Chapter 2: Kilayim Mixtures-Ratio

Chapter 2: Kilayim Mixtures-Ratio

1.      The ratio of a hybrid mixture:

  • 1:24 ratio by Tevua and Kitniyus mixtures: Hybrid mixtures of seeds are only problematic if there is a ratio of more than 1 to 24, such as one seed of wheat with 23 seeds of barley. If the ratio is 1 to 24 then it is permitted to be planted [Halacha 1]
  • Adding more seeds to the ratio: It is permitted to add more seeds to a mixture that is less than 1 to 24 in ratio in order to nullify it in a ratio of 1 to 24. So too it is permitted to take away seeds in order to reach this ratio. [Halacha 1]
  • Different species that fell into a mixture: All the different species of seeds join together to require a total of 1 to 24 ratio. Thus, if one had 48 seeds of wheat, and 1 a seed of barley and 1 seed of lentils, it is forbidden to be planted together. [Halacha 2]
  • 1:24 ratio by Zarunei Gina mixtures: This however only applies to mixtures of seeds of Tevua or Kitniyus, grains and legumes, however the inedible seeds of Zarunei Gina only require a 1:24 ratio if a 1 to 24 ratio of what is planted in a Beis Seah of that seed became mixed into the mixture. [Halacha 3] For example, if a mustard seed got mixed into wheat, then if 1/24th of that which is planted in a Beis Seah of mustard seeds fell into the mixture then it is forbidden to be planted if it does not have a 1:24 ratio. [Halacha 4]
  • If one purposely added another species: In all the above cases, the 1 to 24 ratio only helps if the seed fell in by mistake, if however, it was purposely placed in in order to plant it together, then it is never nullified and always forbidden to be planted. [Halacha 6]
  • Uprooting hybrid growths from one’s field: One who sees different species growing in one’s field is only required to uproot minority species if it is more than a 1 to 24 ratio. [Halacha 7] This however only applies if it appears to the onlooker that one transgressed and planted two different species together. If, however, everyone understands that it grew on its own, then it is not necessary to uproot. [Halacha 8] Such as for plant has, if a damaging plant has grown in the field. [Halacha 9-10] if, however, one began uprooting some of the wild growing plant, then he must uproot all of it. [Halacha 10]

2.      Planting vegetables near trees:

  • It is forbidden to plant vegetables under trees. [Halacha 11]

3.      Planting a different species in a field that was harvested:

  • If a field was harvested of its current product, one is nonetheless not to plant another species on that land if the seeds of the current produce still remain in the ground and will eventually regrow. [Halacha 12]
  • If a field was planted with wheat and he decided to instead plant it with barley, then he is to wait three days until wheat rots, in which case he is to then plow the field and overturn the wheat grain and then plant the barley. It is not necessary however to overturn every wheat grain that was planted. [Halacha 13] If the wheat already began to grow then one is to simply overturn it and then plant barley in it. [Halacha 14]

4.      The set time of year to clean the fields of hybrid produce:

  • On the first day of Adar, it is proclaimed to the people that they should go to their fields and clean them of hybrid growths. On the 15th day of Adar the Beis Din goes out to check and verify that all the fields have been cleaned of hybrid growth. [Halacha 15]
  • At first, the emissaries of the Beis din will themselves uproot any hybrid growth they found in the field. However, this caused field owners to be lax in cleaning it up of hybrid growth, as they could just have the emissaries do it for them for free. So, the sages decreed that whoever’s field was found to contain more than 1:24 ratio of hybrid growth, then the field will become disowned and free to the public. [Halacha 16]
  • The emissaries of the Beis din would once again return to survey the fields in the month of Nisan, by Chol Hamoed Pesach.

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