After Sukkos Laws

After the festival

Isru Chag:[1]

  1. The name:[2]

The day after each of the three Holidays is called Isru Chag.[3] The name Isru Chag derives from the verse “Isru Chag Baavosim Ad Karnei Hamizbeiach”. This means to say that this day is to be attached [i.e. Isru] to the Holiday itself, and by doing so the verse considers him to have built an Altar and sacrificed on it an offering. For this reason, the following customs are relevant on Isru Chag:

                                                                                                

  1. Increasing in eating and drinking on Isru Chag:[4]

One is to increase a little in eating and drinking on Isru Chag, the day after each of the three festivals.[5]

 

  1. Fasting on Isru Chag:[6]

It is forbidden to fast on Isru Chag, the day after each of the three festivals.[7] Even a Chasan and Kallah which are getting married on Isru Chag [as they follow the customs of Sefirah only after Rosh Chodesh] are not to fast that day.[8] Similarly, a child may not fast on his parent‘s Yartzite that falls on Isru Chag.[9]

 

Summary:

One is to increase a little in eating and drinking on Isru Chag. Even a Chasan and Kallah on the day of their wedding may not fast on this day. Similarly, a child may not fast on his parent‘s Yartzite.

 

Q&A

Do the customs of Isru Chag apply also on the night after [i.e. Motzei] Isru Chag?

Some Poskim[10] write that the customs of Isru Chag [increasing in food and drink] apply also to the night after, which is Motzei Isru Chag.[11]

 

Is one to wear Shabbos clothing on Isru Chag?

Some Poskim[12] rule that one is to wear Shabbos clothing on Isru Chag.[13]

 

 

Sparks of Kabalah:[14]

The Arizal taught that on the day after Yom Tov, Isru Chag, a ray of the Holiday still shines.

 

 

2. Tachanun:[15]

Tachanun is omitted from Davening from Erev Yom Kippur until the beginning of the month of Cheshvon.

Tzidkascha: The prayer of Tzidkascha is not recited on the Shabbos between Erev Yom Kippur and the month of Cheshvon.

 

3. The laws of Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem

  1. General law:[16]

What is the request of Mashiv Haruach? The purpose of the prayer of Mashiv Haruach is not to request for rain. This request only begins in the month of Cheshvon with the request of Vesein Tal Umatar Levracha. It is rather an introductory prayer of appeasement to Hashem prior to beginning the request, as prior to asking for rain at its proper time we appease Hashem through mentioning His power of descending rain.

Where do we say it?[17] The statement of Mashiv Haruach is recited in the blessing of Mechayeh Hameisim. The reason for this is because rain is considered similar to the resurrection, as just like the resurrection gives life to the world, similarly rain gives life to the world.

When does one begin to say it?[18] Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem is recited beginning from Musaf of Shemini Atzeres. On Shemini Atzeres prior to the silent Musaf the Chazan announces Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem and it is then recited in the Musaf prayer and every prayer thereafter.

Until when is it to be said? Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem is recited until, but not including, Musaf of the 1st day of Pesach. Those which Daven the Nusach of Arizal/Sefarad, omit Mashiv Haruach and begin reciting Morid Hatal from the silent prayer of Musaf of the 1st day of Pesach. The Chazan thus announces prior to the silent prayer of Musaf “Morid Hatal.” Those however whO follow Nusach Ashkenaz still say Mashiv Haruch Umorid Hageshem by the silent Musaf of Pesach and only begin to omit with the repetition of the Chazan by Musaf and all prayers thereafter.

  1. If one forgot to say Mashiv Haruach:[19]

Nusach Arizal/Sefarad: Those which Daven Nusach Arizal or Sefarad do not go back in the prayer if they accidently omitted Mashiv Haruach, as in any event they are accustomed to say Morid Hatal in the summer days that Mashiv Haruach is not said, and this mentioning suffices in place of Mashiv Harucah. Thus, even if one did not yet finish the blessing of Mechayeh Meisim[20] he is not required to go back.[21]

Nusach Ashkenaz: Those which Daven Nusach Ashkenaz, if they omitted Mashiv Haruach, then if they already concluded the blessing and began saying the next blessing [even the first word of “Ata”] they must return to the beginning of the prayer, irrelevant to where in the prayer they remembered of their omission. Similarly if they remembered only after concluding the entire prayer, they must repeat the Davening. If one remembered prior to saying Hashem’s name in the blessing of Mechayeh Meisim, then he is to say it in the place that he remembers and continue from where he left off. [If he already said Hashem’s name then he is to finish the blessing and say it prior to beginning the words of the blessing of Ata Kadosh. The same applies] if he only remembered after concluding the blessing of Mechayeh Meisim but before beginning the next blessing [even the first word of Ata], then he is to say it there. If, however, he already began even the first word of the next blessing he must return to the beginning of the prayer, as explained above.

 

  1. If one is in doubt if he said Mashiv Haruach:[22]

Those who Daven Nusach Arizal or Sefarad and recite Morid Hatal during the summer, are never required to go back even if they certainly did not say Mashiv Haruach, and certainly if it is a mere doubt. However those which Daven Nusach Ashkenaz and are in doubt if they mentioned Mashiv Haruach are to consider it as if they omitted it for the first 30 days after Shemini Atzeres [until 22/23[23] Kisleiv], and hence follow the same ruling as one who omitted it.[24]

 

4. Saying Vesein Tal Umatar Levaracha:

  1. When does one begin saying Vesein Tal Umatar?[25]

Eretz Yisrael: Those who live in Eretz Yisrael begin saying Vesein Tal Umatar Levracha starting from Maariv of the 7th of MarCheshvon.

Diaspora: Those living in the Diaspora begin saying Vesein Tal Umatar on the 60th day past the beginning of Tekufas Tishreiy. [Practically, it is to be said from the night before the 5th of December, and in years with 29 days in February, then the year before, it is said from the night before the 6th of December.[26] This year [5778:2017] it is begun to be said in the Diaspora on Monday night, the eve of the 5th of December, 17th of Kisleiv.]

 

  1. Until when is it said?[27]

Visein Tal Umatar is recited until the start of Pesach.

 

  1. If one said it prior/post its allowed time:[28]

If one said Vesein Tal Umatar Levracha during the summer, outside of its allowed time, which is between Pesach and 7th Cheshvan [in Eretz Yisrael] or 5th December [in the Diaspora], there is a difference in law between Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora.

Eretz Yisrael:[29] In Eretz Yisrael, if one said Vesein Tal Umatar after Pesach, [during the summer[30], which is any time between Chol Hamoed Pesach and the 7th of MarCheshvan[31]], one is required to go back and repeat from the beginning of Bareich Aleinu. If one already concluded Shemoneh Esrei, then he must repeat it from the beginning.

Diaspora-between Pesach and Shemini Atzeres:[32] In the Diaspora, if one said Vesein Tal Umatar after Pesach, [during the summer[33], which is any time between Chol Hamoed Pesach and Shemini Atzeres], then if one is in a country that as a whole does not need rain during the summer, it follows the same ruling as Eretz Yisrael, and one must go back to Bareich Aleinu or repeat Shemoneh Esrei. If, however, one’s country as a whole requires rain even during the summer months, then one who said Vesein Tal Umatar during those months is not required to go back and repeat from the beginning of Bareich Aleinu.[34] Nevertheless, if one wills, he may repeat the Shemoneh Esrei as a Tefilas Nedava.[35]

Diaspora-between Shemini Atzeres and the 7th of Cheshvan: If one asked for rain after Sukkos, prior to the 7th of MarCheshvan, according to Admur and other Poskim, Shemoneh Esrei is to be repeated. See Q&A!

Diaspora-between 7th of Cheshvan and 5th of December:[36] In those countries [that in general need rain after Sukkos[37] and that’s when their rain season begins[38]], if one said Vesein Tal Umatar after the 7th of Cheshvan, prior to the 5th of December, he is not required to go back, or repeat Shemoneh Esrei. [This applies even if his country is not currently in need of rain, such as it already rained plenty, so long as it is a general time that the country needs rain.[39] If, however, the country is not yet in need of rain, then Shemoneh Esrei is to be repeated if rain was mentioned prior to the 5th of December.[40]] Nevertheless, if one wills he may repeat the Shemoneh Esrei as a Tefilas Nedava.[41]

 

If one mistakenly said Vesein Tal Umatar between Shemini Atzeres and the 7th of Marcheshvan, is he to repeat Shemoneh Esrei?

Some Poskim[42] rule that one who said Vesein Tal Umatar after Sukkos, prior to the 7th of Marcheshvan in Eretz Yisrael, or prior to the 5th of December in the Diaspora, is not required to repeat Shemoneh Esrei.[43] This applies whether in Eretz Yisrael or the Diaspora.[44] From majority of Poskim[45], however, it is evident that one must repeat the prayer if Vesein Tal Umatar was recited prior to the 7th of Cheshvan, whether in Eretz Yisrael, and certainly in other lands, and so practically rule some of today’s Poskim[46].[47] Practically, according to Admur, the prayer is to be repeated.[48]

 

  1. Forgot to say Vesein Tal Umatar:[49]

One who forgot to say Vesein Tal Umatar during the period that it is to be said, which is in Eretz Yisrael between the 7th of Marcheshven and Pesach, and in the Diaspora between the 5th/6th of December and Pesach, the following is the ruling: [If one remembered prior to saying Hashem’s name in Bareich Aleinu, then he is to say it in the place of remembrance]. If one remembered after completing the blessing of Bareich Aleinu, but prior to beginning [the first word[50] of] Teka Beshofar, he is to say it there.[51] If one already began saying Teka Beshofar, he is not required to return to Barecih Aleinu and rather is to say it in the blessing of Shomeia Tefila [prior to “Ki Ata Shomeia”]. The same applies if he remembered anywhere between Teka Beshofar and Shema Koleinu.[52] If one remembered after concluding the blessing of Shema Koleinu but prior to Ritzei, he is to say Vesien Tal Umatar and then begin Ritzie. If one remembered after beginning Ritzei but prior to taking steps back at the conclusion of Shemoneh Esrei, he is to return to Bareich Aleinu. If he already [completed Shemoneh Esrei and] took three steps back, he must return to the beginning of Shemoneh Esrei. Furthermore, even if he did not yet take three steps back but has already recited the verse of Yihyu Leratzon at the end of Shemoneh Esrei, he must return to the beginning.[53]

  1. If one is in doubt as to if he said Vesein Tal Umatar:[54]

If one is in doubt as to whether he recited Veisein Tal Umatar then if he is within the 30 days from when it was begun to be said [within 30 days after the 7th of Cheshvan in Israel, and within thirty days after the 5th of December in the Diaspora] we assume that he did not say it, and it is to thus follows the same law as one who omitted it.[55] After the passing of thirty days, we assume that he said it, and hence he is not to go back and repeat it.[56]

 

Ben Chutz Laaretz in Eretz Yisrael and vice versa

If an Israeli traveled to the diaspora before the 7th of Cheshvan is he to begin reciting Vesein Tal Umatar on the 7th of Cheshvan in the diaspora?

Some Poskim[57] rule he is to recite Vesien Tal Umatar starting from the 7th of Cheshvan as is done in Eretz Yosrael, his hometown. Other Poskim[58] rule he is to follow the area that he is currently in, and hence he does not begin to recite Vesein Tal Umatar until the 5th of December [or until he returns to Eretz Yisrael. Practically, he is not to recite Vesein Tal Umatar in the blessing of Bareich Aleinu, but is to recite it in Shomeia Tefila.[59]

 

Does one who traveled from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora between 7th Cheshvon and 5th December continue to say Vesein Tal Umatar in the Diapsora?[60]

Yes. Nevertheless, if he is the Chazan, then in his repetition of Shemoneh Esrei, he is to recite Vesein Bracha as is said in the Diaspora.

 

Does one who traveled from the Diaspora to Eretz Yisrael between 7th Cheshvon and 5th December begin to say Vesein Tal Umatar in Eretz Yisrael?[61]

He is to recite Veisen Tal Umatar just like Bnei Eretz Yisrael. However if he plans to return to the Diapsora before the 5th of December, some Poskim side that he is to recite it within Shemoeia Tefilah. 

Chart for one who remembered that he did not say Vesein Tal Umatar:

Area of Shemoneh Esrei The Law
 

Prior to Hashem’s name in Bareich Aleinu

 

 

Say it there

 

Prior to Teka Beshofar

 

 

Say it there

 

Prior to Hashem’s name in Shema Koleinu

 

 

Say it there

 

After saying Ritzei

 

 

Go back to back to Bareich Aleinu

 

After saying 2nd Yehi Ratzon

 

 

Repeat Shemoneh Esrei.

5. What is one to do with the Sechach and Daled Minim after Sukkos?

  1. The Sukkah:[62] Update with sources from laws of Tzitzis

After Sukkos one is not required to bury the wood used for Sechach and it may be used and benefited from for any purpose that one desires.[63] Nevertheless, it is proper to beware not to use it for a belittling matter, as this is disrespectful to the Mitzvah that was performed with it. [Some have the custom to burn the Sechach used for the Sukkah in order to prevent it from being used for any other matter.[64] This is a mere stringency.[65] Others throw the Sechach into a river.[66] Others save the Sechach to use for next year.[67] Regarding throwing the Sechach in the garbage-See Q&A!]

Not to step on the Sechach:[68] It goes without saying that one may not trample on the Sechach in order not to do a belittling act with it. [Thus, one is to protest against those who discard the Sechach in an area that people walk and trample on it.[69]]

 

Q&A

When is the Sukkah to be taken down after Sukkos?[70]

One is to take down the Sukkah [immediately[71]] after Sukkos in order to show that the Sukkas construction was purely for the sake of the Mitzvah.

 

May one save the Sechach to reuse next year?[72]

It is permitted and even proper to save the Sechach to reuse the same Sechach for the following year’s Sukkah in order to reuse it for a Mitzvah purpose.

 

If one does not desire to save the Sechach may he throw it in the garbage?

Yes.[73] However it is proper not to place it together with all the other garbage and it is rather to be placed in a separate pile.[74] Likewise, it is not to be discarded in an area that people walk and will trample over it.[75]

 

May the walls of the Sukkah be used for a belittling matter?[76]

It is proper not to perform a belittling matter even with the walls of the Sukkah. They are hence not to be thrown directly into the garbage. It is permitted to use them for a non-belittling use.

 

May the ground area where the Sukkah stood be used for a belittling matter, such as to store garbage, or build a bathroom? 

It is debated amongst the Poskim as to whether the floor of the Sukkah may be used for a belittling matter during the year.

 

 

  1. The Daled Minim: 

Saving the Daled Minim:[77] On Motzei Yom Tov one is to take the Lulav together with the other species and place it in a special area for safekeeping. One is to place it within view as through seeing it and remembering the Mitzvah one will merit to be saved from any suffering or stress. One may not take the Daled Minim and throw them in the garbage being that they hint to a very holy and sublime matter. [Many are accustomed to save the Daled Minim until Pesach in which they are then burned together with the Chameitz.[78]]

Hadassim for Havdala:[79] Preferably, for the blessing of Besamim by Havdala, one is to use a spice which its blessing is Borei Minei Besamim.[80] Such spices include Mor [clove and cinnamon[81]]. One may add to this spice other spices of a different blessing and say on the entire bundle the blessing of Minei Besamim.[82] It is proper to add to this spice the Hadassim used during Sukkos[83] in order to add another mitzvah to its use.[84] [This however is not the widespread custom.[85]]

Aravos to bake the Matzos:[86] Some have the custom to use the Aravos of the Lulav as fuel in the opening of the oven, for baking the Matzos.

Esrog jelly:[87] Some are accustomed to make Esrog jelly from the Esrog of the Daled Minim. The jelly is consumed on the night of the 15th of Shevat which is the Rosh Hashanah for trees. The consumption of this Esrog jelly is a Segula for women to have an easy birth. [Some[88] are accustomed to also save the Esrog jelly to be eaten on Shavuos.]

 

  1. The Aravos for Hoshanos:

Some Poskim[89] rule that it is forbidden to benefit from the Aravos after it is used for the Mitzvah [for that entire day] unless one made a stipulation beforehand. It is, however, permitted to discard the Hoshanos of the Lulav[90] [to the garbage] although some Poskim[91] rule that the Hoshanos may not be stepped on. Some have the custom to save the Aravos which were hit on Hoshanah Raba and use them as fuel to burn the Chameitz on Erev Pesach.[92] Others are accustomed to save them for use of fuel to bake the Matzos.[93] [Others are accustomed to throw the Aravos on top of the Aron.[94] Others negate this custom.[95] The Rebbe was not accustomed to throw the Aravos on top of the Aron.[96] Others are particular to save the Aravos as a good omen and Segula as explained next.[97] Based on this it is proper not to burn all the Aravos on Erev Pesach in order so some are saved for the Segula.[98]]

Segulos: The Aravos are a Segula for safety during travel[99], for being saved in a time of danger[100], for being saved from fear[101] and frightening dreams[102]. Some[103] write that cooking the Aravos and drinking the water is a Segula for having children.

 

If one does not desire to save the Daled Minim or Hoshanos may he place them in the garbage?

Yes.[104] However they are to be placed in a separate bag and only then to be placed in the garbage.[105]

 

6. Shabbos Bireishis:

Its effect on the entire year:[106] The Rebbe Rayatz stated in the name of the Alter Rebbe and in name of the Baal Shem Tov that Shabbos Bereishis, which is the first Shabbos of the year which follows the holiday season, has ability to effect one’s entire year. In his words “The way one stands on Shabbos Bereishis, so is drawn onto the entire year.” On this Shabbos there is a light of Chochmah which shines and this light extends to every day of the year, and all its important events, general and personal, including: Shabbos, Yomim Tovim, Hachnasa’s Lecheder, Bar Mitzvah’s,e tc. All these events receive from the light of Shabbos Bereishis.[107] The decrees that were written on Rosh Hashanah, sealed on Yom Kippur, and packaged on Hoshanah Raba, do not leave for shipment until Shabbos Bereishis.[108]

Yaakov Halacha Ledarko:[109] On Motzei Shabbos Bereishis we pronounce “Yaakov Halacha Ledarko,” that Yaakov Avinu has begun his journey. 

Kiddush between 6-7: See next!

 

 

When do we change the mantel on the Bima and Aron from white to colored?[110]

Some Chassidic communities are accustomed to leave the white Paroches on the Aron and Bima until after Simchas Torah, and some leave it until after Shabbos Bereishis. The custom in 770 is to leave the white Paroches on the Bima and Aron until after Simchas Torah.[111]

 

7. Not to make Kiddush during the seventh hour:[112]

  1. The Halacha:

Some[113] are careful to avoid saying Kiddush during the first hour of the night[114], (which is during the 7th hour past midday).[115] Rather, they recite Kiddush either prior to nightfall, or after an hour into nightfall. It has already been explained that initially one is to recite Kiddush immediately upon returning from Shul even if it is still day [and is prior to the first hour of the night].[116] [Today, however, that the custom is to Daven Maariv after nightfall, and hence one only returns home within the first hour of night, therefore, those who beware not to make Kiddush during the first hour are to delay Kiddush until the end of the first hour. Practically, the Chabad custom is to avoid making Kiddush throughout the 7th hour after midday, as brought above.[117] This applies likewise in Eretz Yisrael.[118] Other communities however are not accustomed to avoid this, especially in Eretz Yisrael.[119] The Rebbe was very careful not to make Kiddush in the 7th hour.[120]]

 

  1. How to calculate the 7th hour:[121]

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: According to the ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch [brought above] and other Poskim[122], the 7th hour is always the first hour of the night of Shabbos, which is the 7th Zmaniyos hour past the midday of the current day.[123] Accordingly, on every Shabbos one is to avoid saying Kiddush within an hour into Shabbos[124], as the seventh hour past the real midday is always the start of Shabbos. Other Poskim[125] however argue on this calculation. Practically, the custom does not follow the above calculation of Admur, as explained next. 

Final ruling-Custom:[126] The custom is to calculate midday and the seventh hour as 60 minute hours throughout all times of the year and in all places.[127] Likewise, the custom is to calculate the 7th hour from the average Chatzos [Chatzos Haemtzai] as opposed to the real Chatzos. [Chatzos Haamiti].[128] Thus, the time of midday and the 7th hour remains the same throughout the year in all areas and does not fluctuate with summer/winter.[129] In general, the average Chatzos is at 12:00 pm. Accordingly, the practical custom is to avoid saying Kiddush from 6:00-7:00 throughout all times of the year and in all places [except for when DSL is active].[130] Nevertheless, in many countries, due to the change of time zone, the average Chatzos is before or after 12:00. For this reason, the custom in Eretz Yisrael is to view the average Chatzos as 11:40, and hence avoid Kiddush from 5:40-6:40.[131] However some Rabbanim[132] negate this matter, and state one is to always follow 12:00 p.m. as Chatzos irrelevant of his time zone, and hence avoid Kiddush from 6:00-7:00 in all places. One is to follow his community’s custom in this regard. The custom in N.Y. is to avoid Kiddush between 6:00-7:00 and in Israel to avoid Kiddush between 5:40-6:40. Thus, this entire matter of adherence is only in the winter, when 6:00-7:00 falls after the entrance of Shabbos, and not in the summer when 6:00-7:00 falls before the entrance of Shabbos.

Daylight savings time:[133] During those months in which DST is active, the 7th hour of the day is pushed up one hour, and hence one is to avoid making Kiddush from 7:00-8:00, [or in Israel from 6:40 -7:40].[134]

 

Summary:

Some are careful to avoid saying Kiddush during the 7th sixty-minute hour past the average midday and so is the Chabad custom. In New York this is between 6:00-7:00 pm throughout the year, except for when DST is active in which case it is between 7:00-8:00. In Eretz Yisrael, this is between 5:40-6:40 pm throughout the year except for when DST is active in which case it is between 6:40-7:40. Some Rabbanim however rule one is to always avoid Kiddush from 6:00-7:00 in all places. One is to recite Kiddush either prior to this time, or afterwards. Initially one is to recite Kiddush immediately upon returning from Shul and hence if he arrives home before the start of this time he should hurry and make Kiddush beforehand. 

 

Q&A

Does the above custom apply also against making Kiddush on white wine?

Yes.[135] Those who are careful to avoid Kiddush during the 7th hour avoid it with all forms of wine, irrelevant of color.

 

Does the above custom apply also against making Kiddush on bread?

Yes.[136] Those who are careful to avoid Kiddush during the 7th hour, avoid doing so even over bread.

 

If one made Kiddush before the 7th hour may he continue drinking wine throughout the 7th hour?

Yes.[137]

 

May one who is particular to normally avoid Kiddush in the 7th hour recite Kiddush during the 7th hour for the sake of guests?

No.[138] However, some Poskim[139] are lenient in this matter and rule that if there are hungry guests at the table then the Mitzvah of Hachnasas Orchim will protect him of any danger.

 

Are those who are particular to avoid Kiddush in the 7th hour of Shabbos to avoid it also on Yom Tov?[140]

No. There is no need to avoid making Kiddush during the 7th hour on Yom Tov.[141]

 

___________________________________________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 429:17

[2] Admur 429:17; Sukkah 45b

[3] Admur ibid; Rama 429:2

[4] Admur 429:17; Rama 429:2; Sukkah 45b based on second explanation of Rashi ibid [according to his 1st explanation, the Mitzvah is to increase on Yom Tov itself, and not the next day]

[5] The reason: Anyone who attaches [Lit. Issur which means bound] the day after the festival to the festival itself with eating and drinking, meaning through increasing slightly in eating and drinking the day after the Holiday, and thus makes that day attached [Lit. Tafal which means secondary, or attached] to the Holiday itself, the verse considers him to have built an Altar and sacrificed on it an offering. This is based on the verse that states “Isru Chag Baavosim Ad Karnei Hamizbeiach”. Meaning to say that when one makes an Issur, a secondary day, to the festival, then Baavosim, it is considered as if he brought large and fat animals to the altar. For this reason the custom is in these provinces to increase a little in eating and drinking on the day after each of the three festivals. [Admur ibid; Sukkah ibid]

Other reasons: Some write that the celebration of Isru Chag began in Eretz Yisrael in order to show some sign of festivity on the second day of the festival of the Diaspora. This then spread to the Diaspora itself, on their Isru Chag. Alternatively it corresponds to the sacrifices which were able to be eaten for two days and one night. [Sdei Chemed Kelalim Alef 154] Alternatively it is in memory of the pilgrimage which would return home on Isru Chag. [Glosses of Chasam Sofer 429]

[6] Admur 429:17; M”A 429:8

[7] Custom or prohibition? The above prohibition however is only a custom, however from the letter of the law there is no prohibition to fast, although one who refrains from doing so is praised. [Admur ibid; M”A 429:8] This however only applies to the day after Pesach and Sukkos, however on the day after Shavuos from the letter of the law it is forbidden to fast. [Admur 429:18] The reason for this is because on the night of Isru Chag of Shavuos all the sacrifices of the pilgrimage were offered in the Temple, and it was thus made a festival. [494:19; Seemingly according to this also Erev Pesach should be forbidden from the letter of the law, being that all the peach sacrifices were brought then. However in 429:10 it is not mentioned in the list of days that are prohibited from the letter of the law to fast. Vetzaruch Iyun. The practical ramification is in whether one may make up a Taanis Chalom on that day.]

A Taanis Chalom: It is certainly permitted to fast a Taanis Chalom on Isru Chag, as even o9n Shabbos it is permitted. Nevertheless Tzaruch Iyun if such a fast requires a second fast as a Kaparah.

[8] Admur ibid; M”A 573:1

[9] Admur ibid; Rama 429:2 regarding all days of Nissan; See also Rama 568:9

Fasting on the Yartzite of parents on other days in Nissan: From here it is implied that one may fast on a Yartzite on the remaining days of Nissan. This is unlike the Rama 429:2 which rules a Yartzite fast may not be done at all during Nissan. Admur in 429 omits this ruling of the Rama.

[10] Ashel Avraham of Butchach 429

[11] The reason: As this is similar to Kodshim in which the night follows the day in terms of the burning of the offerings from the sacrifice. [ibid]

[12] Torah Leshma 140; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 524

[13] The reason: This is done in order to actively show the continued Holiness of the festival that is relevant to this day, and so one does not treat it like a regular weekday. [Torah Leshma ibid]

[14] Torah Leshma 140

[15] Siddur Admur; Custom brought in Magen Avraham 669:1; Shaareiy Teshuvah 131:15; Seder Hayom [in end of section regarding Sukkos]; Kneses Hagedola; Peri Chadash 131:6 [entire month of Tishreiy]; Chesed Leavraham Mayan 2:45

Background: The Seder Hayom [from the year 1600] brings that Tachnun is omitted until the end of Tishreiy because it is a month filled with Holidays and joyous events. We have 4 different holidays and were given a time of forgiveness in this month. He therefore writes it is improper to show any sadness after having experienced all these lofty matters of the month, and rather one is to rejoice in it. [See Admur 429:8-9 regarding the month of Nissan]

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In 624:13 Admur rules that Tachanun is omitted between Yom Kippur and Sukkos being that it is days of rejoicing. No mention is made regarding after Sukkos.

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that the custom is to recite Tachanun after Sukkos. [Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; Ashel Avraham Butchach 131]

[16] 114/1

[17] 114/1; Tur 114

[18] Admur 114:1; Michaber 114:1; 668:2

[19] 114/6-7

[20] Meaning even he did not yet say Hashem’s name in the concluding blessing.

[21] Admur ibid in parentheses; Implication of Beis Yosef 114 as brought in P”M 114 A”A 7; See Chikrei Halachos 7/11 that this matter is in truth unclear from the Poskim, and hence Admur placed it in parentheses.

Other opinions: Some Poskim write that according to the Michaber one is required to go back so long as he did not finish the blessing. [P”M ibid]

[22] 114/10

[23] This depends on if we count Shemini Atzeres as the 1st day or not. Vezatrcuh Iyun.

[24] Prior to the conclusion of the 30 days one is not to repeat the beginning of the blessing of Michayeh Meism until … Morid Hageshem for a total of 90x in order to make for oneself a status quo that he has now regulated himself to say it and hence no longer needs to go back in case of doubt, as there are opinions which argue on this ruling and hence one ends up entering himself into a dispute if he does not remember if he said it prior to the 30 days concluding.

[25] 117/1

[26] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 117:1 footnote 1

[27] 117/2

[28] Admur 117/1 and 3; Michaber 117/2-3

[29] Admur 117:3; Michaber 117:3; Rambam 10:8 and Taanis 3a regarding Morid Hageshem

[30] Michaber ibid

[31] See Q&A that according to Admur and other Poskim this applies even after Sukkos, before the 7th of Cheshvan, although other Poskim argue.

[32] Admur 117:1; Michaber 117:2; Rama 117:2; Rosh 4:10

[33] Michaber ibid

[34] The reason: As some Poskim rule that such lands may ask for rain in Bareich Aleinu, even in the summer. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Rashi Taanis 10a; Machzor Vitri 24; Ravaya Taanis 848]

[35] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid

[36] Admur 117:1; Mateh Moshe 1:141; Elya Raba 117:3; Radbaz 6:2; Olas Tamid 117:3; Kneses Hagedola 117:4; Soles Belula 117:1; Birkeiy Yosef 117:3; Beir Heiytiv 117:6; Tehilah Ledavid 117:1-2; Biur Halacha 117:1 “Hatzerichim”; Kaf Hachaim 117:8; Ketzos Hashulchan 21:8; Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 117:4 footnote 33

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that all countries in the Diaspora are to repeat Shemoneh Esrei prior to the 5th of December. [Maharikash, brought in Birkeiy Yosef ibid and Kaf Hachaim ibid, in argument against the Radbaz]

[37] Admur 117:1 “these lands whose planting season is in Tishreiy, need rain after Sukkos otherwise the seeds that were planted will be destroyed”; Peri Chadash 117, brought in Beir Heiytiv 117:6; Mamar Mordechai 117:8; Biur Halacha 117 “Hatzerichim”; Tehilah Ledavid 117:1-2; Kaf Hachaim 117:8 that so is implication of all Poskim ibid, unlike Beir Heiytiv

[38] Ketzos Hashulchan 21:8

[39] Ketzos Hashulchan 21:8 footnote 21 in implication of Admur ibid who does not make any such differentiation; Implication of Rosh, brought in M”A 117:4 and Machatzis Hashekel ibid; Biur Halacha 117:1 “Hatzerichin”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 117:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim question that perhaps the above law that one does not have to repeat only applies if there is currently a drought in the country, and it is in need of rain, otherwise, he must repeat Shemoneh Esrei, even though it is currently the rain season in his country. [M”A 117:4 in implication of Michaber 117:2]

[40] Implication of Admur ibid who writes the ruling of not repeating Shemoneh Esrei to only “these countries” and these countries refer to “these lands whose planting season is in Tishreiy, need rain after Sukkos, otherwise the seeds that were planted will be destroyed”, hence implying that countries that do not need rain after Sukkos, one must repeat Shemoneh Esrei prior to the 5th of December; See also Ketzos Hashulchan 21:8 “a country whose rain season is at that time”; Peri Chadash 117, brought in Beir Heiytiv 117:6; Mamar Mordechai 117:8; Biur Halacha 117 “Hatzerichim”; Tehilah Ledavid 117:1-2; Kaf Hachaim 117:8 that so is implication of all Poskim ibid, unlike Beir Heiytiv;

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that all countries are exempt from repeating Shemoneh Esrei between the 7th of Cheshvan and the 5th of December. [Beir Heiytiv 117:6 that so is implication of Mateh Moshe 1:141, Radbaz 6:2-58, Olas Tamid 117:3, Kneses Hagedola 117, [However see Mamar Mordechai 117:8 and Kaf Hachaim 117:8 who argues on Beir Heiytiv]; Toras Chaim 3:3 [Maharchash-Rav Chaim Shabsi of Salunki, Greece 1600] brought in Rav Akiva Eiger 117; Toras Chaim Sofer 117:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 117:4]

[41] Admur ibid; Rama 117:2

[42] Toras Chaim 3:3 [Maharchash-Rav Chaim Shabsi of Salunki, Greece 1600] brought in Rav Akiva Eiger 117; Tehilah Ledavid 117:1-2; Toras Chaim Sofer 117:6; Orchos Chaim Spinka 117:1; Rav SZ”A in Halichos Shlomo 8:18; Or Letziyon 2:7-31; Yabia Omer 5:15; 10:10; The following Rishonim rule that one may even initially ask for rain in Eretz Yisrael from after Sukkos: Ritva.

[43] The reason: As after Sukkos it is no longer a Siman Kelala to have rain, and thus we begin saying Mashiv Haruach, and only when it’s a Siman Kelala do we make one repeat Shemoneh Esrei. [Toras Chaim ibid; Tehilah Ledavid ibid; Toras Chaim Sofer ibid]

[44] Poskim ibid

Does this apply in all countries that don’t need rain before the 7th of Marcheshvan? Some of the Poskim ibid imply that their ruling applies in all countries, as there is no country in which rain is a Siman Kelala after Sukkos. This is also implied from the fact they plainly state that in all the Diaspora there is no need to repeat Shemoneh Esrei without making any differentiation. [See Toras Chaim and Toras Chaim Sofer ibid] However, the Tehilah Ledavid ibid implies that this ruling only applies to lands that need rain after Sukkos, and not to all lands.

[45] See Michaber 117:1 and 117:3; Admur 117:1; Mateh Moshe 1:141; Elya Raba 117:3; Radbaz 6:2; Olas Tamid 117:3; Kneses Hagedola 117; Beir Heiytiv 117:6; Biur Halacha 117:1 “Hatzerichim”; Ketzos Hashulchan 21:8

Background: So is implied from Setimas Haposkim who do not state that after Sukkos, before 7th of Cheshvan, has a different status: See Michaber 117:1 “In the rain season one must say Visein Tal Umatar and in…Eretz Yisrael one begins from the 7th of Cheshvan.” Then in Michaber 117:3 “If one asked for rain in the summer months he must repeat”; So also rules without making a differentiation all other Poskim who record this Halacha. In addition, it is clearly evident from the following Poskim that prior to the 7th of Cheshvan one must repeat Shemoneh Esrei, as they rule that in the Diaspora Bedieved one need not repeat Shemoneh Esrei if he said Visein Tal Umatar prior to the 5th of December. However, they stipulate that this only applies after the 7th of Cheshvan, hence implying that if it was said before the 7th of Cheshvan then it needs to be repeated: So rules: Admur 117:1; Mateh Moshe 1:141; Olas Tamid 117:3; Kneses Hagedola 117; Elya Raba 117:3; Beir Heiytiv 117:6; Biur Halacha 117:1 “Hatzerichim”; Ketzos Hashulchan 21:8

[46] Chazon Ish in Dinim Vehanhagos 4:26; Lehoros Nasan 7:5; Avnei Yashpei 1:16; Koveitz Mibeis Levi 17:99 in name of Rav Wozner

[47] The reason: Possibly the reason is as follows: a) Once the Sages made their Takana not to say Visein Tal Umatar before the 7th of Cheshvan, Shemoneh Esrei must be repeated if one made a mistake, as although it is not a Siman Kelala, since in majority of the summer it is a Siman Kelala, therefore they did not differentiate in their decree. [See Admur 114:5 for a similar ruling regarding one who said Mashiv Haruach after Pesach when it is still the rain season] b) Perhaps it is a Siman Kelala to have rain fall on the pilgrims returning from Jerusalem! Now, although we said before that if an entire country needs rain in the summer, then Bedieved if one requested in the summer he does not need to repeat, and the same should seemingly apply here, that if the country needs rain after Sukkos they should not need to repeat, seemingly that was only said regarding countries with a summer rain season, while those with a winter rain season, must wait until the 7th of Cheshvan. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[48] See Admur 117:1; Unedited Sicha of 7th of Cheshvan 1986 [printed in Hisvadyus 1986 1 p. 509] “It is forbidden to ask for rain prior to the 7th of Cheshvan and if one does so he does not fulfill his obligation and must repeat the prayer”; However, in the tape of this Sicha the Rebbe stated that there is a question in what to do if one did so, and did not give a final ruling on the subject.

Background: See Admur 117:1 “The same applies if in these lands an individual made a mistake and asked for rain from the 7th of Cheshvan and onwards he is not required to repeat” Thus, clearly implying that before the 7th he must repeat, unlike the ruling of the former Poskim who say no one has to repeat starting from after Sukkos. This is furthermore implied from the fact Admur ibid limits the ruling of the Mateh Moshe to only “these lands”, hence proving that not being a Siman Kelala is not enough and there has to actually be in need for rain. This defies the entire reason of logic of the lenient Poskim.

[49] 117/5; Michaber 117/5; Brachos 29

[50] See 114/5

[51] Admur ibid; M”A 117/5

The reason: By saying it in this area it is considered as if he is saying it in Birchas Hashanim, as explained in 114/7. [ibid] There it is explained that so long as one has not yet begun the next blessing the previous blessing is not considered to have been concluded regarding these additions that must be recited, and invalidate the prayer if omitted. However regarding those additions that do not invalidate the prayer when omitted, the conclusion of the previous blessing ends that blessing even prior to beginning the next blessing, and hence one may no longer recite the non-invalidating additions once one has completed the blessing. [114/7]  

[52] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Gemara ibid

[53] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid

By saying it in this area it is considered as if he is saying it in Shomeia Tefila [ibid], as explained in the previous footnote.

[54] Admur 114/10 regarding Mashiv Haruach and the same applies for Visein Tal Umatar Levracha [Kaf Hachaim 117/32]

[55] The reason: As until the pass of 30 days [90 prayers] of the recital of the new addition we assume one said the usual wording that he was accustomed to say until that point, unless he knows for certain that he recited the correct dialect. [ibid]

Reciting it 90x: Prior to the conclusion of the 30 days one is not to repeat the beginning of the blessing of Michayeh Meism until … Morid Hageshem for a total of 90x in order to make for oneself a status quo that he has now regulated himself to say it and hence no longer needs to go back in case of doubt, as there are opinions which argue on this ruling and hence one ends up entering himself into a dispute if he does not remember if he said it prior to the 30 days concluding. [Admur 114/11]

[56] If he did not Daven some of the days within the 30 days: The above law applies even if there were a few days in-between in which he did not say it, such as he did not Daven at all, his Chazaka is not weakened, being that he said it for majority of the days. [Admur ibid]

[57] Ridaz; Halachos Ketanos; Shalmei Tzibur; Peri Chadash; P”M

[58] Birkeiy Yosef 117/5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 117/4; Ketzos Hashulchan 21/10; Leaning opinion of M”B 117/5;

[59] Suggestion of Rebbe in Likkutei Sichos 19/464 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 1/77]; Halichos Shlomo 8/19; Cheshev Haeifod 3/7; Shevet Halevi 10/22; Kaneh Bosem 1/10; Piskeiy Teshuvos 117/3

[60] Ketzos Hashulchan 10; Birkeiy Yosef 117/5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 117/4

[61] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 117/3

[62] 638:19

[63] The reason: As Sechach after Sukkos has the status of Tashmishei Mitzvah Se Piskeiy Teshuvos 638:9 footnote 37

[64] Seder Hayom Motzei Sukkos p. 96; Bikurei Yaakov 638:19; Aruch Hashulchan 638:12; Ben Ish Chaiy Vezos Habracha writes the custom is to save the Sechach for fueling the fire used for Hagalas Keilim on Erev Pesach; Piskeiy Teshuvos 638:9

The Rebbe’s custom: The custom of Beis Harav is to burn the Sechach in close proximittty to the festival. [See Reshimos Hayoman p. 266; Ohalei Lubavitch p. 166; Hiskashrus Simchas Torah]

[65] Seder Hayom Motzei Sukkos ibid

[66] Likkutei Maharich Seder Shemini Atzeres

[67] See Q&A!

[68] Admur ibid; M”B 638:24

[69] M”B ibid

[70] Seder Hayom Motzei Sukkos p. 96

[71] Nitei Gavriel 103:5 and so is implied from Seder Hayom ibid

[72] Seder Hayom Motzei Sukkos p. 96

[73] See Admur ibid that it does not require Geniza. However see M”B 21:6 that one may not throw it in the garbage. See next footnote

[74] See Admur ibid that it is not to be belittled. See M”B ibid that one may not throw it in the garbage. Thus one is to place them in a separate bag out of respect for the Mitzvah and not have them lay together with all the other garbage. See Darkei Chaim Veshalom 793 that the Aravos may not be thrown in the garbage in a way of belittlement.

[75] M”B ibid

[76] M”B 21:6 in name of Peri Megadim

[77] Seder Hayom Motzei Sukkos p. 96; Chida in Kikar Laeden “It is implied from the Yerushalmi that they would save the Lulav, and so is done by elder Rabbanim that they save the Daled Minim as a Segula”; Yifei Lalev 2 664:15 “One is to place it by the entrance of his home as a safety guard”;

[78] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 664 footnote 27; Using the Daled Minim to burn the Chameitz is mentioned in Admur 445:12 only regarding the Aravos of Hoshanos and not regarding the Daled Minim. However, he does mention using the Aravos of the Lulav for fuling the Matzah baking, as brought next.

Chabad custom: The custom of the Rabbeim was to burn the Lulav sometime after Sukkos, and not wait until Erev Pesach. [See Reshimos Hayoman p. 266; Ohalei Lubavitch p. 166; Hiskashrus Simchas Torah] It is said, however, that this was not the Rebbe’s custom and he would indeed save the Daled Minim for burning on Erev Pesach. [Hiskashrus ibid]

[79] 297:3

[80] Admur ibid; M”A 297 [Hakdama]; M”B 297:1

The Reason: As today the custom is to always say Minei Besamim on all spices by Havdala. Hence in order to say this blessing on its proper spice, it is best to initially use a spice which receives this blessing. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

Using three bundles of Besamim: Based on Kabala one is to take three bundles of Besamim for the blessing. [Kaf Hachaim 297:2]

[81] Seder 11:3 [that these spices are Minei Besamamim]; M”B 197:1 [“either use the Mor or the clove for Besamim”]; So is the custom of the world to use these spies for Besamim seemingly due to this reason that its blessing is Minei.

Background:

There is a dispute as whether the blessing for clove and cinnamon is Asher Nasan Reich Tov Bapeiros, or Borei Atzei Besamim. We therefore say Borei Minei Besamim on these spices to fulfill the obligation according to all. [Seder ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun why this option was omitted from Admur ibid and only Mor was mentioned [unlike the M”B ibid who mentions both options]. Perhaps one can say that since in truth there is a dispute as to the correct blessing of the cinnamon and clove and it is only due to lack of choice that we say Minei Besamim over it, therefore there is no advantage of using this spice for the Minei Besamim over any other spice, as even by these spices the Minei Besamim is not the correct blessing and there is thus no Halachic advantage. On the other hand however perhaps since the final ruling is that we say Minei Besamim on these spices therefore it is better to use them for Havdala rather than use other spices which receive a different blessing as by the other spices one is actively uprooting the blessing that he is normally required to recite over it, while by the cloves he is saying the correct blessing as brought in practical Halacha. Vetzaruch Iyun. In any event this would certainly explain the ruling of the M”B ibid as well as the widespread practice of using specifically cloves or cinnamon for Besamim, as they are the only alternative to Mor that actually receive the blessing of Minei at all times.

[82] 297:3

[83] See Kaf Hachaim 297:2 and 28 [based on Eitz Chaim] that one should use the Hadassim used on Friday night based on Kabala.

[84] 297:6

Background:

Some opinions rule it is a Mitzvah to say a blessing on Motzei Shabbos over the Hadassim used for the Mitzvah [of Lulav], as since one used it for one Mitzvah it is to be used for another Mitzvah. Now although the Hadas by now is dry and hence does not smell very much, nevertheless it still retains some smell. Others however rule it is better to use other spices which contain strong smell, rather than to use a Hadas which its smell is fading. Practically the custom in these countries is like the latter opinion. Nevertheless it is proper to also place the Hadassim near the other spices of which one says on them Minei Besamim or Atzei Besamim and hence is to smell both of them, fulfilling his duties according to both opinions. [ibid] Seemingly based on this wording Admur does not hold that these Hadassim lose their Atzei Besamim status, as rules M”A 297:3, Vetzaruch Iyun.

Ruling of Kabala: Based on Kabala there is mystical meaning behind using a Hadas for Besamim on Motzei Shabbos. [Brought in Beis Yosef 297]

How to hold the Hadassim: The Hadassim are to be held the way that they grew from bottom to top. [M”A 297]

[85] See Peri Megadim 297 A”A 3 which says not to place the Hadas with the other spices as one is to initially say a designated blessing on each spice.

The Chabad custom: In one case, an individual received a directive from the Rebbe to use the Hadassim that he received from the Rebbe, for Besamim. [Likkutei Sichos 19:569; See Otzer Minhagie Chabad 233 that this instruction was given several times]

[86] 445:12; Mahrail Erev Pesach p. 48; Mahariy Viyal 191 and 193; Chok Yaakov 445:3

[87] Alef Hamagen 660:7; Yifei Laleiv 2 664:15; Likkutei Maharich; See Kesubos 61a; Midrash Raba Vayikra 37b

The Chabad custom: Some individuals received a directive from the Rebbe to use the Esrog to make jelly. [See Otzer Minhagie Chabad 233 that this instruction was given several times]

[88] Mishmeres Shalom 44

[89] Michaber 664:9 in name of Yeish Mi Sheomer; Hagahos Maimanis in name of Yireim

The reason: As it has been designated for the Mitzvah for that entire day. [Michaber ibid]

[90] Michaber 664:8

[91] Michaber 664:8 in name of Yeish Mi Sheomer; Hagahos Ashri in name of Or Zarua

[92] Admur 445:12; Or Zarua p. 84; Rokeaich 19; Maharil Erev Pesach p. 48; Mahrashal; 87; Chok Yaakov 445:3

The reason: The reason for this is because anything used to do one mitzvah it is proper to do with it another Mitzvah. [Admur ibid; 21:1]

[93] Rama 664:9 that so is custom in order to add a Mitzvah; Maharil; Rav Yaakov Viyaal

[94] Maharsham 4:53; Malbushei Yom Tov [on Levush] 664:1; Bikurei Yaakov 664:16; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 664 footnote 24

[95] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 793 as the Aravos end up being discarded in a belittling manner after the Holiday when they are cleaned from the Aron.

[96] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 340 “At times he placed them in his Siddur, at times he placed them on the chair, and at times he simply left them on the floor.”

The Rebbe’s custom: The custom of Beis Harav is to burn the Hoshanos in close proximittty to the festival. [See Reshimos Hayoman p. 266; Ohalei Lubavitch p. 166; Hiskashrus Simchas Torah]

[97] Tanya [Kadmon] 86 “It is an old custom that each person takes the Aravos used for Hoshanos to his house and places it near his bed out of dearness for the Mitzvah.”; Menoras Hamaor 3:4 “The Aravos of Hoshanos have a special Segula for safety during travel”

[98] See Alef Lamagen 660:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 664 footnote 27

[99] Menoras Hamaor ibid

[100] Lekutei Tzevi in name of Over Oreiach that in a time of danger one is to remember the area that the Aaravos are kept and remember “Hoshia Na”.

[101] Kaf Hachaim 664:60 in name of Sefer Hamidos [Rav Nachman of Breslov]

[102] Yifei Laleiv 2 664:15

[103] Likkutei Maharich

[104] See Michaber 664:8 “The Arava of the Lulav, although it is thrown…” thus implying it may be thrown out regularly. However see M”B 21:6 that one may not throw it in the garbage. See next footnote

[105] See M”B ibid that one may not throw it in the garbage; See Michaber ibid that nevertheless one is not to step on them. Thus one is to place them in a separate bag out of respect for the Mitzvah and not have them lay together with all the other garbage. See Darkei Chaim Veshalom 793 that the Aravos may not be thrown in the garbage in a way of belittlement.

[106] Sefer Hasichos 5704 p. 44; 5705 p. 65 [in name of the Alter Rebbe, and that the Mittler Rebbe discusses this in length]; 5707  p. 80; 5710 14th Tishreiy, printed in Sefer Hamamarim 5711 Melukat p. 59 [in name of Alter Rebbe who received it from his teachers]; Likkutei Sichos 1:1; 2:449 in name of Tzemach Tzedek; 10:190; 20:556; Hisvadyus 5752 1:188; Igros Kodesh 3:201 in name of Maggid and Baal Shem Tov; Otzer Minhagei Chabad Tishreiy 108; Keser Shem Tov Hosafos p. 283

[107] Sefer Hasichos 5710 14th Tishreiy p. 356, printed in Sefer Hamamarim 5711 Melukat p. 59, in name of Alter Rebbe who received it from his teachers; See Toras Meanchem 5714 1:106

[108] Statement of Rebbe Rayatz made on Simchas Torah 5691, printed in Likkutei Dibburim p. 711

[109] Likkutei Sichos 20:269

[110] Nitei Gavriel 4

[111] Otzer Minhagei Chabad 29

[112] Admur 271:3; M”A 271:1; Beir Heiytiv 271:1; Kaf Hachaim 271:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:4

[113] Tikkunei Shabbos; Maharil 163

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule there is no need to worry of this issue as the Jewish people are not under the authority of the Mazalos, and certainly on Shabbos there is no need to worry of this matter. [Aruch Hashulchan 271:11 vehemently negates this matter; Mishmeres Shalom Kudinov 27:3; See Poskim and Rabbanim in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 45-46; This entire Halacha is omitted in M”B 271]

[114] Admur ibid; first hour of night is not mentioned in Poskim ibid, and they simply state “the beginning of the night”

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the seventh hour is calculated in 60 minute hours at all times of the year and in all places. Thus, the time of the 7th hour remains the same throughout the year in all areas and does not fluctuate and is not always the 1st hour of the night. [Machatzis Hashekel 271 on M”A ibid; Igros Kodesh 12:226; 13:120 printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:71; See Maharil ibid who implies like Machatzis Hashekel; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:3] Accordingly, due to the above, some Poskim rule that the entire issue of the 7th hour only applies by those times of the year that the night and day have exactly 12 hours, as only then does the 7th 60 minute hour fall out on the 1st hour of the entrance of Shabbos. [Machatzis Hashekel 271 on M”A ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 38] 

[115] The reason: As during the first hour of the night the Mazal of Maadim and Samal rule over the person. [Admur and Poskim ibid; See the following for the exact calculation of the schedule of the Mazalos: Rashi Shabbos 129b; Machatzis Hashekel on M”A ibid; Levush 428; Igros Kodesh 13:120, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:71; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] The Mazal of Madim is in charge of destruction and war, and is under the authority of the Satan. [Machatzis Hashekel on M”A ibid]

[116] Admur ibid

Alternative reasons for saying Kiddush before 7th hour: Some Poskim write one is to specifically say Kiddush in the 6th hour, prior to the 7th hour, not because of the requirement to say Kiddush immediately upon arrival, but because during the 6th hour the Mazal of Tzedek shines, and one should make Kiddush during this Mazal. [M”A ibid; Tikkunei Shabbos ibid; Beir Heiytiv ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun why this was omitted by Admur

[117] See Shulchan Menachem 2:71-75

[118] So is the practical custom today; See Igros Kodesh 12:226; 13:120; letter printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:71; Oholei Sheim 7:206; Hiskashrus 379 footnote 32

[119] See Poskim and Rabbanim in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 45-46; See Igros Kodesh ibid that people wrote to the Rebbe that the custom in Eretz Yisrael is not to be careful in this. In one letter the Rebbe asks for verification of the source of this custom and for its reason. In a later letter the Rebbe suggests that if this custom is correct, then perhaps the reason is because one who guards a Mitzvah knows no evil, and hence they never accepted this custom to begin with. However, the Rebbe negates the suggestion that the reason is because there are no mazalos in Eretz Yisrael as in truth there are. See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid that many communities in Eretz Yisrael are careful.

[120] Heard from Rav Groner

[121] See Shulchan Menachem 2:71-75 for letters of Rebbe on subject; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:4; Nesivim Besidei Hashlichus 1:57; Minhag Avoseinu Biyadeinu 115; Hiskashrus 379

Background:

Above we stated that some avoid making Kiddush during the 7th hour and that so is the Chabad custom. There are various methods of how to calculate the 7th hour, based on difference of Chatzos and the time span of each of the seven hours.

When is Chatzos? The time of Chatzos:Midday is the time between sunrise and sunset. Accordingly, the time of the 7th hour fluctuates every Shabbos based on that day’s sunset and sunrise and subsequent Chatzos, and this is how Admur rules in the Shulchan Aruch. Nevertheless, the custom is to calculate the 7th hour from the average Chatzos [Chatzos Haemtzai] as opposed to the real Chatzos. [Chatzos Haamiti].

How long is each hour? There are two calculations of hours available. One is based on an equal 60 minute hour, while the second is called Shaos Zmaniyos, which is based on the amount of minutes in the day divided by 12. Admur ibid rules we follow Zmaniyos hours. Nevertheless, the custom is to calculate 60 minute hours.

The three calculations: Based on the above, there are three possible calculations of the 7th hour: 1) The seventh Zmaniyos hour past that days true midday. [Admur ibid; Implication of M”A ibid; Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 4] 2) The seventh 60 minute hour past that days true midday. [Option in Igros Kodesh ibid, brought in Shulchan Menachem ibid; 2nd option in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 38] 3) The seventh 60th  minute hour past the general average midday. [Machatzis Hashekel ibid; Letters in Shulchan Menachem ibid; 1st option in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 38]

[122] Implication of M”A ibid; Third option brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid and Poskim there in footnote 41

[123] The time of Chatzos:Midday is the time between sunrise and sunset. Thus, according to Admur ibid, the time of the 7th hour from midday fluctuates every Shabbos based on that day’s sunset and sunrise and subsequent Chatzos. According to Admur one must say that Chatzos is the Chatzos Haamiti, and that the hours are calculated as Zmaniyos, as otherwise the first hour of Shabbos would not always be the seventh hour.

[124] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 41 that this should follow the first hour from sunset, although the custom is to calculate one hour from Tzeis.

[125] Some Poskim rule the seventh hour is calculated in 60 minute hours at all times of the year and in all places. Thus, the time of the 7th hour remains the same throughout the year in all areas and does not fluctuate and is not always the 1st hour of the night. [Machatzis Hashekel 271 on M”A ibid; See Maharil ibid who implies like Machatzis Hashekel; Igros Kodesh 12:226; 13:120; Likkutei Sichos 16:576, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:71; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:3]  Accordingly, due to the above, some Poskim rule that the entire issue of the 7th hour only applies by those times of the year that the night and day have exactly 12 hours, as only then does the 7th 60 minute hour fall out on the 7th hour of the entrance of Shabbos. [Machatzis Hashekel 271 on M”A ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 38] 

[126] Igros Kodesh 12:226; 13:120; Likkutei Sichos 16:576, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:71

[127] Machatzis Hashekel ibid; Igros Kodesh ibid; There are two calculations of hours available. One is based on an equal 60 minute hour, while the second is called Shaos Zmaniyos, which is based on the amount of minutes in the day divided by 12. Regarding the above matter we follow 60 minute hours throughout the year, and not Shaos Zmaniyos.

The reason: The reason for this is because the Mazalos do not follow Shaos Zmaniyos, but rather an exact 60 minutes. [Igros Kodesh 12:226, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:71]

[128] Likkutei Sichos ibid

[129] Igros Kodesh ibid

[130] Igros Kodesh ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule based on the above that the entire issue of the 7th hour only applies by those times of the year that the night and day have exactly 12 hours, as only then does the 7th 60 minute hour fall out on the 7th hour of the entrance of Shabbos. [Machatzis Hashekel ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 38]

[131] Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:3, See there footnote 39 in length for the exact times in Israel and New York and London, and how to calculate the average Chatzos.

Explanation:  Israel has an earlier sunrise than Egypt, however the clock of Israel is symmetric to the clock in Egypt even though in truth we are several minutes ahead of Egypt; when it is 12:00 in Israel it is 12:00 in Egypt. Thus the average Chatzos in Israel is earlier than the average Chatzos in Egypt, which is at 12:00, and hence the true average Chatzos in Israel is when it is 11:40 in Israel. For this reason the custom in Eretz Yisrael is to view Chatzos from 11:40-12:40. [See Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 5; Yisrael Vehazmanim 1:43-44]

[132] Directive of Rav Z”S Dworkin; Rav Groner states that the Rebbe negated the former opinion and held of 6:00-7:00 in all places; See also Igros Kodesh ibid where the Rebbe mentions 6:00-7:00

[133] Pashut! Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:4; Directive of Rav Z”S Dworkin brought in Kovetz Oholei Torah; Custom of Rebbe not to make Kiddush during DSL from 7:00-8:00. [Heard from Harav L. Groner]

[134] As the average Chatzos is really at 1:00 during DST, as the clock has been pushed up an hour, and hence the true time at 1:00 is 12:00, and hence the true time as 7:00 is 6:00. Upashut!

[135] The reason: There is no source to limit the prohibition to red wine and not white wine. On the contrary, the fact that no Posek makes any differentiation is a clear ruling that in truth the wine color makes no difference, and so is the custom. Rav Leibal Groner related to me that “The Rebbe said that we do not make kiddush at that time no difference what color wine.”; Rav Eli Landa Shlita relates that there is no source or reason for allowing white wine and those who do so are performing “Purim Torah”; Nonetheless, the ruling of Rav Levi Bistritzky Z”al of the Tzvas community was to permit white wine.

[136] The reason: As the danger is in making Kiddush. No mention is made of certain forms of Kiddush being allowed.

[137] We have no source that there is danger to drink wine during this hour but simply that making Kiddush is dangerous.

[138] Letter of Rebbe printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:75

[139] Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:4 in name of Likkutei Maharich

[140] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:4 footnote 45

[141] The reason: Mazal Madim only shines on the first hour of the night on Friday night and not on any other night. [See Machatzis Hashekel ibid]

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