Squeezing fruits into foods on Shabbos

Squeezing fruits into foods on Shabbos:[1]

A. Into a solid food [as opposed to a liquid]:[2]

All fruits, even grapes and olives, are permitted to be squeezed directly into solid foods for seasoning purposes.[3]

Squeezing into an empty vessel for the sake of seasoning food:[4] It is Rabbinically[5] forbidden to squeeze into an empty vessel, all fruits which are Biblically[6] [i.e. grapes and olives] or Rabbinically[7] [i.e. strawberries and pomegranates] forbidden to be squeezed for their juice. This includes all fruits which are commonly squeezed to drink their juice upon having much of them available. This applies even if one later plans to mix this juice with food and that is the intent of the squeezing.[8] However, other fruits which are not commonly squeezed to drink their juice even when one has much of them available are permitted according to all opinions to be squeezed into an empty vessel with intent to place into food.[9] [Thus, today that almost all fruits have a status that they are squeezed to drink their juice, are forbidden to be squeezed into an empty bowl.[10]]

Squeezing lemons into an empty vessel to use for seasoning:[11] Lemons have the same law as fruits which are not commonly squeezed anywhere and therefore, they are allowed to be squeezed according to all opinions [in an empty bowl[12]] for the sake of seasoning food. [However, other Poskim[13] rule that lemons have the status of commonly squeezed fruits, and would therefore contain the prohibition against being squeezed into an empty vessel. Practically, some of today’s Poskim[14] conclude stringently, that lemons may only be squeezed directly into the food, and others[15] rule it may be squeezed into an empty vessel if one’s intent is to use it to flavor food on Shabbos.] 

Summary:

All fruits, even grapes and olives, are permitted to be squeezed directly into solid foods, as opposed to liquids. It is however forbidden to squeeze the fruit into an empty vessel, even if one later plans to mix this juice with food and that is the intent of the squeezing, unless the fruit is not commonly squeezed to drink their juice even when one has much of them available.

Q&A

How much juice may one squeeze into a food?[16]

One desires to use it to season the food:[17] One may squeeze as much juice as needed in order to give taste to the dish.

One desires an excess amount of juice for other purposes:[18] If one desires to squeeze juice onto food to season the food and also in order to have an access of liquid to drink then it is only permitted to squeeze the excess amount of liquid if either a) majority of the juice is being used to give taste to the dish or b) Majority of the juice is not giving taste but majority will become absorbed within the food and thus not be separately recognizable.[19] Thus it is forbidden to place small amount of food in a bowl and then squeeze into it a large enough amount of juice that the liquid is separately recognizable from the food.

May one squeeze juice onto food if his main intent is to drink the juice and not to season the food?

If majority[20] of the squeezed juice will be absorbed in the food, it is permitted to do so.[21]

 

May one squeeze lemon into his salad or fish?[22]

Yes, as is true of all fruits.

May one cut a fruit salad on a cutting board and pour the juice that squeezed out during the cutting into the salad?

If the juice adds flavor to the fruit salad, or if majority of the juice will get absorbed into the fruit, then it is permitted to do so. One may take the cut pieces of fruit together with its squeezed juice and pour it into the salad bowl.[23] It is however forbidden to drink this liquid. After, however, it has become mixed within the fruit salad for the sake of seasoning, one may drink any leftover juice when there are no more fruits remaining.

B. Into a liquid:[24]

All fruits which are forbidden to be squeezed to drink their juice, are likewise forbidden to be squeezed into water or other liquids in order to drink with the liquid.[25] [Hence according to the custom today to forbid squeezing lemons for juice, it is forbidden to squeeze it even into water.[26]]

Q&A

May one squeeze juice, such as orange or lemon juice, onto sugar?

If one is doing so in order to eat the sugar which has now been saturated with lemon juice, it is allowed. However, if one plans to enter the sugar into a drink, then it is forbidden.[27] This applies even to lemons, and thus one may not squeeze lemons onto sugar if his intent is to then take the sugar with the lemon juice and add it to a drink.[28] However some Poskim[29] are lenient in this matter.

 

May one squeeze lemon into his tea on Shabbos?[30]

The custom today is to forbid squeezing lemon even into a Keli[31] Shelishi, or even into cold tea, as explained in Halacha 2 Q&A that we are today stringent to not squeeze lemons in order to drink their juice. [However according to the Sefaradim this is allowed even today so long as this does not pose a problem of cooking. However one who is stringent is blessed.[32]]

May one cut a lemon over ones tea having its liquid fall into the tea?[33]

No.

 

May one squeeze juice into a food that also contains liquid, such as gravy or vegetable soup?[34]

By a dish which its main aspect is the solid foods that are in it, such as chicken with gravy or soup with a large amount of vegetables and little liquid: It is allowed if done in order to give taste to the solid.

By a dish which its main aspect is the liquid, such as a large amount of soup with little vegetables: It is forbidden even if done to give taste to the vegetables.

 

What is the definition of a liquid? How thin must the fluid be?[35]

If the substance is thick to the point that while drinking it one commonly uses his tongue to help swallow it down then it is defined as a solid and may be squeezed into. If however it is smooth enough to be drunk without help from ones tongue then it has the same status as does liquid and is forbidden to squeeze fruits into it.[36]

May one squeeze juice into a very liquidly dip, such as Italian dressing?[37]

If it is a liquid which is known that is not meant to be drunk but rather to dip bread or other foods into, then it is allowed being that the dip is considered like food. However even in such a case it is only allowed if the liquid was originally a solid and was then squeezed out, as is the case with Italian dressing. However if the dip was always a liquid, such as the water that received taste from a chicken and then became gravy then it is forbidden, as the gravy is viewed as a liquid.

Olive oil: Tzaruch Iyun Gadol as Olive oil is one of the seven liquids Min Hatorah, and is a liquid from a sold, so how can one consider olive oil as food and allowsqueezing into it?

May one squeeze juice into a thick liquidly substance which is not meant for dips, such as fruit or vegetable puree?[38]

This depends on how thick the substance is as was explained in Q&A above- See There!

May one squeeze juice into a melted fatty substance which will eventually congeal?[39]

If one plans to eat the food while it remains a fluid then this is certainly forbidden by those fruits that may not be squeezed to drink their juice. However, if one plans to only eat it later after it already congeals then its law requires further analysis.[40]

PDF Article and source sheet

This file is view-able in PDF format for logged in members only! To become a member, please choose a subscription plan. For current members-please sign in! If you have logged in and it does not show up in your browser-please try using Google Chrome.

View Fullscreen

_________________________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 320/6-7

[2] Admur 320/6; Michaber 320/4; Shmuel in Shabbos 144a; see also 305/28 regarding squeezing milk from a cow

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to squeeze forbidden fruits even into other foods, and it retains its full Biblical or Rabbinical prohibition as squeezing in order to drink the juice. [Michaber and Rama 320/7 in name of Rabbeinu Chananeil in Shabbos 125a in explanation of Rebbe Yochanan ibid; Rabbeinu Chananel concludes “We do not rule like Shmuel neither by Shabbos or Yom Tov and rather we rule like Rebbe Yochanan, and so we have received from our teachers”; The Biur Halacha 320/7 “Rabbeinu Channanel” learns that even Rabbeinu Chananel is only stringent regarding olives and grapes, while regarding other fruits he would agree that it is even initially permitted to squeeze into food. Other Poskim however learn Rabbeinu Chananel to argue even in such a case-see there.] Practically we do not rule like this opinion. [Admur ibid omits it completely from his Shulchan Aruch; Michaber 320/4 omitted it (however see Biur Halacha ibid); M”B 320/17 and 30] Nevertheless some Poskim conclude that one who is stringent is blessed. [M”B ibid; Teshuvas Harosh brought in Beis Yosef; Mishkanos Yaakov 112] According to the M”B ibid, it is only relevant to be stringent against squeezing grapes and olives and not regarding other fruits. [See Biur Halacha ibid] According to Admur and other Poskim there is no need to be stringent even regarding olives and grapes and they do not record any blessing for doing so. [See Shabbos Kehalacha 15 footnote 55]

[3] The reason: The reason for this is because all liquid that enters into food is considered like food and does not have a status of liquid at all, and thus it is as if one is separating food from food. [Admur ibid; 305/28 regarding squeezing milk from a cow; Michaber ibid]

[4] Admur 320/6-7

[5] Admur ibid; Radbaz 686; Peri Megadim, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 320/23

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is Biblically forbidden to do so to olives and grapes. [Derisha and Rambam brought in M”B 320/18 and Biur Halacha 320/4 “Assur”] Seemingly their reason is because they hold that in order for the juice to receive a food status it must actually mix with the food and immediately becomes part of it.

[6] 320/6; Michaber ibid; Shmuel Gemara ibid “However not into a plate”

[7] 320/7; Shaar Hatziyon 320/23 in name of Peir Megadim

[8] Admur ibid; M”A 320/1; M”B 320/18

The reason: Now, although one plans eventually to mix food into it and it is for this reason that he is now squeezing this wine into [the vessel], in order to use it to enhance and sweeten the food that he will eventually eat with this wine and it is thus liquid which is entered into food which is considered like food, nevertheless since at the time of squeezing the wine there is not yet any food [which is mixing into it] and it is not evident at all that it is for this purpose of enhancing the food [for which he is squeezing the wine], therefore it is Rabbinically forbidden. [Admur ibid based partially on Rashi and Levush 320/4; Radbaz 686; Peri Megadim, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 320/23]

[9] 320/7; M”A 320/1; M”B 3208

The reason: Even according to those opinions who forbid squeezing even these fruits to drink their juices, nevertheless, if one is only squeezing them in order to season the food with their liquid then it is allowed even if there is no food currently within the vessel that he is now squeezing them into. The reason for this is because at the time of the squeezing it is known to all that he is squeezing them in order to sweeten the food and not in order to drink their juice being that it is not at all common to squeeze these [fruits] for juice. [320/7]

[10] See 320/2 Q&A 4

[11] Admur 320/10

[12] Beis Yosef in name of Shiveliy Haleket; Shabbos Kehalacha 15 footnote 22; see next footnote

[13] Tzemach Tzedek Shabbos 60 bring many arguments against this leniency of lemons, and thus side to forbid it; M”B 320/22 in name of Chayeh Adam; Kitzur SHU”A 80/12; Ketzos Hashulchan 126/11 footnote 25; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 404; Yaavetz in Mor Uketzia 320

Background: Although lemons are not considered fruits that are commonly squeezed to drink their juice plain and thus from the letter of the law may be squeezed even for their juice, nevertheless today one is to be stringent regarding lemons like those opinions who forbid squeezing them. So rules Ketzos Hashulchan 126 footnote 25. The Yaavetz, as well as the Tzemach Tzedek bring many arguments against the leniency of lemons, and thus side to forbid it.

Ruling of Admur today by lemons: There are two possible explanations given in Beis Yosef, brought in M”B 320/22, for why lemons are permitted to squeeze: A) It is permitted because one does not drink the juice plain; b) It is permitted because one squeezes the juice directly into water. According to the second reason if it is accustomed to squeeze into an empty bowl and then into liquid, then even lemons would be forbidden, and thus today since the custom is to squeeze lemons into empty vessels, and then to mix them with water, it is forbidden to squeeze lemons on Shabbos. [M”B ibid in name of Chayeh Adam] However according to the first reason mentioned, even today it would remain permitted. Admur and M”A ibid record both aspects, as on the one hand they write “squeezing into liquid” as requires the 2nd reason, and on the other hand they conclude “since the juice is not drunk plain”, as writes the first reason. Veztaruch Iyun which is their main reason?! See Ketzos Hashulchan 126 footnote 25 who in the end concludes that even accoridng to Admur one should be stringent today, as perhaps Admur holds of the 2nd reason; However see Shabbos Kehalacha 15 Biurim 7 that proofs that they only hold of the 1st reason and hence even today it is permitted to squeeze lemons in their opinion, however practically we are stringent like the Tzemach Tzedek as stated above.

[14] SSH”K 5/5

[15] Shabbos Kehalacha 2/404 footnote 22

[16] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 432-433, 439

[17] Implication of Admur 502/2 [There it is explained that squeezing into food is only allowed if the liquid will become majority absorbed into the food. If not, then it is forbidden. To note however that this is seemingly referring to a case that one is mainly interested in the juice and not the food. If however one is interested in seasoning the food, then one may squeeze as much as necessary even if it will not become absorbed within it.]

[18] Mamar Mordechai 505/2; Peri Megadim 505 M”Z 2 based on Taz 505/2; Tzemach Tzedek 25; Panim Meiros 1/85; M”B 505/5-6; Kaf Hachaim 505/10; See Admur 505/2; Michaber 505/1

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that one may not squeeze any excess amount of juice even if majority is being used for the food. [Chayeh Adam brought in Shaar Hatziyon 505/6]

[19] Admur 502/2 that squeezing into food is only allowed if the liquid will become majority absorbed into the food. If not, then it is forbidden. This is seemingly referring to a case that one is mainly interested in the juice and not the food.

[20] Mamar Mordechai 505/2; Peri Megadim 505 M”Z 2 based on Taz 505/2; Tzemach Tzedek 25; Panim Meiros 1/85; M”B 505/5-6; Kaf Hachaim 505/10; See Admur 502/2 that squeezing into food is only allowed if the liquid will become completely absorbed into the food. If not, then it is forbidden. This is referring to a case that one is mainly interested in the juice and not the food.

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that one may not squeeze any excess amount of juice even if majority is being used for the food. [Chayeh Adam brought in Shaar Hatziyon 505/6]

[21] Admur 505/2; Michaber 505/1

[22] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 404-406; p. 441

[23] Although we said earlier that one may not squeeze the juice into an empty bowl, nevertheless, in this case, the squeezed juice which rests on the cutting board is together with the pieces of cut fruit and already seasoning it.

[24] 320/10; M”A 320/10; Biur Halacha 320/4 “Haba Lechol” in name of Elya Raba 320/4

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even according to the stringent opinion it is permitted to squeeze “lemons and other fruits” into liquids. [Taz 320/5] As this is similar to squeezing the fruit for the sake of sweetening it. [P”M 320 M”Z 5] However this only refers to fruits that are not commonly squeezed, and hence require Achashvei to make them forbidden. However those fruits that are commonly squeezed for their juice, and are hence forbidden according to all to be squeezed for their liquids, then it is likewise forbidden even according to the Taz to squeeze them into juice. [P”M ibid]

[25] Implication of Admur ibid [even though he only mentions the prohibition of squeezing into liquid  in the second, stringent opinion]; Admur 320/13; M”A 320/10; M”B 320/28; Biur Halacha 320/4 “Haba Lechol” in name of Elya Raba 320/4; This ruling applies even according to the Taz 320/5, as explained in P”M 320 M”Z 5.

[26] M”B 320/22; This may apply even according to the Taz ibid as perhaps he holds of the second reason in Beis Yosef as the main reason foir allowing to squeeze lemons into liquid. See M”B ibid

[27] All Poskim in next footnote; Igros Moshe 4/16; 5/24 that this applies even according to M”B 320/6 and those Poskim that are lenient by lemon [brought next]; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 441

[28] Tzemach Tzedek Shabbos 22; Ketzos Hashulchan 126 footnote 25; Chayeh Adam 14/4; Yabia Omer 8/36; Chazon Ish 56/7; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 406

[29] Radbaz 1/10; Mishneh Berurah 320/22; Machzikeiy Bracha 320/2; Ben Ish Chaiy Yisro 2/5

[30] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 404

[31] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 441

[32] So rules Yalkut Yosef 320/18; Shabbos Kehalacha 2 p. 405, based on the Beis Yosef after bringing many proofs that it is allowed.

[33] Shabbos Kehalacha 7/18

[34] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 434

[35] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 436

[36] This definition is based on the definition of Admur in the Laws of blessings with regards to when a flour drink becomes Shehakol. [See 208/8]

[37] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 434-436

[38] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 436

[39] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 441

[40] So rules Ketzos Hashulchan 126 footnote 25

About The Author

Leave A Comment?