The Laws of Rosh Chodesh-Summary

  1. Shabbos Mevarchim Hachodesh:
  • Blessing the new month: It is a vintage custom of previous generations that on the Shabbos prior to Rosh Chodesh we bless the new month that it should be a month filled with good tidings for the Jewish people.
  • The blessing takes place after the reading of the Haftorah and Yikum Purkan, prior to Ashrei. This Shabbos is cordially known as Shabbos Mevarchim.
  • On the Shabbos before Rosh Hashanah we do not bless the coming month.
  • It is customary to bless the month of Av as is done prior to every other month. However, in some communities, the custom is to refrain from blessing the month of Av being it is a month of bad occurrences.
  • When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos the blessing of Mevarchim Hachodesh takes place the previous Shabbos.
  • Announcing the Molad: It is proper for one to know the Molad prior to reciting the blessing over the new month. It is therefore customary in all Shuls for the Chazan or Gabaiy to announce the Molad prior to reciting the Birchas Hachodesh.
  • If one did not hear the Molad or does not know its date, he is to continue as usual with the Birchas Hachodesh.
  • Standing during Birchas Hachodesh: It is customary to stand [throughout Birchas Hachodesh] while the date of Rosh Chodesh is announced in Shul.
  • The Nussach of Birchas Hachodesh: When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos-Sunday the Nussach recited by the dates of the new month is “Hashabbos Kodesh Ulimacharaso Beyom Harishon”. One however does not say Limacharaso by a two day Rosh Chodesh that falls in the same week.
  • Holding the Sefer Torah: The custom is for the Chazan to hold the Sefer Torah upon reciting Birchas Hachodesh. [When there are two Sifrei Torah’s, the Chazan is to take the Sefer of Maftir.]
  • Av Harachamim: Av Harachamim is not recited on Shabbos Mevarchim.
  • On Shabbos Mivarchim Iyar, Av Harachamim is omitted just like every other Shabbos Mevarchim.
  • On Shabbos Mivarchim Sivan, Av Harachamim is recited.
  • On Shabbos Mevarchim Tishrei, being that we do not bless the new month, one recites the paragraph of Av Harachamim prior to Musaf.

Tehillim Shabbos Mevarchim:

  • The Rebbe Rayatz instituted that the entire Tehillim be recited prior to Shacharis on Shabbos Mevarchim.
  • Following the Seder of Shabbos Mevarchim is extremely pertinent to the public, and is a great and lofty Mitzvah which brings an abundance of blessing in physical and spiritual matters.
  • The saying of Tehillim daily after Davening and on Shabbos Mevarchim has future effects on one’s children and grandchildren.
  • With a Minyan: The institution was for the Tehillim to be recited specifically together as a congregation, and not each person individually.
  • For all Chassidim: The above institution applies for all Chassidim, even those that spend their time learning Chassidus and Davening in length. They are nevertheless to say the Tehillim specifically with the congregation.
  • For all Jews: This institution is relevant for all sects of Jewry and not just for Chabad Chassidim. The Rebbe Rayatz placed due effort to bring other groups to recite the Tehillim on Shabbos Mevarchim. The Rebbe once stated “When Moshiach comes he will not accept any excuses, and he will ask how many Jews did you influence to participate in the Tehillim of Shabbos Mevarchim.” This institution is to be publicized to all Jews, in the name of the Rebbe Rayatz.
  • Kaddish: If there is a Chiyuv present [an Avel within 11 months of a parents passing or one who has a Yartzite of a parent that day] then Kaddish is to be recited after each Sefer. If a Chiyuv is not present, then Kaddish is not to be recited between each Sefer, although at the conclusion of the entire Tehillim, Kaddish is to be recited by one who does not have any parents.
  • Yehi Ratzon: In the event that Kaddish is being recited between each Sefer, the Yehi Ratzon for each Sefer is to be recited prior to each Kaddish. At the very least, it is to be recited by the person saying the Kaddish. Today, the Yehi Ratzon is customarily recited by the entire congregation, however some are accustomed not to say it, unless they are saying Kaddish or are leading the Tehillim. The Rebbe was not accustomed to recite the Yehi Ratzon after each Sefer, but rather only once after the entire Tehillim. In the event that there is no Chiyuv present and Kaddish is not being recited between each Sefer, it is implied that one does not recite the Yehi Ratzon between each Sefer.
  • Verses before and after the Tehillim: It is not customary to recite the verses of Lechu Neranena printed prior the start of the Tehillim, nor the verses printed after the completion of the Tehillim.
  • Shabbos Mevarchim Tishrei:The entire book of Tehillim is recited before Shacharis just as on any other Shabbos Mevarchim.
  • Does the recital of Tehillim on Shabbos Mevarchim push off Davening with a Minyan? The age old custom of saying the entire Tehillim prior to Davening does not take priority over Davening with a Minyan. This applies likewise to the Tehillim recited prior to Davening on Shabbos Mevarchim, that it certainly does not take priority to Davening with the Minyan. One is thus to be very careful that if he arrives to Shul while they are up to Davening, that he not make the secondary primary and primary secondary [and say Tehillim while they are Davening].
  • When is one to recite the Tehillim if he is unable to complete it before Shacharis? It may be said after Shacharis, after Mincha, and anytime throughout the day until night time. It is not to be recited on Motzei Shabbos until after midnight. If necessary, it may even be completed on Sunday, or even the next Shabbos. One may also begin saying it on Shabbos morning prior to the start of the Minyan. It is questionable whether it may be said on Friday night before midnight.
  • Mamar Chassidus before Davening: After the completion of the Tehillim, the congregation is to study for approximately one hour a Chassidic discourse that is understood to all.

Farbrengen of Shabbos Mevarchim:

  • After Davening on Shabbos Mevarchim, the congregation is to hold a Chassidic gathering.
  • When: The gathering is to take place in accordance to the time that best fits the community, and for this purpose, can be delayed until the third meal or Melaveh Malka. During the summer months the Farbrengen is to take place during the day of Shabbos while during the winter months [it can be arranged to take place] on Motzei Shabbos.
  • Eating the Shabbos meal with one’s family: The Shabbos day meal with one’s family is not to be exchanged for the Shabbos Mevarchim farbrengen. The Farbrengen is to be arranged in a way that the participants can return home to their families and join them for the Shabbos meal.
  • Sharing the content of the talks with one’s family: Upon returning home, one is to share with one’s family the content that was spoken by the Farbrengen, and hence continue the Farbrengen with his family at home.
  • Women: It is proper that also the women and girls establish a Chassidic gathering amongst themselves on Shabbos Mevarchim, or on Motzei Shabbos.
  • Children: It is proper for even little children of three years of age to attend Farbrengens in order so they squeeze themselves between the Chassidim [and learn from them].
  1. Erev Rosh Chodesh-Yom Kippur Katan:
  • The name: The day of Erev Rosh Chodesh is customarily called Yom Kippur Katan. It carries with it various customs such as fasting, Selichos, Teshuvah, and other Minhagim.
  • Fasting: Some pious Jews have the custom to fast on Erev Rosh Chodesh. Practically, it is no longer the widespread custom even amongst the pious to fast on Erev Rosh Chodesh. It is likewise not the Chabad custom to fast on Erev Rosh Chodesh. One who nevertheless desires to fast is to redeem the fast with charity.
  • Selichos and Seder Yom Kippur Katan: Many have the custom to recite Selichos and Seder Yom Kippur Katan [even if they are not fasting on this day]. Practically, many today are not accustomed to recite the Seder Yom Kippur Katan on Erev Rosh Chodesh. It is not the Chabad custom to recite Selichos or Seder Yom Kippur Katan on Erev Rosh Chodesh.
  • Those that recite Selichos on Erev Rosh Chodesh are to recite it before Mincha. However the custom has become to say it after Mincha.
  • A day of Teshuvah: The day of Erev Rosh Chodesh is a day of Teshuvah in which one repents for his sins of that month. Thus, even those that are not accustomed to fast [or say Selichos] on this day are nevertheless to spend the day in doing Teshuvah and fixing the sins of the previous month. Certainly one who fasts [or says Selichos] on this day is to mainly emphasize the performance of Teshuvah.
  • The Mittler Rebbe stated: Erev Rosh Chodesh is an auspicious time for a Baal Teshuvah to be aroused and return to Hashem from the sins of his youth with a broken and shattered heart. Every Erev Rosh Chodesh, towards the prayer of Mincha, he should say after his prayer of Shemoneh Esrei the confession prayer of Al Cheit normally recited on Yom Kippur. Upon saying the words “Al Cheit Shechatanu Lefanecha” he is to remember of all of his past sins and verbalize them before His creator, expressing regret for the past and resolution for a better future. He is to cry from the depths of his heart until his face is filled with tears.
  • Eulogies: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to eulogize or say Tziduk Hadin and Kaddish on Erev Rosh Chodesh starting from midday. Other Poskim however rule it is permitted to eulogize and say Tziduk Hadin on Erev Rosh Chodesh even past midday.
  • Tachanun: Tachanun is omitted starting from Mincha of Erev Rosh Chodesh.
  • Tzidkasecha: When Rosh Chodesh falls on Sunday, Tzidkasecha is not recited during the Mincha prayer on Shabbos.
  • Torah/Avoda/Gmach: One is to add in Torah, Avoda and Tzedaka on this day.
  • Kivrei Tzaddikim: It is an auspicious time to visit the gravesite of Tzaddikim on Erev Rosh Chodesh and on the 15th of each month. These are the main times that one is to visit the tomb of Tzaddikim.
  1. Haftorah of Shabbos Erev Rosh Chodesh:
  • If Erev Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, the Haftorah of “Machar Chodesh” is read in place of the weekly Haftorah.
  • Parshas HaChodesh: If the Shabbos of Parshas HaChodesh is Erev Rosh Chodesh, the Haftorah of Parshas HaChodesh is read. This reading is then followed by the first and last verse of Machar Chodesh.
  • Parshas Re’eh: If Parshas Re’eh is read on Erev Rosh Chodesh then one reads the Haftorah beginning “Ani So’arah” and adds the first and last verse of the Haftorah of “Machar Chodesh”.
  • Shnayim Mikra: On a Shabbos that there are two Haftoras for that week, such as the Shabbos of Erev Rosh Chodesh, one is to read both the Haftorah of the weekly Parsha and the Haftorah which will be read in Shul.
  1. Melacha/work on Rosh Chodesh:
  • It is permitted to do work on Rosh Chodesh. Nevertheless, the widespread custom today amongst women is to refrain from work on Rosh Chodesh. A woman may not be lenient against following this custom. All women must refrain from at least some form of work even if they have not seen this done in their family.
  • The husband may not force his wife to perform any of these forbidden works. This applies even if she did not receive a custom to avoid doing so.
  • Is it proper for also men to refrain from work on Rosh Chodesh? It is not customary for men to refrain from work on Rosh Chodesh and those that do so carry no Halachic significance. It therefore does not even require Hataras Nedarim, if a man who was accustomed to refrain from Melacha now desires to do Melacha.
  • What forms of work are to be avoided: Those who refrain from doing only some types of work and permit doing other types of work may do in accordance to their custom. However, those women that have a general custom to simply refrain from work are to refrain from all types of work. [Some Poskim rule that all activities that involve much trouble or difficulty are accustomed for women to avoid. Practically, the widespread custom today amongst women is to only refrain from sewing, and other clothing related work, and laundering clothing. Some Poskim rule that all forms of work [even of sewing and laundry] that are permitted on Chol Hamoed are likewise permitted for women to perform on Rosh Chodesh.]
  • In months that Rosh Chodesh is two days, the 30th of the previous month and the first of the new month, it is disputed as to whether the accustomed prohibition against Melacha applies on both days of Rosh Chodesh or only on the second day. Practically, each person should follow their custom.
  • If a woman needs clean clothing to wear on Rosh Chodesh, she may wash it on Rosh Chodesh. She may likewise iron it and perform all other necessary activities to the clothing in order to be worn that day.
  • Many Poskim of today permit the wife to enter the clothing into the washing machine and have her husband turn it on. Nevertheless, there are Poskim who are stringent.
  • A woman may not hang clothing on a drying rack on Rosh Chodesh.
  • A woman may place the clothing in a dryer and turn it on.
  1. Cutting hair and nails on Rosh Chodesh:
  • One may not cut the hair of his head or his nails on Rosh Chodesh. This applies to both men and women.
  • When Rosh Chodesh falls on Erev Shabbos: Even when Rosh Chodesh falls on Erev Shabbos some communities are accustomed not to cut their hair in honor of Shabbos due to the above warning of danger of Rav Yehuda Hachassid.
  • Some Poskim rule it is permitted to cut the nails on Erev Shabbos Rosh Chodesh and so is implied from A Other Poskim however rule one may not cut the nails. Practically, one who cuts his nails on every Erev Shabbos may be lenient to do so also on Erev Shabbos Rosh Chodesh. Likewise, one with very long nails may be lenient to cut them.
  • A woman may shave her legs and the like on Rosh Chodesh.
  1. Kevurah:
  • One does not say a Hesped on Rosh Chodesh, unless the person is a Torah Sage, and his body is present at the time of the Hesped.
  • Tziduk Hadin: One does not say Tziduk Hadin, or the Kaddish that follows it, on Rosh Chodesh. This applies even by the burial of a Torah Sage. Some opinions rules that Tziduk Hadin and Kaddish should also not be said on the night of Rosh Chodesh. The same applies for all days that Tachanun is not said including from midday of the day before.
  • Cemetery: Some Poskim write one is not to visit a cemetery on Rosh Chodesh. However today the custom is to allow visiting graves on Rosh Chodesh. Nevertheless, one is not to recite the Maaneh Lashon or other lamentations, although he may ask requests or recite Tehillim. One may certainly visit the grave of a Tzaddik on Rosh Chodesh to pray for an ill person.
  • Yartzite: One who has a Yartzite on Rosh Chodesh is to visit the grave on Erev Rosh Chodesh, or the day after Rosh Chodesh.
  • Matzeiva [tombstone]: This may not be done if eulogies will take place during the occasion.
  1. Having a festive meal on Rosh Chodesh:
  • Some Poskim rule that one is obligated in the Mitzvah of Kavod [and Simcha] on Rosh Chodesh, just as one is obligated on Yom Tov.
  • It is a Mitzvah [for both men and women] to increase in foods during the [day] meal eaten on Rosh Chodesh.
  • This can be fulfilled by making an extra dish to eat for the meal. [However some Poskim rule one is to have a festive meal of similar quality to that of Shabbos, and is not to suffice with a mere extra dish.
  • Even if one is poor at the very least he should eat a special fruit in honor of Rosh Chodesh.
  • This meal is considered a Seudas Mitzvah.
  • This meal is a Segula for long life and health and prevents depression.
  • Not included in yearly budget: The money spent on foods purchased in honor of the festive meals of Rosh Chodesh is not deducted from the annual budget that one is allotted in Heaven. Those that add in expenditure in return will have Hashem add to their allocated budget.
  • The night meal: Some Poskim rule there is no need for one to have a special meal and add extra delicacies to the night meal of Rosh Chodesh. [Likewise, even if one adds special foods to the night meal, some Poskim rule he does no fulfill his obligation of the Rosh Chodesh meal, as this obligation must be fulfilled by the day meal of Rosh Chodesh. Other Poskim however rule that one is to have a special meal also on the night of Rosh Chodesh.]
  • Must one eat bread? There is no obligation to eat bread during the Rosh Chodesh meals. One fulfills his obligation even if he eats fruit. Practically however, it is proper for one to wash on bread.
  • Shabbos Rosh Chodesh: When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, one is to prepare an extra dish for the Shabbos day meal in honor of Rosh Chodesh.
  • Erev Shabbos Rosh Chodesh: When Rosh Chodesh falls on Erev Shabbos one is to have the festive Rosh Chodesh meal on Erev Shabbos prior to the [beginning of the] 10th [Zmaniyos] hour of the day. [Practically, this is three Zmaniyos hours prior to sunset. Thus if there are 60 minutes per Zmaniyos hour that day and sunset is at 6:00 P.M. one is to start the feast before 3:00 P.M.] If it is already past the 10th hour of the day, then it is disputed in Poskim as to whether one may still eat a meal in honor of Rosh Chodesh. [Practically, those that are careful to always eat a meal in honor of Rosh Chodesh may be lenient on this matter, although are to eat less than usual. According to all, one may certainly eat foods in honor of Rosh Chodesh if he will not wash on bread for the meal.]
  1. Fasting:
  • It is forbidden to fast on Rosh Chodesh.
  • It is forbidden to fast even for a few hours on Rosh Chodesh.
  • One is to be particular to eat or drink prior to midday in order so he does not fast on Rosh Chodesh until midday. This applies even if one has no intent to actually fast.
  • Yartzite: One who has a Yartzite for a parent on Rosh Chodesh is not to fast on Rosh Chodesh.
  • Chasan: A Chasan and Kallah who is getting married on Rosh Chodesh is not to fast on Rosh Chodesh. [They are however to fast on Erev Rosh Chodesh.] This is with exception to Rosh Chodesh Nissan, in which a Chasan and Kallah are to fast even on Rosh Chodesh.
  • It is disputed in Poskim if Viduiy is to be recited by the Chasan and Kallah during the Mincha Davening prior to the Chupah on Rosh Chodesh. Practically, Viduiy may be recited. 
  1. Miscellaneous Customs:
  • Maos Rosh Chodesh: It used to be accustomed for children to bring money to their Melamdim on Rosh Chodesh. This money is not included in the annual budget allocated on Rosh Hashanah. Some explain this money to refer to the tuition payment for the teacher, while others write it refers to a Rosh Chodesh gift.
  • Elegant Clothing: One is to switch his clothing in honor of Rosh Chodesh. Some are accustomed to wear elegant clothing on Rosh Chodesh which are different than his weekday clothing. It is proper to at least wear one garment that is not a weekday garment. Nevertheless, one is not to wear his regular Shabbos clothing. [Practically, it is not the Chabad custom to wear different clothing on Rosh Chodesh.]
  • Candles: Some are accustomed to increase in lights/candles in honor of Rosh Chodesh.
  • Charity: It is a Mitzvah to increase in Tzedakah to the poor on Rosh Chodesh, just as is done on Erev Shabbos and Erev Yom Tov. One who increases in Tzedaka on Rosh Chodesh receives double the amount of reward that is normally given on the other days.
  • Tehillim/Chumash on the night of Rosh Chodesh? One is not to recite Tehillim or read Chumash or Navi on the night of Rosh Chodesh, from nightfall until midnight, just as is the law on every weekday night.
  • Learning ones Tehillim: It is an ancient custom on every Rosh Chodesh for one to study one verse from the chapter of Tehillim that corresponds to his age, together with the commentary of Rashi. If one so chooses, he may study other commentaries as well. If the Psalm comprises fewer than twelve verses, one repeats this study in subsequent months in such a way that the verses will match the number of months in that year. If on the other hand the Psalm contains more than twelve verses, one studies several verses on each Rosh Chodesh.
  • Visiting one’s Rebbe: It is a Mitzvah, but not an obligation, to visit one’s Rebbe on Rosh Chodesh and to learn from him. This is because on this day there is an extra radiance of the soul of which the student can receive from. This applies equally to men and women.
  • Rosh Chodesh greetings: The Rebbe Rashab was accustomed on Rosh Chodesh to wish people a “Chodesh Tov/A good month.” He would conclude: May we place effort into actual Avoda, to feel our inner vitality and have it bring to good character traits and understanding of Chassidus.
  • Farbrengen-Chassidic gathering: It is most proper to have a Chassidic gathering every Rosh Chodesh. Every community and Shul should have such a gathering which should include words of Torah, the saying of Lechaim, and to bless each other with good tidings and the acceptance of good resolutions regarding Torah and Mitzvos. One is also to connect the gathering with the giving of charity which hastens the coming of the redemption.
  • Mitzvah of Onah: The night of Rosh Chodesh has the same status as Friday night regarding the Mitzvah of Onah for a Talmid Chacham. This does not mean that one is obligated to be with his wife during this time [if he has already fulfilled his Onah obligations or plans to do so later on in the week], but simply that it is the preferred time to perform the Mitzvah, similar to the night of Shabbos. However some Poskim write that it is an obligation to do so.

 

The Davening on Rosh Chodesh

  1. Tachanun:
  • Tachanun is omitted on Rosh Chodesh.
  • Tzidkasecha: When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, Tzidkasecha is not recited during the Mincha prayer.
  • Hitting the chest during Selach Lanu: One does not hit his chest during the blessing of Selach Lanu said during Shemoneh Esrei of Rosh Chodesh, and the same applies on any day in which Tachanun is omitted.
  • Kerias Shema Sheal Hamita: On the night of Rosh Chodesh the Viduiy prayer is omitted from the bedtime Shema, although one does recite the Ribono Shel Olam. On Motzei Rosh Chodesh one recites the regular bedtime Shema including the Viduiy prayer.
  1. A mourner/Avel Davening for the Amud:
  • A mourner [during the first eleven months of mourning] does not lead the prayers on Rosh Chodesh, or on any day which has a Mussaf This restriction applies even to Maariv and Minchah of Rosh Chodesh.
  • If one has a Yartzite on Rosh Chodesh he is to Daven as Chazan. This applies even if he is a mourner, within 12 months of mourning a parent.
  1. Ya’aleh Veyavo in Shemoneh Esrei:
    The general laws:
  • On Rosh Chodesh one adds the paragraph of Ya’aleh Viyavo within Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv, Shacharis and Mincha. It is recited after Ritzei [prior to Visechezena].
  • If one is Davening a Nedava on Rosh Chodesh, he is to add Ya’aleh Veyavo in his Nedava prayer.
  • Announcing Ya’aleh Veyavo before Shemoneh Esrei: One may not announce prior to Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv [and certainly of Shacharis] that the paragraph of Ya’aleh Veyavo is to be said in Shemoneh Esrei. [Nevertheless, upon the Chazan reaching Ya’aleh Veyavo he is to recite these words aloud. One may likewise bang on the table and the like, prior to Shemoneh Esrei to remind the congregation, and so is the widespread custom.]
  • Saying the phrases aloud and answering Amen: When the Chazan says Ya’aleh Veyavo, the congregation is to answer Amen after the following three phrases: 1) Zachreinu Bo Letova; 2) Ufakdeinu Vo Levracha; 3) Vehoshieinu Vo Lechaim Tovim.
  • If one is Davening Maariv after Plag Hamincha on Erev Rosh Chodesh, he is to recite Ya’aleh Veyavo in his Shemoneh Esrei.
  • Forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo by Maariv: If one forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo within Maariv Shemoneh Esrei he fulfills his obligation and is hence not required to repeat the Amidah. [Nevertheless, after he finishes Shemoneh Esrei he is allowed to repeat the Shemoneh Esrei as a Nedava.] This applies for the Maariv prayer of all nights of Rosh Chodesh, whether Rosh Chodesh is one day and whether Rosh Chodesh is two days.
  • If prior to finishing Shemoneh Esrei one remembered that he did not say Ya’aleh Veyavo, then if he is holding prior to saying the name of Hashem in the concluding blessing of Visechezena, he should say it as soon as he remembers and then continue from Visechezena. If however he already said Hashem’s name in the concluding blessing of Visechezenu then he is to complete the blessing and continue with the remainder of Shemoneh Esrei as usual. He is not to recite Ya’aleh Veyavo, even between the blessings, after concluding Visechezena but prior to beginning Modim.
  • Forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo by Shacharis or Mincha: If one forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo by the day of Rosh Chodesh, either by Shacharis or by Mincha, then he must repeat Shemoneh Esrei. He is not to rely on fulfilling his obligation with the Chazan’s repetition. [This applies for all days of Rosh Chodesh, whether Rosh Chodesh is one day and whether Rosh Chodesh is two days. When repeating Shemoneh Esrei one is to also repeat the introductory phrase of Ado-noy Sefasaiy Tiftach.]
  • If prior to finishing Shemoneh Esrei one remembered that he did not say Ya’aleh Veyavo, [then if he is holding prior to saying the name of Hashem in the concluding blessing of Visechezena then he should say it as soon as he remembers and continue afterwards from Visechezena. If however he remembered only after he already said Hashem’s name in the concluding blessing of Visechezenu then some Poskim rule he is to conclude the blessing with Lamdeini Chukecha and then go back and recite Ya’aleh Veyavo and then repeat from Visechezena.]
  • If he remembered after concluding the blessing of Visechezena, but prior to Modim, then he is to say it there [and continue afterwards with Modim]. If however he only remembered after he already began saying Modim then he must return to Ritzei and recite from there with Ya’aleh Veyavo.
  • If he only remembered after he already finished Shemoneh Esrei then he must return to the beginning of Shemoneh Esrei. [This applies even if he remembered after reciting the second Yehi Ratzon, prior to taking three steps.] If however he remembered prior to reading the second Yehi Ratzon then he is to return to Ritzei. [If he is accustomed to add prayers after the second Yehi Ratzon, then if he remembers prior to concluding these prayers he is to return to Ritzei.]
  • In doubt if said Ya’aleh Veyavo by Shacharis or Mincha: If one is in doubt as to whether he recited Ya’aleh Veyavo in Shacharis or Mincha then some Poskim rule he fulfills his obligation and is not required to return to Ritzei or repeat Shemoneh Esrei. Others however rule that it has the same law as one who did not say Ya’aleh Veyavo and he must hence return to Ritzei or repeat Shemoneh Esrei. Practically, one is to complete the Shemoneh Esrei and repeat Shemoneh Esrei as a Nidavah. [One is to repeat the Shemoneh Esrei in such a case even on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, however not as a Tefilas Nidavah.]
  • If one remembered only after he already Davened Musaf: If one had already Davened Musaf and only then realized he had forgotten to say Ya’aleh Viyavo in Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis, he does not need to repeat Shemoneh Esrei.
  • Chazan forgot Ya’aleh Veyavo: If the Chazan forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo in his personal Amidah he is not to repeat Shemoneh Esrei but is rather to rely on his repetition of the Amidah in which Ya’aleh Veyavo will be recited. [This applies even if he has not yet finished Shemoneh Esrei, nevertheless he is not to return to that part of Davening. However there are Poskim who are stringent to require him to return to Ritzei if he has not yet concluded Shemoneh Esrei. In a case that the Chazan did not fulfill his obligation, he is not obligated to recite Elokaiy Nitzor quietly at the end of his repetition, although he should take three steps back.]
  • If the Chazan forgot to say Ya’aleh Viyavo in his repetition of Shemoneh Esrei then by Shacharis, if he already finished the repetition, he may rely on his prayer of Musaf and is not required to repeat Shemoneh Esrei. If however the Chazan has not yet completed the repetition then he must return to Ritzei. If the Chazan forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo by the repetition of Shemoneh Esrei of Mincha then he follows the same law as everyone else.
  1. Hallel:
  • On Rosh Chodesh one recites the abridged Hallel [i.e. half Hallel]. This applies for both a congregation and a person who is praying in private. The paragraphs of Lo Lanu and Ahavti are skipped.
  • The blessing over Hallel: The custom of Sefaradim in Eretz Yisrael and the surrounding cities is not to recite a blessing even in a Minyan. However the Ashkenazi custom is that every person recites a blessing even if he is Davening in private, without a Minyan. Nevertheless, one is to beware to try to recite Hallel with the Minyan. If one is saying Hallel with the Minyan one is to be Yotzei with the blessing of the Chazan, although many are accustomed to say the blessing to themselves even in such a case.
  • From when during the day, and until when in the day: Hallel may be recited throughout the entire day, from dawn [Alos Hashachar] until nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim]. Thus, if one did not recite Hallel immediately after Davening [Shemoneh Esrei of] Shacharis, he may recite it throughout the day, until Tzeis Hakochavim.
  • Lechatchilah one should not recite Hallel prior to sunrise. Nevertheless, if one transgressed and recited Hallel prior to sunrise, after daybreak he has fulfilled his obligation.
  • Although Hallel may be recited throughout the day, it is best to recite it immediately after the Shacharis Shemoneh Esrei.
  • It is permitted to recite Hallel prior to Davening Shacharis. Nevertheless, according to the Arizal, Hallel is not to be said prior to Davening.
  • Hallel may be recited without a blessing after sunset, prior to nightfall.
  • One is to avoid eating prior to reciting Hallel, unless he is sick or weak in which case he is not to be stringent even as an act of piety.
  • Reading Hallel with the congregation: One is to be particular to read Hallel together with the congregation immediately after Shemoneh Esrei. If one is holding prior to Davening, some Poskim rule he is to stop and recite Hallel together with the congregation. This applies for Hallel of all days. If one is holding within Pesukei Dezimra, then some Poskim rule by half Hallel [of Rosh Chodesh and Chol Hamoed Pesach] he is to stop and recite Hallel together with the congregation. Nevertheless, the Arizal was not comfortable with such an arrangement of reciting Hallel out of its proper order, and hence according to the Arizal one is never to read Hallel prior to Davening.
  • Avraham Zakein: Some are accustomed to recite on Rosh Chodesh after Hallel the verse beginning Veavraham Zakein and Zevadya Yishmereini. All this [including Avraham Zakein] is recited a total of three times. This is the Chabad custom. One is to say Avraham Zakein and Zevadaya Yishmereini together three times, and not first Avraham Zakein three times and then Zevadya three times.
  • Hefsek-Making an interval to answer Amen and the like: When the complete Hallel is recited then the laws of making a Hefsek [speech interval] during Hallel has the same laws as a Hefsek during the reading of the morning Shema. This applies for both the laws of Hefsek within individual paragraphs and between paragraphs. When the half Hallel is recited, such as on Rosh Chodesh and Chol Hamoed Pesach, then it has the same laws of interval of between paragraphs. [Some learn this to mean that it has the same status as between the paragraphs of Shema. Others learn this to mean that it has the same status as Pesukei Dezimra. Practically, one may stop to answer everything that one can answer during Shema, which includes: Amen Yihei Shimei Raba and Amen of Daamiran Bealma of Kaddish; Kadosh Kadosh, Baruch and Yimloch of Kedusha; Borchu; The three words of Modim Anachnu Lach; Amen for Birchas Hatorah, Hakeil Hakadosh and Shomeia Tefila. One may make an interval even in the midst of a verse, although in the event that one did so he is to return to the beginning of that verse.]
  • Making a long interval in middle of Hallel: If one made an interval during Hallel, even if the interval was as long as the amount of time it would take to read the entire Hallel, he may nevertheless continue from where he had left off. This applies even if one made an interval due to a [Halachic] Oness, such as one entered a bathroom, which is a place that Hallel cannot be recited. Nevertheless, some Poskim are stringent [regarding days that the complete Hallel is recited], to require one to repeat from the beginning of Hallel, if one made a long interval due to Oness. Practically, one is to be stringent like their opinion [on days of complete Hallel] to repeat from the start of Hallel, although the blessing is not to be repeated. This however only applies if one had a Halachic Oness, which refers to one who made an interval in the reading due to a Halachic prohibition to continue the reading, such as if the reader had to use the bathroom in middle. In any other type of Oness the reader fulfills his obligation.
  • Standing for Hallel: Hallel is to be recited while standing. It is forbidden for one to lean on any item during Hallel [in a way that it supports him from falling]. If one transgressed and recited Hallel in a sitting position he nevertheless fulfills his obligation and is not required to repeat the recital of Hallel.
  • Reading Hallel in the wrong order and skipping a verse: One who reads Hallel in the wrong order does not fulfill his obligation. This applies to one who reads the verses within a paragraph in the wrong order. If however the verses in each paragraph were read in the correct order, although the paragraphs themselves were not read in order, then some Poskim rule it is valid Bedieved, even though that initially one may not do so. Other Poskim however rule it is invalid even in such a case. In the event that one read Hallel in the wrong order, he is to repeat it without a blessing. This applies whether one read the verses in the wrong order, or read the paragraphs in the wrong order.
  • If one made a mistake [and continued the Hallel], then he is to return to the area of the mistake and repeat from there. Thus, if one skipped a verse and then remembered later on, he is not to recite the verse in the area that he remembered, but is rather to retract to that verse and continue from there. If he does not remember which verse he skipped then he is to return to the beginning of that paragraph.
  • Hallel in the house of a mourner: The custom is to omit the saying of Hallel on Rosh Chodesh when praying in the house of a mourner. Nevertheless, after each member of the congregation returns home, they are obligated to recite Hallel.
  1. The order of the prayer from after Hallel until Musaf:
  • After Hallel the Chazan recites the complete Kaddish with Tiskabel.
  • Shir Shel Yom is recited immediately after Kaddish Tiskabel. [One does not recite Beis Yaakov or Shir Hamaalos prior to Shir Shel Yom and it is hence completely omitted on Rosh Chodesh.] Hoshieinu is recited immediately after Shir Shel Yom.
  • The Psalm of Barchi Nafshi is recited on Rosh Chodesh. It is recited during Shacharis immediately after Shir Shel Yom [and Hoshieinu]. This is then followed by Kaddish Yasom. Kaddish is not recited prior to Barchi Nafshi, following Shir Shel Yom. [On Rosh Chodesh Elul the custom is to recite Ledavid after Shir Shel Yom and Barchi Nafshi.]
  • The Torah reading: On Rosh Chodesh the Torah is read during the Shacharis prayer immediately after Hallel, Kaddish Tiskabel [and Shir Shel Yom].
  • There are a total of four Aliyos read from the Torah on Rosh Chodesh. One may not add or subtract to these Aliyos.
  • The Torah portion is read from the Rosh Chodesh sacrificial offerings written in Parshas Pinchas. The Kohen [i.e. the Aliyah of Kohen] reads three verses; Vayidaber, Tzav and Vehamarta. The Levi [i.e. the Aliyah of Levi] repeats the verse of Vehamarta and then reads a further two verses; Es Hakeves Haechad and Veasiris Haeifa. The Yisrael [i.e. the Aliyah of Yisrael] then reads the portion of “Olas Tamid” until the words “Uberoshei Chodsheichem”. The fourth Aliyah then reads the paragraph of “Uberoshei Chodsheichem”.
  • The Sefer Torah is returned to the Ark only after Uva Letziyon, prior to the half Kaddish recited before Musaf. [This is also the Chabad custom, however some Shul’s of Anash return the Sefer Torah to the ark immediately after Gelila is completed.]
  • It is a Mitzvah to try to receive an Aliya on Rosh Chodesh. The greatest Aliya is the fourth Aliya which completes the reading. One is to try to get an Aliyah on both days of Rosh Chodesh, although the Aliya of the second day is of greater significance than the Aliya of the first day.
  • Ashrei & Uva Letziyon: After the Torah reading is complete Ashrei and Uva Letziyon is recited. Lamnatzeiach Yeancha is not recited. After Uva Letziyon the Sefer Torah is returned to the ark, as written above.
  • The Chazan does not conclude Uva Letzion aloud. Yehalelu is thus recited by the Chazan after he finishes Uva Letzion quietly to himself. In the event that the Chazan recited aloud the conclusion of Uva Letziyon, Half Kaddish is to be recited immediately afterwards.
  • Removing the Tefillin before Musaf: The custom is to remove the Tefillin prior to the silent prayer of Musaf. This applies even in those communities that recite Nakadishach in Musaf. [This applies even for one who is Davening in private. According to Kabala, there is a grave prohibition against Davening Musaf with Tefillin.]
  • The Tefillin are to be removed after Uva Letziyon, prior to the Kaddish recited before Musaf.
  • If one is wearing Tefillin by Kedusha of Musaf, such as he suddenly realized that the Chazan reached Keser, he is to move his Shel Rosh to the side of his head and place his Tallis, or a cloth, under his Shel Yad, thus making an interval between it and his arm. Alternatively, if one does not want to answer Kedusha, he is to leave to another room. Some Poskim rule that if one is prior to Shacharis, or prior to completing the prayer of Shacharis, one need not be particular against reciting Keser with the Tefillin. Many are accustomed to simply cover their Tefillin [and remain wearing them] upon the recital of Keser if they are not Davening with this Minyan of Musaf.
  • May one wear Tefillin after Musaf? Some Poskim rule one may wear Tefillin after Musaf without limitation. Other Poskim rule one may not wear the Tefillin until Mincha. Others rule one may not wear Tefillin anymore that day. Practically, if one has not yet worn Tefillin that day he may wear the Tefillin immediately after Musaf.
  • When is one to wear Tefillin Rabbeinu Tam? The Tefillin of Rabbeinu Tam are to be worn prior to the Kaddish recited before Musaf. One is to recite the three Parshiyos of Shema [and the Parsha of Kadesh and Vehaya] while wearing them, although the remaining Shiurim [of Tehillim and Chumash] are studied after the prayer. [The Tefillin are to be removed before Musaf.]
  • If one did not put on his Rabbeinu Tam before Musaf he may wear the Tefillin immediately after Musaf.
  • Tehillim/Chitas: The passages for daily study [such as Chitas] are deferred until after the conclusion of all the morning prayers. This includes the recital of the daily Tehillim. [One is to study one verse from the chapter of Tehillim that corresponds to his age, together with the commentary of Rashi, as explained in chapter 2 Halacha 5 in miscellaneous customs!]
  1. 15. Musaf:
  • The time of the Musaf prayer begins immediately after Shacharis. Even if one Davened Shacharis very early in the day, immediately after its time of arrival, nevertheless one may also Daven Musaf at that time.
  • If one transgressed and Davened Musaf before Shacharis he nevertheless fulfills his obligation. However, initially, one may never Daven Musaf before Shacharis even if this will cause him to miss Davening Musaf with a Minyan, such as he arrived to Shul when the congregation is Davening Musaf. In such a case he is to first Daven Shacharis and then Daven Musaf privately.
  • One may not delay the Musaf prayer past seven [Zmaniyos] hours into the day, which is one hour after midday. One who delays Musaf past this time is called a Posheia, one who is negligent. Nonetheless, one fulfills his obligation even if he prayed Musaf past this time being that the prayer may be recited throughout the day.
  • Even if one already Davened Mincha he may nevertheless still Daven Musaf.
  • Mincha versus Musaf-Which is one to Daven first: If one delayed Davening Musaf until the time of Mincha arrived, which is from 6.5 hours into the day, and hence now has two prayer obligations in front of him, one of Musaf and one of Mincha, he is always to precede the prayer of Musaf to that of Mincha, even if it is past Mincha Ketana. If however one now has a Minyan available for Mincha, then he is to Daven Mincha with the congregation and only afterwards Daven Musaf.
  • Eating before Musaf: It is permitted to eat after Shacharis, prior to Musaf, all the foods that are permitted to be eaten prior to Mincha once its time has arrived. Thus, one may eat fruits of unlimited quantity, in order to satiate the heart. One may eat up to a Kibeitza [55 grams] of bread, but not more. [Some Poskim rule one may eat even more than a Kibeitza of Mezonos, (however not an amount for which one generally sets a meal on).]
  • Saying a psalm before Musaf: The Chazan is to recite a Psalm prior to reciting the half Kaddish before Musaf. This Psalm is to be concluded aloud for the congregation to hear. One is to recite at least three verses for this purpose; it is not necessary to recite an entire psalm. At least some of these verses are to be recited aloud.
  • Vehameracheim: During Modim of Musaf one says “Vehameracheim” with a Vav.
  • Kaddish: After the Chazan’s repetition he recites the [full] Kaddish [with Tiskabel]. This is then followed by Ein Kelokeinu, Kaddish Derabanan and Aleinu.
  • Lamnatzeiach and daily Tehillim: After Aleinu one recites the psalm of “Lamnatzeiach Yeancha” [prior to saying the daily Tehillim with the congregation].
  1. Birchas Hamazon:
  • On Rosh Chodesh one recites Ya’aleh Veyavo within Birchas Hamazon.
  • It is recited within the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim. If one recited Ya’aleh Veyavo in the blessing of Birchas Haaretz he does not fulfill his obligation and it must be repeated in the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim.
  • On Rosh Chodesh, when the person leading the Bentching says Ya’aleh Veyavo, he is to raise his voice slightly while reading the following three phrases: 1) Zachreinu Bo Letova; 2) Ufakdeinu Vo Levracha; 3) Vehoshieinu Vo Lechaim Tovim. At the end of each of the above phrases those who are present answer Amen. One does not respond Amen after the word Yechasreinu.
  • Harachaman: After Mimarom Yilamdu one recites the Harachaman of Rosh Chodesh.
  • Migdol: When reciting Birchas Hamazon on Rosh Chodesh one recites “Migdal” as opposed to “Magdil”.
  • Meiyn Shalosh: One mentions Rosh Chodesh within the after blessing of Meiyn Shalosh. It is mentioned prior to the words “Ki Ata Hashem Tov”. If one forgot to mention Rosh Chodesh in Meiyn Shalosh he nevertheless fulfills his obligation, just as is the law regarding Birchas Hamazon.
  • Forgot to recite Ya’aleh Veyavo in Birchas Hamazon: If one forgot to recite Ya’aleh Veyavo he is not required to repeat Birchas Hamazon.
  • If one forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo in its set area, and he remembered only after he already began the first word “Baruch” of the blessing of Hatov Vehameitiv, then he has fulfilled his obligation, and Birchas Hamazon is not to be repeated. [He is not to recite any extra blessing on behalf of Rosh Chodesh and is rather to continue as usual.] In such a case, it is not customary to recite Ya’aleh Veyavo in the Harachamans.
  • If he remembered prior to beginning even the first word of the blessing of “Hatov Vehameitiv” then he is to recite the blessing of Baruch [Ata Hashem Elokeinu Melech Haolam] Shenasan Roshei Chodoshim Leamo Yisrael [Lezikaron]”. This applies even on the night of Rosh Chodesh. If however it is already after sunset of the day of Rosh Chodesh, then he should not recite this blessing, even if he did not yet begin the fourth blessing. [If however it is after sunset of the first day of Rosh Chodesh, then this blessing is to be recited.]
  • Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos: In the event that Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos one is to say Ritzei and Ya’aleh Veyavo. One first recites Ritzei and then Ya’aleh Veyavo. [In the event that one recited Ya’aleh Veyavo prior to Ritzei, he is not required to repeat Ya’aleh Veayvo after Ritzei.]
  • If one forgot to say both Ritzei and Ya’aleh Veyavo and remembered prior to beginning the word Baruch of Birchas Hatov Vehameitiv then he is to say the extra blessing for Shabbos and include in it Rosh Chodesh. One is to also conclude the blessing with the mention of Rosh Chodesh. If one said Ya’aleh Veyavo but forgot to say Ritzei and remembered prior to beginning the word Baruch of Birchas Hatov Vehameitiv then he only mentions the additional blessing of Shabbos and does not include within it the mention of Rosh Chodesh. [If one said Ritzei but forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo then if he remembers prior to saying Baruch of the fourth Bracha then he only mentions the additional blessing of Rosh Chodesh and does not include within it the mention of Shabbos.]
  • If one said Ritzei but forgot to say Ya’aleh Veyavo and remembered only after saying Baruch of Hatov Vehameitiv then he is to continue as usual and does not need to repeat Birchas Hamazon.
  • If one said Ya’aleh Veyavo but did not say Ritzei, [or he omitted both Ritzei and Ya’aleh Veyavo], and remembered after saying the word “Baruch” of the fourth blessing, or after completing Birchas Hamazon, then he must retract to the beginning of Birchas Hamazon and recite both Ritzei and Ya’aleh Veyavo. He must repeat Ya’aleh Veyavo together with Ritzei in his second Birchas Hamazon even if he recited it in his original Birchas Hamazon.
  • Began a meal on Erev Rosh Chodesh and is reciting Birchas Hamazon on Rosh Chodesh: If one began eating a meal during the day of Erev Rosh Chodesh [before sunset] and concluded the meal at night after Rosh Chodesh has begun, then if he ate a Kezayis of bread after nightfall he is to recite Ya’aleh Veyavo in Birchas Hamazon. If he did not eat a Kezayis of bread after nightfall, he is not to recite Ya’aleh Veyavo in Birchas Hamazon.
  • If one began eating a meal on Shabbos Erev Rosh Chodesh, such as Shalosh Seudos, and the meal ended after nightfall after Rosh Chodesh already begun, then if he did not eat a Kezayis of bread after nightfall he is to say only Ritzei and not Ya’aleh Veyavo in Bentching. If however he ate a Kezayis of bread past nightfall then he is to recite both Ritzei and Ya’aleh Veyavo.
  • If one recited Havdala or Davened Maariv on Motzei Shabbos prior to Bentching, then Ritzei is not to be said, and hence if one ate a Kezayis after nightfall he is to only recite Ya’aleh Veyavo. If one said Baruch Hamavdil prior to Bentching, it receives the same law as one who Davened Maariv and hence Ritzei may not be recited.
  • Began a meal on Rosh Chodesh and is reciting Birchas Hamazon on Motzei Rosh Chodesh: If one began a meal on Rosh Chodesh and the meal extended into the night after [i.e. Motzei Rosh Chodesh] one is to nevertheless recite Ya’aleh Veyavo in Birchas Hamazon.
  • If one Davened Maariv prior to Benching then he may no longer say Ya’aleh Veyavo in Benching. This applies even if it is still day, such as he Davened Maariv prior to nightfall, after Plag Hamincha. [Thus, one is to avoid Davening Maariv prior to Benching in order so he is able to say Ya’aleh Veyavo.]
  • If one ate a Kezayis of bread on Rosh Chodesh which is Erev Shabbos and he continued the meal into Shabbos and ate a Kezayis of bread after Kiddush, then he is to only say Ritzei and omit Ya’aleh Veyavo. [See footnote regarding Chabad custom] If one did not eat a Kezayis of bread after Kiddush then only Ya’aleh Veyavo is recited. Regarding the laws of Pores Mapa Umikadesh-See The Laws and Customs of Erev Shabbos Chapter 5 Halacha 1C!
  1. Shabbos Rosh Chodesh:
  • When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos one Davens the regular Shabbos Shemoneh Esrei, which contains seven blessings, for Maariv, Shacharis and Mincha, adding Ya’aleh Veyavo in the blessing of Avoda. The regular dialect of Ya’aleh Veyavo is recited without adding the day of Shabbos to its wording.
  • When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos one adds in the fourth/middle blessing of Shemoneh Esrei the paragraph of Ata Yatzarta which discusses both [the sacrifices of] Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh. One concludes the blessing “Mikadeish Hashabbos Yisrael Veroshei Chodashim”.
  • Kerias Hatorah-The Torah reading: When Rosh Chodesh coincides with Shabbos two Sifrei Torah are removed from the Ark. Seven Aliyos from the weekly Torah portion is read from the first Torah scroll. The second scroll is then placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish. Hagba is then done to the first scroll. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil. [The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagba.] The Maftir, which is the Rosh Chodesh reading, is read from the second Torah scroll. One reads the portions of “Uviyom Hashabas” and “Uviroshei Chodsheichem” until the end of that portion. One does not recite a second half Kaddish after this reading.
  • Haftorah: When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos the Haftorah of “Hashamayim Kisi” is read.
  • If Shabbos is Erev Rosh Chodesh then the Haftorah of “Machar Chodesh” is read in place of the weekly Haftorah.
  • When Rosh Chodesh is two days and falls on Shabbos and Sunday then the Haftorah of “Hashamayim Kisi” is read and after the Haftorah one reads the first and last verse of the Haftorah of “Machar Chodesh”.
  • Shnayim Mikra: When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos one is not required to read the verses of the Rosh Chodesh reading as part of Shnayim Mikra. However one is to read both the Haftorah of the weekly Parsha and the Haftorah which will be read in Shul. Accordingly, if Rosh Chodesh is two days and falls on Shabbos and Sunday, one is to read three Haftoras; the weekly Parsha, the Haftorah of Hashamayim Kisi and the Haftorah of Machar Chodesh.
  • Av Harachamim: Av Harachamim is not recited on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh. This applies even on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh Iyar.
  • Tzidkasecha: When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, Tzidkasecha is not recited during the Mincha prayer.

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