Tuesday, 25th Iyar 5783/May 16, 2023
- Hashem told Moshe that the following is the order that the Jewish people are to encamp around the Mishkan:
- In the East: In the east is to encamp the tribes of Yehuda, Yissachar and Zevulun. This camp is led by the tribe of Yehuda. The census of the tribe of Yehuda showed a population of 74,600 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Nachshon Ben Aminadav. The census of the tribe of Yissachar showed a population of 54,400 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Nesanel Ben Tzuar. The census of the tribe of Zevulun showed a population of 57,400 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Eliav Ben Cheilon. The total population for the camp of Yehuda was 186,400 [men above age 20]. They were the first to journey.
- In the South: At the south is to encamp the tribes of Reuvein, Shimon, and Gad. This camp is led by the tribe of Reuvein. The census of the tribe of Reuvein, showed a population of 46,500 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Elitzur Ben Shedeur. The census of the tribe of Shimon showed a population of 59,300 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Shelumiel Ben Tzurishaddai. The census of the tribe Gad showed a population of 45,650 [men above the age of 20]. Its leader was Eliasaf Ben Reuel. The total population for the camp of Reuvein was 151,450 [men above age 20]. They were the second to journey.
- In the West: At the west is to encamp the tribes of Ephraim, Menasheh, and Binyamin. This camp is led by the tribe of Ephraim. The census of the tribe of Ephraim showed a population of 40,500 [men above the age of 20]. The leader of Ephraim was Elishama Ben Amihud. The census of the tribe of Menasheh showed a population of 32,200 [men above the age of 20]. The leader of the tribe of Menasheh was Gamliel Ben Pedahtzur. The census of the tribe of Binyamin showed a population of 35,400 [men above the age of 20]. The leader of the tribe of Binyamin was Avidan Ben Gideoni. The total population for the camp of Ephraim was 108,100 [men above age 20]. They were the third to journey.
- In the North: At the north is to encamp the tribes of Dan, Asher and Naftali. This camp is led by the tribe of Dan. The census of the tribe of Dan showed a population of 62,700 men above the age of 20. Its leader was Achiezer Ben Amishaddai. The census of the tribe of Asher showed a population of 41,500 men above the age of 20. Its leader was Pagiel Ben Ochran. The census of the tribe of Naftali showed a population of 53,400 men above the age of 20. Its leader was Achira Ben Einan. The total population for the camp of Dan was 157,600 [men above age 20]. They were the last to journey.
- Traveling order: The Ohel Moed and the Levite camp are to travel in the middle of the camps. All the camps are to travel the same direction and group that they are positioned.
- The total count [of men above age 20] within the 12 tribes was 603,550. The Levites were not included in this count, as Hashem commanded Moshe.
Tanya end of Chapter 51
1. Hashem fills all worlds and its creations, in accordance to its need and function:
- Just as the limbs of the body each receive their specific soul power from the soul that is revealed in the brain, so too the creations of the world each receive their specific form of Elokus to enable them to function on their level.
- The infinite light of G-d fills all the worlds to give it life, and in every world there is an endless number of creations which derive from this light, including myriads upon myriads of levels of angels and souls, as well as an endless number of worlds, one higher than the other.
2. Hashem’s essence in its concealed state is equally found everywhere:
- The essence of Hashem in His infinite state is found equally everywhere, in the upper and lower worlds, just like was stated regarding the essence of the soul.
- Hashem in His infinite state is concealed equally everywhere, both in the higher and lower worlds, as states the Zohar that Hashem “Is the concealed of all those concealed” meaning that He is concealed even from the concealed worlds.
- Thus, just as Hashem is found in the upper worlds so too He is found in the lower worlds. What then is then makes the difference of quality between the worlds, this is the level of revelation.
3. The difference between the higher and lower worlds:
- A difference in the quality of revelation: The difference between the lower and higher worlds is only regarding the level and quality of revelation of Hashem’s light that they receive from His concealed state.
- Why the term “light”: In fact, it is for this reason that the G-dly revelation is called “Or/light” as it is a revelation of the concealed state of G-d that is found equally everywhere.
- The revelation enlivens the creation: This revelation that each world receives serves as its source of life, and is responsible for its quality of life. Every creation receives according to its level and nature.
- The higher and lower worlds: Accordingly, in the upper worlds where they receive a higher quality of revelation they are more spiritual beings. However, in the lower worlds, including even the spiritual creations of the lower worlds, the revelation is minute and goes through the filtering of many garments and hence they are of a much lower level of spirituality.
4. The revelation in our physical world:
- The growing intensity of the filtering of the revelation eventually led to the creation of our physical world where spirituality is not even seen or felt and objects appear as if they are dead, even though in truth they contain Divine light which brings them into existence at every moment.
- As writes the Eitz Chaim, this physical world is created from Malchus of Malchus of Assiya which contains within it Malchus of Yetzira up until Malchus of Atzilus.
Rambam, Hilchos Deios
Chapter 2: mending ones character and learning a proper balance
Halacha 1: The illness of desiring bad character and the doctors who treat it
- Bodily illnesses: Just as there are people with physical illnesses and health problems, in which the sweet taste bitter and the bitter taste sweet, and a desire to eat foods that are inedible such as earth and charcoal and despise the good tasting foods such as meat and bread, so too there are similar such illnesses regarding character.
- Character illnesses: An example of a character illnesses is a person who is attracted to and loves bad character traits and despises the good character traits and are too lazy to follow them due to their imagined difficulty.
- The doctors who cure a person suffering from such illness: An individual suffering from the above illness in character should consult with the sages who are considered the healers of souls and to have the remedies to heal their bad character until the return to a good path.
- Those who don’t consult the sages: Those who have bad characters and do not consult the sages for healing are considered fools.
Halacha 2: The remedy for bad temperaments
- Anger: One who suffers from anger management issues is to be instructed to completely ignore and not retaliate for anything that is done to them by others, including getting hit and cursed. This should be done for some lengthy period of time until their anger gets under their control and is uprooted from their hearts.
- Arrogance: One who suffers from arrogance is to be instructed to overly disgrace himself by wearing shameful clothing and the like. This should be done until their arrogance is uprooted from their hearts and they return to the proper path.
- Remaining with a balanced approach: When one returns to the middle path in the above, he should remain this way for the rest of his life.
- Other character traits: This order shall likewise be followed for all other character traits that if one sees that he is on the extreme of one side, then he should go to the opposite extreme for a lengthy period of time until he can return to the proper path. This is the middle road for each and every character trait.
Halacha 3: Temperaments that are proper for one to be extreme in their opposites-Arrogance and Anger
- There are certain temperaments and character traits which are forbidden for a person to go in the middle path, and rather he is to go to the extreme. The following are some examples:
- Arrogance: It does not suffice for a person to simply be humble but he must also be very lowly and small in his eyes in comparison to others.
- Arrogance leads to heresy: Arrogance is a very severe character blemish, as the sages state that whoever has arrogance in his heart denies God.
- Excommunication: One who has arrogance even of a small amount is befitting of excommunication.
- Anger: Anger is a very bad trait and a person should distance himself from it to the opposite extreme, training himself not to get angry even when justified.
- Showing anger at one’s household: Even when it is necessary to show anger towards a member of one’s household or one’s community for the sake of educating them in the right path, he should not truly become angry but only act as if he is angry, while remaining calm inside.
- Like idolatry: The sages state that whoever becomes angry is considered to have served idols.
- Losing wisdom and prophecy: If a wise man becomes angry, he loses his wisdom, and if a prophet becomes angry he loses his prophecy.
- No life: Those who are constantly angry, have no life.
- It is due to the above reasons at the sages instructed one to distance himself to the extreme from getting angry, to the point that he doesn’t even get angry or offended when justified and expected.
- The way of the righteous to take insult and not insult back: This is the way of the righteous, to allow themselves to be shamed without shaming the person back, and to hear disparaging remarks against them without reply, and to serve G-d with joy and love and rejoice in their suffering.
Halacha 4: Speech versus silence
- A person should increase in silence and not speak unless it is a matter of wisdom, or necessary for their bodily needs in which case he should only speak what is necessary.
- Majority of people speak without limitation of all the nonsense in the world and doing so leads to sin.
- There’s nothing better for the body than silence.
- Torah talk: Even when speaking words of Torah and wisdom, he should be concise and to the point, including much content within his limited speech. One who does the opposite, and speaks a lot to convey a minor amount of content is considered a fool.
Halacha 5: Patiently responding
- One of the character traits of wisdom is silence. Therefore, a person should not hurry to answer a question and speak.
- Likewise, one is to teach students in a soft and calm tone without shouting and without lengthening in speech.
Halacha 6: Deceiving others
- It is forbidden for a person to deceive others in his speech, and should not express things that are opposite of his true feelings in his heart.
- Deceiving shoe sale: It is forbidden to deceive even a Gentile, such as to sell him a shoe from the hide of a Niveila under the pretense that it came from a slaughtered animal.
- Deceiving invitation and presence: Likewise, a person is not to deceive another by inviting him to eat in his house when he knows that he will not eat, or by offering him gifts when he knows that he will not accept it.
- The general rule is that a person should always be honest and act honestly and not deceivingly, to fool people to think in ways that are opposite of the truth.
Halacha 7: The temperaments of sadness and depression versus jollyness and giddiness:
- A person should not be constantly laughing and playing around, nor sad and depressed, but rather generally happy.
- Giddiness: The sages taught us that giddiness and lightheadedness leads a person to sexual sin.
- Laughter: A person should not laugh out of control or be sad and depressed and rather should accept people with a general friendly countenance.
- Greediness: A person should not be greedy and chase after money.
- Occupation: A person should not be unemployed and is rather to work for some time each day and study Torah.
- Fighting and quarreling, jealousy, lust, and honor: A person should not be constantly fighting and quarreling with others, and should not maintain jealousy, lusts, or pursue honor, as the sages state that jealousy, lust and honor remove a person from this world.
- The general rule is that a person should follow the middle path in all of these temperaments and characteristics.
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