Muktzah Machmas Issur

Muktzah Machmas Issur-Items designated for forbidden use:

A. Its definition     

A vessel which is designated for a use forbidden to be done on Shabbos [and one is not particular against using it for another use[1], is defined as MM”I].[2]

What is the status of a vessel which is designated both for a permitted and forbidden use[3]? A vessel which is designated for both a permitted and forbidden purpose [irrelevant to what it is most used for[4]] is permitted to be moved even for the benefit of the vessel itself, [just] as is the law by a vessel which is [only] designated for a permitted use, being that [this vessel] is also designated for permitted use[5].

 

B. Its law regarding what purposes it may be moved for? [6]  

Any item which has the status of a vessel is permitted to be moved on Shabbos, in the circumstances that will be explained. Even a vessel which is used for forbidden work, meaning that it is designated for work that is forbidden to be done on Shabbos, such as an ax which is designated to chop down wood, or a sledge hammer of a blacksmith or of a goldsmith, and the like [may be moved in certain circumstances as will be explained next].

Moving it for its space or to use: [7]  A vessel which is designated for a use forbidden to be done on Shabbos, is permitted to be moved, whether to use it, such as for example [one may use] an axe to cut a brick of pressed dates and [one may use] a hammer to crack nuts, or even to place vessels on top of it and the like [it may be used]. [As well it may moved] in order to use the space that is under it.

Moving it to save it from damage: [8]  However [to move it] in order to benefit the vessel itself, such as for example that the vessel is found in a place where one fears that it may be stolen from, or [is in a place that one fears] that it may fall and break or if it is in the sun and he fears that it may crack [if it is left] there, and he [thus] wants to move it to a shady area, as well as any other examples of the like, it is forbidden [to move it].

Moving it to save from damage if one plans to then use its space or it itself: [However] if one has in mind to use it for something in a different place, or that he has in mind to use the space that is under this item for something [else], then it is permitted to move this object from this place [which may cause the item damage], even though his main intention in moving it [from there] is in order that it not get stolen or break [while] in this place.

 

C. Does placing a baby or bread on a Muktzah item remove its moving restrictions?[9]

[Although when food is found in a grinder, which is MM”I, the grinder is not considered Muktzah at all and may be moved even to save from damage,] nevertheless, if one places inside the grinder a loaf of bread or a baby or other items that are permitted to be moved which the grinder is not considered secondary to, then it [nevertheless remains] forbidden to move it for its own benefit [i.e. to save from damage], despite this, as only by a dead person alone [did the Sages] permit one to be allowed to move [the corpse] from out of the sun into the shade through [placing] a loaf of bread or a child and the like [on top of the corpse] as will be explained.
Other opinions: [However] there are opinions which argue and say that a grinder and any other vessels which are designated for a prohibited use, are allowed to be moved [even] for the benefit of the vessel itself through [placing] a loaf of bread or a child or anything else which is permitted to move [on them], [as according to them] the [Sages] only said that moving a [Muktzah] item is forbidden [even] through [placing] a loaf of bread or a child [on it] with exception to a dead person, with regards to moving an item that is completely Muktzah which is forbidden to move even in order to use it or to use its space. However a vessel which is designated for forbidden use, which is not completely Muktzah, and the [Sages] were thus lenient [to allow one] to move it in order to use it or in order to use its space, then [we say that] they were likewise lenient [to allow one] to move it through  [placing] a loaf of bread or a child [on it], even [if one wants to move it] for the benefit of the vessel itself [such as to save it from damage].
The final ruling: The main [Halachic viewpoint] is like the first opinion however in a case of a great monetary loss one may rely on the latter opinion.

       

D. If a MM”I item has been picked up for its space does it need to be placed down right away?[10]

When one moves [an item] for the need of its space, he does not need to immediately let go of it from his hand after having removed it from the wanted space, rather he may place it anywhere that he wants to have it put away. As since it is already in his hand he is allowed to move it more than he requires [to free up the space].

May one hold the Muktzah for the entire day?[11] Certainly even the slightest delay which is not for the sake of reaching the destination is forbidden, as the Sages only permitted him to bring the item to a place of his choice, of which has a limit, however not for him to stand with it, to which there is no limit as he can stand the whole day [with the Muktzah].

 

E. Moving a MM”I item for the sake of another person:[12]

A whole candle made of bees wax or of fat, even if one had already lit it on the weekday or on the previous Shabbos it is nevertheless considered a vessel which is designated for a prohibition use.

From this derived the mistake of many people which move a whole candle for the purpose of lighting it after Shabbos, or for the need of a gentile, for him to light it for himself. They are mistaken [in doing this] because it is only permitted to move a vessel which is designated for a prohibited use if a Jew needs to use it on Shabbos itself for a certain use that is permitted on Shabbos, such as [to move] a hammer to crack nuts with [to eat on Shabbos] as was explained above [in Halacha 12].

 

F. Examples of items which may be considered MM”I:

-An ax and sledge hammer:[13]

A vessel which is used for forbidden work, meaning that it is designated for work that is forbidden to be done on Shabbos, such as an ax which is designated to chop down wood, or a sledge hammer of a blacksmith or of a goldsmith, and the like.

 

-A wick:[14]

[Although a broken wick is defined as MM”G], however a whole wick, even if it had already been lit during the week or the previous Shabbos, is [still] considered a vessel and has the status of a vessel which is designated for a prohibited use, which is permitted to move in order to use or in order to use its place.

However if [this wick] had been lit by Bein Hashmashos of this Shabbos[15], then it has been set aside for the entire day [of Shabbos, and is Muktzah] as explained in chapter 279 [Halacha 1].

 

-Food utensils which have food in them:[16]

A grinder which has inside of it garlic or [other foods of] the like of which are grounded inside of it, is permitted to be moved even for its own benefit, even though it is a vessel that is designated for a forbidden purpose[17].

The reason for this is: because the grinder is secondary and [thus] nullified to the garlic inside of it, just like a vessel is secondary to the food inside of it, [and thus] it is as if one is moving only the garlic, which is permitted to be moved for even no need at all.

 

– Musical instruments:[18]

Similarly a Shofar or a trumpet and other musical instruments are forbidden to be moved, unless one is doing so in order to use them [for a permitted purpose] or in order to use their space that is under them, as is the law by a vessel that is designated for a prohibited use, being that it is forbidden to blow or play an instrument on Shabbos as will be explained in chapter 588 [Halacha 4] and 339 [Halacha].

The Shofar on Shabbos Rosh Hashana:[19] The law regarding moving the Shofar on this Shabbos [on which Rosh Hashana coincided with] is alike to the law of moving it on all the Shabbosim of the year, [in which the law is that] it may only be moved for the sake of [using] its space or for the need of using it [for a permitted purpose], such as to lean a plate on it and cases of the like.

The Shofar on Rosh Hashana which falls on a weekday: [20] However the above[21] only applies on Shabbos, however if Rosh Hashana falls out during the week, then although the Shofar is permitted to be moved even not for the purpose of using it or for its space, being that one is blowing with it that day, and it thus has a status of a vessel designated for permitted use[22], as was explained in chapter 308, nevertheless it is forbidden to use it and benefit from it on that day, such as to lean a plate on it and cases of the like, as the Shofar has been set aside for its Mitzvah, as will be explained in chapter 665 see there!

 

Summary- Are instruments which are designated to make music or noise Muktzah on Shabbos?

Designated for music:[23] Any item which is designated to make musical notes is MM”I on Shabbos, and hence may only be moved for their space or a permitted use, and not to save from damage. [If the item is expensive and one is thus careful not to use them for any other purpose then the item is MMC”K and is forbidden not be moved for any purpose on Shabbos, unless it is moved with an irregularity.[24]]

Designated for noise making Items which are designated for simply making noise and not music are not Muktzah.[25] However they may only be moved if one does not consciously intend on making noise upon moving them.

 

Examples of Musical items and their Muktzah status:

  • Guitar is MMC”K
  • Piano is MMC”K
  • Keyboard: MMC”K
  • Violin: MMC”K
  • Saxophone: MMC”K
  • Trumpets: MMC”K
  • Xylophone: MMC”K
  • Chello: MMC”K
  • Harp: MMC”K
  • Clarinets and Flutes: MMC”K
  • Toys which is meant for playing music: MM”I
  • Toys which are meant for making noise:According to some Poskim[26] is MM”I. From Admur it is implied it is not Muktzah.[27]
  • Rattle: According to some Poskim[28] is MM”I. From Admur it is implied it is not Muktzah.[29]
  • Bell: According to some Poskim[30] is MM”I. From Admur it is implied it is not Muktzah.[31]

 

Q&A

Are toys which are not designated specifically for noise or music making, but do so in the process of being used, considered Muktzah?

  • Example: A toy train which makes sounds when moving.

If the toys are battery operated they are MM”I. If they are mechanical, then if they make music they are MM”I[32]. If they do not make music, just noise, they are not Muktzah.[33]

 

Are Shatnez clothing Muktzah?

It is disputed whether it is considered MM”I or MM”G. See below Halacha 6C under the examples!

 

Is a broom Muktzah?[34]

First Opinion: Brooms which are used to sweep the floor are like a vessel which is designated for a permitted use, according to those opinions that permit to sweep with it on Shabbos a tiled[35] floor, as is explained in chapter 337 [Halacha 2].

Their reason: Now, even though that during the week one uses them to sweep also [dirt] floors that are not tiled [and thus since on Shabbos it is not fit for this it should have the status of a vessel designated for prohibited use], nevertheless it is [still] like a vessel that is designated for a permitted and forbidden use, of which the law is that one is permitted to move just like a vessel that is [only] designated for a permitted use, as was explained above [in Halacha 21].

Second Opinion: However according to the opinion that forbids to sweep on Shabbos even floors that are tiled, then it is forbidden to move them unless one is doing so in order to use it [for a permitted use] or in order to use its space, just like [is the law by any] vessel that is designated [for only] forbidden use.

The Final Ruling:[36] So is the custom in these provinces [to forbid sweeping even tiled floors], and one may not divert [from this custom, and thus the broom is considered MM”I]. However it is accustomed to be lenient to sweep with a cloth or rag, or duck feather which are light [materials] and will not smoothen gaps.

 

Under what status of Muktzah do Tefillin fall under?[37]

Phylacteries do not have the same status as the holy [Torah] books and not even [the same status] as a vessel which is designated for permitted use.[38] [Rather they are considered designated for a forbidden use, as will be explained, and are thus forbidden to be moved for their own benefit.]

The reason for this is: because it is forbidden to go out with them [even while wearing them] to a public domain, and any item which is forbidden to wear outside [into a public domain on Shabbos], is forbidden to be worn at all on Shabbos even inside ones house, [for the reason that if one were allowed to wear them in his house then] he may come to forget and go out wearing them [into a public domain], as explained in chapter 303 [Halacha 23]. [Now since it is forbidden to wear the Tefillin at all, they are considered designated for a forbidden use, and thus may not be moved for their own benefit.]

[Now,] even according to those which permit there [in chapter 303] to wear [Tefillin] in ones house, [and thus according to them the Tefillin do have a permitted use, nevertheless], the phylacteries are [still] not considered a vessel which is designated for a permitted use [for a different reason], being that they are designated to be worn specifically for the purpose of the Mitzvah, and on Shabbos its forbidden to wear them for the purpose of a Mitzvah, as explained in chapter 31.

For what may the Tefillin be moved? Therefore [being that according to all the Tefillin are considered designated for a forbidden use] it is forbidden to move them even for their own benefit, such as for example [it would be forbidden] to [move them in order to] hide them from getting stolen if they are in the place where most of the thieves that are found there are Jews, in which case [even if they would get stolen] the phylacteries would not come to be desecrated by being in their hands [being that they are Jews. However if the majority of the thieves are gentiles, then one is allowed to hide them, as otherwise they will come to be desecrated.]
However [to move the Tefillin in order] to use them [for a permitted purpose], such as for example to guard him from evil spirits[39], or [to move them] in order to use the space [under them], is permitted to move them just as is the law of any vessel that is designated for a forbidden purpose.

The reason why Tefillin may be moved to use or for their place is: because nevertheless they have the status of a vessel and of clothing, [as is seen from the fact that] if one wears them outside into a public domain he is exempt [from the Biblical transgression of carrying] being that they are worn as an article of clothing and ornament [which is Biblically allowed to be worn in Public on Shabbos] as explained in chapter 301 [Halacha 3]. [Regarding why Tefillin are not considered Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis- See footnote.[40]]

 

Summary:

Tefillin are considered MM”I[41] and thus may be moved in order to use them for a permitted purpose or if one needs to use their space, however they may not be moved for their own benefit, such as to save them from getting stolen. However it is permitted to move them in order to prevent desecration. [Thus Tefillin which have fallen on the ground may, and thus must, be lifted[42].]


Q&A relating to Tefillin:

May one remove Tefillin from his bedroom in order to be permitted to have marital relations?

Some Poskim[43] rule that it is permitted to be done. However other Poskim[44] seemingly would forbid this[45] and thus according to them one should thus either remove it with an irregularity or cover the Tefillin with a double covering.

 

May one remove his Tallis from his Tefillin bag on Shabbos?

Yes[46].

 

May one move the large bag in which one usually places his Tallis and Tefillin inside of, although on Shabbos only his Tefillin are left inside of it?

There are opinions which say it may not be moved regularly, as on Shabbos it is considered designated for only Tefillin, and is thus considered a vessel designated for a forbidden use.[47]

 

May one move his Tefillin out from the rain or from the sun?[48]

If one fears that they may otherwise get ruined, and he is not able to cover them with a vessel, then he may move them, as having the Tefillin get ruined is a disgrace to the Tefillin

 

Is a needle Muktzah?[49]

A whole needle is permitted to be moved to take out a splinter, as is the law regarding a vessel which is designated for a forbidden use, which is permitted to be moved in order to use it.

How may one remove a splinter on Shabbos: One needs however to be careful when removing the splinter to do it in a way that it will not for certain cause blood to come out in the process of removing it, as doing so [in a way that will for certain extract blood, transgresses the Melacha of] Chovel even if one did not intend to extract the blood, as one is removing it out in a way that it is inevitable for blood not to come out[50]. [Thus] for example, if the thorn turned upside down while trying to remove it and it is [now] impossible to take it out without extracting blood, then it is forbidden to remove it.

A new needle which did not yet have its hole made in it:[51] A new needle which does not have a hole made in it yet is permitted to be moved in order to use, as at times a person changes his mind and decides to leave it this way without a hole, and designates it for removing splinters. Therefore it has the status of a vessel on it even if he has not yet actually designated it.

The Reason[52]: This [ruling] is opposed to [the ruling by] a needle which had its head broken off [being that in the latter case] the person [usually] throws it out into the [junkyard of the] other broken metal parts [and is not common for him to designate it for a use].

A needle which has lost its head or its hole: Is MM”G and may thus not be moved for any reason. See Halacha 6E for further details!

 

May one remove a shoe from its shoe-tree? [53]

A shoe, whether new or old, which is fastened onto a shoe-tree[54] is permitted to be removed from it, whether by removing the shoe tree from the shoe or whether by removing the shoe from the shoe-tree, as there is no prohibition involved in moving the shoe-tree, as the shoe-tree has the status of  a vessel, and it is just that it is designated for a prohibited use[55], [of which the law is] that it is permitted to move it in order to use its space, which in this case refers to the inner space of the shoe in which the shoe-tree is inside of.

 

Summary-Shoetrees:

Shoe trees are considered MM”I. [However this is referring to shoetrees which are used by shoemakers to form and fix shoes. However household shoe trees are not Muktzah.[56]]

 

Q&A

May one enter shoetrees into his shoes on Shabbos to upkeep the shoes?[57]

One may do so if his intent is to simply prevent the leather from shrinking, such as by wet shoes[58], [and only if within the process of inserting the shoe tree he does not stretch out the shoe[59]]. However one may not do so if his intent is to stretch the leather of the shoe, or to undo its folds, as doing so contains the tanning prohibition.[60]

 

Removing a MM”I hanger from a shirt:[61]

If one hung [the shirt] on a vessel then one can remove the vessel from inside [the shirt], even if the vessel is designated for a prohibited use, as this moving [of the vessel] is in order to use the space that the vessel is taking up, which is the inside of the shirt which the stick is inserted into.

 

Is a clock Muktzah?[62]

Clocks, whether made through sand [i.e. an hourglass[63]] or through other means, such as through looking at a shadow [i.e. a sundial[64]], the custom has spread to forbid moving it unless doing so in order to use it, which means that one needs to use the actual object for a use that that is permitted [to be done on Shabbos]  or [when moving it] in order to use the space that it is in, just like [is the law by] a vessel that is designated for prohibited use.

The reason for this is: because [its main function for which] it was produced [is] to measure the time or the shadow [of the sun], and it is thus synonymous to the measuring that is prohibited to do on Shabbos.

Now, one may not claim that it is permitted [to move this vessel] being that it is a measurement done for a Mitzvah, as one learns[65] through this vessel, being that the [Sages] only permitted measuring for a Mitzvah purpose when the measurement itself contains a Mitzvah, such as to measure a Mikvah [if it has enough water] and the like. However here the measurement itself has no notion of a Mitzvah, as the learning that he accomplishes through it [is not valid] as how can one depend his learning on something that is prohibited, and because of this it will be permitted [to use][66].

The letter of the law: The above is the reason behind the custom [to give it the status of a vessel that is designated for forbidden use], however from the letter of the law there is no clear prohibition [in using it to measure time] or clear permission [to use it].

 

Q&A

May one use an hour glass to tell the time?

Tzaruch Iyun as based on above it seems doing an action to measure the time would be forbidden.

 

G. Moving candles, candle sticks, lamps and candelabras on Shabbos:

The law of a candle or candelabra which was not lit from before Shabbos:

[As written in 279[67]]: On a Shabbos [in which no candle was lit from before Shabbos] it is permitted to move the candle and candelabra for the need of using them or for their space, being that they were not lit by the beginning of the entrance of that Shabbos. 

[As written in 308[68]]: A whole candle made of bees wax or of fat, even if one had already lit it on the weekday or on the previous Shabbos it is nevertheless considered a vessel which is designated for a prohibition use. [However candles which were for Shabbos are completely Muktzah as will be explained].

A repulsive candle which was not lit on the current Shabbos:[69] A candle which was not lit for the current Shabbos, even if it is made of earthenware, which is repulsive when it had already been lit, and even if it had been lit with petroleum[70] which has a foul odor, is permitted to be moved on Shabbos for the need of using it [for a permitted purpose] or for its space.

The reason for this is because: It is not considered set aside due to its repulsiveness, [and therefore Muktzah], being that it remains fit to cover vessels with. It is not similar to pebbles and rocks, of which even though they are fit to cover vessels with are forbidden to be moved, being that pebbles and rocks do not have on them a vessel status at all, however this candle does have a vessel status.   

 

Moving a candelabra:[71]

A candelabra, whether large or small, if made up of assembled parts, is forbidden to be moved even for the sake of using it [for a permitted use] or for its space, even though one had not lit it for the current Shabbos.

The reason for this is because: [The Sages] suspect that perhaps it will fall from his hands and will become detached and he will reattach it with strength, and will be liable for “Building”, as is explained in chapter 313 [Halacha 2]. 

A single piece candelabra which appears to be made of assembled parts: Furthermore, even if they are not made of assembled parts but rather have indentations around them, thus making it appear like it is made of assembled parts, it is forbidden to be moved due to a decree that perhaps the onlooker will say that it is made of assembled parts and will then come to allow [moving] even [a candelabra] made of assembled parts.

A small candelabra which contains indentations and all know is not made of assembled parts: Furthermore, even if it is very small, in which it is not common at all to make it of assembled parts, and everyone knows that [the area which makes it look like it’s made of assembled parts] is merely indentations, nevertheless [it is forbidden to be moved being that] the Sages did not wish to differentiate between in their decree between a large [candelabra] and small.

Moving other vessels made of assembled parts[72]: All the above is in reference to a candelabra and the like of it, by those vessels which are common to dissemble upon falling. However vessels which do not commonly dissemble upon falling, such as cups [made of assembled parts] and the like, are permitted to be moved, even in a case that [if they were to dissemble] it is forbidden to reassemble the parts , as is explained in chapter 313 [Halacha 21].

Moving a candelabra made of weekly assembled parts[73]: Furthermore even a candelabra of assembled parts, if its parts are always loose, as it is not ordinary to assemble them strongly , it is permitted to move them and even to reinsert their parts if they fell out, as is explained there [313/21] see there for the reason.

 

A candle lit from before Shabbos:[74]

Any candle, lamp, or candelabra which was lit from before Shabbos and remained lit until after Bein Hashmashos[75], and was forbidden to be moved during Bein Hashmashos[76], remains forbidden[77] to be moved the entire Shabbos for any purpose, even after it extinguishes, and even if one placed a permitted item on it from before Shabbos[78]. The wicks and oil are likewise Muktzah.[79] See Halacha 13 Examples for the full details of this subject!!!

 

Summary-Moving candles and candleholders on Shabbos:

A lamp or candleholder which was not lit for the current Shabbos:[80] Is permitted to be moved even if it is repulsive, for need of its space or to use for a permitted purpose. [It however may not be moved to save from damage[81]].

Moving a candelabra made up, or appeared to be made up[82], of assembled parts: Is forbidden to be moved for any purpose, even if it had not at all been lit for the current Shabbos, and even if all know that it in truth is not made up of assembled parts [but it appears to be made up of them].[83] However if the parts are only weekly attached, and this is the ordinary way of attaching them, then it has the same laws as do all other candles.[84] [Likewise if the candelabra is made up of a single piece and does not at all appear to be made up of assembled parts, it too has the same laws as all other candles.]

A candle lit from before Shabbos: Any candle, lamp, or candelabra which was 1) lit from before Shabbos and 2) remained lit until after Bein Hashmashos[85], and 3) was forbidden to be moved during Bein Hashmashos[86], remains forbidden[87] to be moved the entire Shabbos for any purpose, even after it extinguishes, and even if one placed a permitted item on it from before Shabbos[88]. The wicks and oil are likewise Muktzah.[89] See Halacha 13 Examples for the full summary of this subject!!!

 

Q&A

Are today’s candlesticks considered Muktzah?

  • Example-May one move a MM”I object in order to tidy the room for guests or even oneself?

In all cases that they were lit from before Shabbos they are considered Muktzah as explained above in Shulchan Aruch. The following will relate to their law if they were not lit.

Simple [non-expensive] candlesticks: Have the same ruling as do candles, and thus if lit from before Shabbos are Muktzah due to being a Basis, and if not lit are simply Muktzah Machmas Issur, which may be moved to use for a permitted use or for its space.[90] However there are Poskim[91] which rule that they are completely Muktzah even when not lit before Shabbos, being that their only use is for lighting and there is no other possible available use to do with them.[92]

Silver[93] [expensive] candlesticks: Some Poskim[94] rule that even if the candlesticks have not been lit from before Shabbos, they are considered Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis, and may thus not be moved for any purpose. However other Poskim[95] rule that if the candlesticks are also used as a decoration for the house [as is the custom of many to place their silver vessels behind a glass window to beautify the house] then they are not Muktzah if they were not lit that Shabbos.

 

May one move a candlestick with indentations or made of assembled parts?

Tzaruch Iyun, as candle sticks are usually not made of assembled parts and when they are, they are screwed in and have no chance of falling apart. However based on this perhaps also candelabras today should be allowed to be moved as they too are made with screws and have no chance of disassembling upon falling.

 

May one move a tray together with a candelabra if the tray is not a Basis?

No.[96]

 

May one move a candelabra made of assembled parts using a Shinuiy?

No.[97]

 

H. Wet laundry:[98]

From the letter of the law it is permitted to soak a cloth in water on Erev Yom Kippur and remove it from the water before Yom Kippur ,and let it dry out until it no longer contains [enough water] to get another item wet enough to get something else wet, and he may then wipe his face, hands, and legs with it in order to cool off. Even though he is not doing so in order to remove dirt but rather to receive pleasure, nevertheless it is permitted from the letter of the law [to do so], being that [the towel] is dry from the water, as is explained in chapter 554 regarding Tishe Beav. Nevertheless on Yom Kippur one is to be stringent being that if one were to clean himself with a cloth that was not dried from its water, it would contain a Biblical prohibition due to squeezing. Therefore one is to be stringent even by a [cloth which was] dry from the water which were on it from before Yom Kippur, due to a decree that perhaps it will not dry well and one will clean with it and come to squeeze.   

 

Summary:

One may not dry himself on Yom Kippur [or Shabbos] using a towel which was wet before Yom Kippur [if it had been wet to the point that it was able to make another item wet enough to wet another item].

 

Q&A

Are clothing which were wet by Bein Hashmashos considered Muktzah?

A cloth which was wet from before Shabbos to the point of Tofeiach Al Menas Lehatfiach is Muktzah for the entire Shabbos, as since it was forbidden to carry it by Bein Hashmashos due to its wet state; it is therefore Muktzah for the entire Shabbos.[99]

Many Poskim[100] however rule that this applies only if one did not know for certain whether the cloth would dry over Shabbos, while if one knew for certain that it would dry over Shabbos then it is not considered Muktzah [and may be worn.[101]]

Other Poskim[102] rule that the cloth is Muktzah in all scenarios, even if one knew for certain that it would dry.

Other Poskim[103] question whether a wet cloth is ever considered Muktzah, being that it is permitted to be worn in pressing times.[104]

Opinion of Admur: According to Admur[105] it is implied that clothing which were wet before Shabbos do not become Muktzah.[106] It is however unclear if according to Admur one may wear the clothing once they are dry.[107]

Baby’s clothing:[108] The clothing of a baby which was wet by Bein Hashmashos may be used on Shabbos if one does not have another set of clothing available.

 

I. Books and other writings which are forbidden to be read on Shabbos:

Regarding what is permitted to be read on Shabbos and what is not permitted to be read see “The Laws of reading on Shabbos”


Are writings which are forbidden to be read on Shabbos Muktzah?[109]

Any writing which is forbidden for one to read on Shabbos, if it is of importance in one’s eyes, and he is thus particular against using it as a bottle stopper and the like, then it is forbidden to be moved, being that it is not fit for any use on Shabbos.

Bills of divorce: Therefore there are opinions which prohibit moving a Kosher bill of divorce [Get”] which one plans to divorce with, as is written in Even Haezer chapter 136 [Halacha 7] look there. However an invalid bill of divorce [“Get”] or a Bill of divorce which was already used to divorce the woman with, is permitted to be moved, as one is no longer particular against using it to stop up a bottle.

 

Are letters which are forbidden to be read Muktzah?[110]

Letters are not Muktzah: It is permitted to move the letter on Shabbos and it is not forbidden due to Muktzah even if it is not fit on Shabbos for its main benefit, which is to be read, such as when one knows it does not contain matters pertaining to ones bodily [health and security], in which case it is forbidden to even read it in one’s mind.

The reason for why it is not Muktzah is because: Nevertheless it is fit for another benefit, such as to cap a bottle with and matters of the like.

 

Summary:

All writings which are forbidden to be read on Shabbos, are not considered completely Muktzah if they are not of importance for oneself [rather they are considered MM”I]. If however they are of importance, and one would thus refrain from using the paper for purposes which will destroy it in the process, then it is Muktzah. [Thus books which are forbidden to be read on Shabbos are Muktzah.[111]]

Letters: Even those letters which are forbidden to be read on Shabbos are not [completely] Muktzah, as it is still fit to be used as a bottle stopper, [rather they are considered MM”I]. Furthermore, even if the letter arrived on Shabbos from out of city limits it is not Muktzah.[112]

 

Q&A

Are newspapers which are forbidden to be read Muktzah? [113]

They are MM”I, and if they are forbidden to be read even during the week due to them containing matters of heresy and promiscuity, then they are MM”G.

 

If Muktzah writings were intentionally placed on a Sefer does that Sefer become Muktzah? [114]

Muktzah papers [such as a blank paper which one intends to use to write on] are not to be placed into Sefarim, and if placed with intent to remain throughout Shabbos then that Sefer becomes a Basis and is Muktzah. See Halacha 11 for the full details of this subject!

 

General Summary-Muktzah Machmas Issur (MM”I):

Its definition and law:[115] Any item which is designated specifically for a use that is forbidden to do on Shabbos [and one is not particular against using it for other purposes[116]], may be moved if a Jew needs to use it on Shabbos for a permissible matter or if he needs to use the space that the object is resting on. However one may not move it casually, for no particular reason. Likewise it is forbidden to move it in order to protect it from possible damage.

If the item is also designated for permissible matters:[117] Then it has the same law as an items that is designated for a use which is permitted to be done on Shabbos, and is thus not Muktzah, [even if the item is majority of the time used for a forbidden use[118]].

Moving the object through placing a permitted object on it[119]: There is no allowance to move a MM”I object by placing a non-Muktzah item on it. However in a case of great loss, one may do so.

Must one put the object down right away when picked up to free its space[120]? If one picked up the object to clear its place, he is not obligated to put it down right away and may place it where ever he desires. He may not however make detours, and may certainly not hold it for the entire day, and is to rather go directly to his place of destination.

May one pick up the object in order to use although ones main intent is to save it from damage?[121] One may pick up an object to use it or its space despite it being his main intention to save the object from damage.

May one pick up a MM”I object to give to another person for him to use?[122] One may pick up a MM”I object for a friend to use or to use later on in the day. However, one may not pick it up for use after Shabbos or for a Gentile.

 

Examples of  MM”I items which may be moved in order to use or for their space but not to prevent damage:

Examples mentioned in Shulchan Aruch:

  1. An ax or sledge hammer[123]
  2. Pots that don’t have food in them, and are used only for cooking [and not storing[124]] are MM”I. If they do contain food then the pot is nullified to the food and it is not Muktzah.[125]
  3. A measuring stick/yard; laundry utensils[126]
  4. A grinder.[127]
  5. A candle or candle sticks that weren’t lit for that Shabbos.[128]
  6. A whole wick which was not lit from before Shabbos is MM”I.[129]
  7. A Shofar, trumpet and other musical instruments.[130]
  8. The Shofar On Rosh Hashana: When Rosh Hashana falls on a weekday the Shofar is not Muktzah although may not be used for purposes other than its Mitzvah. When Rosh Hashana falls on Shabbos it is MM”I and may only be moved for using it or its space. Nevertheless in such a case when it falls on Shabbos, it may be used for mundane purposes.[131]
  9. A broom made of hard material [which can break such as a straw broom[132]] is MM”I. A broom made of soft material [or hard material that cannot break[133] such as synthetic hair[134]] is not Muktzah.[135]
  10. A shoe-tree of a shoemaker.[136]
  11. A whole needle is MM”I.[137] A broken needle is MM”G and may thus not be moved for any purpose.[138]
  12. Tefillin:[139] Tefillin are considered MM”I[140] and thus may be moved in order to use them for a permitted purpose or if one needs to use their space. However they may not be moved for their own benefit, such as to save them from getting stolen. However it is permitted to move them in order to prevent desecration. [Thus Tefillin which have fallen on the ground may, and thus must, be lifted[141].]
  13. Clocks and watches:[142] Clocks of the old days, such as sundials and hourglass/sand-clocks are accustomed to be treated as MM”I. [Working hand watches and pocket watches are not considered to be Muktzah at all.[143] [Regarding a broken hand watch-see Q&A!] Wall clocks are Muktzah MC”K according to many Poskim[144], while according to others are merely MM”I, and so seems to be the opinion of Admur.[145] Table clocks are considered MM”I[146].]

     

    Examples mentioned in today’s Poskim:

  1. A pen
  2. Scissors
  3. Matches
  4. Hard soap/shampoo[147]
  5. Detergent
  6. Phone book or any book that is forbidden to read on Shabbos (which one is not overly particular about otherwise it has a MMC”K status). See footnote[148].
  7. A comb
  8. A nail[149]
  9. Cigarettes

    [Above examples were taken from SS”K 20/10-18]

  10. Electronics [which one is not overly particular about] such as watches, alarm clocks, fans etc.[150]
  11. Drying clips[151]
  12. Lighter

 

General Q&A

What is defined as moving an object for use of its space (limikomo)?

Does it mean to move the object to free it’s space in order to place something else there, or does it even include if one does not intend to place anything else there and simply wants to move the Muktzah object because its presence there bothers him?

Some Poskim[152] learn that “for its space” is defined as simply moving it because one does not want the MM”I item in its current space, irrelevant the reason for why he does not want it there. Other Poskim[153] however rule that “for its space” is limited to moving the MM”I item in order to place another item in its space. [See footnote for opinion of Admur[154]]

Some Poskim[155] rule that it is permitted to move MM”I objects for the sake of tidying up a room. Other Poskim[156] however limit this only to the dining room and the like of a room in which the orderliness is of extreme importance. [Other Poskim[157] rule that doing so is forbidden in all cases.]

 

What is defined as moving an object for use of itself (Ligufo)?

Does use mean doing a productive activity with the item, like to use a hammer to break nut shells, or does it include any activity, such as to fiddle with a hammer to keep ones hands busy, or to juggle them for pleasure’s sake?

One must perform a productive activity with the MM”I. Fiddling it for pleasure is not enough of a use to consider it Legufo.[158]

 

May one move a MM”I object for a permissible use if one is also to perform the task with a non-Muktzah object?

Some Poskim[159] rule that in such a case one may not use the Muktzah item. Other Poskim[160] however rule that one may use the MM”I object if he so wishes. According to all opinions[161] however if using the MM”I object will more easily fulfill the task then by using the non-Muktzah object, then it is better to use specifically the MM”I in order not to do extra work on Shabbos.[162]

 

May one switch hands when holding an MM”I object which one picked up in order to use its space? [163]

There is a controversy amongst the later authorities on whether this is allowed or not. Some Poskim[164] rule that it is forbidden while others[165] rule that it is allowed. Furthermore there are Poskim[166] which allow one to pass the object to another person.

 

When holding a MM”I object which one picked up in order to use its space may one continue walking with it if he stopped but did not yet put it down? [167]

No, as doing so is considered a moving it anew which is only allowed to be done in order to use it or its space.[168]

 

May one move a MM”I object in order to prevent it from damaging non-Muktzah items? [169]

Yes. For example a hammer may be moved from a table which contains chinaware due to fear that the hammer may come into contact with the chinaware and cause it to shatter.

 

May one move a MM”I object in order to prevent it from damaging Muktzah items?

Some opinions[170] rule that this is permitted. Thus according to them a hammer may be moved to close a window in order to prevent robbers from entering and stealing MM”I items. However other opinions[171] rule that a MM”I item may only be moved for the sake of non-Muktzah items.

 

May one move a MM”I object to prevent it from being damaged if he plans to use it that Shabbos?

Yes. If one plans to use the object sometime later on Shabbos, then he may move it out of danger.[172]

 

May one use a pen to itch his body?

Yes.[173]

 

Is a lamp considered MM”I?[174]

If the lamp has been lit from before Shabbos: Then it is considered completely Muktzah as the lamp is a Basis to the electric current which is completely Muktzah.[175]

If the lamp was not lit before Shabbos: Then the lamp is considered MM”I.[176]

 

Is a fan Muktzah?

A fan, whether it is currently running or not, is considered MM”I and may thus be moved for its use or its space.[177] Some Poskim however rule that a fan is considered a Keli Shemilachto Liheter, and may thus be moved even to save from damage.[178] It is forbidden to ever move a fan if there is possibility that it will become detached from the outlet upon moving it.[179]

Moving a fan away from oneself: Some Poskim[180] rule that it is forbidden to move a fan away from oneself, so that it not blow on him[181]. Other Poskim[182] rule that this is allowed.

 

Are car keys Muktzah?

Some Poskim[183] rule that all car keys are Muktzah [MM”I]. Others[184] rule that the keys of the engine are Muktzah [MM”I] while the keys of the doors of the car [in a case that these are two separate keys] are not Muktzah.

 

Is a Megilah Muktzah on Shabbos?[185]

Some Poskim[186] rule that a Megilah is Muktzah on every Shabbos of the year.

Other Poskim[187] rule that the Megilah is not Muktzah on the regular Shabbosim of the year and is rather only Muktzah when Purim coincides with Shabbos [in Jerusalem[188]]. 

Other Poskim[189] rule that the Megilah is never Muktzah, even when Purim coincides with Shabbos.

 

Is a Mezuzah MM”I?[190]

A Mezuzah is not Muktzah being that one is able to learn from it on Shabbos.[191] According to all opinions one is to lift a Mezuzah from off the floor in a case that it has fallen.[192]

Vetzaruch Iyun if according to the stringent opinion mentioned above the Mezuzahs would be Muktzah.

 


[1] As otherwise it would be defined as MMC”K as explained above in Halacha 4A.

[2] 308/12

[3] 308/21

[4] So is implied here and is explicitly mentioned in Ketzos Hashulchan 108/12. However the P”MG implies that the main (majority) usage of the item will determine its status. In Sharei Tziyon in M”B he explains the P”MG to be referring only to an item which has not yet been designated for a permissible use. In SSH”K (20/6) it sides that the majority usage determines the status. This does not seem to be the opinion of The Alter Rebbe

[5] In other words since the main aspect by a vessel designated for permitted use is the fact that the person has intention to use it on Shabbos, therefore it does not make a difference if the vessel is also designated for a forbidden use, as nevertheless the person still intends to use it, and has not removed it from his mind.

[6] 308/2

[7] 308/12

[8] 308/12

[9] 308/22

[10] 308/13

[11] 301/Kuntrus Achron 10

[12] 308/33

[13] 308/4

[14] 308/33

[15] Meaning that by the time Bein Hashmashos of that Shabbos arrived the wick had been already lit.

[16] 308/22

[17] As it is forbidden to grind food on Shabbos

[18] 308/20

[19] 588/5

[20] 588/5

[21] That one may lean a plate on the Shofar.

[22] Other opinions: The Rashal/Taz [Yoreh Deah 266/1] rule that one may not move the Shofar unless it is needed for the Mitzvah. This is similar to the ruling of the Mila knife that it may not be moved after the Mila is done. [As for why by the Mila knife Admur rules stringently while by Shofar leniently, perhaps this is due to the following differences: 1. The Mila knife is MMC”K while the Shofar is merely MM”I. 2. Blowing is a constant Mitzvah that comes up on Rosh Hashana, while Mila is a rare occasion. Hence by Bein Hashmashos the knife is still considered Muktzah while on Rosh Hashana it is considered meant for a permitted use.  Vetzaruch Iyun

Likewise Tzaruch Iyun why the Taz/Rashal rule that the Shofar may not be moved for any purpose when seemingly it should at least only be MM”I.

Likewise Tzaruch Iyun on Taz 597/2 towards end which himself rules that the Shofar on Rosh Hashana is not Muktzah, and it is only Muktzah when Rosh Hashana falls on Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol!

[23] 308/20

[24] Pashut as explained in “The Laws of Muktzah”, and so rules Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 16 footnote 8

[25] Levush brought in Peri Megadim 338/3 and so is implied from Admur which allows moving a bell without any mention of the Muktzah regulations.

Perhaps the reason for this is because there is a dispute with regards to if even initially one may make noise with this vessel on Shabbos, hence regarding Muktzah we are lenient. [As rules Levush brought in Peri Megadim 338/3 that since it is a mere stringency it is not Muktzah] Now even though he mentions the concept of “sound of music” regarding bells worn on clothing, and hence it seems that bells are defined as designated for actual music and not just noise, in which case according to all it is forbidden to make music with them on Shabbos, nevertheless perhaps Admur there was referring to that specific case of bells on clothing which make musical sounds and not mere noise when walked with. However a typical bell itself is not designated specifically for music but for noise, although it can be used also to make music.

Other Opinions: The Peri Megadim [ibid] leaves this matter in question, as does the Biur Halacha “Asur”. Piskeiy Teshuvos 338/1 and SSH”K 16/2 rule these items are Muktzah.

[26] The Peri Megadim [ibid] leaves this matter in question, as does the Biur Halacha “Asur”. Piskeiy Teshuvos 338/1 and SSH”K 16/2 rule these items are Muktzah.

[27] See previous footnotes in summary.

[28] The Peri Megadim [ibid] leaves this matter in question, as does the Biur Halacha “Asur”. Piskeiy Teshuvos 338/1 and SSH”K 16/2 rule these items are Muktzah.

[29] See previous footnotes in summary.

[30] The Peri Megadim [ibid] leaves this matter in question, as does the Biur Halacha “Asur”. Piskeiy Teshuvos 338/1 and SSH”K 16/2 rule these items are Muktzah.

[31] See previous footnotes in summary.

[32] As even children may not to play with such items. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 338 footnote 2]

[33] This applies according to all. [Mishneh Halachos 6/74 in name of Rav SZ”A rules they are not Muktzah, as since they are not Muktzah for children they are not Muktzah for adults.

[34] 308/87

[35] This refers to any floor covering such as tile or wood and the like, as opposed to a dirt floor.

[36] 337/3

[37] 308/19

[38] This follows the ruling of the Taz and Magen Avraham. The Rama [308/4] however rules that Tefillin are considered designated for a permitted use and may be moved for any need on Shabbos. To note however that some Poskim [Bris Olam] learn that today Tefillin have a status of MMC”K being that today we are particular to not do any other use with the Tefillin other than its Mitzvah. The SSH”K 20/14 rules that it is MM”I and not MM”CK, and in the footnotes [32] brings Rav SZ”A which explains the reason for this is due

[39] It is explained in Chapter 43 Halacha 3 that Tefillin have the power to guard one from danger caused by evil spirits. It is thus explained there that since by public bathrooms evil spirits are found, it is therefore better to bring ones Tefillin with him to the bathroom properly wrapped, then to give it to a friend to hold outside.

[40] The Tosefes Shabbos 308/21 addresses this question and explains that Tefillin and all Sifrei Kodesh have a lesser status of Muktzah than do other items as is seen from the law that they may be moved even for no purpose at all, as opposed to other items which are Melachto Liheter.

See SSH”K 20 footnote 32 for analyses on this explanation. There Rav SZ”A explains that in truth it is not MMC”K as its use is nevertheless permitted on Shabbos, just not for the sake of a Mitzvah. See however next footnote for opinions which rule that today Tefillin are considered MMC”K.

[41] Since Tefillin are designated to be used specifically for their mitzvah, which is forbidden to do on Shabbos, therefore they are considered a vessel designated for a forbidden use [Milachto L’issur]. This follows the ruling of the Taz and Magen Avraham.

Other Opinions-Milachto Liheter: The Rama [308/4] however rules that Tefillin are considered designated for a permitted use and may be moved for any need on Shabbos. Biur Halacha 31 “Asur” rules one may be lenient like this opinion in a time of need.

Other Opinions-Chisaron Kis: To note however that some Poskim [Bris Olam] learn that today Tefillin have a status of MMC”K being that today we are particular to not do any other use with the Tefillin other than its Mitzvah. The SSH”K 20/14 rules that it is MM”I and not MM”CK, and in the footnotes [32] brings Rav SZ”A which explains the reason for this is due to the fact that Tefillin is useable to guard one from Mazikim even on Shabbos. See previous footnotes for other explanations.

[42] M”B 31/5

[43] In SSH”K (20/10) note 24 it brings the opinion of Harav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach that moving Tefillin from ones bedroom in order to permit marital relations is considered like limkomo and is permitted.

[44] Tehila Ledavid 3/51; Beir Moshe 8/30-31

[45] This is dependent on whether moving the Tefillin in such a case is defined as moving for its space or not, as discussed in the first Q&A above.

[46] Ketzos Hashulchan 108/18

There he brings a heter to move ones tallis out from the Tefillin bag even though he will need to move the Tefillin bag (which is Muktzah-see there) in the process, based on that this is considered like moving it for the need of its place.

[47] Ketzos Hashulchan 108/18

[48] Ketzos Hashulchan 108/18

[49] 308/38

[50] Lit. “Can you cut off its head and have it not die”

[51] 308/39

[52] 308/39

[53] 308/42

[54] A  shoe tree is a device approximating the shape of a [55] As it is used to make or fix up the shoe, which is forbidden to do on Shabbos. [Minchas Yitzchak 9/58]

[56] As is explained below in the Q&A that if ones intent is to simply prevent the shoe from losing its shape then it is even permitted to place it in the shoe on Shabbos, and thus it is considered like a vessel which is designated for both permissible and non-permissible use, which is not Muktzah. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/15]

[57] SSH”K 15/48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/15

[58] So rules Michzeh Eliyahu 42 [Rav Pesach Eliyahu Faulk Sheyichyeh, Rav in Gateshead]; Toras Shabbos 302/13; SSH”K ibid

[59] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[60] So rules Minchas Yitzchak 9/58; SSH”K; Piskeiy Teshuvos, based on Admur above!

[61] 308/46

[62] 308/88

[63] An hourglass, also known as a sandglass, sand timer, sand clock or egg timer, is a device for the measurement of [64] A sundial is a device that measures time by the position of the [65] It is unclear to what this learning refers to, whether it refers to actually learning Torah or learning the time such as in order to know the times of the prayers and of when Shabbos ends.

[66] Seemingly this means that since the clock is meant for measuring time for variant purposes, he cannot come along and claim that since he is also using it for a Mitzvah therefore it is allowed. Vetzaruch Iyun

[67] 279/1

[68] 308/33

[69] 279/7

[70] This refers to crude oil which is black and is drilled from the ground. It is used as gasoline for cars and as jet fuel amongst other usages.

[71] 279/8

[72] 279/9

[73] 279/9

[74] 279/1

[75] 279/1

[76] Meaning there was no medical emergency which allowed one to move the candle.

[77] In a case that one stipulated from before Shabbos to be allowed to use the candle after it extinguishes, then it is disputed whether it is still Muktzah and the custom is to be stringent. [269/5]

[78] 269/4

[79] 269/2

[80] 269/1 and 7

[81] It may not be moved to prevent damage from occurring to it being it nevertheless has a status of Muktzah Machmas Issur.

[82] Such as it has indentations which make it appear to have parts which have been attached to each other.

[83] 269/8

[84] 269/8

[85] 279/1

[86] Meaning there was no medical emergency which allowed one to move the candle.

[87] In a case that one stipulated from before Shabbos to be allowed to use the candle after it extinguishes, then it is disputed whether it is still Muktzah and the custom is to be stringent. [269/5]

[88] 269/4

[89] 269/2

[90] Piskeiy Teshuvos 279/1, as is the simple implication of Shulchan Aruch.

[91] Aruch Hashulchan 279/1

[92] Vetzaruch Iyun as under which category would such an item fall? It’s not MMC”K, as one is not particular against ruining them being that they are cheap, and they are considered a vessel. So under which Muktzah category would they fall. Furthermore why are candleholders any different then candles and candelabras which Admur explicitly rules [279/1] that they are merely MM”I if they were not lit from before Shabbos. What other uses do candles and candelabras have over candleholders?!!!!

[93] Including silver plated, if it is set aside and not used for anything else in order not to ruin the silver.

[94] SSH”K 20 first opinion in footnote 214; Piskeiy Teshuvos 279/1; Bris Olam; Aruch Hashulchan 279/1 rules that they are always Muktzah due to not having any other use. So is also implied from Tehila Ledavid 336/6

[95]Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 20/note 214; see also Sheivet Haleivi 1/56;

[96] As moving it in this way still contains the suspicion, and even more so, that it may fall and one may come to reassemble it.

[97] As moving with a Shinuiy still contains the suspicion, and even more so, that it may fall and one may come to reassemble it.

[98] 613/13

[99] Mishneh Berurah 308/63

[100] Minchas Yitzchak 1/81; Sheivet Haleivi 1/62; 3/33; Beir Moshe 2/24; Mishneh Halachos 6/65-If the clothing was placed near a fire then if one knew it would dry it does not become Muktzah.

[101] Seemingly this may apply even in accordance to Admur above regarding a towel as will be explained below.

[102] Az Nidbaru 1/5

[103] Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 15 footnote 60, and so is implied from Admur as will be explained below.

[104] So rules the Magen Avraham in 305/11 that clothing are not Muktzah when they have become wet. However see Piskeiy Teshuvos 308 footnote 73 which delves into why the ruling of the M”B holds true despite the ruling of the Magen Avraham there.

[105] Above 613/13

[106] As otherwise it should be forbidden from the letter of the law to use it on Shabbos/Yom Kippur irrelevant of the stringency that one may come to squeeze liquid from it while still wet.

[107] By towels Admur rules that it may not be used on Yom Kippur if it was wet by Bein Hashmashos. Perhaps however this only applies to towels which are used to dry with and hence there is greater a chance of squeezing. However clothing are simply worn and there is thus less of a suspicion.

[108] 328/22; and so rules SSH”K 15/18

[109] 307/28

[110] 307/26

[111] Taz brought in M”B 307/62

[112] 307/26

[113] Beir Moshe 6/66

[114] Igros Moshe 4/72

[115] 308/12 and 33

[116] As otherwise it would be defined as MMC”K as explained above in Halacha 4A.

[117] 308/21

[118] So is implied from Admur and is explicitly mentioned in B”H 108/12. However the P”MG implies that the main (majority) usage of the item will determine its status. In Sharei Tziyon of M”B explains P”MG to be referring only to an item which has not yet been designated for a permissible use. In SSH”K (20/6) it sides that the majority usage determines the status. This does not seem to be the opinion of The Alter Rebbe

[119] 308/22

[120] 308/13 and 301 KU”A 10

[121] 308/12

[122] 308/33, see also in SS”K who adds that if it’s for the needs of an animal it is also allowed.

[123] 308/12

[124] Peri Megadim; Ketzos Hashulchan 108/13.

[125] The same would apply to a grinder. [308/22]

[126] 308/22

[127] 308/22

[128] 308/33

[129] 308/33

[130] 308/20

[131] 588/5

[132] SSH”K 23/1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 337/4 in name many Poskim, Upashut!

[133] As today we allow sweeping tiled floors being that majority of the houses are tiled. [Ketzos Hashulchan 146/27 in name of M”B and Iglei Tal. Biur Halacha “Veyeish Machmirim”]

[134] SSH”K ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[135] 308/87; 337/3-4

[136] 308/42

[137] 308/33

[138] 308/39

[139] 308/19

[140] Since Tefillin are designated to be used specifically for their mitzvah- which is forbidden to do on Shabbos, therefore they are considered a vessel designated for a forbidden use [Milachto L’issur]. This follows the ruling of the Taz and Magen Avraham. The Rama [308/4] however rules that Tefillin are considered designated for a permitted use and may be moved for any need on Shabbos.

To note however that some Poskim [Bris Olam] learn that today Tefillin have a status of MMC”K being that today we are particular to not do any other use with the Tefillin other than its Mitzvah. The SSH”K 20/14 rules that it is MM”I and not MM”CK, and in the footnotes [32] brings Rav SZ”A which explains the reason for this is due to the fact that Tefillin is useable to guard one from Mazikim even on Shabbos.

[141] M”B 31/5

[142] 308/88

[143] M”B 308/168; PM”G A”A 308/78-As hand/pocket watches are today considered an article of adornment.

[144] So rules M”B 308/168

[145] So is implied from Admur 308/4. See above Halacha 4 Q&A 4-5 for the fall analysis and the detailed opinions on this matter

[146] M”B 308/168 in name of Shareiy Teshuvah. However seemingly there it is referring to large clocks which rest on the floor, as opposed to small table clocks, or alarm clocks. The Ketzos Hashulchan leaves this matter in question and concludes that nevertheless it is for certain permitted to be moved for its use or place. [Ketzos Hashulchan 108 footnote 3]

[147] Hard soap is forbidden to use due to Uvdin Dechol and a possible smoothening prohibition. Shampoo is forbidden to use for the hair being it involves squeezing. Hence they are MM”I as they are designated for a forbidden purpose.

[148] Is paper with writing that is forbidden to read on Shabbos, considered a Keli or not according to the Alter Rebbe?  The Alter Rebbe (307/28) writes that an important paper with writing which one would not use as a cork screw and is prohibited to read on Shabbos is completely Muktzah since it has no use on Shabbos.  As well, the Alter Rebbe is of the opinion that a blank piece of paper is not considered a Keli/vessel and is therefore Muktzah on Shabbos. This is because it has no use on Shabbos, as one is prohibited from writing on it. (see B”H 108/26) This raises the following query: Under which Muktzah category does this important paper fall under? Is it MM”K, meaning since it has writing on it is a Keli but being that it is important to the person therefore it’s Muktzah, or is it MM”G because it’s not considered a Keli since it has no use on Shabbos? The definition of its category of Muktzah makes a difference in a case where it’s an unimportant piece of paper with writing but which one has no intention of using as a cork screw (simply because this is not done today). If the category is MMC”K and the important paper retains its Keli status then by the case of the unimportant piece of paper, although forbidden to read, would still remain a Keli and fall under the less stringent category of MM”I.  If however it’s category is MM”G then an unimportant paper which is forbidden to read would as well be MM”G since it also has no use in today’s times when we don’t use paper for cork screws. In different wording the question is, for what reason was the lack of using paper as a corkscrew mentioned in the important paper scenario? Was it mentioned to give it a non-Keli status or to give it an important paper status. If the former then any paper which is useless on Shabbos is MM”G irrelevant to its importance. If the latter, then only an important paper becomes completely Muktzah while an unimportant paper is only MM”I? וצע

[149] Ketzos Hashulchan 109 footnote 8; SSH”K 20 as a nail is considered a vessel. However see Minchas Shabbos, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan ibid which seemingly would argue and not consider it a vessel.

[150] An object which works through a forbidden action has the same din as Milachto L’issur (Igros Moshe 5/49-60). This includes watches, alarm clocks, or any item that works through electricity.

[151] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/17, as it is forbidden to hang clothing to dry on Shabbos; However see SSH”K which asks on this as hanging clothing is only forbidden due to Maaras Ayin, and thus the clips should not be Muktzah.

[152] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/3; In SSH”K (20/10) note 24 there it brings the opinion of Harav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach in name of Yam Yissachar that moving Tefillin from ones bedroom in order to permit marital relations is considered like limkomo and is permitted. Similarly in Ketzos Hashulchan (108/18) brings a heter to move ones tallis out from the Tefillin bag even though he will need to move the Tefillin bag (which is Muktzah-see there) in the process based on that this is considered like Mikomo. One can deduce from this that the definition of mikomo is not specifically to place another object in the freed space, but rather to allow something to be done that would otherwise not be possible if the object were not moved. [See Tehila Ledavid 51 which suggests such an understanding but rejects it.]

[153] Tehila Ledavid 3/51; Beir Moshe 8/30-31

[154] The Alter Rebbe (310/12) says specifically one can only move it in order to make a use of the place that the Muktzah object stood. This would seemingly forbid moving it due to its presence being a nuisance.

[155] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/3 based on the Poskim mentioned above which allow moving items for the sake of emptying the space, no matter what the purpose.

[156] Az Nidbaru 8/30; as by such a room one can also lean on considering the objects which one wants removed as a Graf Shel Reiy.

[157] All the Poskim mentioned above which rule that “for its space” is literal, would seemingly here rule that it is forbidden.

[158] Aruch Hashulchan 308/15

[159] M”B (308/12); SSH”K (20/8)

[160] Ketzos Hashulchan 108/14 disproves the logic used by the M”B and says that perhaps it makes no difference which object he chooses to use. Although he concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun. Beir Moshe 8/75; Daas Torah 308/3; Tosefes Shabbos end of introduction to 308

[161] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/5 learns that even the M”B would agree in this case that the Muktzah object may be used.

[162] Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

[163] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/6

[164] Tosefes Shabbos; In Kaf Hachayim, (308/27) it says it is obvious that switching hands is prohibited.

[165] Toras Shabbos, brought in SSH”K 20 footnote 26; Peri Megadim 446 M”Z 2

[166] Chachmas Shlomo. See Sheivet Haleivi 3/30

[167] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/6

[168] Admur in 301 KUA 10; Rav SZ”A in SS”K 20 footnote 26

[169] So rules Az Nidbaru 11/21

[170] Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 20 footnote 30.

[171] Yam Yissachar

[172] Tehila Ledavid 308/5

[173] As it is permitted to use MM”I for a permitted purpose on Shabbos.

[174] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/4

[175] Chelkas Yaakov 1/40; Minchas Yitzchak 3/43.

Electricity has the same status as a flame which is Muktzah, and hence the lamp becomes a Basis for a Muktzah object. [ibid, see 279/1 that candle is Muktzah because is Basis to the flame.]

[176] Minchas Yitzchak 3/43

[177] Igros Moshe 3/49; Beir Moshe 6/20

[178] Shalmei Yehuda 2/9 in name of Rav SZ”A

[179] Beir Moshe 8/31

To note that some Poskim forbid moving the fan to an area which blocks the vents and by doing so the electric current becomes stronger in order to continue blowing. However see Piskeiy Teshuvos [308 footnote 23] which defends the practice and says that this is the accepted custom.

[180] Beir Moshe 8/31

[181] As a fan is MM”I and moving it away from oneself is not considered moving it to use it or for its space.

[182] Yam Yissachar brought in Beir Moshe ibid, as he holds moving it away from oneself is included in moving it for its space. It is likewise permitted according to Rav SZ”A, as he holds that a fan is a Melachto Leheter.

[183] Minchas Yitzchak 8/22

[184] Beir Moshe 8/185

[185] Kitzur SH”A 141/17, and Sharreiy Teshuvah 693/2, brought in Shevach Hamoadim 140

[186] Peri Chadash 688/6

[187] Chasam Sofer 195; Kitzur SH”A 141/17, and Sharreiy Teshuvah 693/2, brought in Shevach Hamoadim 140

[188] In the Diaspora that Jerusalem is celebrated on the 14th, Purim will never fall on Shabbos.

[189] Shoel Umeishiv 3/29

[190] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/8

[191] Beir Moshe 8/82

[192] As even Tefillin which are MM”I are to be lifted due to the belittlement of leaving them on the floor.

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1 Comment

  1. Michael

    “It is forbidden to ever move a fan if there is possibility that it will become detached from the outlet upon moving it.”

    If it is merely a possibility, and not for sure, and it is not his intention to disconnect it from the electrical outlet, then why should it be assur? It is a dovor shaino miskaven. There are many actions that are permissible on Shabbos even though there is the possibility that a melacha action will occur.

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