope in retrieving the head or majority of the body.
- If majority of the body, or head, has been found, then one is to begin mourning after its burial.
Halacha 5: When to begin mourning if body sent for burial overseas
- If the body is being sent overseas for burial, then the moment that the relatives turn their faces from escorting the body they begin counting the seven and 30 days of mourning.
Halacha 6: Mourning a Nefel/stillborn
- One does not mourn the death of a Nefel/stillborn.
- The definition of a stillborn: So long as the child has not yet lived for 30 days, it is considered a stillborn in this regard.
- Even if the child died on the 30th day, one does not mourn.
Halacha 7: The law by full-term pregnancy
- If the baby was carried to a full term of nine months, then even if he dies on the day of birth, he is to be mourned.
Halacha 8: Other definitions of a stillborn
- The following other infants are defined as stillborns and the parents do not mourn the death.
- If the child was born dead.
- If the child was born after being carried for only eight months. In such a case he is considered a stillborn and is not to be mourned even if he dies after 30 days.
- If the child was born in a cut or crushed state, he is not to be mourned even if he was carried for nine months.
Halacha 9: Mourning for relatives who were executed
- Mourning for relatives executed by the king: People who were executed by the king, are to be mourned regularly. This applies even if they were executed by a Jewish king following Torah law.
- Such individuals are to be buried in the family plot.
- Their estate, however, is to be given to the king.
- Mourning for relatives executed by the Jewish court: People who were executed by the Jewish court, are not to be mourned, although one is to be in a state of sadness over their death.
- Such individuals are not to be buried in their family plot until their corpses have decomposed.
- Their estate is inherited by their heirs.
Halacha 10: Mourning heretics and informers
- One is not to mourn for the following individuals who died, and on the contrary one is to rejoice for the death of the enemies of God by wearing white clothing and having festive meals:
- People who have removed themselves from the Jewish community and do not follow Jewish custom or tradition and act like Gentiles.
Halacha 11: Mourning for a relative who committed suicide
- One is not to mourn an individual who committed suicide.
- Likewise, one is not to eulogize him.
- The definition of suicide: If one saw an individual in a stressed or angry state go up to the roof of the building after stating that he will do so, and he then jumped off, then one is to assume that he committed suicide.
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