Chapter 5: The Aliyos-General Laws

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Chapter 5: The Aliyos-General Laws

1. The number of Aliyos called up per reading:[1]

The Sages established a specific number of Aliyos that are to be called up per reading, for each of the various Torah reading days. The general rule implemented by the Sages in choosing the number of Aliyos per day was as follows: A Torah reading must always contain a minimum of three Aliyos.[2] A day which contains a Musaf offering receives a fourth Aliyah.[3] Shabbos, Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur are holier than other days and hence they too receive extra Aliyos. However, in order to differentiate between the gradations of holiness of these days, each of these three days receive a different number of Aliyos.[4]

The days and their corresponding number of Aliyos are as follows:

  1. Shabbos:[5] Moshe Rabbeinu[6] established for seven Aliyos to be read on Shabbos from the Sefer Torah.[7] One may not subtract from this number of Aliyos.[8] A further eighth Aliyah is called for Maftir, and is not counted as part of the above number.[9] See Halacha B regarding if more Aliyos may be added.
  2. Yom Kippur:[10] Moshe Rabbeinu established for six Aliyos to be read on Yom Kippur from the Sefer Torah.[11] One may not subtract from this number of Aliyos.[12] A further seventh Aliyah is called for Maftir, and is not counted as part of the above number.[13] See Halacha B regarding if more Aliyos may be added.
  3. Yom Tov:[14] Moshe Rabbeinu established for five Aliyos to be read on Yom Tov from the Sefer Torah.[15] One may not subtract from this number of Aliyos.[16] A further sixth Aliyah is called for Maftir, and is not counted as part of the above number.[17] See Halacha B regarding if more Aliyos may be added.
  4. Monday’s and Thursday’s:[18] Ezra established to read three Aliyos during the Monday and Thursday reading. One may not subtract from this number of Aliyos.[19] Likewise, one may not add to these Aliyos, as explained next.
  5. Mincha of Shabbos:[20] Ezra established for three Aliyos to be read on Shabbos by Mincha. One may not subtract from this number of Aliyos.[21] Likewise, one may not add to these Aliyos, as explained next.
  6. Rosh Chodesh:[22] There are four Aliyos read on Rosh Chodesh. One may not subtract from this number of Aliyos.[23] Likewise, one may not add to these Aliyos, as explained next.
  7. Chol Hamoed:[24] There are four Aliyos read on Chol Hamoed.[25] One may not subtract from this number of Aliyos.[26] Likewise, one may not add to these Aliyos, as explained next.
  8. Fast day: There are three Aliyos read on a fast day. One may not subtract from this number of Aliyos. Likewise, one may not add to these Aliyos, as explained next.
  9. Chanukah: There are three Aliyos read on a Chanukah. One may not subtract to these Aliyos. Likewise, one may not add to these Aliyos, as explained next.
  10. Purim: There are three Aliyos read on Purim. One may not subtract to these Aliyos. Likewise, one may not add to these Aliyos, as explained next.
 

Q&A

If after the reading was over the congregation realized that they called up less Aliyos than required [i.e. six on Shabbos, four on Yom Tov] what is to be done?

If less Aliyos than the required number were called up, then even if all the required text was read, the Sefer Torah must be removed and have a new Aliyah called up, with exception to days that an extra Aliyah for Maftir is read, in which case it counts as the last Aliyah. See Chapter 10 Halacha 1F for the full details of this matter!

 

2. Adding to the number Aliyos:

A. Weekday readings of Monday, Thursday, Shabbos Mincha, Rosh Chodesh, Chol Hamoed, Fast day, Chanukah and Purim:[27]

One may not add to the set amount of Aliyos established by the Sages to be read on Monday, Thursday, Shabbos Mincha[28], Rosh Chodesh[29], Chol Hamoed[30], [Fast day, Chanukah, or Purim]. Some Poskim[31], however, rule that if there are two Chasanim or Baalei Bris[32] in Shul who are both Yisraeilim, then one may add a fifth Aliyah on their behalf.[33] [Practically, we do not rule like this opinion, and one may not add any Aliyos on these days.[34]]

B. Shabbos, Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur:[35]

The opinions: Some Poskim[36] rule that if the congregation desires to add to the number of Aliyos on Shabbos, Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur, then they may do so.[37] Other Poskim[38], however, rule that although one may add to the number of Aliyos on Shabbos, one may not add to the number of Aliyos on Yom Tov or Yom Kippur.[39] Furthermore, some Poskim[40] rule that it is forbidden to add more Aliyos even on Shabbos.[41]

The final ruling: Practically, the main opinion follows the first opinion that one may add Aliyos on Shabbos, Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur.[42] Nevertheless, the Ashkenazi custom is like the second opinion to not add any Aliyos on Yom Tov or Yom Kippur, with exception to Simchas Torah.[43] However, on Shabbos it remains permitted from the letter of the law to add Aliyos.[44] This applies even when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos.[45] Nevertheless, it is proper to suspect for the third opinion and not add any Aliyos even on Shabbos [even for the sake of a Chiyuv such as a Baal Bris or Chasan[46]].[47] Likewise, due to Toreiach Hatzibur, it is proper for even those communities who do add Aliyos on Shabbos, to make a Takana to not call up too many more Aliyos than the seven obligatory ones.[48] [Practically, many communities, especially of Polish descent, are accustomed to add a last Aliyah called Acharisa, on Shabbos, and some add even more.[49] Other communities, however, do not add any Aliyos.[50] The Chabad custom is to be very careful not to add any more Aliyos on any day, including Shabbos, unless it is a time of need.[51] Furthermore, even in a time of need, when one knows that there are not enough Aliyos to go around, a second Torah reading is to simultaneously take place in another room, rather than to add more Aliyos.[52]]

 

Summary:

It is disputed amongst the Poskim if one may add to the seven Aliyos on Shabbos or Yom Tov. The Ashkenazi custom is not to add on Yom Kippur or Yom Tov, with exception to Simchas Torah. Furthermore, it is best not to add any Aliyos even on Shabbos, and so is the Chabad custom, although many Polisher communities are accustomed to adding an extra Aliyah called Acharon.

 

Q&A

What is the law if the Baal Korei did not read until the end of Shevi’i by the 6th Aliyah on a day that three Sifrei Torah are removed?

A seventh Aliyah is to be called up for Shevi, and then an eighth Aliyah for the reading of the second scroll and then a ninth Aliyah for the reading of the third scroll.[53]

If one is Davening in a Shul which calls up extra Aliyos, may he receive/purchase that Aliyah if he is accustomed not to add Aliyos?

One who follows the opinion in Poskim who prohibit adding Aliyos is not to receive one of the added Aliyos,and is to try to purchase only one of the first seven Aliyos.

 

3. Repeating the same reading twice for an Aliyah:[54]

[According to those Poskim in the previous Halacha who permit adding Aliyos on Shabbos and Yom Tov] some Poskim[55] rule that it is permitted to call up many Olim to read the same Parsha, and have them re-read the same verses read by the previous Olah, and repeat the blessings.[56]  Other Poskim[57], however, rule that it is initially forbidden for a second Olah to recite blessings over the reading of verses that a previous Olah already blessed on and had read, unless three new verses are added to his reading.[58] Practically, the custom throughout the year in these Ashkenazi provinces is like the latter opinion, with exception to Simchas Torah, in which case we rely on the second opinion.[59] In addition, in some communities they are also lenient for the sake of a Shabbos Chasunah.[60]

Having a repeated Aliyah count for the obligatory number of Aliyos:[61] Whenever an Aliyah has repeated the same verses as the previous Aliyah it does not count as part of the seven obligatory Aliyos on Shabbos, unless the reader added three new verses that were not yet read.

If by the second to last Aliyah [i.e. Shishi on Shabbos] the Baal Korei mistakenly read until the end of the Parsha, what should be read by the last Aliyah [i.e. Shevi’i]?[62] If the Baal Korei mistakenly read for Shishi until the end of the Parsha, then if he already said Kaddish, then the Maftir who repeats the last verses of the Parsha which was already read by the sixth Aliyah, counts as the seventh Aliyah, and it is not necessary to call up another seventh Olah in addition to the Maftir.[63] [The Kaddish is not to be repeated after this Aliyah is read.[64]] (However, If Kaddish was not yet recited, then a seventh Olah is to be called in addition to the Maftir [and have his intended portion re-read, even though it was already read by the previous Olah].[65]) See Chapter 10 Halacha 1F for the full details of this subject!

4. The most important Aliyah on Shabbos:[66]

From some Poskim[67] it is evident that the third Aliyah is the most important of all the Aliyos, and is thus to be given to the appointed Rav or Torah scholar. From other Poskim[68] it is evident that the last Aliyah of Shevi’i is the most important Aliyah, and so was the widespread custom in previous times. The above is all according to Halacha, however based on Kabbalah, the sixth Aliyah is viewed the most important Aliyah, and so is the widespread custom today.[69] Practically, the Chabad Rebbeim were particular to receive the Aliyah of Maftir, as in truth Maftir has an advantage over the other Aliyos.[70]

The order of importance according to the Arizal:[71]

  1. Shishi
  2. Shelishi
  3. Kohen
  4. Levi
  5. Revi’i
  6. Chamishi
  7. Shevi’i

5. Endeavoring to get an Aliya once a month:

The Poskim[72] record that it is proper for one to endeavor to receive an Aliyah at least once a month in order to attach one’s soul with its root in the Torah. Some Poskim[73] rule that for this purpose, one is to endeavor to receive one of the main obligatory Aliyos and not an added Aliyah or Maftir.

6. Contemplating on the text of one’s Aliya:[74]

It is proper for one who receives an Aliyah at random, to contemplate the Torah portion which he was given, as this serves the person as a personal Divine message from G-d.

7. Refusing an Aliya after being called up:

One who is offered to read the Torah and refuses to read it, his days are shortened.[75] One is thus not to refuse an Aliyah once he has been called up.[76] [Some Poskim[77] however rule this only applied in previous times when the Olah would also read the Torah, however today that he simply recites the blessings and another person reads the Torah this warning does not apply. Other Poskim[78] however rule it applies even today.[79] Practically, one is to be stringent.]

Was not yet called up by name: This however only applies once the person has been called up, however prior to being called, it is permitted for one to leave the Shul between Aliyos [and immediately return in time for the start of the reading], even if he knows that they plan to call him.[80] Furthermore, this only applies if one was called up by name, while if he was [privately] asked to go up by the Gabbai, it does not apply and he may refuse the Aliyah.[81] [If, however, he was publicly motioned to go up, even if his name was not mentioned he may not refuse.[82]]

Justifiable reasons for refusal:[83] The above prohibition only applies if there is no justifiable reason for refusing the Aliyah. If, however, there is a justifiable reason for why he does not want the Aliyah then it may be refused.[84] For example; a) If there is a Halachic problem with him getting an Aliyah, such as his father/brother received the previous Aliyah[85]; b) He must make a large donation after receiving the Aliyah and does not have the money to do so and will be publicly ashamed. [c) He does not know how to properly say the blessings and is embarrassed to go up. d) He is sick and cannot say the blessing loud enough for others to hear. e) He needs to use the bathroom and cannot wait. f) He is refusing the Aliyah in order to prevent Machlokes and have someone else take it.[86]] Nevertheless, in general one is not to come up with excuses for refusing the Aliyah and is to push himself as much as possible to receive it once he has been called up.[87]

 Summary:

One is not to refuse an Aliyah once he has been called up by name or publicly motioned to go up. If, however, there is a justifiable reason for why he does not want the Aliyah then it may be refused.

 

Q&A

If one was called up for Maftir and does not know to read the Haftorah, may he refuse the Aliyah?[88]

No. He is to receive the Aliyah, although is to have another read the Haftorah in his place.

 

8. What to do if the person called up for the Aliyah is not in Shul:[89]

If the Gabbai called up a Kohen, or Levi, and the person is not in Shul or is in the midst of Shemoneh Esrei, then another person is to go up in his place. That person is to go up without his name being called, and whoever comes first merits. [Some Poskim[90] rule that the same rule if a Yisrael was called up and is not present, that a new Yisrael goes up without his name being called. Other Poskim[91], however, rule that a new Yisrael may be called up by name.]

 

Q&A

If the missing person who was originally called up shows up prior to the replacement Olah starting his Aliyah, what is to be done?[92]

In such a case, the newly called Olah merits the Aliyah. Nevertheless, it is proper to recall up the original person for another Aliyah later on.

 

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[1] Mishneh Megillah 21a

[2] See Megillah 23a that the three Aliyos correspond to the three words in the 1st blessing of Birchas Kohanim, or alternatively to the three guards discussed in Sefer Melachim.

[3] See Admur 490:10

[4] See Admur 282:1 “Due to the advantage of Holiness that each one has over the other, they added one more Aliyah”

[5] Admur 282:1; M”A 235:1; Tur 282; Rambam Tefilla 12:16; Mishneh Megillah ibid

[6] Admur 282:1; M”A 235:1; Implication of Rambam and Semak; See P”M 135 A”A 1 who questions this; See also Mishneh Halachos 5:34 who questions this based on Kiryat Sefer

[7] The reason: As Shabbos contains a Musaf sacrifice and hence needs to receive at least four Aliyos, and it is more holy than Yom Tov and Yom Kippur, which receive 5-6 Aliyos, and hence needs to receive one more Aliyah for a total of seven. [See Admur ibid] The Talmud states that the seven Aliyos correspond to the seven words in the 3rd blessing of Birchas Kohanim, or alternatively to the seven advisers of Achashverosh. [Megillah 23a] Alternatively, the Sages established seven Aliyos in order to make up for anyone who missed Barchu during the week, so they make up seven Barchus. [Beis Yosef 282 in name of Shibuleiy Haleket]

[8] Admur ibid; Rambam ibid; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[9] Admur 282:11; Rama 282:1; See Chapter 12 Halacha 4!

[10] Admur 282:1; M”A 235:1; Tur 282; Rambam Tefilla 12:16; Mishneh Megillah ibid

[11] The reason: As Yom Kippur contains a Musaf sacrifice and hence needs to receive at least four Aliyos, and it is more holy than Yom Tov which receives 5 Aliyos, and hence needs to receive one more Aliyah for a total of six. [See Admur ibid]

[12] Admur ibid; Rambam ibid; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[13] Admur 282:11; Rama 282:1; See Chapter 12 Halacha 4!

[14] Admur 282:1; 488:5; M”A 235:1; Tur 282; Rambam Tefilla 12:16; Mishneh Megillah ibid

[15] The reason: As Yom Tov contains a Musaf sacrifice and hence needs to receive at least four Aliyos, and it is more holy than Rosh Chodesh, which receive 4 Aliyos, and hence needs to receive one more Aliyah for a total of five. [See Admur ibid] The Talmud states that the five Aliyos correspond to the five words in the 2nd blessing of Birchas Kohanim, or alternatively to the five main advisers of Achashverosh. [Megillah 23a]

[16] Admur ibid; Rambam ibid; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[17] Admur 282:11; Rama 282:1; See Chapter 12 Halacha 4!

[18] M”A 235:1 in name of Rif; See P”M 135 A”A 1; Yerushalmi Megillah 4

[19] Michaber 135:1; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[20] Admur 292:2; Bava Kama 82a; Yerushalmi Megillah 4:1; M”B 135 in Pesicha

[21] Michaber 135:1; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[22] Michaber 423:1; See Michaber 135:1

[23] Michaber ibid; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[24] Admur 490:10; Siddur Admur; Rambam Tefilla 12:16; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[25] The reason: Since a Korban Musaf is brought [and Musaf prayer is recited] on Chol Hamoed, therefore the Sages added one more Aliyah than the readings of Monday and Thursday. [Admur ibid]

[26] Admur ibid; Rambam ibid; Mishneh Megillah ibid

[27] Michaber 135:1; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[28] The reason: As it is permitted for men to work on these days and whenever there is “Bittul Melacha” it is forbidden to add Aliyos. [Admur 490:10 regarding Chol Hamoed; Levushei Serud 135:1, see Taz 135:1] Now, regarding Shabbos Mincha, although Melacha is forbidden on Shabbos, the Sages did not desire to allow the adding of Aliyos since it is close to the end of Shabbos, and they did not want to trouble the community. [Machatzis Hashekel on M”A 135:1 based on Rashi Megillah 21a; Kaf Hachaim 135:2]

[29] Michaber 423:1; Mishneh Megillah 21a

[30] Admur 490:10-11; Rambam Tevila 12:16; Mishneh Megillah 21a

The reason: Although it is permitted to add Aliyos on Shabbos and Yom Tov, it is forbidden to add Aliyos on Chol Hamoed, as on Chol Hamoed the congregants have work to do [such as Meleches Davar Haveid] and delaying their stay in Shul is difficult in their eyes, and it is forbidden to trouble the congregation. [Admur ibid; Rashi Megillah ibid; See Ran Megillah 12b]

[31] Rama 135:1; Mordechai; Hagahos Maimanis Sefer Torah 12

[32] Rama ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the above ruling only applies to two Chassanim and not to two Baalei Bris. [M”A 135:3; Taz 135:2; Tikkun Yissachar; Kneses Hagedola 135; Peri Chadash 135:1; Kaf Hachaim 135:4]

[33] The reason: As it is their Yom Tov. [Rama ibid, as explained in 559]

[34] Beis Yosef 135; Kneses Hagedola 135; Tikkun Yissachar p. 55; Peri Chadash 135:1; Levush 135, brought in M”A 135:2; Elya Raba 135:1; P”M 135 A”A 2; Mamar Mordechai 135:1; Kaf Hachaim 135:3 based on Arizal

[35] Admur 282:1; See Tzemach Tzedek 35 in great length for a Teshuvah on this subject; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:3; Chikrei Haminhagim 2:203

[36] 1st opinion in Admur ibid; 1st opinion in Rama 282:1; Beis Yosef 282; Tur 282; Maharam 110; Rambam Tefilla 12:16; Mishneh Megillah 21a; See Tzemach Tzedek 35:1 that the words Mosifin in the Mishneh apply even to Yom Tov and Yom Kippur as is proven from Megillah 23a and Tosefta Megillah 3:5, Mordechai Rosh Hashanah 720 and Rosh Hashanah 3

[37] The reason: As the institution of the Sages was only not to diminish from the above number of Aliyos on these days, although one may add as many as he desires. [Admur ibid]

[38] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Rama 282:1 in name of Yeish Omrim; Ran Megillah 12b

[39] The reason: Although one may add to the number of Aliyos on Shabbos, one may not add to the five Aliyos on Yom Tov in order so it does not become of equal status to the Aliyos of Yom Kippur and Shabbos, if one were to call up six or seven Aliyos. Likewise, one may not add to the six Aliyos on Yom Kippur in order so it does not become of equal status to the Aliyos of Shabbos, if one calls up six seven Aliyos. [Admur ibid; Ran ibid]

The law when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos: When Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, according to all [i.e. even this opinion] it is permitted to add Aliyos just like on any Shabbos. [Admur 282:2; M”A 282:2; Taz 282:1; Levush 282:4] Nevertheless, when Yom Kippur falls on Shabbos it is better not to add any Aliyos being that the conclusion of each of the Olim is intentionally placed to end with words of Kaparah “Vichaper Bado”, and therefore it is best not to change the order of reading [by adding more Aliyos]. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[40] Opinion in Admur 282:3; Tashbeitz 2:70 that so is custom in his city and so was instituted by Rav Shem Tov Polkin, brought in Hagahos Harif, M”A 282:1 and Olas Shabbos 282:3; Rashbash 429; Shalmei Chagiga p. 249; P”M 282 A”A 2 brings defense from Gemara for this opinion; Maaseh Rav 132; See Tzemach Tzedek 35:2 and 4 and 6-7; Kaf Hachaim 282:10

[41] The reason: As even on Shabbos the Sages only allowed adding more Aliyos in the Mishaic era, when not all the Olim would say their own blessing, and rather the first Olah said a before blessing, and the last Olah said an after blessing. [See Mishneh Megillah 21a] However, today that every person says his own blessing, it is forbidden to add Aliyos in order so one does not add in blessings, as since one has already fulfilled his obligation with the first seven Aliyos, the extra Aliyos are viewed as an unnecessary blessing. [Admur ibid; Tashbeitz ibid in name of his father in law, Rav Yonah] Alternatively, the reason of the Tashbeitz is as follows: Only in the times of the Mishneh when the Olah would read for the congregation and be Motzi them, do we rule that one can add in Aliyos, however today that the Olah is not Motzi the congregation, one cannot add in Aliyos. [Tzemach Tzedek 35:4]

[42] Admur 282:1 and 3; Darkei Moshe 282:1

The reason we negate the third opinion: The third opinion is not the main opinion, as already from the times of the Talmud it became accustomed for each individual Olah to say his own blessing, and if so, the Talmud should have mentioned a change of law if indeed it held of the third opinion that in today’s times the Mishnaic ruling no longer applies. [Admur ibid; See Taz 139:3 and 428:5 who proves from Midrash Koheles 8:7 that even in the times of the Mishneh the custom was for each Olah to say his own blessings; See Tzemach Tzedek 35:2 that so is also proven from Rambam in Pirush Hamishnayos, and the Yerushalmi, and that the majority of Poskim argue on Tashbeitz]

[43] Admur ibid; Rama 282:1

The reason for leniency on Simchas Torah: Since everyone desires to get an Aliyah on Simchas Torah, therefore the custom became to rely on the first opinion to allow adding Aliyos, as so is the main opinion. [Admur ibid]

[44] Admur 282:1 and implication of 282:3

[45] Admur 282:2; M”A 282:2; Taz 282:1; Levush 282:4

[46] Beis Yisrael Megillah 15a that so is custom in some places; Tzemach Tzedek O.C. 35:7 that Admur never allowed Aliyos to be added even for a Chasuna

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that in a time of need, such as for a Chasan, there is no need to suspect for this opinion. [M”A 282:1; M”B 282:4]

[47] Admur 282:3; M”A 282:2; Olas Shabbos 282:3; Kneses Hagedola on Tur 281; Beis Yisrael ibid that so is custom in some places; Tzemach Tzedek O.C. 35:7 “Certainly, it is better not to add Aliyos  unless it is a Shabbos with a Chassuna, and even then it is better to hold on to the custom of not adding at all.”

[48] Admur ibid; Elya Raba 282:3 in name of his grandfather that one is not to add more than three; Otzer Hachaim 176 in name of Rav Chaim of Tzans that one is not to add more than five

[49] See Elya Raba 135:3, brought in P”M 135 A”A 5; Chasam Sofer O.C. 170; Igros Kodesh 3:30, brought in Shulchan Menachem 2:92; P”M 135 A”A 5; Machaneh Chaim 3:13; Binyan Shlomo 20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:3

The reason: Some are particular to add more Aliyos just in case one of the Olas does not know to read and is invalid according to some opinions. [Elya Raba 135:3, brought in P”M 135 A”A 5]

[50] Tashbeitz ibid that so is custom in his city; Rashbash 429 that so is custom in his Shul; Shalmei Chagiga p. 249 that so is custom in Beis Eil community Shul of the Rashash, and that even on Simchas Torah they do not add; Minhagei Beis Yaakov of Chevron 34 that they do not add; Takanas Nikolsburg Takana 43 that they do not add; Takanas Medinas Mehrin that they do not add; Maaseh Rav 132 that the Gr”a would not allow any Aliyos to be added; See Chikrei Haminhagim ibid

[51] Tzemach Tzedek 35:7 that Admur never allowed Aliyos to be added even for the sake of a Chassuna, and that so is the best custom to follow, although in a time of need one can add Aliyos. [See there that in a time of need for a Chasan, the added Aliyos should read from the Torah themselves and hence escape the debate of the above Poskim]; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:1 that the custom is not to add unless is time of need; Sefer Haminhagim p. 61 [English]; Igros Kodesh 3:31 brought in Shulchan Menachem 2:92, that we are very careful in this, and do not add Aliyos even for a Chasan, and even in order to be Mikarev someone who feels distanced, and rather one is to have a second reading take place; Igros Kodesh 4:142 that so is directive of Rebbe Rayatz in name of his father the Rashab; Igros Kodesh 12:309 that we do not add Aliyos even for the sake of having more income come in for a Yeshiva, and being careful in this matter is relevant to Hiskashrus to our Rebbeim; Chikrei Haminhagim 2:203

[52] Igros Kodesh 3:31; 4:142, 12:309 brought in Shulchan Menachem 2:92; Sefer Haminhagim p. 31

[53] As the custom is to permit to add more than seven Aliyos on Shabbos [Admur 282:1] Now, although there are Poskim who forbid doing so [Tashbatz 2:70, brought in Hagahos Harif and Kaf Hachaim 282:10] and so is our custom not to add any more Aliyos [Tzemach Tzedek 35:7; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:1] nevertheless, in a case of need one may do so [Tzemach Tzedek and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]. This especially applies in such a case that one must read another three Aliyos being that they involve three different Sefer Torahs, and hence all remaining three Aliyos are considered an obligation. See also Kaf Hachaim 684:17 in name of Peri Chadash, Levush, Birkeiy Yosef 282:3. A further proof for this can be brought from Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] that even if one skipped one word or one letter one must go back and read it even if it means adding an Aliya, and hence certainly here one must add a seventh Aliya to Shevi and then read another two Aliyos.

Delaying Shevi’i until next Shabbos: One cannot delay Shevi’i until next Shabbos, and thus only have 8 Aliyos, as even a missed letter from the Parsha must be read that Shabbos, as brought in Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] and certainly if the entire Shevi was missed.

[54] Admur 282:4; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:4

[55] 1st opinion in Admur ibid; Michaber 282:2; Rivash 84; M”A 282:13 that so is implication of Michaber 137:6

[56] The reason: There is no worry of a blessing in vain involved in doing so, as on Chol Hamoed of Sukkos and Chanukah this is done. [Admur ibid; Rivash ibid]

[57] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Mordechai end of Megillah Remez 831

[58] The reason: We cannot learn any new law from Chol Hamoed Sukkos and Chanukah being that by those readings there is no other choice. [Admur ibid]

[59] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Regarding the Sephardic custom: See Birkeiy Yosef 282:3 and Kaf Hachaim 282:19 that one is to be stringent like the Rama to not re-read the same verses, and to not receive an Aliyah in a congregation who does so. See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[60] Admur ibid; M”A 282:4

[61] Admur ibid; Michaber 137:6; M”A 282:3

[62] Admur 282:19; Michaber 282:6; Tur 282 in name of Maharam Merothenberg; Shivlei Haleket 77; Miseches Sofrim 11:4; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:3

[63] The reason: As the main opinion follows that the Maftir counts as one of the seven. [Admur ibid]

[64] P”M 282 A”A 17; M”B 282:34 in name of Levush; Vetzaruch Iyun as to the to be followed if the Kaddish was recited after Shishi, and he did not read the portion of Shevi’i.

[65] Admur ibid in parentheses; Implication of Darkei Moshe 282:7; Kneses Hagedola 282:10

The reason: This is to be done in order to fulfill one’s obligation even according to those who rule that the Maftir does not count as part of the seven Aliyos, as we are accustomed, and thus be Yotzei accoridng to all. [Admur ibid in parentheses]

[66] See Toras Menachem 13:54 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:95]; Chikrei Haminhagim 2:60; Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:3

[67] See Michaber 136:1 that the Rav of the community receives Shelishi; Tur 136; Gittin 60a; Hamanhig 1 Shabbos 57; Rosh Moed Katan 28 that so was custom of Rabbeinu Tam; M”A 428:8 that the custom is to call the Rav up for Shelishi; Emes Leyaakov 5 Toras Aliyas Sefer Torah 20; Ledavid Emes of Chida; Tzemach Tzedek Kadmon 56; Takanos Kehilas Nikolsberg Takan 51; Chasam Sofer O.C. 66 that so is implied from Gittin ibid; In many Kisvei Rabbanus in Europe they would stipulate that the Rav would receive Maftir; Rebbe in Toras Menachem ibid that according to Nigleh, Shelishi is the most important Aliyah

Aliyah of Chamishi: See Tashbetz 2:276 that the custom of the Rosh was to receive Chamishi

[68] Or Zarua 2:42; M”A 136; Beis Yosef 135; P”M 282 A”A 9; Machazik Bracha 282:3 that so is custom of Sephardim; Tosafos Yom Tov Megillah 4:1; Mateh Yehuda 141:7; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:66; M”B 136:5

[69] Zohar Shelach 164; Arizal Peri Eitz Chaim 18:19 and Shaar Hakavanos 2:94 that the Arizal would always go up for Shishi, brought in Beir Heiytiv 282; M”A 282:9 brings that based on Zohar the custom is to sell Shishi individually; M”B 282; Ruach Chaim 136 that so is custom in Beis Keil community; Kaf Hachaim 135:19; 136:4; Maaseh Rav Hashaleim 133 that so was custom of Gr”a; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 210 that so was custom of Munkatcher; Darkei Chaim p. 9 that so was custom of Rav Chaim of Tzans; Chasam Sofer 66 based on Kabbalah Shishi is the greatest; Rebbe in Toras Menachem ibid that according to the Arizal is the most important Aliyah

[70] Sefer Hasichos 5703 p. 156 that so was custom of Alter Rebbe; Toras Menachem ibid and 15:134; 41:37; Ketzos Hashulchan 85 footnote 2 that so was custom of the Tzemach Tzedek, and his sons; Sefer Reb Mendel p. 297 that so was the custom of the Rebbe’s father; Koveitz Beis Aaron Viyisrael 31:29 that so was custom of the Baal Shem Tov and Maggid; See Seder Hayom Seder Kerias Hatorah Beshabbos that Maftir should be given to one of the Gedolei Hakehal; Chasam Sofer 68 and Chut Hameshulash p. 4 that Rav Nasan Adler would receive Maftir

[71] Shaar Hakavanos; Kaf Hachaim 282; Ketzos Hashulchan 85 footnote 2

[72] Reishis Chochmah in Totzos Chaim 98; Yesod Yosef p. 5; Yosef Ometz 506; Emes Leyaakov 5 Toras Aliyas Sefer Torah 21; Ledavid Emes of Chida 5:25; Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 2:20; Makor Chaim 136 of Chavos Yair; Kitzur SHU”A 151:7; Kaf Hachaim 136:17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:1; Chikrei Haminhagim 2:60

[73] Sefer Hachaim 11:18; Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:1

[74] Avodas Hatamid Hilchos Kerias Hatorah;

[75] Brachos 55a, brought in M”A 53:22; Elya Raba 139:2; Peri Chadash 139:1; P”M 53 A”A 22; Levushei Serud 138; Lev Chaim 3:12 [See there that one time a person was called to the Torah and he ran out and he was later burnt to death within 30 days, as the Torah is called fire]; Toras Chaim Sofer 139:1; Aruch Hashulchan 139:4; M”B 139:1; Kaf Hachaim 139:3; 428:40; Tzitz Eliezer 14:34; It is however omitted from the Rambam, Tur and Michaber/Rama [see Elya Raba and Toras Chaim Sofer ibid for explanations of this omission] See also Levush 428 and M”B 428:19 who omit this

The reason: As the Torah is called our life, and one who refuses it is refusing life. [Brachos ibid]

[76] M”A ibid; P”M ibid; Machatzis Hashekel 53:22; Aruch Hashulchan ibid

[77] Elya Raba ibid in explanation of why this statement of the Gemara was omitted from the Tur/Michaber

[78] Implication of M”A, P”M, and Machatzis Hashekel ibid [See M”A and P”M ibid who write regarding an Olah that he may not refuse the Aliyah, thus implying it refers to all cases, even when the Olah does not read from the Torah, as is the custom today, brought in Rama 140:1 that the Olah does not read.]; Toras Chaim Sofer ibid; Aruch Hashulchan ibid; However from other Poskim ibid it is unclear if they refer even to the Aliyos today or only of the Aliyos back then, when the Olah would read the Torah.

[79] The reason: As one who is called up for an Aliya is considered as if he himself is reading the Torah. [Taz 140:2]

[80] Machatzis Hashekel ibid

[81] Chaim Sheol 1:13; See there that it is for this reason that the Sephardim are accustomed not to call up by name, as if one is called up by name and refuses his life is shortened, Hence, to avoid this from occurring they instituted not to be called up by name

[82] So seems Pashut, as what difference does it make if he was publicly called by name or publicly motioned to go up; See also Chaim Sheol ibid that to avoid this problem the Gabbai would walk over to the person and privately ask him to go up.

[83] Torah Leshma 95 and 428; See Tzitz Eliezer 14:34; Piskeiy Teshuvos 139:1

[84] The reason: As the danger is only when the person is belittling the Torah, as it is not important in his eyes, however when he does so for a justifiable reason, he does not belittle the Torah. [ibid]

[85] Torah Leshma ibid; See Shaareiy Efraim 1:33; M”B 141:18

[86] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 139:1

[87] Tzitz Eliezer ibid, based on M”A ibid who says he should go up even if he has an enemy in the congregation and it is thus a danger for him

[88] Levushei Serud 138

[89] Michaber 135:11; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:19

[90] Toras Chaim Sofer 135:14; Shaareiy Rachamim 1:21; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:3

[91] M”B 135:38

[92] Kaf Hachaim 135:66 in name of Olas Shmuel, Orchos Chaim and Pischeiy Teshuvah; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:19

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