The Davening

Previous: [1], after Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis.[2] It is customarily recited while standing.[3] This especially applies for the 13 attributes and Shema Koleinu. The Chabad custom is to omit the saying of Ashamnu within Selichos when it is recited within the prayers of Shacharis.[4] [However it is recited as usual within Tachanun that is recited before Selichos.]

Concentration: Selichos must be recited slowly and with concentration. It is better to recite a lesser amount of supplications, but with proper concentration, then a larger amount without concentration.[5] Those that are accustomed to hurriedly recite the conclusion of Selichos are to nullify their custom.[6]

The thirteen attributes: It is forbidden to recite the thirteen attributes without proper concentration.[7] [It is to be recited slowly and carefully.[8] It is to be recited aloud.[9] Some are accustomed to count the Middos with their fingers.[10] Some are accustomed to picture each letter of each word in their mind while reciting it.[11]] The 13 attributes may only be read together with the Minyan.[12] See Q&A! See “Elul” Halacha 15D and Q&A for all the details on this subject!

Shema Koleinu: The custom is to open the ark and stand for the saying of Shema Koleinu.

 

Selichos without a Minyan:

May a person recite Selichos without a Minyan?[13] It is permitted to recite Selichos without a Minyan, although he must omit certain parts, as will be explained next.

What does one omit if he is saying Selichos without a Minyan? If one is saying Selichos without a Minyan, he is to omit the 13 attributes of mercy.[14] [It is not our custom in such a case to recite the 13 attributes of mercy in the tune of the Torah reading-see Halacha C in Q&A!] He is likewise to omit the Aramaic parts said within Selichos.[15] One does not omit the verse of “Uzechor Hayom Bris Shlosh Esrei” upon saying Selichos without a Minyan.[16]

 

The following Q&A are discussed in the section of “Elul” Halacha 15-see there!

Q&A on Selichos

  • Must one stand during Selichos?
  • Does one say Selichos if there is a Chasan in the Minyan?
  • Does one say Selichos if there is a Baal Bris [i.e. Mohel; Sandek; Father] in the Minyan?
  • Is Selichos recited in the house of an Avel?
  • Does the Avel omit the confession prayer from Selichos?

 

Q&A on the 13 attributes

  • Must one stand when reciting the 13 attributes?
  • If one is behind the Minyan and the congregation has reached the 13 attributes of mercy what is he to do?
  • If one is Davening with a Minyan and the congregation has already recited the 13 attributes of mercy may he recite it when he reaches that point?
  • Must one read each word of the 13 attributes together with the congregation or can he read it on his own pace?
  • If the congregation is already in middle of reciting the 13 attributes may one begin to say it?
  • May one recite the 13 attributes of mercy to himself in the Torah reading tune?

 

B. Shacharis:

Avinu Malkeinu: Avinu Malkeinu is recited after Selichos, prior to “Veanachnu Lo Neida”. One continues straight to Veanchnu Lo Neida after Avinu Malkeinu and omits the short Avinu Malkeinu prayer normally recited prior to Veanachnu Lo Neida.

Torah reading: The Torah portion of Vayichal is read during Shacharis.     

 

Q&A on Avinu Malkeinu

Bris or Chasan:

See previous Chapter Halacha 5 in Q&A!

 

Is Avinu Malkeinu recited in the house of an Avel?

See previous Chapter Halacha 5 in Q&A!

 

Q&A on Kerias Hatorah

May one who is not fasting receive an Aliyah?[17]

No.

 

What is the law if one who is not fasting was accidently called for an Aliyah?

If the fast is taking place on Mondays or Thursdays then by Shacharis he may receive the Aliyah.[18] By Mincha, and Shacharis of other days of the week, he is to refuse the Aliyah on the basis that he is not fasting. If he is a Torah scholar and fears telling the public that he is not fasting then he may receive the Aliyah. However initially anyone who is not fasting should avoid being in Shul during the Torah reading.[19] 

 

C. Aneinu:

The prayer of Aneinu is added during Mincha Shemoneh Esrei of a fast day.[20] It is recited within the blessing of Shomeia Tefila[21], prior to the words “Ki Ata Shomeia”[22]. It is not recited during the silent Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis or Maariv.[23] It is however recited within the Chazan’s repetition of the Shacharis and Mincha Shemoneh Esrei.[24] The Chazan recites Aneinu as a separate blessing between the blessings of Goal Yisrael and Rifaeinu.[25] This applies during the Chazan’s repetition of both Shacharis and Mincha Shemoneh Esrei. However during the Chazan’s silent prayer of Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis he does not say Aneinu[26], while during his silent prayer of Mincha he recites Aneinu within Shomeia Tefila just like the other people praying.[27]

One who forgot Aneinu: If one forgot to say Aneinu in Shomeia Tefila he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.[28] If he remembered prior to finishing Shemoneh Esrei he is to recite it at the end of Davening[29], in Elokaiy Netzor prior to the [second[30]] Yihyu Leratzon.[31] Even if he remembered prior to Ritzei, he is nevertheless to continue and recite it in Elokaiy Netzor.[32] [If he only remembered after finishing Davening then it is proper to concentrate on each word of the Chazan’s repetition and thus fulfill his obligation.[33]]

Chazan forgot Aneinu:[34] If the Chazan forgot to say Aneinu in his repetition he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.[35] If he remembered prior to reciting Hashem’s name in the blessing of Rifaeinu then he is to go back and recite it and then repeat from Rifaeinu.[36] If he already recited Hashem’s name in the end blessing of Rifaeinu then he may not go back and say it[37] and is rather to recite Aneinu in Shomeia Tefila just like one does by his private Shemoneh Esrei.[38] In such a case he is to recite the end blessing of Aneinu and conclude the blessing of Shomeia Tefila as “Haoneh Bieis Tzarah Veshomeia Tefila”.[39] If one did not recite the end blessing of Aneinu and concluded the blessing of Shomeia Tefila as usual he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation of Aneinu.[40] If he forgot to say it within Shomeia Tefila and already recited Hashem’s name in the blessing then he is to say the entire blessing of Aneinu on its own [immediately[41]] after concluding the blessing of Sim Shalom [prior to saying the first Yehiyu Leratzon].[42]

Chazan mistakenly said Aneinu before Goel Yisrael:[43] If the Chazan mistakenly recited Aneinu prior to the blessing of Riei Na then he must repeat Aneinu after Riei Na.[44]

       

Q&A

May Aneinu be recited in the Chazan’s repetition if not everyone in the Minyan is fasting?[45]

Some Poskim[46] rule the Chazan may not recite Aneinu unless there are ten people fasting within the Minyan.

Others[47] rule it may be only be recited if there are seven people fasting. Others[48] rule it may only be recited if there are six people fasting. Other Poskim[49] rule that if at least three people in the Minyan are fasting the Chazan may recite Aneinu in his repetition. Practically the Chabad custom is like this opinion.[50] However many are accustomed that the Chazan only says Aneinu if there are at least six people fasting.[51]

If there are not enough fasters at the Minyan should the Chazan recite Aneinu in Shomeia Tefila? Some Poskim[52] rule the Chazan is to recite Aneinu within Shomeia Tefila even if the minimum amount of fasters are not present.

 

May the Torah be read by Shacharis and Mincha if not everyone in the Minyan is fasting?[53]

Many Poskim[54] rule that if at least three people in the Minyan are fasting the Torah may be read. Practically the Chabad custom is like this opinion.[55] However many[56] are accustomed to only read the Torah if there are at least six people fasting.

What is the congregation to do on Shacharis of Mondays and Thursdays if there are not enough fasters at the Minyan?[57] On Shacharis of Mondays and Thursdays, if there are not enough fasters at the Minyan, the congregation should read the weekly Torah portion instead of Vayichal.

 

May one who is not fasting recite Aneinu?[58]

This matter is disputed in Poskim.

 

If one accidently recited Aneinu between Goal Yisrael and Rifaeinu is he to still say it within Shomeia Tefila?[59]

No, as he has already fulfilled his obligation.

 

Sparks of Kabala

The meaning behind Aneinu:[60]

The Kol Bo writes the prayer of Aneinu contains 63 words which correspond to the 63 letters contained within the verse “Vayira Yaakov Meod…” The Aguda writes that it corresponds to the 63 letters of the three Avos and twelve tribes.[61] Alternatively it corresponds to the Divine 63 letter name of Hashem [Sheim Sag], which corresponds to Bina and Gevura. We thus recite 63 words in order to sweeten the severities of Bina.

 

D. Mincha:

Charity: Prior to Mincha one is to give Igara Ditaanisa to charity.[62]

Torah reading: The Torah portion of Vayichal is read during Mincha. This is followed by the reading of the Haftorah. 

Yehalelu:[63] After the reading of the Haftorah Yehalelu is recited and the Torah is returned to the Aron. This is then followed by half Kaddish. [However there were years that the Rebbe began the Kaddish immediately after the Haftorah as is normally done by Mincha of Shabbos.[64]

Aneinu: During Shemoneh Esrei of Mincha Aneinu is recited, as stated in the previous Halacha.

Nesias Kapayim:[65] The Chazan recites Birchas Kohanim in his repetition of Shemoneh Esrei of Mincha. Those places which are not accustomed to do Birchas Kohanim recite Elokeinu during the Chazan’s repetition.[66] [This applies even when Mincha is being davened early, by the time of Mincha Gedolah.[67]] Those that are accustomed to perform Nesias Kapayim daily, are to do so as well by Mincha of a fast day. [However this only applies when Mincha is being prayed close to sunset.[68] Some[69] rule this to be within thirty minutes before sunset. Others[70] rule it refers to past Plag Hamincha. Others rule it refers to Mincha Ketana.[71] However when praying Mincha prior to Plag Hamincha Nesias Kapayim is not performed.[72] Nevertheless one does recite Elokeinu Velokei Avoseinu, as stated above.]

Tachanun and Avinu Malkeinu: Tachanun and Avinu Malkeinu are recited during Mincha of a fast day.

 

Q&A

May Elokeinu or Nesias Kapayim be recited in the Chazan’s repetition if not everyone in the Minyan is fasting?

Some Poskim[73] rule one is not to say Elokeinu or perform Nesias Kapayim if there are not ten people fasting within the Minyan. However others[74] leave this matter in question as perhaps it follows the same ruling reciting Aneinu and Kerias Hatorah in which case some[75] are lenient even if there are three people fasting.

 

May a Kohen perform Nesias Kapayim if he is not fasting?[76]

No. Thus he is to leave the Shul prior to Ritzei.


[1] It is recited prior to the prayer of Avinu Malkeinu in Tachanun.

[2] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 163 that the Rebbe did not receive a directive if the Selichos are to be said in middle of Davening or prior to Davening. Practically however the Rebbe recited it during Davening and so is the Chabad custom today. See Igros Kodesh 10/137; Sefer Haminhagim p. 52

Other customs: The vintage custom in Chabad was not to recite either Selichos or Avinu Malkeinu on the day of a fast. [Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rashab 1/18] So was also the custom of the Gr”a [Maaseh Rav 49] The Rebbe Rashab once motioned to the Chazan to not say Selichos or Avinu Malkeinu on a fast day stating that he knows from reliable testimony that the Alter Rebbe did not say it. [Reshimos Dvarim 2/98; Otzer ibid]

[3] Kitzur Shlah Miseches R”H “It is proper to stand while saying Selichos, and one who is unable to stand is at the very least to stand while reciting Keil Melech Rachamim and Vayavor and the 13 Middos”

[4] Sefer Haminhagim p. 53; As we have already recited Ashamnu within Tachanun and we do not say it twice within one prayer, as explained in the section on “Elul” Halacha 15F!

[5] Admur Kama 1/9

[6] Birkeiy Yosef 581/5; Kaf Hachaim 581/6

[7] Birkeiy Yosef 581/4; Shaareiy Teshuvah 581/1; Kaf Hachaim 131/21 and 581/5; Zechor Leavraham 131/6; Beis Oved 131/2; Chesed Lealafim 131/9

[8] Ben Ish Chaiy Ki Sisa 4

[9] Pirkei Direbbe Eliezer 46; Piskeiy Teshuvos 131/9

[10] Ben Ish Chaiy ibid [doing so helps for concentration]

[11] Ben Ish Chaiy ibid

[12] Michaber 565/5; Mateh Efraim 581/21; Kaf Hachaim 565/26 [this applies even during the Aseres Yimei Teshuvah].

[13] Bach; M”A 565/6; Gr”a; M”B 565/13; Elya Raba; Birkeiy Yosef 131/11; Kesher Gudal 19/10; Shalmei Tzibur 149; Zechor Leavraham 131/6 Kaf Hachaim 131/25; Yalkut Yosef Moadim 13 footnote 17; Mateh Efraim 581/21 and Chesed Lealafim 131/9 and Kitzur SHU”A 128/9 rule it may be said although one must skip “Uzechor Hayom Bris..”.

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not recite Selichos without a Minyan. [Rama 565/5; Taz 565/5]

Background:

The Rama 565/5 rules [in name of Or Zarua] that a Yachid may not say Selichos. The Taz 565/5 explains it is forbidden because one mentions in Selichos “Uzechor Hayom Bris Shlosh Esrei” which is forbidden to be said without a Minyan, just like the 13 attributes themselves. The Bach [brought in Taz ibid and M”A 565/6] however argues that Selichos may be recited, and so rules M”A 565/6 saying the intent of the Or Zarua and Rama was to negate saying Selichos in middle of Shemoneh Esrei. [See Gr”a; Shaareiy Tziyon 565/10] Practically Mateh Efraim 581/21 brings not to say “Uzechor Hayom Bris..” as rules Taz ibid. So also rules Chesed Lealafim 131/9 and Kitzur SHU”A 128/9. However the M”B 565/13 sides like the M”A ibid that one recites Selichos as usual, omitting the actual 13 attributes. So rules also Elya Raba; Birkeiy Yosef 131/11; Kesher Gudal 19/10; Shalmei Tzibur 149; Zechor Leavraham 131/6 [brought in Kaf Hachaim 131/25]; Yalkut Yosef Moadim 13 footnote 17 that so is the custom.

[14] Michaber 565/5; Mateh Efraim 581/21; Kaf Hachaim 565/26 [this applies even during the Aseres Yimei Teshuvah].

[15] Sefer Hatanya 72; Elya Raba 581/9; Kaf Hachaim 581/26; Mateh Efraim 581/21; M”B 581/4

The reason: The reason for omitting the Aramaic parts is because the angels do not understand Aramaic and will hence be unable to elevate these prayers. [see Admur 101/5] The Kaf Hachaim ibid questions this ruling as why do we need the angels to understand our prayers. The prayers can be said directly to Hashem. Likewise this matter of omitting Aramaic when reciting Selichos in private is not brought in any other Poskim.

[16] Bach; M”A 565/6; Gr”a; M”B 565/13; Elya Raba; Birkeiy Yosef 131/11; Kesher Gudal 19/10; Shalmei Tzibur 149; Zechor Leavraham 131/6 Kaf Hachaim 131/25; Yalkut Yosef Moadim 13 footnote 17

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to omit the words “Uzechor Hayom Bris Shlosh Esrei” upon saying Selichos without a Minyan. [Taz 565/5; Mateh Efraim 581/21; Chesed Lealafim 131/9 and Kitzur SHU”A 128/9 ]

[17] Michaber 566/6; Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 1/20

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that one may receive an Aliyah even if he is not fasting. [Chasam Sofer 157; Aruch Hashulchan 566/11; Minchas Elazar 2/74]

[18] M”B 566/19

[19] M”B 566/21

[20] Rama 565/3

[21] Michaber 565/1

[22] Rama 565/1; It is not said as a separate blessing and rather as soon as one reaches the words Lechol Eis Tzara Vetzuka he then continues back with the words Ki Ata Shomeia Tefilas… [Rama ibid]

[23] Rama 565/3          

The reason: As it is possible that one may have to break his fast due to a medical emergency, and he will hence have ended up lying within his prayer of “the day of our fast”. [Michaber 565/3]

Other Opinions: The Michaber ibid rules that by the four fasts every fasting individual is to recite Aneinu within his private Shemoneh Esrei [by Shomeia Tefila]. This applies even by the Maariv Shemoneh Esrei recited the night before the start of the fast in the morning. [M”B 565/9 in name of Gr”a]

[24] Rama 565/3

[25] Michaber 566/1

[26] As rules Rama 655/3

[27] Michaber 565/1

[28] Michaber 565/2

[29] Michaber 565/2

[30] Kaf Hachaim 565/12; Piskeiy Teshuvos 565/2; Hiskashrus 1025

[31] Levush; M”B 565/7; Kaf Hachaim 565/12; Bedieved one may say it even after Yehiyu Leratzon. [Shaareiy Tziyon 565/6]

[32] M”A 565/2; M”B 565/6; Kaf Hachaim 565/3

[33] Mahril 12; Taz 565/2; Kaf Hachaim 565/13

[34] Admur 119/5

[35] Michaber 565/2; Kaf Hachaim 565/10

[36] As one is required to go back to say Aneinu if he will not be required to repeat the blessing of Rifaeinu. [Admur ibid]

[37] As if he were to go back then he would be required to repeat the blessing of Rifaeinu and would hence cause his previous blessing of Rifaeinu to have been said in vain. One cannot say it after the blessing of Rifaeinu as the blessings in Shemoneh Esrei must be said in their proper order. [Admur ibid]

[38] Admur ibid

[39] Admur ibid based on M”A 119

The reason: This is not considered as if one is ending with two blessings being that the words of Shomeia Tefila can also refer to the prayers of the fast day. [ibid]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to recite the end blessing of Aneinu but is rather to stop before the blessing and then recite “Ki Ata Shomoeia Tefilas..” [M”B 119; Mateh Efraim 602/9]

[40] The reason: As the words of Shomeia Tefila can also refer to the prayers of the fast day. [Admur ibid]

[41] Piskeiy Teshuvos 565/2

[42] The reason: As since one has already completed the eighteen blessings of Shemoneh Esrei there is no problem of saying it out of order. [Admur ibid]

[43] Admur 119/6

[44] The reason: As if the blessings must be recited in the correct order otherwise the Shemoneh Esrei is invalid. [ibid]

[45] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 566/4 for a general overview of this topic.

[46] Michaber 566/3; Admur 119/5; Kitzur SHU”A 20/8

[47] M”B 566/14; Machazik Bracha brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 566/3 writes 6 or 7

[48] Machazik Bracha ibid; Yeshuos Yaakov 566; Keren Ledavid 145; Kaf Hachaim 119/27 and 566/32 in name of many Poskim; Chelkas Yaakov 3/69; Igros Moshe 4/113; Minchas Yitzchak 1/65; Yechave Daas 1/79; Beir Moshe 8/93; Piskeiy Teshuvos 566/4

[49] Bach in name of Aguda; Meiri Megillah 2a; Orchos Chaim [Lunil]; Leket Yosher 114 in name of Terumos Hadeshen; Aruch Hashulchan 566/7; Mahrsham 2/97; Daas Torah 69; Sdei Chemed 1 Klalei Haposkim 13/7; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 26; Piskei Dinim 566; Shut Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 8, brought in Shaar Hakolel 9/17; Igros Kodesh 16/313; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 1024 footnote 16

Does this apply even if the other seven people in the Minyan ate more than the Shiur? In Sefer Haminhagim ibid and Shut Tzemach Tzedek ibid it states that the above allowance only applies if the other seven people did not eat more than the permitted Shiur of food which is allowed if one is sick and the like. However in Igros Kodesh ibid and the Rebbe’s edited edition of Luach Kolel Chabad this condition was omitted hence implying the condition is not necessary. [Hiskashrus ibid]

[50] Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 26; Piskei Dinim 566; Shut Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 8, brought in Shaar Hakolel 9/17; Igros Kodesh 16/313; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 1024 footnote 16

[51] Conclusion of Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid based on the third opinion here.

[52] See Kaf Hachaim 566/28 for a dispute in this matter. He concludes that by a Taanis Tzibur of the fasts of scripture seemingly all agree the Chazan may say it in Shomeia Tefila. So rules also M”B 566/13; Hiskashrus 1025. However see Admur 119/5 that implies the Chazan is not to say it at all if there are not enough people in the Shul that are fasting. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[53] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 566/4 for a general overview of this topic.

[54] Bach in name of Aguda; Meiri Megillah 2a; Orchos Chaim [Lunil]; Leket Yosher 114 in name of Terumos Hadeshen; Aruch Hashulchan 566/7; Mahrsham 2/97; Daas Torah 69; Sdei Chemed 1 Klalei Haposkim 13/7; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 26; Piskei Dinim 566; Shut Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 8, brought in Shaar Hakolel 9/17; Igros Kodesh 16/313; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 1024 footnote 16;

Does this apply even if the other seven people in the Minyan ate more than the Shiur? In Sefer Haminhagim ibid and Shut Tzemach Tzedek ibid it states that the above allowance only applies if the other seven people did not eat more than the permitted Shiur of food which is allowed if one is sick and the like. However in Igros Kodesh ibid and the Rebbe’s edited edition of Luach Kolel Chabad this condition was omitted hence implying the condition is not necessary. [Hiskashrus ibid]

[55] Sources in previous footnote

[56] See previous Q&A; The Chasam Sofer 157 rules that one may read the Torah even if there is no one fasting in the congregation.

[57] Zera Emes 86; Keren Ledavid 145; Chelkas Yaakov 3/69; Betzeil Hachochmah 1/2; Kinyan Torah /119; Piskeiy Teshuvos 566/4

[58] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 565/1; Biur Halacha 565 “Bein”; M”B 568/3

[59] Kaf Hachaim 565/2

[60] Kaf Hachaim 655/1

How many words are contained in the Nussach of Admur of Aneinu? There are 65 words contained within the Nussach of Aneinu of Admur in the Siddur. The Nussach Sefarad contains less than 63 words.

[61] Brought in Elya Raba 655/1

[62] The fast “tax” which consists of the money worth of meals saved by fasting. This money is given to charity.

[63] Siddur Tehillas Hashem; see Shaar Hakolel 29/4; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 320

[64] See Hiskashrus 451 p. 14 footnote 47; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 320; See also Hiskashrus 1046 that in many years that the Rebbe Daveend for the Amud the Rebbe waited until after Yehalelu and the entrance of the Sefer Torah to the Aron to begin Kaddish, even on Shabbos by Mincha!

[65] Michaber 129/1; 566/8; Admur 129/1-2

[66] M”B 129/8; 566/23; Kaf Hachaim 566/52; see Admur 129/2

[67] Rav Poalim 4/6; So is implied from ruling of Rama and Admur 129/2 regarding saying Elokeinu by Mincha of Yom Kippur; and so is implied from Magen Avraham 129/1, as explained in Levushei Serud, as he learns the Rama. So rules Luach Davar Beito, and so is implied from Siddur.

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that Elokeinu is not to be said whenever Nesias Kapayim is not allowed to be done. [See M”B 129/8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 129/1 and footnote 6 which rules that it is not to be said.]

[68] Implication of Michaber ibid; Admur ibid; Mishneh Berurah ibid which all write that the reason why Birchas Kohanim may be done on the Mincha of a fast day is because it is customarily prayed near sunset. This thus implies that if it were to be prayed much time before sunset then Birchas Kohanim may not be done.  

Other Poskim: The Chazon Ish [20] suggests that even when Davening Mincha early, such as by Mincha Gedolah, one may do Nesias Kapayim, although he concludes with leaving this matter in question. Based on this however, some Litvish communities have a custom to do Birchas Kohanim even when Davening early. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 129/1; 566/8; Rav Poalim ibid]

[69] Kaf Hachaim 129/7; Hiskashrus 1024

[70] Luach Eretz Yisrael of Rav Tukichinsky; Piskeiy Teshuvos 566/8.

[71] Sheivet Halevi 8/23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 129/1

[72] Poskim ibid

[73] See P”M 566 A”A 11; Kaf Hachaim 566/52 that it may not be said if there aren’t ten people that are fasting.

[74] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 129/2; Dvar Yehoshua 3/75

[75] M”B 566/14; Machazik Bracha brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 566/3 writes 6 or 7; Machazik Bracha ibid; Yeshuos Yaakov 566; Keren Ledavid 145; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 26; Piskei Dinim 566; Shut Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 8, brought in Shaar Hakolel 9/17; Igros Kodesh 16/313

[76] Kaf Hachaim 129/5 in name of Peri Chadash; Machazik Bracha 129/2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 129/2

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