Chapter 12: Holiday related Hazards

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Chapter 12: Holiday related Hazards

1. Rosh Chodesh:

A. Cutting hair on Rosh Chodesh:

See “Hair.”

B. Cutting nails on Rosh Chodesh:

See “Nails.”

C. Announcing the Molad:[1]

The saying of the Molad prior to reciting the blessing over the new month is auspicious for the Tikkun of Pgam Habris.


D. Avoiding baking certain breads on Rosh Chodesh:[2]

Some families carry a family tradition to avoid baking certain types of breads on Rosh Chodesh. [While such families who received such a tradition may and should honor it, it is not obligatory for others to follow.]

2. Rosh Hashanah:

*See our corresponding Sefer “The Laws & Customs of Rosh Hashanah” for the full details of this matter!

A. Fasting on Rosh Hashanah:[3]

It is forbidden to fast on Rosh Hashanah. Nevertheless, there are communities that have a tradition to fast on Rosh Hashanah and that whoever is accustomed to fast on R”H and does not fast one year will not complete his year in this world.[4] Nevertheless one who is not afraid is not required to fast all of his days and is rather to simply perform Hataras Nedarim like any other Neder.[5]

B. Foods that are avoided on Rosh Hashanah:[6]

Nuts:[7] Some are particular to avoid eating Egozim and Luzim[8] [and all forms of nuts[9]  and peanuts[10]] on Rosh Hashanah.[11]

Sour and pickled foods:[12] The fish [eaten as the Siman] is not to be cooked in vinegar. [Many people avoid eating all pickled or sour foods, such as lemons [pickles and olives[13]] and the like.[14] Likewise all bitter foods are avoided.[15]]

C. Other foods listed in Poskim that are to be avoided:

  • Goat meat.[16] One should however avoid eating the meat of a goat as goats are rooted in Gevura.[17]]
  • Grapes: Some Poskim[18] write one is to avoid eating grapes on Rosh Hashanah. From other Poskim[19] however it is evident that there is no need to refrain from eating sweet grapes. Practically this stringency is not the widespread custom.[20] Some[21] explain that the above stringency only refers to black grapes, while white grapes are specifically to be eaten as a good omen.[22] Others[23] explain the above stringency is only with regards to sour grapes while sweet grapes may be eaten according to all.
  • Beans/legumes: All foods that increase phlegm and saliva, such as certain beans and legumes, are to be avoided.[24]
  • Garlic: Some are accustomed not to eat garlic on Rosh Hashanah.[25] Others[26] however are not particular in this matter. Each person and community are to follow their custom.
  • Fruits: All sour fruits, such as lemons, are avoided as stated above. Some avoid eating [sour] Rimonim, grapes and pears.[27] One is to avoid any fruit that is not yet ripe.[28] Some[29] write one is to avoid eating a large amount of sweet fruits such as apples and citrus as they can cause Keri impurity.

Summary of foods that are avoided:

  • Nuts
  • Pickles
  • Olives
  • Sour grapes
  • Unripe fruits
  • Bitter fruits and vegetables.



May one use the above foods as seasoning for other foods?[30]

It is permitted to season one’s food with any of the above ingredients so long as the food will not become bitter or pickled due to the seasoning. Thus, one may season salad with lemon and the like.

May one eat cake and cookies that contain nuts?[31]

It is permitted to eat cakes, cookies and the like that contain ground nuts within their ingredients even if their taste is slightly felt within the food.[32] This applies even if it contains the Egoz nut.[33] Nevertheless many are accustomed to be stringent to avoid eating any food that contains the Egoz nut in the ingredients as the Egoz is the Gematria of Chet [sin]. Practically one who is stringent is blessed.[34]


Must one avoid eating spicy, sharp, and hot foods?

There is no need to refrain from eating sharp foods, such as chili peppers, Sechug, Charif and the like.[35] This applies even according to Chabad custom.[36] Nonetheless, some people avoid eating it, and people who have such a custom should abide by it.[37]


Until when are the above foods to be avoided?[38]

From the letter of the law, the avoidance of the above foods only applies to the night of Rosh Hashanah.[39] Nonetheless, many have the custom is to avoid eating nuts until after Simchas Torah.[40] Furthermore, many[41] are accustomed to avoiding eating any of the above foods until after Simchas Torah. However, according to Chabad custom, it is not customary to avoid any of the above foods past Rosh Hashanah.[42] Practically, each family should follow their Minhag.

Avoiding anger:[43]

One must be very careful not to get angry on Rosh Hashanah, as besides for the great sin of anger, doing so on Rosh Hashanah is a bad omen for the coming year.

Being joyful and happy as a good omen:[44]

One is to be happy and rejoice on Rosh Hashanah as a good omen for the coming year. He is to trust in Hashem that his Teshuvah and good deeds will be accepted before Hashem.

D. Sleeping on Rosh Hashanah day:[45]

It is customary to avoid[46] sleeping on Rosh Hashanah day[47] in order to prevent ones “Mazel” from sleeping.[48] Nevertheless, one who misuse’s his time is equivalent to one who is sleeping.[49] [One should therefore not overly indulge in eating and drinking, in order so he can use his time wisely.[50]

After midday:[51] [According to the above-mentioned reason, seemingly one is to avoid sleeping even after midday.] [However] some[52] have the custom to sleep after midday.[53] [This lenient custom applies on both days of Rosh Hashanah[54], however some[55] limit this leniency to only the second day. Some Poskim[56] rule that this custom is not meant as a public directive, however most Poskim[57] record the custom without any clause. Practically, if one does not feel the need to sleep it is best to avoid doing so on the first day of Rosh Hashanah, even after midday.[58] However, on the second day, there is more room to be lenient.[59] Nevertheless, the above is from a Halachic perspective, however certainly from a spiritual perspective one is to utilize all of his time for saying Tehillim and matters of service of G-d on both days of Rosh Hashanah.[60]]


One is to avoid sleeping on Rosh Hashanah day [even after midday], although some have the custom to sleep after midday. [Practically, it is best to avoid doing so on the first day of Rosh Hashanah even after midday however on the second day there is more room to be lenient. However, certainly from a spiritual perspective one is to utilize all of his time for saying Tehillim and matters of service of G-d on both days of Rosh Hashanah]


Must one awaken prior to morning on Rosh Hashanah in order to avoid sleeping into the day?

Based on the above, one is to awaken prior to Alos and not return to sleep on Rosh Hashanah day.[61] One is especially to avoid sleeping into the first hour of the day which is the first hour that Hashem sits and judges the world.[62] Due to this, it was customary in previous generations for the Shamash to awaken people on Rosh Hashanah about one hour prior to Alos, so they would all be in Shul by the time Alos arrives.[63] Nevertheless, many are lenient today to sleep past Alos, on the basis that the first hour begins from sunrise. Certainly, however, one is to avoid sleeping past sunrise.[64] Even if one is not feeling well, he is to place effort to awaken before morning and if needed to sleep only after midday.[65]


May one sleep during the day if he feels exhausted, tired or not well?

One who feels the need to sleep in order to re-energize, may sleep a little before going to shul.[66] Even in such a case, it is best to withhold oneself from sleeping until after midday. This applies even if one has a headache or migraine and the like.[67]

3. Yom Kippur:

A. Yom Kippur-If dangerous to fast:[68]

One who refuses to eat on Yom Kippur even if it will cause him to die, is liable for his very life, and is considered like he is committing suicide.

B. Chazan:[69]

Any mitzvah that one is habitually involved in performing, there is a danger for him to stop performing it. Thus, if one is the set Chazan for Yom Kippur in Shul, then he should not skip it one year without justifiable reason.

C. A Gezunt light- Ner Chaim-Lighting candles in Shul:[70]

On Erev Yom Kippur, candles are lit in Shul. In the past, it was customary for every male, young[71] and old, to light a candle in Shul.[72] However, today the custom is only for married men to light a candle in Shul.[73] [This candle is customarily called a Gezunt Licht.]

If the candle extinguishes:[74] If the candle that one lit [in Shul[75]] extinguished on Yom Kippur, it is a bad omen. To rectify this, he should relight the candle after Yom Kippur and let it burn out on its own. So too, he should accept upon himself that every year thereafter in which the candle remains lit after Yom Kippur, he is not to extinguish it but rather let it go out on its own. [To avoid this issue, some suggest placing the candle in Shul together with all the other candles, and hence avoid knowing which candles belongs to whom.[76]]

D. One who has a nocturnal emission:[77]

Must worry the entire year: One who has a nocturnal emission on Yom Kippur should worry the entire year regarding whether his fast on Yom Kippur was accepted.[78] [This however only applies to Tzaddikim and men of stature, whom do not have erotic thoughts which can lead to nocturnal emission. However, an average person who does have erotic thoughts, should not fear a nocturnal emission, as it is due to his own actions.[79] Nevertheless, as a Tikkun for this matter, one should recite chapters 103-104 on every weekday until the next Rosh Hashanah. This does not apply on Shabbos and Yom Tov.[80]]

If survived year then will have a long life: One who experienced a nocturnal emission on Yom Kippur and went on to live through the year, can be certain that he will receive a portion in the world to come, as he certainly has many merits which protected him. He will also live a long life, as an emission of seed is a sign for living long years.[81]

4. Sukkos:

A. Hadassim higher than the Aravos:[82]

Some are accustomed to slightly elevate the Hadassim higher than the Aravos within the binding, due to reasons known to them.[83]

B. Segula of the Aravos of Hoshanos:

Some are particular to save the Aravos that were used for Hoshanos on Hoshanah Raba as a good omen and Segula.[84] Based on this it is proper not to burn all the Aravos on Erev Pesach in order so some are saved for the Segula.[85] The Aravos are a Segula for safety during travel[86], for being saved in a time of danger[87], for being saved from fear[88] and frightening dreams[89]. Some[90] write that cooking the Aravos and drinking the water is a Segula for having children.

C. The omen of the moon on the night of Hoshana Rabbah:[91]

The Rishonim record that on the night of Hoshana Rabbah there is an omen in the shadow of the moon regarding all that will occur to oneself, or to one’s relatives, during that year. Some write that one should not pay any attention to this matter in order not to worsen one’s Mazal. Likewise, many do not understand the matter properly and it is hence better to act with simple faith and not look into the future.[92]


5. Chanukah-Safety precautions for Chanukah Lighting-Relevant laws:

A. Introduction:

Unfortunately, the month of December is recorded to have the greatest number of house fires throughout different countries in the world, many of which are attributed towards religious lightings which were left unsupervised. Being irresponsible with the supervision of a flame endangers the life of one’s family and neighbors. It only takes minutes for a conflagration to begin and become uncontrollable, and thus proper precautions must be taken. Practically, as advised by fire experts, and as common-sense dictates, and as sourced within Halacha[93], one is to never leave a flame unattended. Thus, if one needs to leave the home after a half hour from the candle lighting, he is to extinguish the candle beforehand, as Halacha permits as explained in B. Likewise, prior to going to sleep, one is to extinguish the candle. If after the half hour he would like to go into another area of the home, the candles should be taken with him, as Halacha permits.[94] If one plans to leave the home within a half hour, then he should only light a minimal amount of oil [a half hour worth] and initially light it on a safe surface, such as on one’s counter, not near any flammable items.


B. May one extinguish the flames once they have been lit for a half hour:[95]

Once the flames have been lit for their minimum time, which is a half hour past nightfall, they may be extinguished.[96] Initially, it is proper to stipulate that only a half hours’ worth of the oil is designated for the Mitzvah, if one intends to extinguish it after this time.[97] [Thus, it is advisable to say prior to the lighting, that the oil is not sanctified for the Mitzvah once a half hour has passed and he decides to extinguish it. This stipulation may be done even several days before Chanukah, and suffices to be done one time if one has in mind for it to count for the lighting of all the days of Chanukkah.[98] According to all, the Shamash may be extinguished after the time of a half hour, even without stipulation.[99]]


C. May one move the Menorah after it is lit a half hour:[100]

After the menorah has been alighted for the required time of 30 minutes [after nightfall], it may be moved even if the lights are still aflame.


D. Children lighting their Menorah by their bedroom:

The Rebbe[101] suggested that children should light their Menorah in the entrance to their bedroom and states that doing so has a greater effect on the child and his education. However, this is only if it can be properly supervised and that doing so does not pose a safety hazard. Practically, after a half hour past nightfall, it is to be moved

E. May the Menorah of a Shul be extinguished after it is lit, even prior to remaining lit for a half hour?

Some Poskim[102] rule one may extinguish the candle upon everyone leaving the Shul, even prior to the passing of a half hour.[103] Other Poskim[104] however rule one is not to extinguish the candles until a half hour passes after nightfall.[105] Practically, if there is worry of fire or the Menorah getting stolen, one may be lenient.[106]

After a half hour:[107] Once the Menorah has been lit for a half hour, it may be extinguished.


F. Segula to use leftover oil:

There is a tradition from the Kotzker Rebbe that the leftover Chanukah oil contains a Segula against cellulitis/Shoshana. According to the tradition, one who has cellulitis is to smear the oil over the affected area. [Seemingly however this refers only to oil that remains after being lit a half hour after nightfall, as otherwise the oil is forbidden in benefit.]

6. Bein Hametzarim-The three-week period:

*See our corresponding Sefer “The Laws & Customs of the Three weeks” for the full details of this matter!

A. Walking alone during the day:[108] [Shulchan Aruch]

From the 17th[109] of Tammuz until the 9th of Av one is to beware not to walk alone during the three weeks, between the 4th and 9th hours of the day.[110] [There is difference of opinion if this refers to the beginning or end of these hours. Some[111] write it is from the end of the 4th hour until the beginning of the 9th [for a total of 4 hours]. Others[112] write it is from the beginning of the 4th hour until the end of the 9th [for a total of 6 hours]. Others[113] write it refers to end of the 4th hour until the end of the 9th hour. This prohibition is relevant only when walking alone in a deserted area and not when walking alone in a settled area that contains people passing.[114]]

B. Walking in the shade:[115] [Achronim]

From the 17th of Tammuz until the 9th of Av one is to beware not to walk in the border area between the shade and the sunlight, between the 4th and 9th hours of the day, due to danger of demons.[116] Likewise, one is to beware from staying in the shade during the months of Tammuz-Av.[117]

C. Abstaining from hitting children:[118] [Shulchan Aruch]

From the 17th of Tammuz until the 9th of Av[119] one is to beware from hitting his students [or his children[120], even with a belt[121], and certainly not with a stick or rod[122]]. [Some Poskim[123] however rule one may hit a child using his hands. Other Poskim[124] however rule that even using one’s hands to hit is included in the prohibition. Some Poskim[125] rule that this restriction does not apply in a room with a Mezuzah. Some Poskim[126] rule that there is no restriction to hit on the outer limbs such as the hand and leg, and the restriction is only with regards to areas of the inner limbs. Some Poskim[127] rule that the above restriction only applies between the 4th and 9th hour [of the day]. Other Poskim[128] rule that one is to be stringent through the entire period of time.]


D. Not to open windows until midnight:[129] [Achronim]

From the 17th of Tammuz until the 9th of Av one is not to open the windows of his home until midnight.

E. Avoiding dangerous activity during the three weeks:

From on the above laws, which warn against hitting a child, or walking during certain times of the day, we learn that there is an element of danger involved during the period of the three weeks, and that one should abstain from activities that are considered possibly dangerous. While this matter is not explicit in the Shulchan Aruch or its commentaries, nonetheless, it has become accepted and advised to follow. The following is a list of activities and their ruling.

F. May one go swimming during the three weeks? [Achronim]

It is permitted to go swimming past the 17th of Tammuz, up until Rosh Chodesh Av, the start of the nine days.[130] There is no basis for the notion that one who did not go swimming prior to the 17th of Tammuz, may not go after the 17th, and it is permitted to do even in such a case.[131] Nevertheless, one is to avoid swimming in dangerous areas, such as a dangerous beach or during bad weather and the like.[132] Due to this reason, some[133] are accustomed to completely avoid going swimming, or into a river or ocean, throughout the duration of the three weeks.


G. May one go on trips during the three weeks? [Achronim]

Some Poskim[134] rule that one is to abstain from going on trips or outings during the three weeks. This includes abstaining from going on pleasure trips to gardens and orchards, the beech, or a river. One must certainly avoid going to areas of possible danger during this time.[135] This especially applies during the period of the nine days.


H. May one travel during the three weeks? [Achronim]

It is permitted to travel during the three weeks, whether by car, bus, or plane. However, as stated above, one is to abstain from traveling to dangerous areas, or for the sake of pleasure or a vacation.[136] Thus, one should only travel for necessary purposes, or for the sake of a Mitzvah. This especially applies during the nine days. On one occasion, the Rebbe advised that one who plans to travel during the three weeks, should at least begin his traveling preparations prior to the 17th of Tammuz, such as through packing some of his belongings prior to the 17th.[137]


I. May one bike ride cross country during the three weeks?

As stated above, one is to abstain from unnecessary travel during the three weeks. This especially applies during the nine days.


J. May one have surgery during the three weeks?[138] [Achronim]

If the matter is not urgent and one is medically able to defer the surgery to a later date, then one is to avoid surgery during the three weeks. One may schedule the surgery from the 10th of Av and onwards[139], although preferably, it is to be done after midday of the 10th.[140] If one is unable to delay it until after the three weeks, then it should be done prior to Shabbos Chazon.[141]


[1] Shaareiy Rachamim [in Shaareiy Efraim] 10:47

[2] Darkei Teshuvah 179:23 in name of Shaar Shlomo 47

[3] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Taz 597:1; Levush 597; Bach 597; Biur Hagr”a; Chayeh Adam 139:11; Shaagas Aryeh ibid; Kaf Hachaim 597:3; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 137:1-3

Other opinions: There are opinions who rule it is a Mitzvah to fast on Rosh Hashanah and Shabbos Teshuvah just like on any other day of Aseres Yimei Teshuvah. However, the final ruling is not like this opinion, and it is thus forbidden to fast on Rosh Hashanah and Shabbos Teshuvah just like on any other Shabbos and Yom Tov. [Admur ibid]

[4] Admur 597:2; Michaber 597:2; Maggid Meisharim brought in Alef Hamagen 597:10

[5] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Kol Bo; M”A 597:2 that Maharam Lunza did not fast the next year and nothing evil happened to him; See Alef Hamagen ibid; Ashel Avraham Butchach 597; Chasam Sofer 168

[6] Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 136:1-3

[7] Admur 583:6; Rama 583:2 [“Some do not to eat Egozim as it is the Gematria of sin and causes saliva”]; Darkei Moshe 589:3 in name of Maharil

Other opinions: There were some Poskim that did not avoid eating nuts as well as other foods that increase seed. [Darkei Moshe 583:1 in name of Kol Bo; Kaf Hachaim 583:26]

[8] Admur ibid; M”A 583:4; P”M 583 A”A 4; M”E 583:3; Kaf Hachaim 583:27

The difference between Egozim and Luzim: Egozim are large nuts while Luzim are small nuts. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid] Some say that Egozim are almonds. [Makor Chaim 583 brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 583 footnote 37; See Machatzis Hashekel 583:4  and Koveitz Or Yisrael 1:106 for a discussion regarding the exact definition of an Egoz] The Rama ibid does not mention Luzim [as it is not the Gematria of sin]. However based on the second reason of the Rama [increases saliva] also Luzim are not to be eaten. [M”A ibid] See next footnote.

[9] Piskeiy Teshuvos 583 footnote 37 that so is the custom in many communities to avoid all nuts [pistachio, peanuts, almonds] and not just the Egoz and Luz.

[10] Nitei Gavriel 28:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[11] The reason: Due to that it increases saliva and phlegm, and causes one to nullify his prayers. [Admur ibid; second reason in Rama ibid] The Rama ibid however mentions a first reason [omitted here by Admur] that Egozim is the Gematria of sin and hence is avoided. Vetzaruch Iyun why Admur omitted this reason. The Darkei Moshe 589:3 writes that the Maharil avoided eating nuts on R”H in order so he does not have to spit during the Tekios.

Gematria of Egoz: The Gematria of Egoz is in truth 17 while Chet is 18. However, the Alef of Chet is not included being it is not verbalized and hence they have the same Gematria. Now although Egoz is also the Gematria of Tov [good] nevertheless it is to be avoided as it also has a negative Gematria. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 583 footnote 36 in name of Daas Torah] 

[12] Admur 583:2; Teshuvos Hageonim 114 brought in Kaf Hachaim 583:18

[13] So is the worldly custom, as it is similar to fish in vinegar or brine which Admur writes, based on Teshuvos Hageonim, to avoid.

[14] Chida in Moreh Baetzba and Tov Ayin 18:91; Kaf Hachaim 583:18; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 129:9; M”B 583:5; Ben Ish Chai ibid

[15] M”E 583:3; Kaf Hachaim ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:5

[16] Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 4; Kaf Hachaim 583:24; For this reason, it is proper to avoid raising goats. This especially applies on Rosh Hashanah and throughout Aseres Yimei Teshuvah. [ibid]

[17] Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 4; Kaf Hachaim 583:24

[18] Maaseh Rav 204 brought in Kaf Hachaim 583:21 based on Zohar and Kabalistic reasons; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 5 [however perhaps he only refers to sour grapes]; M”B 600:4

The reason: This is based on the Zohar which states that the tree that Adam ate from [tree of good and evil] was a grapevine. Now Adam ate from the tree on Erev Shabbos which was the first day of Tishrei which is Rosh Hashanah. Thus, we avoid eating grapes on Rosh Hashanah in order to rectify the sin of Adam. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:7]

[19] See M”E 200:6 regarding using grapes for Shehechiyanu; Likkutei Maharich Leil Beis that his teacher the Yitav Lev recited the Shehechiyanu over grapes.

[20] Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:7

[21] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[22] Kaf Hachaim 583:21; See Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 5 that writes to avoid grapes in general as they are sour.

[23] Chazon Ish brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 583 footnote 45

[24] M”E 583:3; Kaf Hachaim 583:28

[25] Implication of Tashbatz 118 and Kol Bo 64 [29a] and Darkei Moshe 583:1 that some were accustomed to avoiding garlic just as they avoid nuts; Ketzei Hamateh 583:17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:8

The reason: As garlic increase one’s seed and since relations are abstained on Rosh Hashanah therefore these foods are to be avoided. [Implication of Elya Raba 583; See Admur 608:8 regarding Erev Yom Kippur]

[26] Tashbatz 118 and Kol Bo 64 [29a] in name of Maharam, brought in Darkei Moshe 583:1; Kaf Hachaim 583:26

[27] Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 5; Kaf Hachaim 583:18

[28] M”E 600:6; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 5; Kaf Hachaim 583:18

The reason: As the fruits are usually sour. Alternatively, unripe fruits are not a good omen. [M”E ibid]

[29] Yifei Laleiv 2:10; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[30] Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:5 footnote 30

[31] Beir Moshe 3:97; Yad Yitzchak 1:208; Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:7

[32] The reason: As there is not an enough of an amount of nuts in the food to cause one to increase in saliva and phlegm. [Beir Moshe ibid]

[33] The reason: Even if the cake contains the Egoz nut which is the Gematria of Chet it is permitted as even to eat actual Egoz is a mere Chumra and not a law. [ibid]

[34] Beir Moshe ibid; However, see Admur ibid which completely omits this reason of the Rama.

[35] Setimas Rov Haposkim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:5 based on the fact the sharp foods are not mentioned in any Poskim. See also Aruch Hashulchan 583:3.

[36] There is no record in Chabad literature of the custom of avoiding sharp foods on Rosh Hashanah. Likewise, Rav Eli Landau Shlita, Rosh Hayeshiva of Kefar Chabad, and late son of Rav Yaakov Landau OBM, related to us that he is not aware that in Chabad we avoid eating sharp foods on Rosh Hashanah [i.e. Chabad is not accustomed to avoid eating sharp foods on RH].

[37] See Leket Yosher p. 124 that the Terumas Hadeshen would not eat any Davar Charif during the ten days of repentance, including cooked onions, although he would eat “Pilpilim”; See Aruch Hashulchan ibid; Toras Hamoadim 583:4 in name of Rav Chaim Kanievsky

[38] Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:5 and 7

[39] Setimas Kol Haposkim

[40] Beis Hayotzer 43; Ketzei Hamateh 583:16 [there he brings that also in Elul nuts are avoided]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:7; See Leket Yosher p. 124 that the Terumas Hadeshen would not eat any Davar Charif during the ten days of repentance

Other customs: Reb Nosson Adler as well as the Chasam Sofer were not particular against eating nuts after Rosh Hashanah. [See Beir Moshe 3:97; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 38]

[41] See Leket Yosher p. 124 that the Terumas Hadeshen would not eat any Davar Charif during the ten days of repentance; Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:5; Luach Dvar Yom Beyomo

[42] There is no record in Chabad literature of the custom of avoiding sour foods past Rosh Hashanah. Likewise, Rav Eli Landau Shlita, Rosh Hayeshiva of Kefar Chabad, and late son of Rav Yaakov Landau OBM, related to us that in Chabad we only avoid eating sharp foods on Rosh Hashanah. Likewise, see Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 148 that the Rebbe Rashab ate a very sour new fruit on the second night

[43] Ben Ish Chai Parshas Nitzavim 6; Kaf Hachaim 583:20; Chayeh Adam 139:6; M”B 583:5

[44] Kaf Hachaim 583:20; Chayeh Adam 139:6; M”B 583:5

[45] Admur 583:8; Rama 583:2 based on Yerushalmi; Darkei Moshe 583:2; Taz 583:3; M”B 583:9; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 1378

[46] See Avodas Yisrael R”H [Kozhnitz] that it is “forbidden to sleep on Rosh Hashanah”.

[47] As for why we do not avoid sleeping at night-See Avodas Yisrael R”H ibid that night represents Malchus and on Rosh Hashanah night it is not in a state of sleep.

[48] Admur ibid; The Rama ibid concludes “This is a good custom”. This is based on the Yerushalmi who states that whatever one does on Rosh Hashanah effects his Mazal. [Darkei Moshe 583:2; M”B ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because it shows laziness. [Bach]

Other Opinions: The Maharam would sleep by Rosh Hashanah [day] just like any other Yom Tov. [Bach 597; Kneses Hagedola 583:6; M”A 583:6; Peri Chadash 583; Elya Raba 583:5] The following Poskim are lenient on this matter as did the Maharam: Elya Raba ibid [“this is our custom even though it’s better not to sleep”]; Levush [completely omitted this custom from the Rama]

[49] Admur ibid; M”A 583:6; Elya Raba 583:5; P”M 583 A”A 6; Kaf Hachaim 583:37

The reason: See “Sparks of Kabala”

[50] P”M 583 A”A 6

[51] Admur ibid; M”A 583:6

[52] Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos 90a; Peri Eitz Chaim 24:83 [brought in M”A 583:6; Kaf Hachaim 583:36] that the above only applies until midday and the Arizal himself took a nap after Chatzos; Shulchan Gavoa 583:6 [that so was his custom]; Some say that perhaps this was also the custom of the Mahram ibid. [Kaf Hachaim 583:35]

[53] The reason: See Sparks of Kabala

[54] Kaf Hachaim 583:36 as after midday of each day of Rosh Hashanah the Hamshacha of Mochin has already been accomplished for that day.

[55] Shemen Sasson on Shaar Hakavanos ibid, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid, that even according to the Arizal it should only be done on the second day after midday.

[56] Mateh Efraim in Alef Lamateh 598:1

[57] Admur ibid; Siddur Yaavetz; Aruch Hashulchan 583:4; 597:2; Avodas Yisrael R”H [Kozhnitz] completely permits after midday

[58] Kaf Hachaim 583:36

[59] Kaf Hachaim ibid [as the Hamshacha have already been completed according to all by after midday of the second day]; Poskim mentioned in Piskeiy Teshuvos 593:10 footnote 67 in name of Rav Nosson Adler [as the concept of a bad omen taken from the Yerushalmi ibid only applies on the first day]

[60] See letter of Rebbe Rayatz, printed in Sefer Haminhagim p. 118: One ought to sleep less than usual, intensify one’s devotion in prayer and supplication from the depths of one’s heart, and recite Tehillim at every available moment. Chayeh Adam 139:11; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 129:20; Mateh Efraim 598:1 that one is to go to Shul and say Tehillim.

[61] Mateh Yehuda 583 brought in Kaf Hachaim 583:39; Alef Hamagen 584:1; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 11; Some Poskim bring that Rosh Hashanah is one of the five days that one is to awaken early. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 583 footnote 63 in name of Elya Raba] See Elya Raba 693:8; Likkutei Maharich

[62] Mateh Yehuda ibid

[63] Mateh Efraim 584:1

[64] Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:10

The Chabad custom: I was told by Rav Asher Lemel Hakohen that many are no longer careful to awaken prior to sunrise, as they need energy for prayer, and people today go to sleep later than in previous times. [See Shulchan Shlomo of Rav SZ”A; Mishmeres Shalom 1:1 or the Sefer  “Awaking like a Jew” Chapter 2:1] However Harav Leibel Groner, the Rebbe’s secretary, and compiler of Sefer Haminhagim, related to me as follows “Since I was 5 years old my father would wake us on Rosh Hashanah before sunrise in order so we do not sleep at that time.” Rav Eliyahu Landau, the son of Rav Yaakov Landau, [the famed Chassid of the Rebbe Rashab and source of many Chabad customs today] related to me that his father would wake them up at a young age prior to sunrise every R”H and they were very stringent on this matter not to sleep past this time.

[65] Ben Ish Chaiy ibid

[66] Chayeh Adam 139:11 [“may sleep a little if he cannot do without it”]; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 129:20; Ben Ish Chai Netzavim 11 [“If one has a headache or other ailment which forces him to sleep by day he is to withhold himself and sleep after midday.”]

[67] Ben Ish Chai ibid

[68] Divrei Malkiel 5:35; See Admur 204:15

[69] Taz 581:3; Sefer Chassidim 755; See Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 258

[70] Admur 610:4; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 139:1

[71] This implies even a child below the age of 13.

[72] Admur ibid; Rama 610:4; Mordechai 723; Maharil p. 322; Mahariy Viyal 191

[73] Admur ibid; M”A 610:3

[74] Admur 610:8; Rama 610:4

[75] Aruch Hashulchan 610:7

[76] M”B 610:14 in name of Chayeh Adam

[77] Admur 615:2; Michaber 615:2; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 139:3

[78] The reason: As perhaps by Hashem giving him the pleasure of having an emission is a sign from above that his self-imposed oppression of fasting was not appeasing, and therefore he was forcibly made to have pleasure in something else. [See Admur ibid]

[79] Tzemach Tzedek in name of Alter Rebbe brought in Miluim 64 Choshen Mishpat [and Orach Chaim 111]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 615:1

[80] Igros Kodesh 4:58; Shulchan Menachem 3:174; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[81] This corresponds to the opinion brought in Tractate Yuma 88a that having a nocturnal emission of seed on Yom Kippur is a good sign which shows that the person is a Tzaddik. See also Or Torah of the Maggid [Torah 209] in the name of the Baal Shem Tov that if one sees a nocturnal emission without having triggered it with bad thoughts during the day, then he is not to worry of it. On the contrary, Hashem made him have it in order to save him from death, as the decree of death was expelled through his seed. See there!

[82] Admur 651:7; Rama 651:1; Mahariy Viyal 191; See Sefer Hapardes of Rashi Lulav p. 191; Gr”a 651; Daas Torah 651; Piskeiy Teshuvos 651:4; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 140:1

[83] The reason: As the Hadassim have greater advantage than the Aravos and bring atonement for them. Lack of doing so is considered a grave danger. [Hapardes ibid; Kaf Hachaim 651:25; Daas Torah 651:1]

[84] Tanya [Kadmon] 86 “It is an old custom that each person takes the Aravos used for Hoshanos to his house and places it near his bed out of dearness for the Mitzvah.”; Menoras Hamaor 3:4 “The Aravos of Hoshanos have a special Segula for safety during travel”

[85] See Alef Lamagen 660:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 664 footnote 27

[86] Menoras Hamaor ibid

[87] Likkutei Tzevi in name of Over Oreiach that in a time of danger one is to remember the area that the Aravos are kept and remember “Hoshea Na”.

[88] Kaf Hachaim 664:60 in name of Sefer Hamidos [Rav Nachman of Breslov]

[89] Yifei Laleiv 2 664:15

[90] Likkutei Maharich

[91] Rama 664:1; See Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Halulav 5; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 140:2

[92] The Rama ibid concludes “so it appears to me”

[93] See regarding the night of Yom Kippur that people would stay up to guard the candles in Shul, while others would hire a gentile to do so: Admur 610:7 [hiring gentile]; 619:18 [Staying up in Shul to guard]; M”A 610:4; Maharil p. 322

[94] See M”A 675:2; Chapter 3 Halacha 13!

[95] Michaber 672:2; Rif and Rosh; Rashal 85

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to extinguish the candle even after the time has passed, being that all the oil was placed for the sake of the Mitzvah, and that so is the custom. [Bach and Tzeida Laderech, brought in M”A 672:4; 677:10; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 672:9; Kaf Hachaim 672:21] Furthermore, some Poskim rule that those who light inside their home, must place enough oil to last until the people at home go to sleep, and one may not extinguish or make use of the candles until the time people go to sleep and the candles thus no longer serves as a publication. [Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4-5 footnote 24; see there footnote 16 and 23 for Melaktim who bring a similar opinion] Other Poskim rule that those who light outside their home are to place enough oil to last until people are no longer found outside, which is approximately 9:00, and one may not extinguish or make use of the candles until that time. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:390; Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; 6:86; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5] Practically, this novelty is not recorded in the classical Poskim.

[96] The reason: As one only designates the amount of oil necessary to fulfill the Mitzvah, and hence the excess oil is not considered Holy. The candle may thus be extinguished and then relit for one’s personal use. [Beis Yosef 677; M”B 672:7]

[97] Mahariy brought in Beis Yosef 677; M”A 677:10; Elya Raba 672:2; Chayeh Adam; M”B 672:7; Kaf Hachaim 672:21

The reason: Some Poskim conclude that it is initially proper to stipulate that one does not have intent to designate the oil for more than the necessary amount of time, as there are Poskim [Mahariy brought in Beis Yosef] who rule that if did not make this stipulation, then the entire oil is designated for the Mitzvah and may hence not be extinguished. [Poskim ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is not necessary at all to make any stipulation when placing the oil, and it may be extinguished after a half hour in all cases. [Taz 672:1; first answer in Beis Yosef 677] The Elya Raba ibid negates this opinion of the Taz.

[98] See Admur 638:7 regarding stipulating on Noiy Sukkah for the entire duration of Sukkos

[99] Yosef Ometz 1076; Kinyan Torah 2:102; Shraga Hameir 3:16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5

[100] M”A 675:2; Darkei Moshe 675:1; Rav Yaakov Viyaal; Elya Raba 675:2; M”B 675:6; Kaf Hachaim 675:10; M”B 675:6; Sefer Haminhagim p.160 [English]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to move the Menorah so long as the candles remain lit, even after 30 minutes have passed. This is due to Maaras Ayin. [Elya Raba 672:2; Derech Hachaim 4; Shaar Hatziyon 672:12; Kaf Hachaim 672:22; based on M”A 670:2 in name of Rashal regarding being stringent not to use the light past this time] Some Poskim rule that those who light inside their home, are not to move the Menorah even after the time has passed, although in a time of need one may be lenient and place it by a window and the like. [Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:1] See Miseches Sofrim “One does not move the Menorah until it extinguishes”

[101] Toras Menachem 5748 2:64[brought in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:280; Shulchan Menachem 3:269]

[102] Shraga Hameir 6:85

[103] The reason: As it does not state anywhere in [earlier] Poskim that the Shul candles need to remain lit for a half hour. Furthermore, since the entire purpose of the lighting in Shul is Pirsumei Nissa, it is implied that it can be extinguished once the Pirsumei Nissa has ended. Therefore one may be lenient to extinguish the candles even within a half hour, if there is no one left in Shul. [ibid]

[104] Shevet Halevi 8:156

[105] The reason: As the Menorah in the Temple was lit throughout the night and the Menorah in Shul is lit in commemoration of the Temple’s Menorah, according to some opinions. Furthermore, according to some opinions, one fulfills his obligation with the Shul’s lighting and hence it should follow the same laws as any other Menorah. [Shevet Halevi ibid]

[106] Shevet Halevi ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:12

[107] Melamed Lehoil 121; See Zivcheiy Tzedek 2:29; See Michaber 672:2 and Halacha 7 regarding this ruling in the house Menorah.

[108] Michaber 551:18; Hagahos Maimanis; Rokeiach 309; Midrash Tehillim and Eicha Rabasi 1:29; Tanchuma Naso 23; Ateres Zikeinim 549; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 135:1-3

[109] Pesachim 111b [brought in Kaf Hachaim 551:225 and Biur Halacha 551:18] states that from the 1st of Tammuz until 16th the Ketev Meriri is certainly found, while from the 17th and onwards it’s a Safek.

[110] The reason: As during this time, the demon called Ketev Meriri is found. [Rama ibid] See Devarim 32:24; Brachos 5a; Tanchuma ibid that it is a demon like creature; The Ketev Meriri is the name of a creature which is filled with eyes and Kelipos and hairs. He has one eye by his chest. If one even looks at him, he dies. [Eicha Rabasi ibid; Shulchan Gavoa 551:53; Kaf Hachaim 551:229]

[111] Eicha Rabasi; 1st option in M”A 551:45

[112] Naso Rabasi; 2nd opinion in M”A 551:45; brought ion Levush 551; Chayeh Adam133; Siddur Yaavetz

[113] Elya Raba 551:44; M”B 551:102

[114] Zohar Vayishlach p. 169; Yifei Laleiv 5:6; Aruch Hashulchan 551:39; Eishel Avraham 551; Kaf Hachaim 551:226; Shemiras Hanefesh 75; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 109:4

[115] Elya Raba 551:43-44; M”B 551:102; Eicha Rabasi ibid; See Kaf Hachaim 551:227-228; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 135:7

[116] The reason: As during this time, the demon called Ketev Meriri is found in the border of the sun and shade. [ibid]

[117] Shevet Hamussar 16; Kaf Hachaim 551:227

[118] Michaber 551:18; Hagahos Maimanis; Rokeiach 309; Midrash Eicha Rabasi; Midrash Tehillim 58; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 135:4-6

[119] Some Poskim rule that one is to especially be careful from Rosh Chodesh Av until the 16th of Av. [Pesachim 111b; Maharash Yafeh  in Yifei Anaf on Midrash Raba Eicha 1; Birkeiy Yosef 551; Pesach Eiynayim on Pesachim ibid; Rashash Pesachim ibid; Biur Halacha 551:18]

[120] Levush 551; Kaf Hachaim 551:230

[121] Taz 551:18; Levush 551; Mamar Mordechai 551:17; M”B 551:103; Kaf Hachaim 551:231

[122] Piskeiy Teshuvah 551:57

[123] Ashel Avraham of Butchach 551

[124] Peri Megadim 551 M”Z 18 “Even any type of hitting should be avoided.”; Kaf Hachaim 551:232

[125] Ashel Avraham of Butchach 551

[126] Ashel Avraham of Butchach 551

[127] Peri Megadim 551 M”Z 18; Levush 551; Siddur Yaavetz

[128] Tosefes Chaim Chayei Adam 133:17

[129] Moed Lekol Chaiy 26; Shemira Meialya 173; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 135:8

[130] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:263; Piskeiy Teshuvos 551:46

[131] Poskim ibid

[132] Teshuvos Vehanhagos ibid; Rav Moshe Feinstein, brought in Moadei Yeshurun 128 footnote 12; Halichos Shlomo 2:14 footnote 7; Koveitz Mibeis Levi 13:22; Rivivos Efraim 3:333; 4:135; 6:285; Shevet Hakehasi 1:169

[133] Makor Chaim 551:14 “I saw people who abstained from entering a river during the three weeks due to danger”; Orchos Rabbeinu 2:129 in directive of Steipler; Harav Asher Lemel Hakohen

[134] Sdei Chemed 1:10 in name of Rav Chaim Falagi in Masa Chaim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 551:1

[135] Makor Chaim 551:14

[136] See Minchas Elazar 4:54 regarding why by Sefira it is allowed, implying that by Bein Hametzarim it is to be avoided

[137] Heichal Menachem 2:214, published in Shulchan Menachem 3:49; See this video here: where the Rebbe was asked by Rav Chaim Yaakov Goldvicht, the Rosh yeshiva of Kerem Veyavneh, regarding if he should change his flight from the 17th of Tamuz to earlier, and the Rebbe answered him that it suffices to simply start packing from the day before and there is no need for him to change his ticket.

[138] Igros Kodesh 19:376; 24:357; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:225

[139] Rebbe ibid in Igros Kodesh 19:376; See glosses of Chasam Sofer on M”A 551:2 that after Tisha B’av the Mazal of a Jew shines again

[140] See Shulchan Menachem 3:50

[141] Igros Kodesh 19:376

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