Pesach Davening and Schedule-Full chapter

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Chapter 13: The Pesach Davening and schedule:

  1. Mincha Erev Pesach:

See Chapter 10 Halacha 17!

 

  1. Maariv Pesach night:

The order until Shemoneh Esrei:

For Maariv of Yom Tov, some are accustomed to read the added Mizmorim that are said on Shabbos.[1] The Chabad custom on the night of Yom Tov is to recite a regular weekday Maariv prayer until Shemoneh Esrei, without any of the additional Mizmorim that are normally added on Shabbos.

 

Saying Hallel on the first nights of Pesach:[2]

The widespread custom of many communities[3] is to recite the complete Hallel with a blessing on both nights of Yom Tov [in the Diaspora]. Practically, so is the Chabad custom. In Eretz Yisrael, Hallel is only recited on the first night. After Hallel, one is to recite Kaddish with Tiskabel.

 

Q&A

If one is Davening without a Minyan, is he to say Hallel with a blessing?[4]

Yes.

 

If one’s custom is not to say Hallel what is he to do if he is Davening in a Shul that Hallel is said?[5]

He is to say Hallel together with the congregation, although without a blessing.[6]

 

Pesach falls on Friday evening:[7]

When [the first night of] Pesach falls on Friday evening, one begins the Maariv prayer from Mizmor Ledavid [psalm 29], [omitting all the Psalms from Lechu Neranina until Mizmor Ledavid].[8] [One recites the entire dialect from Mizmor Ledavid and onwards, including Ana Bekoach; all the stanzas of Lecha Dodi; Mizmor Shir, Kegavna.[9] In Lecha Dodi, the wording of Besimcha instead of Berina is recited.[10] In Shemoneh Esrei one needs to mention “Shabbos” in the beginning of the middle blessing, and in the conclusion of the blessing.[11] After Shemoneh Esrei one recites Vayechulu. One does not recite Meiyn Sheva and rather proceeds to recite Hallel. After Hallel one recite Kaddish Tiskabel, Mizmor Ledavid. One then recites half Kaddish, Barchu and Aleinu.[12]]

Meiyn Sheva:[13] Meiyn Sheva is not said after Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv even when Pesach falls on Shabbos.[14]

 

Pesach falls on Motzei Shabbos:[15]

When Pesach falls on Motzei Shabbos [i.e. Saturday night], then in the evening prayer of Shemoneh Esrei the paragraph of Vetodieinu/ותודיענו is added prior to the paragraph of ותתן לנו.

 

  1. Pesukei Dezimra of Shacharis:[16]

On every Yom Tov, by Shacharis, it is customary to read the Mizmorim that are said on Shabbos in Pesukei Dezimra.[17] Some[18] however skip the psalm of Mizmor Shir Leyom Hashabbos and rather begin from Tov Lehodos Lahashem etc. This however is not the custom in our provinces.[19]

 

  1. Hallel during Shacharis of Pesach:

The obligation:[20]

On each one of the Shalosh Regalim, [which includes, in the Diaspora, both days of Shavuos, the first two nights and days of Pesach, the nine days of Sukkos, including Shemini Atzeres, and also the eight days of Chanukah[21]], one is required to recite the complete Hallel during the day. This is a [positive[22]] Rabbinical command that was instituted by the prophets.[23] [This applies for both a congregation and a person who is praying in private.[24]]

 

 

Q&A

Are women obligated to recite Hallel?

Women are exempt from reciting Hallel.[25] Nevertheless, they are permitted to recite it if they so choose.[26] Regarding if women are to say a blessing-see the next Halacha!

 

 The blessing over Hallel:[27]

On each one of the Shalosh Regalim [which includes, in the Diaspora, both days of Shavuos, the first two nights and days of Pesach, the nine days of Sukkos, including Shemini Atzeres, and also the eight days of Chanukah[28]] a blessing is said over the complete Hallel.[29] [This applies whether one is with a Minyan or Davening in private.[30]]

The Nussach of the blessing:[31] The blessing is “Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Likro[32] Es Hahallel.” One is not to conclude “Ligmor Es Hallel.”[33]

Being Yotzei the blessing with the Chazan versus saying it individually: If a Minyan is present, there is no Halachic precedence, and one can to choose to say the blessing himself, or be Yotzei with the Chazan, as each option contains an advantageous aspect.[34] When a Minyan is not present, it is better for each person to say their own blessing rather than be Yotzei with another person.[35] Nonetheless, the widespread custom today is for every individual to recite the blessing himself, even if a Minyan is present, and so is the proper directive.[36] [Some recite it prior to the Chazan and hence complete it prior to the Chazan completing his blessing.[37] Others recite it together with the Chazan and some recite it after the Chazan.[38] Those who recite it after the Chazan, must intend to not be Yotzei the blessing with his recital.[39]]

 

Q&A

Are women who recite Hallel to recite a blessing before and after?

Some Poskim[40] rule that women are not to recite a blessing upon reciting Hallel. This applies even towards those women of Ashkenazi origin that usually recite a blessing prior to performing their optional Mitzvos. Other Poskim[41] however rule that women may recite the blessing and so is the widespread custom.[42]

What is the law if one accidently recited the blessing of Ligmor Es Hallel?[43]

He fulfills his obligation and is not required to repeat the blessing.

 

 

When is Hallel to be recited?[44]

From when during the day, and until when in the day: Hallel may be recited throughout the entire day, from dawn [Alos Hashachar] until nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim]. Thus, if one did not recite Hallel immediately after Davening [Shemoneh Esrei of] Shacharis, he may recite it throughout the day, until Tzeis Hakochavim.

May one initially read Hallel before sunrise?[45] Lechatchilah, one should not recite Hallel prior to sunrise.[46] Nevertheless, if one transgressed and recited Hallel prior to sunrise, after daybreak he has fulfilled his obligation.

After Shemoneh Esrei:[47] Although Hallel may be recited throughout the day, it is best to recite it immediately after the Shacharis Shemoneh Esrei.[48] [It is permitted to recite Hallel prior to Davening Shacharis.[49] Nevertheless, according to the Arizal, Hallel is not to be said prior to Davening.[50]]

 

Q&A

May Hallel be recited with a blessing after sunset, prior to nightfall?[51]

No. One is to recite Hallel without a blessing.

May one eat before Hallel?[52]

One is to avoid eating prior to reciting Hallel, unless he is sick or weak in which case he is not to be stringent even as an act of piety. [Thus, even if one already Davened Shacharis but has not yet recited Hallel, he should avoid eating until he recites Hallel.]

 

 

Reading Hallel with the congregation:[53]

It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to read Hallel together with the congregation immediately after [Shemoneh Esrei of] the Shacharis prayer.[54]

Reading Hallel with the congregation prior to Shacharis?[55] If one came to Shul after the congregation completed the Shacharis prayer [of Shemoneh Esrei] and has reached the saying of Hallel, and has not yet Davened Shacharis, then there is an opinion[56] who says that if there is no worry that the time of Shema will pass, it is best for him to first recite Hallel with the congregation, and afterwards Daven Shacharis. This applies even on those days that one who Davens without a Minyan recites the complete Hallel with a blessing according to all opinions. [Nevertheless, the Arizal was not comfortable with such an arrangement of reciting Hallel out of its proper order, and hence according to the Arizal one is never to read Hallel prior to Davening.[57] Practically, the widespread custom amongst Chabad Chassidim is not to recite Hallel before Davening, as explained in the summary below.]

If one is in the middle of Davening:[58] If one is holding in middle of Davening, past Baruch Sheamar, at the time that the congregation begins to read Hallel, he is not to make an interval in order to read Hallel together with them. [This applies] on those days that the complete Hallel is recited [i.e. all of Sukkos and Chanukah; 2 days of Pesach, Shavuos].[59]

 

Summary:

One is to be particular to read Hallel together with the congregation immediately after Shemoneh Esrei. If one is holding prior to Davening, some Poskim rule he is to stop and recite Hallel together with the congregation. This applies for Hallel of all days. Nevertheless, the Arizal was not comfortable with such an arrangement of reciting Hallel out of its proper order, and hence according to the Arizal one is never to read Hallel prior to Davening. If one is holding within Pesukei Dezimra, he is not to stop and recite Hallel together with the congregation on days that the complete Hallel is recited.

The Chabad Custom:[60]

No clear directive has been given with regards to the Chabad custom in whether one should say Hallel with the congregation prior to his Davening, if the circumstance occurs. Nevertheless, it is known that the Chabad Rebbeim would be careful to always pray with the same pace as the Minyan on Yom Tov in order to say Hallel with the congregation. This is despite the Rebbeim’s usual practice of praying at greater length than the Minyan. [Practically, the widespread custom amongst Chabad Chassidim is not to recite it before Davening.[61]]

Should one who usually Davens in great length without the congregation do so on days that Hallel is said?[62]

The Rebbe Rashab would Daven Shacharis of Yom Tov on pace of congregation in order to say Hallel with the congregation after Shacharis, at its appropriate time.

 

 

Hefsek-Making an interval to answer Amen and the like:[63]

When the complete Hallel is recited, the laws of making a Hefsek [speech interval] during Hallel has the same laws as a Hefsek during the reading of the morning Shema, as explained in 66:1.[64] This applies for both the laws of Hefsek within individual paragraphs and between paragraphs.[65]

 

Standing for Hallel:[66]

Hallel is to be recited in a standing position.[67]

Leaning:[68] It is forbidden for one to lean on any item during Hallel [in a way that it supports him from falling[69]].[70]

Transgressed:[71] If one transgressed and recited Hallel in a sitting position he nevertheless fulfills his obligation and is not required to repeat the recital of Hallel.[72]

 

Sparks of Chassidus

The meaning and effect of Hallel:[73]

The term Hallel means praise. This has one of two meanings. 1) That we thank and praise G-d for the great joy and for the revelations given to us from above. 2) That we draw down a revelation below. There is no contradiction between the two explanations, and rather it means that by us praising G-d we cause the great revelation of G-dliness below, which is the source of our joy. 

 

  1. The Torah reading:

One removes two Sifrei Torah from the ark. Five people are called to 1st Torah and the 6th to Maftir. [On Shabbos one reads 7 Aliyos from the first Torah.]

 

Background:

Moshe Rabbeinu established for the Jewish people that on every Yom Tov one is to read the Torah portion dealing with that Holiday.[74] The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of the Torah that is read on each holiday.[75]

The amount of Aliyos:[76] Moshe instituted that five men be called up for an Aliyah by the Torah reading of Yom Tov.[77]

Haftorah:[78] The reading of the Haftorah was instituted by the Anshei Kneses Hagedola.[79] They instituted that one should read from Navi on every holiday from a portion that deals with the holiday events. The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of Navi that is read on each holiday.

The Maftir:[80] [Maftir in truth refers to the reading of the portion from Navi formally known as the Haftorah. It comes from the word Petor which means finish, as the reading is completed with the Haftorah.] However, the person that reads the Maftir from Navi is also required to first read a section from the Torah.[81] In the times of the Sages of the Mishneh and Talmud the Maftir would read from the Torah as part of the five Aliyos that were read from the portion of that Holiday which was read from the first Torah scroll. [There was hence no second scroll taken out from the ark] However, in later generations, the Rabanan Savuraiy established, and so was accustomed by the Geonim which followed them, that the Maftir is to read [from a second scroll] the portion of the Musaf sacrifice written in Parshas Pinchas. This institution was based on the following teaching of the Sages: Avraham stated in front of Hashem “Master of the world when the Temple is not in existence the children of Israel do not have on what to find support. What will be with my children when they sin? Perhaps you will do to them as you did to the generation of the Mabul and Haflaga. Hashem answered “I have already established for them the order of the Karbanos. When the Karbanos are read, I consider it as if they sacrificed the Karban before me and I forgive all of their sins.  [Regarding why the Maftir is read as the sixth Aliyah and is not part of the five Aliyos-see chapter 282/10-13!]

Two Torah scrolls:[82] Being that two different sections of the Torah need to be read on Yom Tov[83], therefore, one is initially required to remove two Torah scrolls; one for the Holiday reading, and the second for the Maftir. It does not suffice to remove only one Torah scroll and then roll it to the Parsha of Musafim [for Maftir].[84] [The scrolls are to be rolled to their proper places prior to Davening. Doing so is not to be delayed until Kerias Hatorah.[85] If only one scroll is available then the two portions are to be read from the same scroll.[86]]

Kaddish:[87] On Yom Tov, half Kaddish is recited after the reading of the 1st Torah scroll, prior to Maftir.[88]

Yud Gimmel Middos-Hashem Hashem:[89]

When the Shalosh Regalim fall on a weekday, the 13 attributes [i.e. passage of Hashem Hashem] is recited one time when the Ark is opened to remove the Torah scrolls, prior to Berich Shmei.[90] If Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, the Yud Gimmel Middos [and Ribono Shel Olam[91]] is not recited.[92] After the recital of Hashem Hashem one recites the prayer of Ribono Shel Olam[93] [one time[94]]. [Likewise, the verse of Veani Sefilasi, which is recited after the Ribono Shel Olam is only recited one time.[95]] This is then followed by the prayer of Berich Shmei.[96]

 

  1. Musaf-Morid Hatal:[97]

In Nussach Sefarad and Arizal, in Musaf of the first day of Pesach one stops reciting Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem and rather recites Morid Hatal. The Gabbai is to announce prior to the silent Shemoneh Esrei of Musaf that Morid Hatal is to be said.

If one accidently said Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem:[98] If one accidently said Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem and then remembered prior to concluding the blessing, he is to return to the beginning of Ata Gibur. [If he already completed the blessing, then by Musaf of the first day of Pesach he is to continue as usual.[99] However, from Mincha and onwards, he is required to repeat from the beginning of Shemoneh Esrei.[100]]

 

Q&A

What is one to do if he has not yet Davened Shacharis and the congregation has already Davened Musaf?[101]

Once one’s affiliated congregation has prayed Musaf, and thereby began omitting Mashiv Haruach, then one who is praying in private and has not yet davened Shacharis, is to omit it from his Shacharis Shemoneh Esrei.

 

 

  1. The Rabbis speech:[102]

On the day of the holiday, the Rabbi of each community expounds on the meaning and miracles of that holiday.

When is the Yom Tov Drasha given:[103] This speech is given after eating the morning meal, up until midday.[104]

  1. Special meal in memory of Haman’s death:[105]

One is to enhance his meal on the 16th of Nissan in honor of the meal which Queen Esther made with Haman and Achashveirosh on the 16th of Nissan, which then led Haman to be hung.[106]

 

  1. Preparing on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day of Yom Tov or Shabbos:

Preparing on 1st day on behalf of 2nd day in Chutz Laaretz:[107]

It is forbidden to do anything on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the next day, including on behalf of the 2nd day in the Diaspora.[108] This applies even for the two days of Rosh Hashanah which is considered like one long day.[109] [This applies even in a year that Shabbos falls after Yom Tov and one performed Eiruv Tavshilin before Yom Tov.[110]] This prohibition applies even against doing acts of preparation that do not contain any forbidden Melacha at all.[111] [Rather, all the preparations for the 2nd night are to be done after Tzeis Hakochavim: nightfall of the first day.[112] Some Poskim[113] however rule that in a time of need, one may be lenient to prepare on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day, if one completes the preparation with much time left in the day, and the preparation does not involve any Melacha normally forbidden to be done on Shabbos.]

Examples: One must beware not to bring wine on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of Kiddush of the second night.[114] Likewise, one is not to search in a Sefer Torah on the first day of Yom Tov for the reading of the second day, or for Shabbos, even if one performed Eiruv Tavshilin.[115] Likewise, one may not wash dishes on the first day on behalf of the second day [until after Tzeis Hakochavim].[116] [Likewise, one may not make the beds [or tidy the home] on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the next day, unless it is also done for the sake of having a clean home on the first day of Yom Tov.[117] Likewise, one may not set the table or prepare the candles until after Tzeis Hakochavim.]

Preparing on 1st day on behalf of Shabbos:[118]

Even in a scenario that Shabbos falls after the 2nd day of Yom Tov, it is forbidden to prepare on the 1st day of Yom Tov, on behalf of Shabbos, even when Eiruv Tavshilin has been done. Rather, all preparations for Shabbos are to be done on the 2nd day of Yom Tov.

 

Summary:

It is forbidden to do anything on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day, or on behalf of Shabbos, even if the action does not involve any forbidden Melacha, and even if one performed Eiruv Tavshilin. This applies until after Tzeis Hakochavim of the first day.

 

Q&A

May one remove food from the freezer on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the second night meal?

Some Poskim[119] rule it is permitted to remove foods from the freezer on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the meal of the second night of Yom Tov.[120] Others[121] however are stringent.

 

When are the Yom Tov candles to be lit on the 2nd night of Yom Tov?[122]

On the second night of Yom Tov, the candles are lit after nightfall, and not before sunset of the first day.[123]

 

May one prepare and do Melacha on the night of Yom Tov on behalf of the day meal?[126]

Yes.

May one ask a gentile to prepare on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the second day?[127]

It is permitted to have a gentile perform preparations on the first day of Yom Tov, on behalf of the second day, so long as the action does not involve any Melacha that is generally forbidden on Shabbos. Thus, one may ask a gentile to wash dishes or sweep the floor, or set up the table, on behalf of the second day.

 

  1. Maariv of the 16th-Sefiras Haomer:

*The detailed laws of Sefiras Haomer are published in our Sefer “Between Pesach and Shavuos”

When to count in the Diaspora on the second night of Pesach:[128] On the second night of Pesach one begins to count Sefiras Haomer immediately after Maariv.[129] However, some Poskim[130] say that those who follow mysticism should count after finishing the entire Seder on the second night in the Diaspora.[131] [Other Poskim[132] however negate this and rule one must count after Maariv, before the Seder, both according to Nigleh and Nistar.[133]] Practically, one who proceeds to say the blessing and count immediately after Davening, is preceded with Divine blessing.  

  1. Havdalah on Motzei Yom Tov:[134]

*In those years that Motzei Yom Tov is also Motzei Shabbos then the order of Havdalah follows the same order as Motzei Shabbos.

On Motzei Yom Tov, whether it is Motzei Yom Tov to a weekday or Motzei Yom Tov to Chol Hamoed, one is required to recite Havdalah over a cup of wine just like on Motzei Shabbos. However, when Motzei Yom Tov falls on Friday night it is not recited.[135]

Haeish: During Havdalah of Motzei Yom Tov, we do not say a blessing over fire.[136]

Besamim: During Havdalah of Motzei Yom Tov, we do not say a blessing over Besamim.[137]

Nussach:[138] The Nussach of Havdalah on Motzei Yom Tov that falls on a weekday also contains the words “Bein Yom Hashevi’i Lesheishes Yimei Hamaaseh”[139], even though it is now in middle of the week [and it thus seems irrelevant to mention this statement].[140] [Thus, it follows the same Nussach as any Motzei Shabbos.]

 

Q&A

Are the Pesukim of Hinei Keil Yeshuasi recited on Motzei Yom Tov?

Yes.[141] However, some[142] have the custom to omit it.

 

May one who did not say Havdalah on Motzei Yom Tov say it the next day?[143]

One who did not say Havdalah on Motzei Yom Tov is to say Havdalah the next day[144] [until sunset[145]], and is not to eat or drink anything, besides for water, until he does so.[146] If one did not say Havdalah the next day [prior to sunset] then he may no longer say Havdalah[147], and may thus continue eating and drinking as usual.

Is Vayiten Lecha recited on Motzei Yom Tov?

No.

 

Is Vayiten Lecha recited on Motzei Shabbos Chol Hamoed?

Some Poskim[148] rule it is to be recited. Others[149] rule it is to be omitted.[150] The Chabad custom is to recite it quietly.[151]

  1. Learning Miseches Sota:[152]

It is customary to study Tractate Sota during the period of Sefira.[153] This is an old age Chabad custom and is a directive of the Rebbe Rayatz.[154] One studies one page per day. This is in addition to one’s regular study sessions.

_________________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 488:1; It is unclear what additions Admur is referring to in the Maariv prayer. Perhaps it refers to the prayer of Mizmor Shir Leyom Hashabbos. [See P”M 488 A”A 1] However, the Poskim negate this recital during Maariv of Yom Tov. [Chok Yaakov 488:1; Machatzis Hashekel 488:1; P”M 488 A”A 1] Alternatively, it refers to Lechu Neranena, or Lecha Dodi. [P”M ibid] Practically, on a Yom Tov that falls on a weekday, a regular Maariv prayer is followed until Shemoneh Esrei without any additional Mizmorim that are normally added on Shabbos.

[2] Admur 487:8 that so is custom of some; Siddur Admur; Michaber 497:4; Gr”a

[3] So is the custom of Sefaradi, Chassidic and some Litvish Jewry. The Rama ibid however rules the custom in his provinces is not to say Hallel and so is brought as the second custom in Admur ibid. Practically, today, even amongst Ashkenazi communities, many are accustomed to recite Hallel as was the custom of the Gr”a.

[4] Igros Moshe 4:94

[5] Igros Moshe 4:94

[6] The reason: As otherwise this would be transgressing “Lo Sisgodedu”. [Igros Moshe ibid]

[7] Siddur Admur regarding Yom Tov; Ketzos Hashulchan 77:2; Shaar Hakolel 17:6 states that this was mistakenly omitted from certain prints of the Siddur

Other customs: Some are accustomed to beginning Maariv from after Lecha Dodi, by Mizmor Shir. [M”E 625:41]

[8] The reason: Some write the reason is because there is a Mitzvah of Simcha on Yom Tov and we hence desire to speed the conclusion of Maariv. [Otzer Minhagei Yeshurun p. 64; See Admur 270:1 regarding Bameh Madlikin that it is omitted on Yom Tov in order to hasten Simchas Yom Tov] Alternatively the reason is because these Psalms contain the words Rina, and on Yom Tov we emphasize the words Simcha. [Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 13] Alternatively, the reason is because the first five Mizmorim until Mizmor Ledavid relate to the five weekdays until Erev Shabbos while the psalm of Mizmor Ledavid relates to Erev Shabbos. Hence, we omit the first five Zemiros as it is not proper to relate them to Yom Tov. [Sichas Kodesh 2 p. 121]

[9] Shaar Hakolel 17:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 13; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 63

Other customs: Some are accustomed to only recite the first and last stanza of Lecha Dodi. [M”E 625:41] Others recite the first two stanzas of Lecha Dodi corresponding to Zachar and Shamor. [Alef Hamagen 625:56] Others recite the entire Lecha Dodi with exception to the stanza of Hisnaari Meiafar Kumi which is omitted. [Peri Megadim] Some are accustomed to omit Kegavna being that it mentions that all the other days are filled with wrath which is untrue regarding Yom Tov. [Siddur Yaavetz; Likkutei Mahrich Pesach; Alef Lamateh 625:67; Divrei Torah 9:72; Piskeiy Teshuvos 487:3]

[10] Hagahos Hasiddur of Rebbe Rashab; Ketzos Hashulchan 77:2; Mishnes Chassidim “Leil Yom Tov” 1:2].

Difference between Rina and Simcha: The term Rina denotes a bittersweet joy, a joy that comes as a result of a previous distance. However Simcha does not have any bitterness mixed with it at all. [Magen Avos Vayishlach’ Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 13]

[11] If one forgot to mention Shabbos in any area he must repeat the prayer. If it was mentioned anywhere in the prayer, it is valid, whether it was mentioned in the middle blessing or in the concluding blessing. [Admur 487:3]

[12] The above order is written in Piskeiy Hasiddur footnote 40; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 69

[13] Admur 487:4

[14] The reason: The reason for this is because it the night of Pesach is considered a Leil Shimurim. [Admur ibid]

[15] Admur 491:4; 599/1; Michaber 599/1

[16] Admur 488:1

[17] Admur ibid; Michaber 488:1

[18] Siddur Rasag p. 120; Abudarham; Beis Yosef 51

[19] Admur ibid; M”A 488:1; Maharil Seder Hatefilos p. 146; Darkei Moshe 488:1

The reason: As also Yom Tov is called Shabbos, as the verse [Vayikra 23:11] states “Mimacharas Hashabbos Yanifenu etc.” [Admur ibid]

[20] Admur 488:2; 490:6-7 regarding Pesach; 494:4 regarding Shavuos; 644:1 regarding Sukkos and Pesach; 131:5; Siddur Admur; Siddur Shelah; Michaber 488:1; Rambam Chanukah 3:5; Shmuel Pesachim 117a; Erechin 10a; Taanis 28b

[21] Siddur Admur; The Siman for this is בבט”ח

[22] Admur 644:1

[23] Admur ibid; Rambam and Raavad ibid; Pesachim ibid

[24] Pashut! See Michaber 422:2 regarding Rosh Chodesh

[25] Admur 106:2; M”A 422:5; Mishnah Sukkah 38a; Tosafos Brachos 20b; Kaf Hachaim 422:28; See Admur in Kuntrus Acharon 296:3

The reason: As it is a Rabbinical time dependent Mitzvah. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[26] Kesher Gudal 23:7; Beis Oved 16

[27] Michaber 422:2; See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin for an overview in this matter

[28] Siddur Admur; The Siman for this is בבט”ח

[29] The reason: As the saying of Hallel on these days is a Rabbinical command that was instituted by the prophets. [Admur ibid]

[30] Pashut! As every individual is obligated in its recital. This is unlike the ruling regarding the abridged Hallel, in which case it is a mere custom, and hence subject to debate as to when a blessing is justified.

[31] Siddur Admur; Admur 488:2 [with slight nuance as explained next]; Rama 488:1; M”A 488:1; Tur 488 in name of Mahram Mirothenberg 464; Mordechai Shabbos 286

[32] So is the Nussach in the Siddur ibid, however in 488:2 Admur writes “Likros HaHallel.” The M”A ibid writes “Likro Hahallel.”

[33] Admur 488:2 in Stam opinion, and in conclusion; Taz 488:1; M”A 488:1; Tur in name of Maharam ibid; Mordechai ibid

The reason: As perhaps he will skip one word or even one letter, and it will cause his blessing to have been in vain, as he did not read it completely. [Admur ibid; Poskim ibid]

Other opinions in Admur: Some provinces are accustomed to recite “Ligmor Hahallel” in the blessing. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Tosafos Brachos 14a; Rambam ibid; Rosh Pesachim 2:5] They are not worried of the above-mentioned issue being that Ligmor can also mean reading. Nevertheless, it is better [even for them] to say Likros, like our custom. [Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 488:1]

[34] Admur 213:6; The advantage of fulfilling the blessing through one person is “Berov Am Hadras Melech”, (while the advantage of saying their own individual blessing is to personally say the blessing rather than be Yotzei through a messenger, and thus increase in blessings.) [See Admur ibid]

[35] Admur 489:1 as explained in previous footnote; M”A 213:7 and Tosefta Brachos 6:20 “Ten people who are doing a Mitzvah together”, implying that less than ten does not contain Berov Am; This can also be implied from Admur 8:11 and Michaber 8:5 who rules “If a few people are wearing the Tallis simultaneously, each one says their own blessing each person is to say the blessing on his own, although if they want, they can choose to have one person say the blessing, and the remainder will listen and answer Amen.”, now from the fact that Admur: Michaber plainly stated that each one should say the blessing on their own implies that it is preferable. [So learns M”B 8:13 in his initial inference]

[36] Admur 619:8 regarding Shehechiyanu, Birchas Hallel and Lulav “Although it is proper to be Yotzei with the Chazan due to Berov Am, nevertheless today …. every person should recite the blessing himself”; M”A 619:3; Chayeh Adam 5:17; M”B 8:13 that so is custom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 213:2

The reason: As in majority of instances the Chazan does not have in mind to be Motzi the congregation. Admur ibid; Chayeh Adam ibid; M”B ibid]

[37] As is the simple understanding of Admur in 619:8 that when saying the blessing of Hallel to oneself one is to say it prior to the Chazan and answer Amen to his blessing. See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin under Hallel; So rules also Yesod Veshoresh Havodah 12:4 regarding reading Megillah, that the listeners may answer Amen to the Chazan’s blessing even if they already said their own blessing beforehand.

[38] As finishing the blessing prior to the Chazan causes an issue of an interval as how can one answer Amen prior to beginning Hallel after his blessing. So rules Yalkut Yosef Moadim 5:295 regarding the above case of Megillah; See Panim Meiros 2:5; Shaarei Teshuvah 167:11; See glosses of Siddur of Rav Raskin ibid

[39] Admur 213:4 (in parentheses) regarding all blessings; 489:12 regarding the Sefira; [See however Admur 296:17; 6:9, explained below]; Rashba 1:458, brought in Beis Yosef 489, regarding blessings; Rama 489:3 regarding blessing of Sefira “If he had in mind to not be Yotzei”; M”A 489:8, explained in Machatzis Hashekel and P”M 489 A”A 8; Elya Raba 489:12; M”B 489:17 limits this ruling to only blessings [and not verbal Mitzvos]; Michaber 6:4 regarding Birchas Hashachar “They intend to not be Yotzei”; Tehila Ledavid 6:4 in understanding of Michaber ibid [See however Michaber 489:3 and M”B 48918 who implies one is not Yotzei unless he has Kavana to be Yotzei] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 489:8;

Source of Admur’s ruling: This ruling of Admur that one can fulfill a verbal Mitzvah through overhearing another is a novelty that is not explicitly recorded in Poskim prior to Admur. However, it is rooted in a response of the Rashba 1:458 regarding whether one may repeat a blessing after hearing it from the Chazan, to which the Rashba answer’s that one may only do so if he had in mind to not be Yotzei, however if he had no Kavana then he is Yotzei according to those who rule that Mitzvos don’t need Kavana. This ruling of the Rashba is recorded and hinted to in the Michaber ibid and Rama ibid as well as the other Poskim. The novelty of Admur ibid is that he extends this ruling even to the Mitzvah of Sefira. It is possible to learn this way as well in the M”A ibid. as explained in the Machatzis Hashekel and P”M ibid.

[40] Yeshuos Yaakov 422:6; Siddur Yaavetz; Kaf Hachaim 422:28 in name of Yeshuos Yaakov ibid

[41] Biur Halacha 422:2 “Hallel”

[42] Yeshuos Yaakov ibid; Biur Halacha ibid

[43] Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 422:33

[44] Admur 488:3; Rambam Chanukah 3:9; Mishneh Megillah 20b

[45] Admur ibid; See also regarding Shofar: 588:1; Michaber 588:1

[46] The reason: As it appears like night in the eyes of the masses. [Admur ibid] In 588:1 Admur writes as follows regarding Shofar: Biblically, day begins from Alos Hashachar regarding all Halachic matters. Nevertheless, the Sages decreed that one must delay blowing the Shofar until after sunrise being that not all people are expert in the definition of Alos and hence in order to be certain that it is day, one must wait until sunrise. [Admur ibid; Rashi Megillah ibid]

[47] Admur 488:3; 131:5 in parentheses; See Rosh Hashanah 32b; Megillah 20b; 156:17

[48] The reason: As Zerizin Makdimim Lemitzvos. [ibid]

[49] See Admur 488:3, brought in next Halacha; Vetzaruch Iyun as to why even initially Hallel was not established to be recited prior to Shacharis. Perhaps the reason is because Hallel may only be recited after sunrise while one may Daven up until Shemoneh Esrei prior to sunrise.

[50] Shalmei Tzibur 223; Beis Oved 6; Kaf Hachaim 422:38

[51] Nitei Gavriel Chanukah 49:5; Regarding Shofar: Chayeh Adam 141:1; 144:20; Mishneh Berurah 588:1; Kaf Hachaim 588:2; 600:12; Regarding Lulav: M”A 658; Regarding Megillah: M”B 687:5; Kaf Hachaim 687:9; P”M 692 M”Z 3

Opinion of Admur: Admur ibid rules that from Alos until Tzeis is the permitted time for reciting Hallel. So writes Admur also regarding Shofar in 588:1 and 18:8 regarding Tzitzis. The source of Admur is from the Gemara Megillah 20b which states that until Tzeis Hakochavim it is considered day. This seems to imply that during Bein Hashmashos one may recite Hallel and blow Shofar even with a blessing! This is further inferred from the change of wording from the Tur 588 which writes simply “until night” while Admur specifies Tzeis. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol, as Bein Hashmashos is questionable whether it is night or day as rules Admur is 261:1, hence how can one say a blessing at that time. Practically, the Poskim rule one is to not recite a blessing past sunset. Likewise, in the Siddur Admur retracted his ruling regarding Tzitzis, and rules the blessing may not be recited after sunset.

[52] Sheilas Yaavetz 40; Birkeiy Yosef 422:5; Shaarei Teshuvah 422:5; Kaf Hachaim 422:30

[53] Admur 488:3;

[54] The reason: This is to be done in order so one be able to answer the prayer of Hodu and Ana together with the Chazan. [ibid] Alternatively, it is done in order to be Yotzei the Bracha with the congregation

[55] Admur ibid

[56] Kol Bo; M”A 422:6; Mentioned in 131:5

[57] Shalmei Tzibur 223; Beis Oved 6; Kaf Hachaim 422:38

[58] Admur ibid; M”A 422:6

[59] The reason: As the blessing of before and after Hallel would be considered an interval between the blessings of Baruch Sheamar and Yishtabach which are already recited in Pesukei Dezimra. Thus, only on Rosh Chodesh and the like in which some Poskim rule a blessing is never recited is one to make an interval and read it without a blessing. [M”A ibid]

[60] Igros Kodesh 17:67 [See also Igros Kodesh 15:170; 18:81; see Shulchan Menachem 2:250; Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:175]

[61] Hiskashrus 748; Rabbi Groner related in the name of the Rebbe, who said in the name of the Rebbe Rayatz, who said in the name of the Rebbe Rashab, that Hallel is not to be said outside of the order of Davening, as Davening Shemoneh Esrei without Hallel is like an old bread that has been baked a long time ago. [Hiskashrus 748]

[62] Igros Kodesh 17:67 [See also Igros Kodesh 15:170; 18:81; see Shulchan Menachem 2:250; Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:175]

[63] Admur 488:3; Michaber: Rama 422:4 and 488:1

[64] Admur ibid; Rama ibid

The reason: As the recital of Hallel on these days is a Rabbinical obligation and Mitzvah and hence receives a stricter status. [Admur ibid]

[65] Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 422; Kaf Hachaim 422:47

[66] Michaber 422:7; Admur 473:48; Shivlei Haleket 174

[67] The reason: The reason Hallel is recited while standing is because it serves as a testimony of praise to Hashem for all the miracles he has performed for us, and all testimonies must be performed standing. Alternatively, it is due to the verse recited in Hallel which states “Hallelu Es Hashem Omdim”. [Shivlei Haleket; Taz 422:4; M”B 422:28]

The reason that Hallel on the night of Pesach is nevertheless recited sitting: As on the night of Pesach all the actions are done in a way of Cheirus: freedom. [Admur ibid]

[68] M”A 422:11; Elya Raba 422:17; Chayeh Adam 118:9; See Admur 581:1 regarding Shofar

[69] Biur Halacha 422 “Meumad”; Regarding Shofar: Admur 581:1; Drashos Maharil Shofar; Darkei Moshe 585; M”A 585:1; Peri Chadash 585; Elya Raba 585:1; Birkeiy Yosef 585:4; Shaarei Teshuvah 585:1; Chayeh Adam 141:6; M”E 585:5; M”B 585:2; Kaf Hachaim 585:4

The reason: As in such a case this leaning is not defined as standing but as leaning. [Admur ibid; See also 607:7]

[70] The reason:  As anytime that standing is required it is forbidden to lean. This is opposed to the law by the Azara in which leaning is permitted, as standing is not required and rather it is only forbidden to sit due to disrespect. [M”A ibid] See Biur Halacha 422 “Meumad” for a discussion on this matter and why leaning by Hallel should be permitted based on the Shivlei Haleket which basis his ruling on the fact that they would stand in the Azara. Nevertheless, he concludes that based on the reason of the verse of Hallelu Es Hashem Omdim one should not lean.

[71] P”M 422 M”Z 4; M”B 422:28; Kaf Hachaim 422:58; Regarding Shofar: Admur ibid; M”A 585:1; Peri Chadash 585; Elya Raba 585:3; Birkeiy Yosef 585:2; Shaarei Teshuvah 585:1; Chayeh Adam 141:6; M”E 585:5; M”B 585:2; Kaf Hachaim 585:5

[72] The reason: As the above obligation to stand is a merely Rabbinical enactment. [Admur ibid regarding Shofar] 

[73]  Likkutei Torah Tzav page 28

[74] Admur ibid; 282/1; M”A 135/1; 535; Rambam Tefila 13/8; Mishneh Megillah 31a

The hint in scripture: The above institution is hinted to in the verse “Vayidaber Moshe Es Moadeiy Hashem El Bnei Yisrael”, from which we learn that Moshe established that each Parsha of the Moadim is to be read at its proper time. [Admur ibid]

[75] Admur ibid; Megillah ibid

[76] Admur 282/1; 488/5; M”A 135/1

[77] The reason: The reason behind the different number of Aliyos [Three during the week; Four on Rosh Chodesh; Five on Yom Tov; six on Rosh Hashanah; seven on Shabbos] is based on the levels of holiness that each day contains over the other days. See 282/1 for further details on this matter.

[78] Admur 488/5

[79] Admur ibid; Sefer Hamachria 31 in name of Rabbeinu Tam that it was instituted by Ezra

[80] Admur 488/6

[81] Admur 282/10; 488/6

[82] Admur 488/6; Michaber 144/3

[83] One must read from the Parsha of the Holiday, as per the institution of Moshe Rabbeinu, and one must also read the Karbanos from Parshas Pinchas, as per the institution of the Rabanan Savuraiy.

[84] The reason: As one may not roll a Sefer Torah in front of the congregation due to respect of the congregation. [Admur ibid]

[85] See M”B 144/13

[86] Michaber 144/3; Although the scroll will need to be rolled to the proper place of the second reading, after completing the first reading, nevertheless since there is no other scroll available we allow it to be rolled and differ the “respect of the Tzibur”. [ibid; See M”B 144/16]

[87] Admur 490:11; 282:11

[88] The reason: This is done to differentiate between the original institution to call up 5 people on Yom Tov, and the additional institution to call up an additional person for Maftir. [Admur ibid]

[89] Siddur Admur

[90] Admur ibid; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar 20/3

It is not customary to recite the words “Vayavor Hashem Al Panav” prior to saying it being that the Hashem Hashem is recited as a prayer and not as a verse in the Torah. [Halichos Olam brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 584 footnote 16, unlike Mateh Ephraim 584/584/16; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 206].

[91] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 715; Siddur Rav Raskin footnote 72

[92] Implication of Admur in Siddur; Shaarei Ephraim 10/5 See Sefer Haminhagim p. 119 [English Edition]; Hayom Yom 10th Tishrei; Hisvaadus 6th Tishrei 1970; Shaarei Teshuvah 488/1; Likkutei Maharich Pesach based on Ramaz; Custom brought in M”E 584/16; Luach Eretz Yisrael; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 210; Piskeiy Teshuvos 488/3

[93] This prayer was established with Ruach Hakodesh by the Arizal. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 584/3; See Kaf Hachaim 134/11; Shaar Hakavanos p. 89] On Rosh Hashanah the words “Umechol Al Kol Avonosaiy” is omitted as we do not mention sin on Rosh Hashanah. [See Siddur Admur; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 205]

[94] Shaarei Teshuvah 488 [“so is the custom”]; implication of Admur in Siddur [Rav Raskin p. 300]

Other Opinions: According to the Arizal one is to recite the prayer of Ribono Shel Olam three times. [Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Tefilos R”H]

[95] Implication of Admur in Siddur and so is the Chabad custom

Other customs: Some have the custom to recite the verse of Veani Sefilasi three times. [Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar R”H; Siddur Shlah]

[96] Siddur Admur; Ketzei Hamateh 619/48 [so is custom of world] unlike the custom brought in Shaarei Ephraim 10/5 and Mateh Ephraim 619/48

[97] Admur 488:7

Background: In Nussach Ashkenaz, in which the custom is not to say Morid Hatal in the summer months, by the silent prayer of Musaf, Mashiv Haruach is said as usual, while in the Chazan’s repetition, Mashiv Haruach is omitted. In Mincha, everyone omits it. In Nussach Sefarad and Ari, in which the custom is to say Morid Hatal in the summer months, the Gabbai announces prior to the silent Shemoneh Esrei that Morid Hatal is to be said, and one begins saying it from that Musaf.

[98] Admur 114:4

[99] See Kaf Hachaim 114:24

[100] Admur ibid

[101] Shevach Hamoadim based on an edited portion of Kolel Chabad; See Sefer Haminhagim p. 69

[102] Admur 429:4; M”A 429:1; Chok Yaakov 429:3; Bach 429; Beitza 15b; Megillah 32a

The background of this custom from 429:4:

Moshe Rabbeinu, may he rest in peace, established for the Jewish people that the Rabbi of each community is to expound to his community on every holiday with regards to the miracles that occurred on that day. Thus on Pesach the exodus of Egypt is discussed, while on Atzeres/Shavuos, the giving of the Torah is discussed, and on Chag/Sukkos the surrounding of the clouds of glory is discussed. In addition [it was instituted that] they should expound on the day of the festival those laws which are applicable for that day. He is to teach them that which is allowed and that which is prohibited, even though that they had already expounded on these laws thirty days beforehand. Thus on Pesach the laws of Pesach are expounded, and on Atzeres/Shavuos the laws of Atzeres (Shavuos) are expounded, and on Sukkos/Chag the laws of the Chag (Sukkos) are expounded. Practically, today (being that all the laws are already written in books) there is no longer a custom to teach the laws of the holiday on the holiday, but rather to expound on the meaning and miracles of the holiday as brought in 529:10. [Admur ibid] See however Admur in Kuntrus Acharon 529:1 based on M”A 529:1 that only when the Derasha takes place before the meal may one expound on Halacha while if it takes place after the meal one is not to talk about Halacha and is rather to expound on Agada.

[103] See Admur 529:10; M”A 529:1

[104] Vetzaruch Iyun regarding what to do today that the Davening ends past midday.

[105] Admur 490:2; Magen Avraham 490:1 in name of Shlah

[106] The explanation: Esther and the Jewish people fasted on the 13th, 14th and 15th, and she made the 1st meal by the 15th and the 2nd by the 16th. [Rashi Megillah 15, brought in Machatzis Hashekel ibid] Others however hold that she fasted on the 14th, 15th, 16th, and thus the 2nd meal was only eaten on the 17th. [See Kaf Hachaim 490]

[107] Admur 503:1-3; Michaber 503:1 regarding Melacha; Rama 667:1 regarding Hachana

[108] Admur 503:1-2 regarding Melacha from Yom Tov to weekday or Shabbos, and 503:3 regarding Hachana from Yom Tov Rishon to Yom Tov Sheiyni Shel Galiyos; Michaber ibid regarding Melacha

Is the prohibition Biblical or Rabbinical? All the Melachos of Ochel Nefesh were only permitted to be performed on Yom Tov for the sake of benefiting from it on Yom Tov. It is however forbidden to bake, slaughter, and cook on Yom Tov for the sake of eating it after Yom Tov. One who does so, transgresses a Biblical prohibition and is liable for lashes. [Admur 495:2 “For the sake of eating on Yom Tov”; 503:1-2; 527:8; M”A 518:1 “One who cooks on Yom Tov for the weekday gets lashes”; M”B 527:3; Rambam Yom Tov 1:9; Beitza 17a; Pesachim 46b; See Aruch Hashulchan 527:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 527:3 for other opinions in this matter] This however only applies if the Melacha was done on Yom Tov near evening in a way that one cannot benefit from it at all on Yom Tov itself [do to there not being enough time to receive the benefit]. If, however, it is possible for one to benefit from the food on Yom Tov itself, then he is exempt from a Biblical transgression even if he does not plan to benefit from it on Yom Tov and intended to do the Melacha for the sake of eating the food the next day. Nevertheless, the Sages prohibited this to be done, and one who does so is liable for Rabbinical lashes. Even if the Melacha is not needed at all for Yom Tov, being that one already ate all his meals in entirety, it is nevertheless only Rabbinically forbidden. [Admur 503:2; M”A 527:1; Razah Pesachim 14b; Ran ibid] The reason it is only Rabbinical, is because if he were to receive guests that did not yet eat that day, then this Melacha would be considered a need for the guests, and would have been permitted to be performed by him. Therefore, this Melacha is called Mileches Ochel Nefesh, and even though he does not have guests, its performance does not contain a Biblical prohibition. [Admur 503:2; M”A 527:1; Tosafos Pesachim ibid]

[109] Admur 503:3; Michaber 503:1; Drashos Maharil Hilchos Rosh Hashanah; Hagahos Maimanis in name of Semak

The reason: Although the two days of Rosh Hashanah is one holiness, and is considered long day, nevertheless, this only applies for purposes of stringency and not to leniency. The reason for this is because as we are expert in the date of the month, and we know that the first day is holy from a Biblical perspective, while the 2nd day is completely mundane according to the Biblical perspective, and it is thus found that one is preparing on Yom Tov for a weekday. [Admur ibid; M”A 503:1; Taz 503:1; Beis Yosef; Levush; Kneses Hagedola 503:1; Drashos Maharil Hilchos Rosh Hashanah; Hagahos Maimanis in name of Semak; Shulchan Gavoa 503:2; Kaf Hachaim 503:10]

[110] Pashut, as Eiruv Tavshilin only permits doing Melacha from Friday to Shabbos. [Admur 527:23]

[111] Admur 503:3; 254:10; 494:14; Rama 667:1; M”A 503:1 based on Michaber 416:2; Hagahos Maimanis; Maharil; M”B 503:1; 667:5

[112] P”M 503 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 503:4

The reason: As we never allow one to initially be lenient by a Safek Derabanon. [P”M ibid]

[113] Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5; Kaf Hachaim 503:2; See Maharshag 1:61

[114] Admur 503:3; M”A 667:3; Chayeh Adam 99:1; 153:6; M”B 667:5; Kaf Hachaim 503:2

[115] Admur 503:3; M”A 667:3; Maharil Hilchos Tefilas Yom Tov

[116] Admur 503:3; Elya Raba 503:1; Drashos Maharil Hilchos Yom Tov p. 180; Minhagei Maharash 394

[117] M”B 667:5; Admur 302:10 regarding Shabbos

[118] Admur 527:23; Michaber 527:13; Ran Beitza 9b; Ittur Hilchos Yom Tov 147b; Rashba 1:685; Rosh Klal 23:8

[119] Shevet Hakehasi 1:158; Piskeiy Teshuvos 503:1; Based on ruling of Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5; Kaf Hachaim 503:2; Maharshag 1:61

[120] The reason: As in a time of need, one may prepare on the first day on behalf of the second day if the action does not involve a Melacha. [Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5; Kaf Hachaim 503:2]

[121] SSH”K 10:10

[122] Mateh Ephraim 599:10; Hiskashrus 947

[123] The reason: As one is not to do an action on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day. [Alef Hamagen 625:51]

[124] PT 503:3

[125] PT 503:2

[126] Beis Dovid 285; Birkeiy Yosef 503:1; Mamar Mordechai 503:1; Kaf Hachaim 503:6

[127] P”M 503 A”A 1; Kaf Hachaim 503:1; Minchas Yom Tov 101:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 503:1

[128] Siddur Admur; See Shaar Hakolel 49/2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 489/1

[129] Admur ibid; Michaber 489/1

[130] Rameh Mipuno; Ramaz; Ramak; Chesed Leavraham brought by Chida in Chaim Sheol 2/10 and Machazik Bracha 489/2 [In Chaim Sheol ibid he concludes like this opinion, however in Birkeiy Yosef 489/5 he seems to negate it]; Birkeiy Yosef 489/5 that so is custom of Midakdikin; Yesod Veshoresh Haavoda 9/8; Mishmeres Shalom Kudinov 36/1; Divrei Chaim; Maharshag 30 regarding if there will be a Minyan after the Seder; See Vayaged Moshe ibid that so was custom of Baal Shem Tov and his students, however this matter is under debate [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 3 and 6]; See Shaar Hakolel 49/2 in name of Tzemach Tzedek that the opinion brought here who holds to count after the Seder was not written by Admur but rather by his brother the Maharil, and when Admur saw this after it was printed he was very upset.

[131] The reason: As once one counts the Omer he is pronouncing that it is no longer Pesach, and this contradicts his later performance of the Seder. [See Chida ibid; Shaar Hakolel ibid]

[132] Rashash in Nehar Shalom p. 25, “One is not to delay the Sefirah even according to Kabalah and on the contrary, one who does so causes Yenikas Hachitzonim.” [See however Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 6 in name of Divrei Chaim that the Rashash retracted this ruling later on, and how it does not apply to us]; Machazik Bracha 489/2 in name of Rashash [although concludes unlike him]; Birkeiy Yosef ibid seemingly concludes like Rashash; Minchas Elazar 4/18; Nimukei Orach Chaim 489; Shaar Yissachar 2; Aruch Hashulchan 489/11; Kaf Hachaim 489/6; See Shaar Hakolel ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 6

[133] The reason: As it is forbidden to eat prior to Sefira, and he also may come to forget to count afterwards. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid; Tzemach Tzedek in his glosses on Siddur; Poskim ibid]

[134] Admur 491:1; 602:2 [Regarding Motzei R”H]

[135] Admur 491:4; Havdalah is not recited either in prayer or over a cup of wine. Hence, Veatah Chonantanu is omitted in Shemoneh Esrei of Friday night, and one does not say Yaknahaz by Kiddush.

The reason: The reason for this is because the holiness of Shabbos is greater than that of the holiness of Yom Tov. [Admur ibid]

[136] The reason: As the blessing over a flame was only instituted to be said on Motzei Shabbos and Motzei Yom Kippur, in which case fire was prohibited for the entire day and it now returns to be permitted, as explained in 298/1-2. However, on Yom Tov, fire was not prohibited from being used for a need on the Holiday. [Admur ibid]

[137] The reason: One is only required to say a blessing over Besamim on Motzei Shabbos, as the soul is pained by the leave of the extra soul it received on Shabbos and has now exited from it on Motzei Shabbos, and needs to be comforted. However, on Yom Tov, there is no extra soul given at all. [Admur ibid]

Background and analysis:

Admur in 491/1 adds the words “There is no extra soul given at all at all”. This follows the ruling of Tosafos Pesachim 102a; Rashba 3/290; Radbaz 2/620 that there is no extra soul on Yom Tov. However, the Rashbam Pesachim 102b rules there is an extra soul on Yom Tov, and so is the ruling of the Zohar. Vetzaruch Iyun how the above Poskim can go against the Zohar. Perhaps in truth there are many levels of an extra soul, and on Shabbos one receives a higher level than on Yom Tov. However, Tzaruch Iyun from Admur which states “on Yom Tov there is no extra soul at all”. In truth, in the source of Admur from the Magen Avraham and Levush these words “at all” are omitted. Furthermore, in certain prints of the Shulchan Aruch of Admur this entire Halacha is missing. It most probably then is the case that Admur did not write this word and it was written by the copier. [Shaar Hakolel 17/22; Likkutei Sichos 31 Ki Sisa] However, the Rebbe in Likkutei Sichos 31 Ki Sisa footnote 15 explains that based on Nigleh there is no extra soul at all on Yom Tov, and it is only based on Kabala that there is an extra soul, hence Admur wrote in his Shulchan Aruch, which follows the rulings of Nigleh, that there is no extra soul “at all”.

Another reason: Regarding the second reason mentioned by the Bach for smelling Besamim, due to the return of the fire of Gehenom, the Mordechai [Pesachim 105] rules that on Yom Tov Gehenom is not subdued, and thus there is no need for Besamim on Motzei Yom Tov. However, Tosafos [Beitza 33b] rules that Gehenom is subdued on Yom Tov and hence the reason for the omission of Besamim is because there is no extra soul.

[138] Admur 491/2

[139] As explained in 296 [ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun as in 296 no mention of this is made. See also 473/9]

[140] The reason: As one is simply stating the order of Havdalos that are written in the Torah “Bein Kodesh Lechol, Bein Or Lechoshech, Bein Yisrael Leamim etc”. [ibid; See also 599 regarding Vetodieinu for a similar ruling]

[141] Peri Megadim 491 M”Z 1; and so is the custom of the Rebbe as was witnessed in public.

[142] Mateh Ephraim 601/10; 624/5

[143] For list of opinions on this question see Sdei Chemed Asifas Dinim Mareches Heim 15; Kaf Hachaim 299/24

[144] So rules Kol Bo 59; Rav Akiva Eiger 299/6; Beis Ephraim; Mishneh Berurah 299/15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 299/4; SSH”K and so infers Sdei Chemed [Asifas Dinim Mareches Heim 15] from Admur 299/8 who allows saying Havdalah of Shabbos the next day even if one purposely skipped Havdalah at night, thus proving that the next say is not a Din Tashlumin, but rather a continuation of the obligation.

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule one may not say Havdalah even the next day, as Safek Brachos Lehakel. [Many Poskim listed in Sdei Chemed ibid and so he rules; Chida in Birkeiy Yosef 491/1; Machazik Bracha 491/1; Chesed Leavraham 491/2; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeitzei 23]

[145] However, past sunset, he is to no longer say Havdalah as it is now a question whether or not the next day has begun, and many Poskim hold that Havdalah on Motzei Yom Tov may not be made up even the next day. Thus, after sunset one is to be stringent. [So also rules Piskeiy Teshuvos 299/10]

[146] 299/8 regarding Havdalah after Shabbos, and the same rule applies to Motzei Yom Tov

[147] So is understood from all the Poskim mentioned in the first footnote who only extend the allowance for the next day.

Other Opinions: The Beis Yehuda 2/28, and other Poskim [brought in Sdei Chemed ibid] rule that one may say Havdalah the entire week. We do not rule like this opinion, as brought in Chachma Umusur [see Sdei Chemed] that all the Poskim argued on his ruling. Likewise, the Chida [Bircheiy Yosef 491/1; Machazikei Bracha 491/1] argues against his ruling.

[148] P”M 295 M”Z 3; Beir Heiytiv 491:1

[149] Elya Raba 491:2; Aruch Hashulchan 295:3

[150] The reason: As Chol Hamoed is forbidden in Melacha, and it is hence a belittling of Chol Hamoed to bless the weeks Melacha.

[151] Hayom Yom 19th Nissan; see also Sefer Haminhagim p. 118 [English]; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 142

Original Chabad custom: In the earlier prints of Hayom Yom p. 46 it stated that one does not say Vayiten Lecha at all on Motzei Shabbos Chol Hamoed. This was based on an explicit directive of the Rebbe Rayatz that one is not to say it and that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab and the Rebbe Maharash, although there were some years in which they said it. [Reshimos 4:12 and 22]

[152] Hayom Yom 7th Iyar; Sefer Haminhagim p. 43; Toras Menachem 5746 3/253; 5747 3/394; Igros Kodesh 9/76; 18/412; Koveitz Oheiv Sefer 300 year old Kesav Yad; See Chikrei Minhagim 3/80

[153] The reason: Possibly, the reason is because the Sota would bring an offering of barley, similar to the Omer offering. [Igros Kodesh 18/412] Just as barley contains good and waist, and needs to be refined, so too the Sota needs to be refined of her sin. [Toras Menachem 26/33] This connection is also revealed in the fact that Tractate Sota contains 49 pages, corresponding to the 49 days of the Omer. [Toras Menachem 5746 3/253]

[154] Igros Kodesh 9/76; 18/412; Toras Menachem 5746 3/253; 5747 3/394

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