Chapter 14: The four Parshiyos

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Chapter 14: The four Parshiyos

 

The four extra Parshiyos read in relation to the month of Adar:

· Shekalim

· Zachor

· Parah

· Hachodesh

 

Time chart for the Four Parshiyos

  Shabbos before RC Adar First Shabbos in Adar Second Shabbos in Adar Third Shabbos in Adar Fourth Shabbos in Adar Fifth Shabbos in Adar
First of Adar falls on Shabbos No Parsha

 

Shekalim [1st of Adar] Zachor [8th of Adar] No Parsha [15th Adar]

 

Para [22nd Adar] Hachodesh [29th Adar]
First of Adar falls on Monday Shekalim [29th Shevat] No Parsha [6th Adar]

 

Zachor [13th Adar] Parah [20th Adar] Hachodesh [27th Adar] No fifth Shabbos in Adar
First of Adar falls on Wednesday Shekalim [27th Shevat] No Parsha [4th Adar]

 

Zachor [11th Adar] Parah [18th Adar] Hachodesh [25th Adar] No fifth Shabbos in Adar
First of Adar falls on

Friday

Shekalim [25th Shevat] No Parsha [2nd  Adar]

 

Zachor [9th Adar] No Parsha [16th  Adar]

 

Parah [23rd Adar] No fifth Shabbos in Adar. Hachodesh is read on the first of Nissan

 

1. Shekalim:

The reason for reading Parshas Shekalim:[1] The Torah requires that the sacrifices of the Temple be bought using the money of the new Shekalim fund, each year beginning from the month of Nissan. Thus, the collection of the annual Shekalim donation [which was mandatory] was announced in the month proceeding the month of Nissan, which is within the month of Adar that falls in proximity to Nissan. We thus read the portion of the half Shekel donation in proximity to the month of Adar as a reminder [and verbal fulfillment[2]] of this requirement.[3]

When:[4] The date for the reading of Parshas Shekalim is dependent on the day of the week that Rosh Chodesh Adar is situated that year. When [the second day of[5]] Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on a weekday, even if it falls on Erev Shabbos, the Parsha is read on the Shabbos before Rosh Chodesh, which is known as Shabbos Mevarchim Chodesh Adar.[6] If however [the second day of[7]] Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Shabbos, the Parsha is read on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh.[8] In a leap year that there are two Adars, the Parsha is read [either] prior to Rosh Chodesh Adar Sheiyni [or on Rosh Chodesh Adar Sheiyni, in a case that Rosh Chodesh Adar Sheiyni falls on Shabbos].[9]

The portion to be read:[10] The portion read is from the beginning of Parshas Ki Sisa until the words “Lechaper Al Nafshoseichem” in verse 16.[11] The Haftorah for Shekalim is then read from “Veyichros Yehoyada”.[12]

How many Torah scrolls are removed and what is the order of reading:[13] When Shabbos Shekalim does not coincide with Rosh Chodesh, two scrolls are removed from the ark. From the first scroll the weekly Torah portion is read until Shevi’i.[14] The second scroll is then placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish.[15] Hagbah is then done to the first scroll. [The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagbah.] One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[16] For Maftir the portion of Shekalim is read from the second scroll. One then performs Hagbah to the second scroll and reads the Haftorah for Shekalim. [On Shabbos Mevarchim the Chazan for Musaf takes the scroll of Maftir to hold.[17] When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.[18]

How many Torah scrolls are removed and what is the order of reading on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Shekalim:[19] When Rosh Chodesh Adar [Sheiyni-in a leap year] falls on Shabbos, three Sifrei Torah are removed. The weekly Sedra [Parsha of the week] is read regularly from the first scroll [until the 6th Aliyah. By the 6th Aliyah the remainder of the Parsha is read from Shishi until the end of the Parsha.[20] One then places the second scroll on the Bima for the seventh Aliyah and does Hagbah to the first Sefer Torah.[21] One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[22]] The portion of Rosh Chodesh is then read from the second scroll. [One then places the third scroll on the Bima together with the second scroll and says half Kaddish.[23] Hagbah is then done to the second scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagbah.] This is followed by the reading of the portion of Shekalim from the third scroll. [24] This reading is then followed by the first and last verse of the Haftorah of Shabbos Rosh Chodesh. [When adding the verses of Hashamayim Kisiy on Rosh Chodesh the custom is to add the first verse of the Haftorah and verses 23-24 and then again verse 23.[25]] If Rosh Chodesh is two days, and falls on Shabbos Sunday, then one also recites the first and last verse of Machar Chodesh. One first says the first and last verse of Hashamayim Kisiy and then of Machar Chodesh.[26] [See Q&A regarding if Shekalim was read instead of Rosh Chodesh!]

 

Q&A

What is the law if a congregation read Parshas Shekalim a week early?

They are to read it again the next Shabbos.[27]

 

What is the law if one began reading the wrong Haftorah?[28]

If one mistakenly read the wrong Haftorah, such as the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh or of the Parsha, then he is to read the correct Haftorah. If one only remembered after the blessings, then he is to read the Haftorah without its blessings.

Q&A on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Shekalim

On Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Shekalim, does one place the first Sefer Torah back on the Bimah when half Kaddish is said after the reading?[29]

No.[30]

 

What is the law if one mistakenly began reading Parshas Shekalim from the second Torah scroll [by Shevi’i], instead of Parshas Rosh Chodesh?[31]

If they already began reading Parshas Shekalim from the second Torah scroll they are to complete the reading and read the portion of Rosh Chodesh from the third Torah scroll [Maftir]. The Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh is then read from “Hashamayim Kisi”.

What is the law if the Baal Korei did not read until the end of Shevi’i by the 6th Aliyah on a day that three Sifrei Torah are removed?

A seventh Aliyah is to be called up for Shevi, and then an eighth Aliyah for the reading of the second scroll and then a ninth Aliyah for the reading of the third scroll.[32]

What is one to do if on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Shekalim there are only two scrolls available?

If there are only two Torah scrolls available, then one is to read the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh from the second scroll, and read the Parsha of Shekalim from the first scroll.[33] This however only applies if the first scroll is rolled to the Parsha of Shekalim prior to its Hagbah. If however the first scroll was not rolled to the Parsha of Shekalim prior to its Hagbah, then it is better to read the Shekalim portion from the second scroll.[34] [Seemingly, if the Parsha of Shekalim is adjacent to the weekly Parsha, then one is to read from the first scroll even if it was not rolled to Shekalim prior to Hagbah.[35]]

 

 

2. Zachor:

A Biblical or Rabbinical obligation:[36] Some Poskim[37] rule that there is a Biblical obligation to hear Parshas Zachor[38], and so is the final ruling.[39] Nonetheless, the Poskim debate as to the exact definition of this Biblical obligation. Some Poskim[40] rule that the Biblical obligation is to actually hear the reading of Zachor from a Sefer Torah together with a Minyan, and if one does not hear the reading from a Sefer Torah with a Minyan, the Biblical command is not fulfilled.[41] Other Poskim[42], however, rule that the Biblical obligation is fulfilled by simply mentioning the remembrance of Amalek even if one is alone and without a Sefer Torah, and hearing it read from the Torah with a Minyan is only a Rabbinical bylaw of the Biblical Mitzvah. According to all, the Biblical obligation can be fulfilled whenever one hears the reading of Amalek from the Torah, and it is not limited specifically to the reading of Zachar on the Shabbos before Purim.[43] Nevertheless, Rabbinically one must initially fulfill this Biblical obligation with the reading on Parshas Zachor.[44]

Making sure to be with a Minyan for Parshas Zachor:[45] Being that the reading of Zachor is a Biblical obligation, one is required to arrange that he be in an area that has a Minyan for that Shabbos.

Having in mind to be Yotzei:[46] Being that the reading of Zachor is a Biblical obligation, one must have in mind to fulfill the Biblical Mitzvah upon listening to the reading. Likewise the person reading from the Torah must have in mind to fulfill the obligation of the listeners.

If no Minyan is available:[47] Even if one does not have a Minyan on Shabbos for the reading of Parshas Zachor, it is nevertheless to be read [without a blessing] with its proper tune. [If a Sefer Torah is available then it is to be read from a Sefer Torah. If a Sefer Torah is not available, it is to be read from a Chumash.[48]]

If one missed Parshas Zachor: Some Poskim[49] rule if one did not hear the reading on Parshas Zachor he can still fulfill the Biblical obligation through hearing the Torah reading of Amalek that is read on Purim.[50] Others[51] however argue that one cannot fulfill the obligation of Zachor by hearing the Torah reading on Purim, as it is read from a different Parsha than the reading of Zachor.[52] According to all however, one fulfills his Biblical obligation with hearing the reading of Parshas Ki Seitzei.[53] [In such a case however one must have in mind to fulfill the Mitzvah of remembering Amalek upon hearing the reading, and some Poskim[54] write he is to tell the Baal Korei to fulfill his obligation] Despite the above, there is a Rabbinical obligation to initially hear the reading on Parshas Zachor.[55]

If one can only be with a Minyan either on Purim or Parshas Zachor, when should he attend?[56] Being that the hearing of Parshas Zachor is a Biblical obligation, therefore one is to join a Minyan for the hearing of Zachor even if doing so will cause him to be unable to join a Minyan for the hearing of the Megillah on Purim.[57] However, the custom of the masses in such a case is to join the Minyan for Purim rather than for Zachor, as in any event one fulfills his obligation of Zachor with the reading on Purim.[58] Practically one is to follow the former ruling.

When:[59] Parshas Zachor is always read on the Shabbos prior to Purim[60], which is the second Shabbos of Adar. Thus when [the second day of[61]] Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Shabbos, Parshas Zachor is read the week after Parshas Shekalim.[62] When Rosh Chodesh falls on a weekday no Parsha is read on the week after the reading of Shekalim which is the first Shabbos in Adar, and on the second Shabbos, Parshas Zachor is read.[63]

The portion to be read:[64] The portion of Zachor is read from Parshas Ki Seitzei, from the words “Zeicher Es Asher Asa Lecha Amalek” until the end of the portion. The Haftorah of Zachor is read from “Pakadety Es Asher Asa Amalek”.[65]

How many Torah scrolls are removed and what is the order of reading:[66] Two scrolls are removed from the ark. [The Torah scroll is to be rolled to its proper section before Davening in order to prevent delay for the congregation.[67]] From the first scroll the entire weekly Torah portion is read until [and including] Shevi’i. The second scroll is then placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish. Hagbah is then done to the first scroll. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[68] The Maftir, which is the portion of Zachor, is read from the second scroll. When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.[69]

Zeicher/Zecher:[70] There is dispute amongst Poskim[71] as whether one is to read Zeicher Amalek or Zecher Amalek. Practically one is to read both dialects.[72] By the reading of Parshas Zachor [and Parshas Ki Seitzei] one reads first Zeicher and then Zecher. By the reading on Parshas Beshalach and Purim one reads first Zecher and then Zeicher.[73] The Chabad custom is to repeat only the word Zeicher and Zecher. Others have the custom to repeat the entire verse.[74] [By Parshas Beshalach and Ki Seitzei one is to repeat the words Zecher-Zeicher/Zeicher-Zecher in both Shevi’i and the Haftorah.[75]]

Can a child receive an Aliyah for Parshas Zachor?[76] If the child knows the meaning behind the Brachos recited before and after the reading, then he may receive the Aliyah and have a Gadol read the portion.[77] The Katan however may not read the Torah himself.[78] He may not receive an Aliyah if he does not know the meaning of the Bracha. Practically, however, it is no longer customary for children to be given Aliyos to the Torah with exception to Maftir by the Shabbos prior to the Bar Mitzvah. The Chabad custom is to be stringent in this matter at all times and to never call a child below the age of Mitzvos for any Aliyah. See Chapter 6 Halacha 1C for the full details of this subject!

 

Q&A

Why is a blessing of “Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav…” not recited over the reading of Parshas Zachor if it is a Biblical obligation?[79]

The reason for this is because we do not say a blessing over the destruction of others, even gentiles.

 

Must one hear the blessings of the Aliyah to be Yotzei the reading of Zachor?

Some Poskim[80] rule one must hear the blessing with intent to be Yotzei in order to fulfill the obligation of the reading. However from Admur[81] it is implied that this is not necessary.

 

Are the listeners to read along with the reader or are they to keep silent?

Some Poskim[82] rule those listeners which do not say the six remembrances daily are to read along quietly together with the reader when hearing Parshas Zachor. Others[83] however discourage this practice and rule one is to listen to the reading without saying the words. Practically the custom is like the latter opinion.[84]

 

Must one hear Parshas Zachor from a Baal Korei that reads in accordance to his accent? Can a Sephardi hear Zachor from an Ashkenazi Baal Korei or vice versa?

Some Poskim[85] rule that due to the difference of dialect in the pronunciation of Hashem’s name between Sephardim and Ashkenazim[86], each person is to hear the reading in accordance to his custom. If he is Ashkenazi he is to hear it from an Ashkenazi Baal Korei. If he is Sephardi he is to hear it from a Sephardi Baal Korei.

 

Must one hear the reading of Zachor from a Sefer Torah written in accordance to his custom?[87]

It is proper to do so, although this is not an obligation.

 

May one make a Minyan to read only Parshas Zachor for those who did not hear it?

Some Poskim[88] rule the extra Parshas may only be read as part of Kerias Hatorah of that week’s Parsha, and may not be read individually.[89] However others[90] rule that Parshas Zachor is an exception to this rule and it may be read with a Bracha if a Minyan gathers, even if they did not hear the weekly Torah reading beforehand. This may be done any time of the day, even past Mincha. Other Poskim[91] rule that past Mincha Gedola it is to be read without a blessing.

 

May one make Minyanim to read Parshas Zachor for patients in hospitals without first reading to them the weekly Torah portion?

See above.

 

May one bring the Sefer Torah to a different area for it to be read?

If one is physically unable to come to Shul for the Torah reading, such as one who is sick or is incarcerated in a prison, then if there will be a Minyan present, it is permitted to bring him a Sefer Torah to hear Parshas Zachor or Parshas Para.[92] If these conditions are not fulfilled then it is forbidden to bring a Sefer Torah to another area, unless the Sefer Torah is set up in an ark some time prior to the Keriah and remains there for one to two days, [and one reads from the Torah at least on three different occasions].[93]

 

May one remove the Sefer Torah and read Parshas Zachor without a Bracha if there is no Minyan?

Some Poskim[94] rule one may remove a Sefer Torah and read it without a Bracha if there is no Minyan.

 

May one make Kiddush and eat prior to hearing Parshas Zachor?[95]

It is proper not to do so.

 

Must women hear the reading of Parshas Zachor?

It is a Biblical obligation to hear Parshas Zachor.[96] Some Poskim[97], however, rule that women are not obligated to hear Parshas Zachor.[98] Other Poskim[99], however, rule that women are obligated just like men.[100] Practically the custom today amongst women is to treat the reading as an obligation and to go to shul for the reading.[101] [However, if it is difficult to do so, such as a if a woman is stuck at home with a child, then seemingly she is not obligated to go.[102]]

 

May one make a separate Minyan of Zachor for women?

Some communities have the custom to make a separate Minyan for women to hear Parshas Zachor [without a blessing].[103] However, some Poskim[104] argue that it should not be done.[105]

 

Must children hear Parshas Zachor?[106]

All male children which have reached the age of Chinuch are to attend the reading of Parshas Zachor. The definition of Chinuch in this regard is when the child is old enough to understand the idea of the destruction of Amalek. Girls which have reached the age of Chinuch have the same status as women in this regard.

 

May a child who is over Bar Mitzvah read Parshas Zachor?[107]

If the child has not yet grown two pubic hairs, he is not to read Parshas Zachor. This can be determined by whether he has a full face of facial hair. This applies until age 18.

 

In a leap year is one to fulfill his obligation of Zachor also with the reading of Parshas Ki Seitzei?

Some Poskim[108] rule that in the year prior to a leap year, asides for Parshas Zachor, one is to intend to fulfill his obligation of remembering Amalek also during the reading of Parshas Ki Seitzei.[109] Others[110] however hold it is not necessary to do so.[111]

 

What is the law if one missed a part of the reading, such as he walked into the reading in middle, or there was noise and he missed a word?

See Q&A at the end of the chapter!

 

Are the listeners to stand for the reading of Parshas Zachor?

See footnote.[112]

 

Noise making by Zachor:[113]

Many Gedolei Yisrael have protested against the noise making at the end of Parshas Zachor.[114]

 

3. Parshas Parah:[115]

A Biblical or Rabbinical obligation?[116] There are opinions[117] who say that there is a Biblical obligation to hear Parshas Parah.[118] [Many Poskim[119] however argue and rule there is no Biblical obligation to hear Parshas Para.]

Making sure to be with a Minyan for Parshas Parah:[120] Being that the reading of Parah is a Biblical obligation [according to some Poskim], it is required that one arrange to be in an area that has a Minyan for that Shabbos.

If no Minyan is available:[121] If a Minyan is not present on Shabbos for the reading of Parshas Parah, the portion is nevertheless to be read [without a blessing] with its proper tune.

When: When [the second[122] day of] Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Shabbos, Parshas Parah is read on the fourth Shabbos in Adar which is the 22nd of Adar.[123] When [the second day of] Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Monday or Wednesday Parshas Parah is read on the third Shabbos of Adar. When Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Friday, Parshas Parah is read on the fourth Shabbos in Adar which is the 23rd of Adar.

Which portion is read? The Torah portion for Parshas Parah is read from Parshas Chukas, from the words “Vayidabeir Hashem El Moshe Leimor Zos Chukas Hatorah…”[124] until the words “Titmah Ad Haerev”[125]. The Haftorah of Parah is read from Yechezkel[126], from the words “Vayehi Dvar Hashem Eilay Leimor..” until the words “Ani Hashem Dibarti Vaasisi”.[127]

What is the law if one did not read until verse 22, [“Titmah Ad Haerev”]?[128] If the Baal Korei stopped before verse 11[129] [“Lageir Hagar Bisocham”], then if the blessing recited after the Torah reading was not yet said, they are to continue the reading until verse 22. This applies even if the Sefer Torah was already rolled up.[130] If however, an after blessing over the Torah was already said, then even if the Torah scroll is still open, they must read the entire portion again from the beginning, and recite a new blessing before and after for the Aliyah.[131]

How many Torah scrolls are removed and what is the order of reading:[132] Two scrolls are removed from the ark. [The Torah scroll is to be rolled to its proper section before Davening in order to prevent delay for the congregation.[133]] From the first scroll the entire weekly Torah portion is read until [and including] Shevi’i. The second scroll is then placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish. Hagbah is then performed to the first scroll. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[134] [The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagbah.] For Maftir the portion of Parah is read from the second scroll. [On Shabbos Mevarchim the Chazan for Musaf takes the scroll of Maftir to hold. [135]]

 

Q&A

Are women obligated to hear Parshas Parah?[136]

No.[137]

If the Baal Korei skipped a verse in the reading of Parshas Para is one Yotzei?[138]

If he skipped any of the verses between verses 1-10 he is Yotzei.[139] If however he skipped a verse between 11-22, then if the verse discusses the main matter that the Sages required one to read in this Parsha, one is not Yotzei. If however the verse does not discuss the topic of the Parsha, one is Yotzei. However there are Poskim[140] that rule one is always Yotzei irrelevant of which verse was skipped.

What is the law if a congregation read Parshas Parah a week early?[141]

Some Poskim rule one is to read it again the next Shabbos. Others rule he is Yotzei and it thus does not need to be repeated the next week. Practically one is to repeat the reading.[142]

 

 

4. Hachodesh:

When: When [the second day of[143]] Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Shabbos, Parshas Hachodesh is read on the fifth Shabbos in Adar which is the 29th of Adar.[144] When [the second day of] Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Monday or Wednesday, Parshas Hachodesh is read on the fourth Shabbos of Adar. When Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Friday, Parshas Hachodesh is not read in the month of Adar but rather on Shabbos the 1st of Nissan. As a rule, in all cases Parshas Hachodesh is read the Shabbos following Parshas Parah.[145]

Which portion is read:[146] The portion read is from “Vayomer Hashem…Hachodesh Hazeh Lachem”[147] until the words “Bechol Moshvoseichem Tochlu Matzos”[148]. The Haftorah of Hachodesh is read from Yechezkel[149] from the words “Ko Amar Ado-nuy Hashem Barishon Lachodesh..” until the words “Baboker Olas Tamid”.[150]

How many Torah scrolls are removed and what is the order of the reading:[151] When Rosh Chodesh does not fall on Shabbos Hachodesh two scrolls are removed from the ark. From the first scroll the weekly Torah portion is read until the seventh Aliyah. The second scroll is then placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish. [The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagbah.] Hagbah is then done to the first scroll. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[152] For Maftir the portion of Hachodesh is read from the second scroll. [On Shabbos Mevarchim the Chazan for Musaf takes the scroll of Maftir to hold.[153]]

How many Torah scrolls are removed and what is the order of reading on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Hachodesh:[154] When Rosh Chodesh Nissan falls on Shabbos, three Sifrei Torah are removed. The weekly Sedra [Parsha of the week] is read regularly from the first scroll [until the 6th Aliyah. By the 6th Aliyah the remainder of the Parsha is read from Shishi until the end of the Parsha.[155] One then places the second scroll on the Bima for the seventh Aliyah and does Hagbah to the first Sefer Torah.[156] One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[157]] The portion of Rosh Chodesh is then read from the second scroll. [One then places the third scroll on the Bima together with the second scroll and says half Kaddish.[158] Hagbah is then done to the second scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagbah.] This is followed by the reading of the portion of Hachodesh, which is read as Maftir, from the third scroll. The Haftorah of Parshas HaChodesh is read.[159] This reading is then followed by the first and last verse of the Haftorah of Shabbos Rosh Chodesh or of Machar Chodesh.[160] [When adding the verses of Hashamayim Kisiy on Rosh Chodesh the custom is to add the first verse of the Haftorah and verses 23-24 and then again verse 23.[161]]

                                                                      

Q&A

What is the law if one began reading the wrong Haftorah?[162]

If one mistakenly read the wrong Haftorah, such as the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh or of the Parsha, then he is to read the correct Haftorah. If one only remembered after the blessings, then he is to read the Haftorah without its blessings.

 

Q&A on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Hachodesh

On Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Hachodesh, does one place the first Sefer Torah back on the Bimah when half Kaddish is said after the reading?[163]

No.[164]

 

What is one to do if they mistakenly began reading Parshas Hachodesh from the second Torah scroll [by the seventh Aliyah], instead of Parshas Rosh Chodesh?[165]

If they already began reading Parshas Hachodesh from the second Torah scroll they are to complete the reading and read the portion of Rosh Chodesh from the third Torah scroll [Maftir]. The Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh is then read from “Hashamayim Kisi”.

What is the law if the Baal Korei did not read until the end of Shevi’i by the 6th Aliyah on a day that three Sifrei Torah are removed?

A seventh Aliyah is to be called up for Shevi, and then an eighth Aliyah for the reading of the second scroll and then a ninth Aliyah for the reading of the third scroll.[166]

What is one to do if on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Hachodesh in which one needs three Torah scrolls there are only two scrolls available?

If there are only two Torah scrolls available, then one is to read the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh from the second scroll, and read the Parsha of Hachodesh from the first scroll.[167] This however only applies if the first scroll is rolled to the Parsha of Shekalim prior to its Hagbah. If however the first scroll was not rolled to the Parsha of Hachodesh prior to its Hagbah, then it is better to read the Hachodesh portion from the second scroll.[168] [Seemingly, if the Parsha of Hachodesh is adjacent to the weekly Parsha, then one is to read from the first scroll even if it was not rolled to Hachodesh prior to Hagbah.[169]]

 

5. During a leap year in which Adar are the four Parshiyos to be read?[170]

In a leap year the four Parshiyos are read in the second Adar.

 

General Q&A

What is the law if a congregation forgot to read one of the four Parshiyos?

*Important note: This law is only with regards to a congregation that heard the weekly Parsha and simply forgot to read the extra Parsha. If however they did not hear the weekly Parsha and want to make a Minyan specifically for the extra Parsha, see next Q&A!

They remembered that Shabbos:[171] If they remembered prior to the time of Mincha Gedola they are to take out the Sefer Torah and read it upon remembering. [See footnote for the order[172]] If they remembered after the time of Mincha Gedola, and long after having finished the prayers, some Poskim[173] rule it may no longer be read.[174] Others[175] rule it may be read by Mincha. Practically it may be read without a Bracha.[176] Regarding Parshas Zachor, refer to 1B in the Q&A!

Can they make up the Parsha the next Shabbos? If a congregation forgot to read the extra Parsha then the opportunity is lost and the reading cannot be made up on the following week.[177] Many Poskim[178] however rule that Parshas Parah is an exception to the above ruling.[179] Thus if a congregation did not read Parshas Para on its proper Shabbos they may read it the next Shabbos.[180] Some[181] conclude that this is the practical ruling that is to be followed.

 

Can one make a Minyan for people to hear just the extra Parsha even if they did not hear the Parsha of the week?

One may not make a Minyan to read the extra Parsha of the week if the Minyan did not hear the weekly Parsha.[182]

Parshas Zachor: Some Poskim[183] rule that an exception to the above ruling is the Parsha of Zachor, which may be read with a Bracha if a Minyan gathers, even if they did not hear the weekly Torah reading. This may be done any time of the day, even after Mincha. Other Poskim[184] however rule that past Mincha Gedola it is to be read without a Bracha.

If the Baal Korei skipped a verse in the reading of one of the four Parshiyos is one Yotzei?[185]

If the skipped verse discusses the matter that the Sages required one to read in this Parsha, then one is not Yotzei. If however the verse does not discuss the topic of the Parsha, one is Yotzei. However there are Poskim[186] that rule one is always Yotzei irrelevant of the verse that was skipped.

What is the law if the Baal Korei skipped one word or letter?[187]

It is considered as if that verse was skipped, and thus receives the status of law discussed in the previous Q&A!

What is the law if a Parsha was read on its wrong Shabbos?

See General Q&A 1 regarding making up the missed Parsha the next week. See Halacha A & C in Q&A regarding if one is required to repeat the reading of the Parsha that was already read.

 

What is the law if a congregation accidently read the four Parshiyos in the first Adar?[188]

If a congregation read the four Parshiyos in the first Adar they are required to repeat the reading in the second Adar.

 

____________________________________

[1] Taz 685:1

Other reasons: Some write the reason for reading Parshas Shekalim in proximity to the month of Adar is because Haman gave Shekalim on behalf of destroying the Jewish people and in order to counteract his Shekalim Hashem gave us a Mitzvah of giving Shekalim. [Kaf Hachaim 685:3; Megillah 13b]

[2] The Mishneh Berurah 685:2 states that the reading of the Shekalim fulfills the dictum of “to complete the sacrifices using our lips”. This verse teaches us that when we are unable to fulfill a Mitzvah in its physical sense, due to lack of a Temple, we are still able to fulfill the Mitzvah by reading the verses of the Mitzvah. Accordingly reading Parshas Shekalim even today is not just a matter of commemoration but an actual level of fulfillment of the Mitzvah.

[3] Was Parshas Shekalim read in the times of the Temple? From the Taz ibid it is implied that the portion of Shekalim was also read in the times of the Temple in order to remind the people to bring the donation, and today we continue this reading. However from the Mishneh Berurah ibid it is implied that the reading began after the destruction so we can verbally fulfill the requirement, as stated above.

[4] 685:1 and 5

[5] Levush brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:26

[6] 685:5

[7] Levush brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:26

[8] 685:1

[9] Mentioned in Michaber of both previous Halachos which adds that he is referring to “the Adar which is close to Nissan”

[10] 685:1

[11] The Michaber writes until “Veasisa Kiyor Nechoshes” which is verse 18. However the intent is to read until that section and not literally until those words. Upashut.

[12] So rules Michaber 685:1; Kol Bo 20 and so are the Sephardic and Chabad customs. However the Ashkenazim are accustomed to start the Haftorah from the words “Beshnas Sheva Liyeihu”. This follows the ruling of the Tur; Levush. [Kaf Hachaim 685:11]

Reason for reading this Haftorah: This Haftorah discusses the donation of the Shekalim.

[13] Mishneh Berurah 685:9 and 12

[14] See Michaber 685:2 regarding Zachar

[15] See 282:12 for the reason why Kaddish is recited between the five Aliyos and Maftir.

[16] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[17] Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

Bedieved: If the Chazan accidently took the first scroll, it is not to be switched for the second scroll due to worry of Pegam. [Shaareiy Efraim ibid]

[18] See Shaar Efraim ibid

[19] 685:1

[20] Mishneh Berurah 685:4

[21] Hagba is only done after the second scroll is placed on the Bima. [Rama 147:8] Some [Rav M. Harlig] say that the Torah is to be placed on the right side of the first Torah. Others say it is to be placed on the left side. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 36; Hiskashrus 1078 footnote 5]

[22] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[23] Mishneh Berurah 685:5; See Levush and Kaf Hachaim 684:19 for the reason behind this; The Sephardi custom is to say two Kaddeishim, one after the second scroll, and one after the third scroll [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[24] Michaber ibid; Megillah 29b

The reason for reading Haftorah of Shekalim and not Rosh Chodesh: Although the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh is Tadir [more common] and hence should have precedence, nevertheless we read the Haftorah of Shekalim being it was the last portion read. [Levush; M”B 685:3] Alternatively, it is because this Haftorah also mentions Rosh Chodesh. [Mordechai Megillah ibid] Alternatively, it is because the Sages explicitly placed these Haftorahs to be read instead of Rosh Chodesh. [Shivlei Haleket 53, brought in Elya Raba 685:17; P”M 685 A”A 1]

[25] Custom of Rebbe Rayatz, as brought in glosses of Rebbe to the Seder Haftoras in Siddur Torah Or, printed in Sefer Haftoras Chabad, and mentioned in Likkutei Sichos 35:187 footnote 34

The reason: In order to begin and end the last verse of Hashamayim Kisiy with a verse of good tidings. [verse 24 talks of negative matters] [Likkutei Sichos ibid]

[26] Likkutei Sichos 35:27; Igros Kodesh 5:108 [letter to Rav A.C. Naah printed in Shulchan Menachem p. 96-105]; See Igros Kodesh 2:308 of Rebbe Rayatz in a letter to Rav Yaakov Landau that he was in doubt as to whether the verses of Rosh Chodesh are to be mentioned in this instance; See Background ibid and other opinions brought next

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even according to the ruling of the Michaber ibid and Chabad custom of the Rebbe Maharash, one is not to recite the verses of Rosh Chodesh after the Haftorah of Chanukah. The reason for this is because we only mention Rosh Chodesh in cases in which there are opinions that require it to be read that Shabbos. However all the Poskim agree that the Haftorah of Chanukah is to be read instead of Rosh Chodesh and there is thus no reason to mention it. [Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 16] The Rebbe ibid disputes his ruling

[27] Yifei Laleiv 3:1 brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:4

[28] Luach Kolel Chabad Noach; Hiskashrus 1078; See Dvar Moshe 25:3; Shaareiy Efraim 9:19; Kaf Hachaim 425:18; Ketzos Hashulchan 88:5; Ashel Avraham, in name of Dvar Moshe brought in Otzer Hamifarshim 425; Kaf Hachaim 423:9

[29] Levush, brought in Kaf Hachaim 684:19

[30] This is only done when Kaddish is said after the 1st Sefer prior to the 2nd, and not when Kaddish is said after the 2nd.

[31] Nodah Biyehuda Mahadurah Tinyana 11; Chayeh Adam 154:41; Shaareiy Efraim 8:82; Mishneh Berurah 685:5; Kaf Hachaim 685:14

[32] As the custom is to permit to add more than seven Aliyos on Shabbos [Admur 282:1] Now, although there are Poskim that forbid doing so [Tashbatz 2:70, brought in Hagahos Harif and Kaf Hachaim 282:10] and so is our custom not to add any more Aliyos [Tzemach Tzedek 35:7; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:1] nevertheless, in a case of need one may do so [Tzemach Tzedek and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]. This especially applies in such a case that one must read another three Aliyos being that they involve three different Sefer Torahs, and hence all remaining three Aliyos are considered an obligation. See also Kaf Hachaim 684:17 in name of Peri Chadash, Levush, Birkeiy Yosef 282:3. A further proof for this can be brought from Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] that even if one skipped one word or one letter one must go back and read it even if it means adding an Aliya, and hence certainly here one must add a seventh Aliya to Shevi and then read another two Aliyos.

Delaying Shevi until next Shabbos: One cannot delay Shevi’i until next Shabbos, and thus only have 8 Aliyos, as even a missed letter from the Parsha must be read that Shabbos, as brought in Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] and certainly if the entire Shevi was missed.

[33] Rama 669:1; Peri Chadash 684; Shulchan Gavoa 684:11; Kaf Hachaim 684:16

[34] Chemed Moshe 669; Kaf Hachaim 669:41; Biur Halacha 669:1 “Vechozrim”

[35] The reason: As Shekalim is read from Ki Sisa which is in proximity to the weekly Parsha, while Rosh Chodesh is read from Pinchas which is very distanced from Ki Sisa, and thus in this situation, seemingly even according to the Chemed Moshe ibid one should read Shekalim from the first scroll.

[36] Michaber 146:2; 685:7; Admur 282:16 “Parshas Zachar is an obligation in the Torah that every person hear.”

[37] Setimas Michaber 146:2; Yeish Omrim in Michaber 685:7; Setimas Admur 282:16 “Parshas Zachar is an obligation in the Torah that every person hear”; Tosfos Brachos 13a; Tosfos Riy Hachassid Brachos 13a; Tosfos Shantz Sota 33a, brought in Terumas Hadeshen 108; Haeshkol Hilchos Chanukah Upurim 10; Rashba Brachos 13a; Ritva Megillah 17b; Rosh Brachos 47b; Hagahos Ashriy Chapter 6 Brachos; Smak based on Megillah 18a; Sefer Hachinuch Mitzvah 603; See M”A 685:1; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:287

Other opinions: Some Rishonim imply that Parshas Zachar is only Rabbinical. [Implication of Semag; Possible implication of Rambam]

[38] The source: This is learned from the verse “Zachor Es Asher Asa Lecha Amalek” which implies one must verbalize the remembrance of Amalek and it does not suffice to remember it in one’s mind. [Kaf Hachaim 685:33]

[39] Setimas Michaber 146:2 and Admur ibid

[40] Mahram Shick Mitzvah 605

[41] Nevertheless, even according to this opinion, whenever one remembers Amalek during the year, such as by the six remembrances said daily after prayer, he also fulfills a Biblical obligation. It is just that the remembering Amalek through the reading from a Sefer Torah with a Minyan is only fulfilled once a year. [Shaar Hamoadim Adar p. 235]

[42] Chinuch 603; Ramban Ki Seitzei

[43] M”A 685:1; Beir Heiytiv 685:2; P”M 685 M”Z 12; Shaareiy Efraim 8:85; Minchas Elazar 2:1; Aruch Hashulchan 685:5; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:5; M”B 685:8; Mahril Diskin 2 Kuntrus Acharon 5:111; Kaf Hachaim 685:28

[44] Aruch Hashulchan ibid

[45] Michaber 685:7; Terumas Hadeshen 108; Beis Yosef; Levush, brought in Kaf Hachaim 690:125

[46] Kaf Hachaim 685:33

[47] Rama 685:7

[48] Kaf Hachaim 685:35

[49] M”A 685:1 and so rules Beir Heiytiv 685:2; P”M 685 M”Z 12; Shaareiy Efraim 8:85; Minchas Elazar 2:1; Kaf Hachaim 685:28

[50] The reason: As it does not state anywhere in the Torah that one must specifically read Zachor from a Sefer Torah the Shabbos before Purim. It is rather an institution of the Sages that Zachor is to be read before Purim. This institution was made because on the Shabbos before Purim many people are found in Shul. Alternatively, it was done in order to proximate the destruction of Amalek to the story of Haman. However from the Biblical perspective, any time one hears the Torah reading of Amalek he fulfills his obligation. [ibid]

[51] Aruch Hashulchan 685:5; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:5; M”B 685:8; Mahril Diskin 2 Kuntrus Acharon 5:111

[52] The reason: They rule that the Mitzvah of remembering Amalek is only fulfilled when one reads of the Mitzvah to destroy Amalek, and this command is only written in Parshas Ki Seitzei which is read on Parshas Zachor, and not in Parshas Beshalach which is read on Purim. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

[53] Aruch Hashulchan ibid; Hisvadyos 1989 2 p. 442-446 printed in Shaar Hamoadim Adar 46-47

[54] Har Tzevi 1:58

[55] Aruch Hashulchan ibid

[56] Olas Shmuel 209 brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:34

[57] The reason: As in any event one can read the Megillah in private without a Minyan. [ibid]

[58] M”A 685:1

[59] 685:2 and 5

[60] The reason: In order to proximities the remembrance of Amalek in Parshas Zachor to the obliteration of Amalek which is commemorated on Purim. [Taz 685:1]

[61] Levush brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:26

[62] 685:2

[63] 685:5

[64] 685:2

[65] The Haftorah is found in Shmuel 1 chapter 15

[66] Mishneh Berurah 685:9 and 12

[67] Pashut as this is the entire reason for why we are to take out two Sifrei Torahs.

[68] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[69] See Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

[70] Igros Kodesh 18 [letter 905, printed in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:288]; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22 and glosses to volume 3 (p.74b)

[71] This dispute is recorded in M”B 685:18; The Rebbe in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag ibid writes his source is from the Mesorah; Some Poskim rule the main Nussach is with a Tzeirei. [Bitzel Hachachma 6:50; Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:9] Others rule the main Nussach is with a Segal. [Maaseh Rav 134 that so was the custom of the Gra; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22; In the glosses to volume 3 (p.74b) he proves that this was also the opinion of the Tzemach Tzedek] In conclusion the Rebbe and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid rule that by Beshalach the main Nussach is with a Segol while by Ki Seitzei the main Nussach is with a Tzerei. Nevertheless, we still read both Nuschaos as will be explained.

The saying of the Toras Chesed: The Ketzos Hashulchan ibid quotes that the Toras Chesed stated regarding this dispute “Zecher, Zeicher, the main thing is to blot them out properly”.

[72] M”B ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid in name of Toras Chesed; Igros Kodesh ibid 

Background:

The Ketzos Hashulchan ibid writes that those which are meticulous would read it one time with a Tzeirei and one time with a Segal. By the reading of Beshalach and Ki Seitzei [when the Parsha is read twice, once for Shevi’i and a second time for Maftir] they would read it one way by Shevi’i and the second way by Maftir. By Purim and Parshas Zachor [in which the portion is only read once] they would repeat the verse twice. In the glosses to volume 3 (p.74b) he concludes that this is the custom, to read both Zeicher and Zecher, and so was the directive of Rav Shneur Zalman of Lublin, the author of Toras Chesed. To note however that there he mentions that the Baal Korei in Lubavitch stated they by Beshalach they would read only with a Segal, and by Ki Seitzei only with a Tzeirei.

[73] So concludes the Rebbe ibid in Igros Kodesh and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

The reason behind this order of Zeicher:Zecher: This ruling is based on the Sefer Boneh Yerushalayim which is Meyuchas to the Alter Rebbe. There it states that by Beshalach the main Nussach is with a Segol while by Ki Seitzei the main Nussach is with a Tzeirei. [Nevertheless we still read both Nuschaos as ruled the Toras Chesed.] Thus by Beshalach we first read it with a Segal [Zecher] and then with a Tzeirei [Zeicher], as the first word read is viewed as the main Nussach. By Ki Seitzei we follow the opposite order as the word Zeicher is the main Nussach. [Igros Kodesh ibid; Boneh Yerushalayim ibid brought in Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

[74] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:9

[75] Igros Kodesh ibid; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 18; unlike the custom recorded in Ketzos Hashulchan 85 footnote 22, and the supplements in the back of the Sefer, that one is to read Zeicher by Shevi’i and Zecher by Maftir.

[76] Admur 282:16

Other Opinions: The Rashal rules a Katan may not receive the Aliyah for Zachor as the reading is Biblical. The Bach however rules if the Katan knows the idea of the Bracha than he may receive the Aliyah and read from the Torah. If he does not know the idea of the blessing then he may receive the Aliyah but may not read from the Torah. The Taz [685:2] rules one must be Yotzei also the Bracha, and hence only if the Katan knows the meaning behind the Bracha can he receive the Aliyah. [See Kaf Hachaim 685:31] Some Poskim write that a Katan is not to receive an Aliyah for any of the four Parshiyos. [Ginas Veradim 1:37; Rav Akiva Eiger 282; Shaareiy Efraim 9:3; See Biur Halacha 282 “Oa”]

[77] The reason: As since the Baal Korei is a Gadol everyone is Yotzei [irrelevant of the fact a Katan received the Aliyah]. [ibid] Although Admur here rules like the Taz 685:2 that if the Katan knows the meaning of the blessing he may receive an Aliyah but may not read, nevertheless it seems based on the above reason that Admur is arguing on the Taz regarding the reason for why a Katan is valid to receive the Aliyah. The Taz rules that one must be Yotzei the Bracha in order to be Yotzei the Keriah, and by a Katan which knows the meaning of the Brachos one fulfills the Bracha when hearing it from him. However from Admur here it seems the Katan does not fulfill the obligation of the Bracha on behalf of the listeners, as Admur states clearly that anyone who is not obligated in the Mitzvah cannot fulfill another’s obligation, and Admur rules in 282:5 that a Katan is not obligated to say the Brachos. This conclusion is further established through the ruling of Admur in 53:13 in which Admur rules that “a Katan cannot be a Chazan because he cannot be Yotzei others, however he may receive an Aliyah because there is no obligation upon the public to say the Bracha but only for the person receiving the Aliyah, as opposed to Davening which is an obligation upon all to fulfill”. This clearly implies that no one fulfills the Bracha of the Aliyah through hearing the Bracha from the Katan. Furthermore, it implies there is no need to be Yotzei the Bracha at all for one to fulfill the Mitzvah of Keriah. This is clearly reiterated in Admur 124:11 in which he rules “The blessing was not instituted for the sake of the congregation but rather due to that it is proper for one who reads from the Torah to recite a blessing. Now, although it is an obligation upon the congregation to hear the blessing being said [as explained in 139:6] nevertheless the main part of the blessing is on his own behalf and not on behalf of the congregation, as is the case with Chazaras Hashatz. “This is unlike the Taz ibid which rules one needs to be Yotzei the Bracha, and a Katan can be Yotzei the Bracha for others.

[78] The reason: As since he is not obligated in the Mitzvah, he cannot fulfill the obligation for others. [ibid]

[79] Yifei Laleiv 3:3 brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:29

[80] Taz 685:2; Chasam Sofer Glosses on 685

[81] In 53:13 and 124:11 Admur rules there is no need for the congregation to fulfill the Brachos of the Aliyah. Furthermore, it is also implied from 282:16 from the fact a Katan may not read Zachor but may recite the Brachos, even though others do not fulfill their obligation with his Bracha as is proven from 53:13. See above in previous footnotes for a lengthy discussion on this ruling.

[82] Minchas Elazar 2:1 based on Mahram Alshiker that one only fulfills the Mitzvos of remembrance [Zachor; Shabbos] if he verbalizes the words. So rules also Shaagas Aryeh 13 brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 19 footnote 28

[83] Yechaveh Daas 3:53; Meishiv Davar 47; See also Ketzos Hashulchan 19 footnote 28 which negates the ruling of the Mahram Alshiker.

[84] Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:7

[85] Yabia Omer 6:11

[86] Sephardim say Hashem’s name with a Patach while Ashkenazim say it with a Kamatz. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 685 footnote 41]

[87] Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:10

[88] Birkeiy Yosef 685:3

[89] The reason: As we do not find anywhere that we read the Torah with only one Aliyah. [ibid]

[90] Tzitz Eliezer 16:21

[91] Sheivet Halevy 4:71; See however there that if the people who came to this Minyan are not G-d fearing, then past Mincha one should not read for them Zachor, even without a blessing, and rather they are to come for the reading of Purim to be Yotzei.

[92] M”A 135:23 based on Oar Zarua [regarding Zachor]; M”B 135:46 [adds even Parah]; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:26

[93] See Rama 135:14; Aruch Hashulchan 135:32; Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:25

[94] Kaf Hachaim 685:35 based on Rama 685:7; Kinyan Torah 7:55; See Shraga Hameir 6:116; Binyan Shlomo 54

[95] Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:4; Nitei Gavriel 4:12

[96] Michaber 146:2; 685:7; Admur 282:16; Tosfos; Rashba; Rosh [Brachos 13a]; Hagahos Ashriy Chapter 6 Brachos; Tosfos Shantz brought in Terumas Hadeshen 8; Smak; based on Megillah 18a.; See M”A 685:1; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:287; Some opinions rule this Biblical obligation is only fulfilled if one hears the reading of Zachor from a Sefer Torah together with a Minyan. [Mahram Shick Mitzvah 605] Others rule the Biblical obligation is fulfilled by simply mentioning the remembrance of Amalek, and hearing it from the Torah with a Minyan is only Rabbinical. [Chinuch 603; Ramban Ki Seitzei; Toras Chesed [Lublin] 37] According to all, the Biblical obligation is fulfilled whenever one hears the reading of Amalek from the Torah, such as on Parshas Ki Seitzei and, according to some Poskim, also on Parshas Beshalach. [M”A 685:1] Nevertheless, Rabbinically one must initially fulfill this Biblical obligation with the reading on Parshas Zachor. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

The source: This is learned from the verse “Zachor Es Asher Asa Lecha Amalek” which implies one must verbalize the remembrance of Amalek and it does not suffice to remember it in one’s mind. [Kaf Hachaim 685:33]

[97] Chinuch 603; Avnei Nezer 509; Marcheshes 1:22; Aruch Hashulchan 685:2; Arugas Habosem 205; Tzitz Hakodesh 1:51; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:5; Divreiy Chaim 2:14; Kaf Hachaim 685:30; Toras Chesed [Lublin] 37: “Minhag Yisrael is Torah and we have never heard of women going to Shul for Parshas Zachor. One should not be Machmir in this”

[98] The reason: As a) Women are not obligated in the Mitzvah to remember Amalek. [Chinuch ibid] b) Even if women are obligated, the Biblical command is just to remember, while the hearing from a Sefer Torah with a Minyan is only Rabbinical, and was only established for men. [Toras Chesed ibid]

[99] Minchas Chinuch Mitzvah 603, Binyan Tziyon 2:8 in name of Rav Nassan Adler; Minchas Elazar 2:1-5; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 835; and other Poskim mentioned in Sdei Chemed Klalim Mareches Zayin Klal 13; Minchas Yitzchak 9:68; See Admur 282:16 “Parshas Zachar is an obligation in the Torah that every person hear” Vetzaruch Iyun if this wording is coming to include women, or simply to emphasize that it is an individual obligation rather than a communal obligation; See also Admur 489:1 who writes regarding Sefiras Haomer “It is a positive command for every Jew..” and then writes in 489:2 “Women are exempt”

[100] The reason: As women are obligated in the Mitzvah of remembering Amalek, as it is not a time dependent positive command [see Toras Chesed ibid] and thus they receive the same laws as the men in this regard.

[101] Minchas Yitzchak 9:68; Rebbe in Sichas Parshas Zachor 5783; See Admur 17:3 regarding Shofar and Lulav

[102] However, Tzaruch Iyun, as perhaps the new custom is now binding like a vow, and hence is similar to a women’s obligation of hearing Shofar and shaking Lulav. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[103] Minchas Yitzchak 9:68

[104] Toras Chesed [Lublin] 37; Mikraeiy kodesh; Kinyan Torah 7:53; Shraga Hameir 6:16; Poskim brought in Minchas Yitzchak ibid

[105] The reason: As one should not remove a Torah from the ark for a reading which is not obligatory. [ibid]

[106] See 343:3

[107] Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:11

[108] Mahram Shick Mitzvah 605

[109] The reason: As after 12 months have passed without remembering Amalek it is considered as if he has forgotten it. [ibid]

[110] Divreiy Yoel 33

[111] The reason: As the extra month during a leap year is considered part of that year and hence it is not considered that more than 12 months have passed. [ibid]

[112] I have not seen such a custom recorded anywhere. However I have witnessed in some Shul’s that the custom is to stand.

[113] Hiskashrus 109 and 1025; Yalkut Yosef 5:259

[114] The reason: Seemingly the reason for this is due to a Hefsek, interval, in the reading or between the reading and the blessing.

[115] Reason why it is read before Hachodesh: The reason why we read Parshas Parah before Hachodesh is because it discusses the purification of the Jewish people and is thus given precedence. [Rashi Megillah 29a; Kaf Hachaim 685:19]

[116] Michaber 146:2; 685:7; Admur 282:16 only mentions Parshas Zachor

[117] Tosfos Haketzaros Brachos chapter 2; Aruch Hashulchan 685:7

[118] Some rule this is learned from the words “Lechukas Olam” written by Parah Adumah. This teaches us that one is to read the portion annually. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

[119] Peri Chadash 146; Shlah ; Bach; Rashal; 182; Tosfos Shantz brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:28; M”B 685:15

[120] Michaber 685:7

[121] Rama 685:7

[122] Levush brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:26

[123] 685:3

[124] Chapter 19 verse 1

[125] Chapter 19 verse 22. As the entire Parsha until this verse discusses the matter of purification. [Kol Bo 20; Levush; M”B 685:10; Kaf Hachaim 685:20]

[126] Chapter 36 verse 16

[127] Chapter 36 verse 36

[128] 136:5

[129] The first ten verses only hint to the Mitzvah of Parah Aduma and hence do not suffice for one to fulfill his obligation. [M”A 136:11]

[130] The Rama 136:5 rules that if they already closed and rolled up the Torah Scroll, then the entire reading must be repeated from the beginning, with a Bracha before and after. The majority of Achronim however explain that this “rolling” is not to be taken literally and rather if an after blessing was not yet made, even if the Torah was already rolled up, one may still return to the reading. [Elya Raba; Shaareiy Efraim 7:4; Mishneh Berurah 136:17] The P”M 136 M”Z 4 explains that this rolling up refers to returning the Torah to the Aron.

[131] Elya Raba; Shaareiy Efraim 7:4; Mishneh Berurah 136:17

The Reason: One must repeat the reading with a Bracha because the first reading was unlike the institution of the Sages and was thus invalid. [M”B ibid]

Other Opinions: The Taz 136:4 rules that so long as the Torah has not yet been rolled up [and put away in the Aron-P”M 136 M”Z 4] they may continue with the reading, even if an after Bracha has already been said.

[132] Mishneh Berurah 685:9, 12

[133] Pashut as this is the entire reason for why we are to take out two Sifrei Toras

[134] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[135] See Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

[136] Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:6

[137] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 240 that makes an implication from Sichas Parah 1976 that even women are obligated.

[138] M”B 136:18; Elya Raba 136:10

[139] M”B 136:18

[140] M”A 136:11

[141] See Kaf Hachaim 685:23

[142] As ruled earlier regarding one who read Parshas Shekalim a week early.

[143] Levush brought in Kaf Hachaim 685:26

[144] 685:4

[145] Rambam Hilchos Tefilla 13:21; Kaf Hachaim 685:19

The Reason: In truth the Parsha of Hachodesh should have been read before Parshas Parah, as the Mitzvah of Hachodesh was given beforehand. Therefore it is not proper to make an interval between the two Parshiyos. [Ran brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid] Regarding why in truth we read Parshas Parah before Hachodesh, this is because it discusses the purification of the Jewish people and thus is given precedence. [Rashi Megillah 29a]

[146] 685:4

[147] Bo Chapter 12 verse 1

[148] Chapter 12 verse 20

[149] Chapter 45 verse 18

Custom of the Rebbe: The Rebbe would begin the Haftorah from verse 16 “Kol Haam Ha’aretz Yihyu”. This custom however is not meant as a public directive. [Rishimos Hayoman p. 415]

[150] Chapter 46 verse 15

[151] Mishneh Berurah 685:9 and 12

[152] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[153] See Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

[154] 685:1

[155] Mishneh Berurah 685:4

[156] Hagba is only done after the second scroll is placed on the Bima. [Rama 147:8] Some [Rav M. Harlig] say that the Torah is to be placed on the right side of the first Torah. Others say it is to be placed on the left side. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 36; Hiskashrus 1078 footnote 5]

[157] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[158] Mishneh Berurah 685:5

[159] Rama ibid; Sefer Haminhagim ibid

[160] Sefer Haminhagim ibid; See background ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even according to the ruling of the Michaber ibid and Chabad custom of the Rebbe Maharash, one is not to recite the verses of Rosh Chodesh after the Haftorah of Chanukah. The reason for this is because we only mention Rosh Chodesh in cases in which there are opinions that require it to be read that Shabbos. However, all the Poskim agree that the Haftorah of Chanukah is to be read instead of Rosh Chodesh and there is thus no reason to mention it. [Ketzos Hashulchan 88 footnote 16] The Rebbe ibid disputes his ruling.

[161] Custom of Rebbe Rayatz, as brought in glosses of Rebbe to the Seder Haftoras in Siddur Torah Or, printed in Sefer Haftoras Chabad, and mentioned in Likkutei Sichos 35:187 footnote 34

The reason: In order to begin and end the last verse of Hashamayim Kisiy with a verse of good tidings. [verse 24 talks of negative matters] [Likkutei Sichos ibid]

[162] Luach Kolel Chabad Noach; Hiskashrus 1078; See Dvar Moshe 25:3; Shaareiy Efraim 9:19; Kaf Hachaim 425:18; Ketzos Hashulchan 88:5; Ashel Avraham, in name of Devar Moshe brought in Otzer Hamifarshim 425; Kaf Hachaim 423:9

[163] Levush, brought in Kaf Hachaim 684:19

[164] This is only done when Kaddish is said after the 1st Sefer prior to the 2nd, and not when Kaddish is said after the 2nd.

[165] Shaareiy Efraim 8:91; Mishneh Berurah 685:5; Kaf Hachaim 685:14

[166] As the custom is to permit to add more than seven Aliyos on Shabbos [Admur 282:1] Now, although there are Poskim that forbid doing so [Tashbatz 2:70, brought in Hagahos Harif and Kaf Hachaim 282:10] and so is our custom not to add any more Aliyos [Tzemach Tzedek 35:7; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:1] nevertheless, in a case of need one may do so [Tzemach Tzedek and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]. This especially applies in such a case that one must read another three Aliyos being that they involve three different Sefer Torahs, and hence all remaining three Aliyos are considered an obligation. See also Kaf Hachaim 684:17 in name of Peri Chadash, Levush, Birkeiy Yosef 282:3. A further proof for this can be brought from Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] that even if one skipped one word or one letter one must go back and read it even if it means adding an Aliya, and hence certainly here one must add a seventh Aliya to Shevi and then read another two Aliyos.

Delaying Shevi until next Shabbos: One cannot delay Shevi’i until next Shabbos, and thus only have 8 Aliyos, as even a missed letter from the Parsha must be read that Shabbos, as brought in Admur 282:20 [and Michaber 137:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:10] and certainly if the entire Shevi was missed.

[167] Rama 669:1; Peri Chadash 684; Shulchan Gavoa 684:11; Kaf Hachaim 684:16

[168] Chemed Moshe 669; Kaf Hachaim 669:41; Biur Halacha 669:1 “Vechozrim”

[169] The reason: As Hachodesh is read from Bo which is in proximity to the weekly Parsha, while Rosh Chodesh is read from Pinchas which is very distanced from Ki Sisa, and thus in this situation, seemingly even according to the Chemed Moshe ibid one should read Shekalim from the first scroll.

[170] Mentioned in Michaber 685:1; 685:5 which adds that he is referring to “the Adar which is close to Nissan”

[171] Shaareiy Efraim 8:92; M”B 685:2; Kaf Hachaim 685:7-9

[172] If they remembered after already reading the Maftir and Haftorah: They are to take out the Sefer Torah and read the extra Parsha from it. One person is called to read from the Torah, and says a blessing before and after as is usually done. Half Kaddish is recited after the concluding blessing that follows the reading. This is then followed by Hagba and Haftorah. The Haftorah is read without reciting a blessing neither before nor after the Haftorah.

If they remembered immediately after reciting the opening blessing over the Haftorah: They should read some of the verses of the Haftorah, and before saying an after Bracha they are to take out a Sefer Torah and read the extra Parsha. One person is called up for the Aliyah and the Brachos are recited before and after. Kaddish is then recited which is followed by Hagba. One is then to read the Haftorah without a before Bracha, and after concluding the Haftorah, the after Bracha for the Haftorah is recited. [Shaareiy Efraim 8:92; M”B 685:2; Kaf Hachaim 685:7-9]

[173] Chida in Yosef Ometz 27; Kaf Hachaim 685:5

[174] The reason: As the Sages instituted for the Parsha to be read in proximity to the morning Torah reading and not as a separate reading by Mincha.

According to all if the Minyan of Shacharis continued past the time of Mincha Gedola they are obviously to still read the extra Parsha, and the above is only discussing a case that they finished Davening and only then remembered they did not read the extra Parsha.

[175] Zechor Leavraham 1 “Sefer Torah” rules it may be read past the time of Mincha Gedola and is thus to be read by Kerias Hatorah of Mincha. [brought in Sheivet Halevy 4:71] Hisorerus Teshuvah 4:68 rules they are to read Kohen and Levi in the portion for Mincha, and Yisrael for the extra Parsha.

[176] Sheivet Halevy 4:71

[177] Ginas Veradim 1:35; Shaareiy Efraim 8:95; Mishneh Berurah 685:2; Kaf Hachaim 685:10; Sheivet Halevy 4:71; Yosef Ometz 27

The Reason: The Sages set an exact time for when the extra Parshiyos are to be read. If their time passes, the opportunity is lost. [Shaareiy Rachamim 57 on Shaareiy Efraim ibid]

Other Poskim: Mahram Shik 335 rules that one may make up the reading of Parshas Shekalim on the next Shabbos, as all Parshiyos have Tashlumin if their reading content is still relevant, and the Shekalim were collected throughout the entire month of Adar. So rules also Hisorerus Teshuvah 4:64. We however do not rule like this opinion. [Sheivet Halevy 4:71; and so is evident from the ruling of all the above Poskim]

[178] Beis David 106; Chida in Ledavid Emes 9:5 brought in Sheivet Halevy 4:71; Kaf Hachaim 685:10; Tzitz Eliezer 14:66

Other Opinions: The Pischeiy Shearim on Shaareiy Efraim ibid argues that no Parsha is able to be made up the following week, and so seems to be the opinion of the M”B which did not mention any differentiation.

[179] The reason: Their reasoning is because Parshas Parah is read in order so one purify oneself for the holiday of Pesach, and this purification can still be done the next week as well. [Sheivet Halevy 4:71]

[180] The order: Accordingly, the order is as follows: They remove three Sifreiy Torah. From the first scroll they read the weekly Parsha [until Shishi]. In the second scroll the Parsha of Parah is read [as Shevi’i] with a blessing said before and after. In the third the Parsha of Hachodesh is read as Maftir. The Haftorah of Hachodesh then follows. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:1]

[181] Yechaveh Daas 3:52; Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:1

[182] Birkeiy Yosef 685:3

The reason: As it is unheard of for one to make a Torah reading with only one Aliyah. The extra Parsha must be read as a continuation of the seven Aliyos which are called up for the weekly Parsha. [ibid]

[183] Tzitz Eliezer 16:21

[184] Sheivet Halevy 4:71; See however there that if the people who came to this Minyan are not G-d fearing then one should not read for them Parshas Zachor if it is past Mincha, even without a blessing, and rather they are to come for the reading of Purim to be Yotzei.

[185] M”B 136:18; Elya Raba 136:10

[186] M”A 136:11

[187] Admur 182:20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:1

[188] Tur 688; Darkei Moshe; Bach; Elya Raba 685:21; Shaareiy Efraim 8:96; Mishneh Berurah 685:2; Kaf Hachaim 685:6

Other Opinions: It is implied from the Beis Yosef that they are not required to repeat the reading in Adar Sheiyni. [M”B 685:2]

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