Erev Pesach-Entire Chapter

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Chapter 10: Erev Pesach

  1. Awaking early on Erev Pesach:[1]

On Erev Pesach, one is to wake up early to Daven Shacharis in Shul in order for one to finish his [Chametz] meal prior to the end of the 4th hour of the day.

  1. Taanis Bechoros-Fast of the first born:[2]

The custom and date of the fast:

On every Erev Pesach, it is customary for the first-born to fast until nightfall in commemoration of the miracle of them being saved from the plague of death of the firstborns in Egypt.[3] [Practically, today the custom is for all those obligated to fast to participate in a Siyum Misechta and exempt themselves from the fats, as will be explained in C. Nonetheless, one who did not participate in the Siyum Misechta, is obligated to fast as stated above.]

Pesach or Erev falls on Shabbos:[4] When Pesach falls on Shabbos, the firstborns fast on Erev Shabbos, which is also Erev Pesach. When Pesach falls on Sunday, and Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, then the fast is preceded to Thursday.

If the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday, may the firstborn eat before Bedikas Chametz?[5] When Pesach falls on Sunday and the fast of the first born is pushed up to Thursday the 13th, which is Erev Bedikas Chametz, the firstborns who are fasting face a dilemma regarding eating before the Bedika. The following is the ruling: If a Bechor who is fasting has many rooms to check, and it is difficult for him to continue fasting until its conclusion, then he may eat a little prior to performing the Bedika, as only an actual meal was forbidden to be eaten. Alternatively, he is to appoint an emissary to perform the Bedika while he eats.

 

Who is obligated to fast [or participate in a Siyum to exempt their fast]?

*Being that today the custom is to participate in a Siyum rather than fast, the following Halacha should be viewed as who is obligated to participate in a Siyum in order to exempt their fast, and who is obligated to fast if they could not participate in a Siyum, or have yet to do so.]  

Definition of firstborn:[6] Every firstborn has to fast even if he is a firstborn to only parent. Thus, whether he is a firstborn only from his father, or is a firstborn only from his mother he is to fast.[7] A firstborn of one of the parents must fast even if his father or mother is a Levi or Kohen.[8] If one’s mother and father had a miscarriage prior to having their firstborn, he is nevertheless required, as he is still considered a firstborn of his father.[9] If, however, his father already had a child from a previous woman, then he is not considered a firstborn and is not obligated to fast.[10]

Female firstborn’s:[11] There is an opinion[12] who rules that firstborn females also have to fast, as they too were included in the plague. Practically, it is not customary in these countries for first born females to fast.[13]

Oldest of household: [14] The elders of a family do not fast even if their household does not have a firstborn who is fasting.[15]

A father fasting on behalf of a firstborn who is too young to fast:[16] The custom is that the father fasts on behalf of his son who is a firstborn, if his son is not yet old enough to fast on his own. This is done annually until the son becomes old enough to fast. This applies even if one’s son is only a firstborn from his mother.[17] If the father has two sons who are firstborns, one being his firstborn son, and the second being his wife’s firstborn son, and they are still children, then the fast of the father counts on both of their behalves.[18] If, however, the father is also a firstborn, and must thus fast on his own behalf, it is debated if his fast counts on behalf of his son, as explained next!

A mother fasting on behalf of a firstborn who is too young to fast:[19] If the father is also a firstborn, and must thus fast on his own behalf, then according to some opinions[20] his fast does not count on behalf of his young firstborn son, and rather the mother is to fast on behalf of her son who is a firstborn. Other Poskim[21], however, rule that the father’s fast counts for also his son even in such a case, and the mother is not required to fast. Practically, the mother is to fast unless doing so poses difficulty, such as it will cause her pain. Certainly she may be lenient not to fast if she is pregnant or nursing.[22] If the mother does not have a husband who is fasting on behalf of her firstborn son, then she is to fast unless she is 30 days after birth, or is pregnant or nursing and doing so will cause her pain. [Practically, it is not customary today for mothers to fast on behalf of their firstborn sons, and they do not even participate in a Siyum.[23] Nevertheless, some who are meticulous do so even today.[24]] Nevertheless, if a mother fasted one time [or joined a Siyum] on behalf of her firstborn son with intent to do this each year until her son becomes old enough to fast on his own, then she must perform Hataras Nedarim to discontinue this practice.

 

Summary:

All firstborns, whether from a father or mother, are to fast or participate in a Siyum. A father, who is not a firstborn, is to fast on behalf of a young son who is a firstborn. It is not customary for women to fast even on behalf of their firstborn son, and they likewise are not accustomed to participate in a Siyum, although some who are meticulous do so even today.

 

Q&A

Must a first born Chasan within the 7 days of Sheva Brachos fast?[25]

No. He is thus not required to participate in a Siyum.

 

Must a firstborn convert fast?[26]

It is questionable whether a firstborn convert is required to fast, and thus initially he should try to participate in a Siyum in order to exempt him from the fast without doubt. If he could not do so, he may be lenient to eat food, although should not eat a meal of the five grains [Hamotzi/Mezonos].

 

Participating in a Seudas Mitzvah, such as a Siyum/Bris:[27]

In lack of a pre-accepted custom, it is permitted for a firstborn to participate in a meal of a Seudas Mitzvah [such as in the meal of a Siyum Misechta, Bris Mila, Pidyon Haben] and thus exempt his fast. Nonetheless, one who is stringent to fast and not rely on a Siyum/Seudas Mitzvah is blessed. In many communities it was accustomed to be stringent to fast and not rely on a Siyum/Seudas Mitzvah, and those who are part of those communities may not be lenient unless they perform Hataras Nedarim. Likewise, anyone who was stringent one year to fast rather than participate in a Siyum, requires Hataras Nedarim to break his custom, if he did so with intent to fast each year. [Practically, the widespread custom today is to participate in a Siyum or other Seudas Mitzvah to exempt the fast.[28] Once one has participated in the Siyum or Seudas Mitzvah, he may now eat the remainder of the day.[29] Nevertheless, one must fast until he participates in the Siyum or Seudas Mitzvah, with exception to the person making the Siyum, who may eat even before the Siyum is made.[30] Likewise by a Bris, the Sandak, father of the son, and the Mohel may eat even before the Bris.[31] It goes without saying, that one who could not participate in a Siyum/Seudas Mitzvah, must fast as stated in A.] 

 

Summary:

The custom is to participate in a Siyum Misechta, Bris Mila or other Seudas Mitzvah in order to exempt the fast. Nonetheless, the participant is to fast until the Seudas Mitzvah takes place.

 

Q&A

Must the participants partake in eating the food offered by the Siyum/Seudas Mitzvah?[32]

Some Poskim[33] rule that one must actually participate in eating the foods provided in the meal that follows the Siyum/Simcha in order to exempt the fast, and simply hearing the Siyum or Bris does not suffice. Other Poskim[34] however rule that by a Siyum, it suffices to simply hear the Siyum, and he may then go home and eat. Practically, it is best for every firstborn to try to eat a Kebeitza of food or drink a Revius during the Siyum, although Bedieved one may be lenient.[35]

 

May one make a Siyum alone, without any participants?[36]

Yes.

 

What is one to do if he has missed all the Siyumim, or does not have one available in his area?

If he is a firstborn, then he must fast. Alternatively, he can study Tractate Tamid and make a Siyum on it that day by himself.

May a Bechor who is sitting Shiva on Erev Pesach go to a Shul to participate in a Siyum?[37]

Some Poskim[38] rule it is forbidden to do so.[39] He is to rather redeem the fast with charity.[40] Other Poskim[41] rule he may go to the Shul and participate in a Siyum Misechta. Alternatively, the Siyum is to take place in his house.

 

 

  1. The laws of a Siyum Misechta:[42]

The making of a Siyum:[43] When one completes a Misechta, it is a Mitzvah to rejoice and hold a [public[44]] festive meal for the occasion. [One may make several meals, throughout several days, in honor of the Siyum.[45]]

The status of the meal:[46] The festive meal held for the occasion of a Siyum Misechta is considered a Seudas Mitzvah.

When to finish the Misechta and make the Siyum:[47] Upon reaching the end of a Misechta, one is to leave a small section at the end of the Misechta to be learnt on the day that he plans to make the Siyum and festive meal, thereby completing the Misechta on that occasion.

Attendance:[48] It is a great Mitzvah and obligation for others to join the Siyum celebration, and take part in his Simcha, even though they did not complete the Misechta.

The order of the Siyum-Kaddish and Asara Bnei Rav Papa:[49] After completing the final lines of the Misechta, during the Siyum celebration, Kaddish Derabanan is to be recited if a Minyan is present. One is to strive to have a Minyan by the Siyum in order to say this Kaddish. The prayer of [Hadran Alach and] Asara Bnei Rav Papa is recited [before the Kaddish].[50] [Other prayers are customarily added, including a prayer within the Kaddish Hagadol. The Chabad custom is to recite the regular Hadran Alach, Aseres Bnei Rav Papa, and then go straight to a regular Kaddish Derabanan.[51]]

 

 

Q&A

On which Misechtos can a Siyum be performed?

One may make a Siyum celebration, with a Seudas Mitzvah, after completing any of the following:

  • Finishing Chamisha Chumshei Torah with a commentary.[52]
  • Completion of one of the Sefarim of Navi together with a commentary of the Rishonim.[53] However, it is disputed in Poskim if one may learn a single Sefer simply for the sake of making a Siyum and exempting oneself from a fast.[54]
  • A Misechta in Shas.[55] This includes even one of the short Misechtos, such as Miseches Kallah, Sofrim, and Avos Derebbe Nasan.[56] Some Poskim[57] rule one may make a Siyum even on one Perek of a Misechta. It is best to make a Siyum that follows all opinions.[58]
  • A Misechta of Talmud Yerushalmi.[59]
  • A complete Seder of Shisha Sidrei Mishneh.[60]
  • Some Poskim[61] rule one may make a Siyum on a single Misechta of Mishnayos in Shisha Sidrei Mishneh, if one learned it in depth with the commentaries. However, it is disputed in Poskim if one may learn a single Misechta simply for the sake of making a Siyum and exempting oneself from a fast.[62] Practically, it is best to make a Siyum that follows all opinions.[63]
  • A Sefer of Zohar, even if one does not understand.[64]
  • Completion of one of the four sections of Shulchan Aruch.[65]
  • Completion of the Rambam’s Mishneh Torah.[66]
  • Completion of the writing of a Sefer in Chidushei Torah.[67]

 

Can one make a Siyum if he did not comprehend what he learned?[68]

No. the Siyum can only be made if one understands, to some level, the words that he read [with exception to the Sefer HaZohar[69]]. However, a Siyum may be made if one understands majority of the material, even though some of the material was not understood.[70]

                                         

Can one make a Siyum on a later date if he already completed the Misechta?

The Siyum celebration must be made in close proximity to the completion of the Misechta, as otherwise the Simcha dissipates.[71] [In the event that the Misechta was completed many days earlier, seemingly, the Siyum celebration does not have the status of a Seudas Mitzvah. Perhaps, however, if he concluded the last lines only superficially, with intent to study it in greater depth on the day of the Siyum, then this is also valid. Vetzaruch Iyun!]

May one make a Siyum if he learned the Misechta out of order?[72]

Yes.

May one make a Siyum Misechta if it was studied in parts by several individuals?[73]

Yes.

Aneinu in Mincha:[74]

A firstborn who did not participate in a Siyum and is hence fasting is to recite Aneinu in his Mincha Shemoneh Esrei.

  1. The Davening:[75]

Early Minyan: On Erev Pesach, one is to wake up early to Daven Shacharis in Shul in order for one to finish his [Chametz] meal prior to the end of the 4th hour of the day.

Mizmor Lesoda:[76] The Psalm of Mizmor Lesoda which is normally recited after Baruch Sheamar, is omitted on Erev Pesach and throughout Chol Hamoad Pesach.[77]

 

  1. Sof Zman Achilas Chametz-Until what time may Chametz be eaten?

It is permitted to eat Chametz up until the start of the 5th hour of the day on Erev Pesach. Past this time, it is forbidden to eat Chametz. [Practically, this time is equivalent to the time of Sof Zman Tefilah for Shacharis. One is to verify the time on a Zmanim calendar based on his location. One must to be careful to eat only Kosher for Pesach products starting from this time.] See Chapter 2 Halacha 3B for the full details of this matter!

Kashering: Initially, one is to finish any last-minute Koshering prior to the 5th hour of the day [i.e. Sof Zman Achilas Chametz]. See Chapter 9 Halacha 10B!

 

Q&A

At what time must Ashkenazim stop eating Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah]?

It is forbidden to eat Matzah Ashira starting from the time that it is forbidden to eat Chametz.[78] Some Poskim[79] rule that even according to Ashkenazim one may eat Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah] until midday. However, practically the custom is to avoid eating Matzah Ashira beginning from the time that one must stop eating Chametz, which is from the beginning of the 5th hour.[80]

 

From what time are those who are accustomed to not eat processed foods to begin their stringency?

One is to avoid eating these foods starting from Sof Zman Achilas Chametz, which is from the 5th hour of the day. However, many are lenient to eat processed foods up until the night of Pesach. See Chapter 7 Halacha 5A for further details on this matter!

 

From what time are those that are accustomed to not eat spices or unpeeled foods to begin their stringency?

One is to avoid eating these foods starting from Sof Zman Achilas Chametz, which is from the 5th hour of the day. However, many are lenient to eat these foods up until the night of Pesach. See Chapter 7 Halacha 7 in Q&A for further details on this matter!

 

 

Brushing and Koshering one’s teeth:

Prior to the arrival of the 5th hour, one is to clean and wash his teeth with water to make sure that no crumb of Chametz has remained. If one has fillings, he is to wash his mouth with the hottest temperature of water, from a Keli Sheiyni, that he can intake. It is best to not eat hot Chametz 24 hours prior to doing so. Dentures are to be removed, cleaned and Kashered. See Chapter 9 Halacha 9O for the full details of this matter!

 

  1. Sof Zman Biur Chametz- Until what time may one own and benefit from Chametz:

Benefiting from Chametz: It remains permitted to receive benefit from Chametz until the beginning of the 6th hour on Erev Pesach. Thus one may sell Chametz to a gentile during the 5th hour. As well one may feed it to animals and birds during the 5th hour. From the 6th hour and onwards, all Chametz becomes forbidden in benefit even if it does not belong to him. Thus, one may no longer sell Chametz to a gentile, and may not feed it to animals and birds. See Chapter 2 Halacha 4B for the full details of this matter!

Owning Chametz-Remove all Chametz from home: It is forbidden to own Chametz starting from the 6th hour on Erev Pesach.[81] Thus, prior to the start of the 6th hour, one must clean the house of all Chametz leftovers and either discard it in a public for all area or destroy it.[82] Likewise, one is to place all the Chametz that one is planning to include in the sale to the gentile, in the designated area.[83] Once the 6th hour begins, it no longer helps to disown and discard the Chametz, and if one did not perform Mechiras Chametz, all the Chametz left in one’s home must be destroyed.[84] If one did perform Mechiras Chametz, then all leftover Chametz past the 6th hour is to be swept into the area sold to the gentile.[85] See Chapter 2 Halacha 5-9 for the full details of this matter!

Throwing out Chametz garbage: As stated above, all Chametz garbage must be thrown into a public for all area prior to the 6th hour on Erev Pesach. Accordingly, the Chametz garbage on Erev Pesach is not to be discarded into a  building garbage shoot or privately-owned garbage canister. See Chapter 2 Halacha 8 in Q&A for the full details of this matter!

Cleaning pockets: Prior to the 6th hour, one is to check the pockets of his clothing for Chametz. See Chapter 3 Halacha 7 for the full details of this matter!

 

  1. Biur Chametz:

During the 5th hour, prior to the start of the 6th hour, one is to perform Biur Chametz in order to fulfill the Biblical command of Tashbisu. One is to burn at least a Kezayis of Chametz. One is to burn any Chametz that he found during the Bedika, including the ten pieces of bread and the vessels used for the Bedika, such as the spoon and candle. If one did not find any Chametz during his search, then it is proper for him to burn the vessels used for Bedika. Some have the custom to use the Aravos which were hit on Hoshana Rabbah as fuel for burning the Chametz. See Chapter 4 Halacha 17 for the full details of this matter!

Bittul: Prior to the start of the 6th hour, after performing Biur Chametz and burning at least one Kezayis of Chametz, it is proper to repeat the bittul, and nullify once again all the Chametz which he has in his possession. The Bittul cannot be performed once the 6th hour has arrived. See Chapter 4 Halacha 16 for the full details of this matter!

 

  1. Doing work on Erev Pesach: [86]

The prohibition:

On Erev Pesach, beginning from midday, it is Rabbinically forbidden to perform [certain] Melacha/work [as will soon be defined].[87] One who transgresses and performs Melacha is excommunicated and will not see any profit from his work, as whatever he profits from this work he will lose from another area.[88] Nonetheless, the prohibition of performing Melacha applies even if one does so for free, not in exchange for payment.[89]

Before midday:[90] Some communities are accustomed to not do certain melachos even prior to midday, beginning from Alos Hashachar. Other communities are not accustomed to prohibit any work prior to midday. Practically, each community is to follow his custom. [Today, all communities are accustomed to perform Melacha before midday.[91]

 

Definition of Melacha/work:[92]

In general, all Melacha that is forbidden to be performed on Chol Hamoed, is likewise forbidden to be performed past midday, and all Melacha that is permitted to be done on Chol Hamoed is likewise permitted to be done past midday, if those same circumstances apply.[93] However, being that Erev Pesach is more lenient than Chol Hamoed, as it does not have any holiness of Yom Tov at all, therefore there are certain cases of exception, as will be explained below.

Working without pay:[94] As stated above, the prohibition of performing Melacha applies even if it is done for free, without pay. 

Gentile:[95] It is permitted to have a gentile perform any Melacha on one’s behalf, even if it is not for a need of the Holiday.[96]

Haircut:[97] It is forbidden to cut hair past midday even for the sake of Yom Tov. This applies in all cases; whether it is done in exchange for pay, or whether it is done for free, or even if one is doing so to one’s own hair. It is, however, permitted for a gentile to cut one’s hair past midday.

Cutting nails:[98] It is disputed amongst the Poskim as to whether one may cut nails past midday.[99] Practically, one is initially to cut his nails prior to midday, although if one did not do so, then he may be lenient to cut them after midday. 

Fixing an item\and mending clothing:[100] It is forbidden to fix any item past midday in exchange for payment. Thus a tailor may not fix a garment and a technician may not fix a machine past midday for exchange of payment This applies even if it is necessary for the sake of the Holiday and is a job that does not require professional skills [i.e. Maaseh Hedyot]. However, if one is not taking money for the job, or one is doing so on his own behalf, then it is permitted to fix any item for the sake of the Holiday even if it involves professional work. Thus, one may sew a tear in his clothing and fix a broken machine for the sake of the Holiday. Nevertheless, to do a complete work, such as to make a clothing or vessel from scratch, remains forbidden to be done on Erev Pesach past midday even for the sake of the Holiday.

Writing:[101] It is permitted for one to write past midday on one’s own behalf, for the sake of the Moed. Likewise, one may write words of Torah while learning, for the sake of remembering.[102] Other forms of writing, however, such as for the sake of others, of for non-learning purposes that are not for the sake of the Moed, follow the same regulations as on Chol Hamoed itself.[103]

 

 

Q&A

May one print papers after midday?

One must beware to print prior to midday all papers that one will need during the duration of Pesach. If one did not print the papers before midday, then one may do so after midday for the sake of the Moed, or for the sake of learning Torah.[104]

 

May one shine his shoes after Chatzos?[105]

Initially, it is best to do so before midday, however, if one did not6 do so beforehand, he may do so after midday.[106]

 

May one practice Safrus after Chatzos?[107]

Yes.

 

May one bathe after Chatzos?

Yes. However, those who are accustomed not to shower with a bar of soap on Chol Hamoed are to try o bathe prior to midday.[108]

May one do laundry after midday?[109]

No, with exception to those cases that it is permitted to do so on Chol Hamoed. One may place clothing into the washing machine before midday even though the laundering will continue past midday.

May one iron clothing past midday?[110]

Yes.

 

 

8. Mentioning that something is set aside for Yom Tov rather than for Pesach:

See Chapter 1 Halacha 5 for the full details of this subject!

One is not to say regarding meat or poultry, that “This meat is for Pesach” or “Buy me this meat for Pesach”. Rather one is to say, “This meat is for Yom Tov” or “Buy me this meat for Yom Tov”. [One is likewise to avoid writing this statement, such as on a shopping list.] This statement is especially forbidden to be said regarding a live animal, and particularly against a goat or sheep. It is proper to avoid saying the above statement of “This is for Pesach” regarding any item, even fish and non-meat products.

Bedieved: If one said the above statements on food, or other items, they nevertheless remain permitted to be eaten. However, if one said this regarding a sheep, or goat, whether alive or pieces of meat, then one is to completely avoid eating the meat, even after Pesach. One may however sell the meat, and in a case of great loss or great need, one may even be lenient to eat it. If the goat/sheep or meat does not belong to oneself, his statement is meaningless, and the meat may be eaten by its owner.

 

  1. Food restrictions on Erev Pesach:

Fast day for Bechoros:

First born sons must fast on Erev Pesach unless they hear a Siyum. See Halacha 2 for the full details of this subject!

 

Not to eat Matzah on Erev Pesach:[111]

It is Rabbinically forbidden to eat Matzah on Erev Pesach.[112] This prohibition begins starting from daybreak [Alos Hashachar].[113] One who transgresses and eats Matzah on this day receives Rabbinical lashes.[114] [Practically, the Chabad custom is to avoid eating Matzah beginning thirty days before Pesach, as explained in Chapter 1 Halacha 3!]

May a child eat Matzah on Erev Pesach?[115] A child who is not old enough to understand the story of the exodus that is told to him [on the Seder night], may be fed Matzah throughout Erev Pesach, as well as on Pesach even prior to Kiddush, if needed.[116] However, a child who can understand the story of the exodus that is told to him [on the Seder night] is forbidden to be fed Matzah on Erev Pesach. This law applies whether the child is a boy or a girl.[117] It is possible that it is forbidden for [such] children to be fed even a small amount of Matzah that is Lechem Oni, prior to saying the Haggadah, even after nightfall.[118]

The types of Matzah to avoid-Ashira; Kefula; Nefucha; Machine; Non-Shmurah: The prohibition against eating Matzah on Erev Pesach is limited only to Matzahs with which one can possibly fulfill his Mitzvah of eating Matzah. However, those Matzahs that are invalid on the night of Pesach to fulfill the Mitzvah of eating Matzah, may be eaten on Erev Pesach.[119] The following is it of Matzahs and their status regarding Erev Pesach:

  1. Matzah Ashira:[120] It is permitted to eat Matzah Ashira [i.e. egg Matzah, or any Matzah which has a taste of fruit juice[121]] on Erev Pesach, up until to the 5th hour of the day.[122]
  2. Matzah Brie:[123] One may eat Matzah that was cooked or fried in liquid [Matzah Brie; Matzah balls] on Erev Pesach.[124] If the Matzah has remained Hamotzi even after the cooking/frying[125], then it may only be eaten up until the 10th hour of the day. If the Matzah has become Mezonos due to the cooking, then it may be eaten up until Pesach begins. [Nonetheless, those who avoid eating Gebrochts, as is the Chabad and Chassidic custom, are to avoid eating such products starting from the 5th hour of the day.]
  3. Gebrochts:[126] One may not eat Matzah dipped in water, oil or fruit juice starting from daybreak.[127]
  4. Kefula/Nefucha/Non-Shmurah/machine:[128] It is forbidden to eat Matzah even if it is a Kefula or Nefucha starting from daybreak.[129] [Certainly, one may not eat non-Shmurah, or machine-made Matzah starting from daybreak.[130]]

*According to Chabad custom to avoid eating Matzahs from thirty days before Pesach, all the above forbidden form of Matzahs are avoided beginning from them.

 

Summary:

It is forbidden to eat Matzah on Erev Pesach [and the Chabad custom is to avoid doing so from thirty days before Pesach]. It is forbidden to eat Matzah even if it is a Kefula, Nefucha, non-Shmurah, or machine-made Matzah. Egg Matzah which has a strong taste of egg or fruit juice may be eaten up until the end time of eating Chametz. One may eat cooked Matzah, such as Matzah balls and the like up until the end time of eating Chametz.

Q&A

May one eat Chametz Matzah on Erev Pesach, prior to Sof Zman Achilas Chametz?

Some Poskim[131] rule that one may eat machine made Chametz Matzah up until the start of the 5th hour of Erev Pesach.[132] Other Poskim[133] rule that one is to avoid even machine made Chametz Matzah on Erev Pesach.[134]

 

May one eat Matzah which was baked not Lishma?[135]

No, and so is the widespread custom.[136] Nonetheless, some Poskim[137] rule that in a time of need one may be lenient.

 

Not to eat nuts, apples, pears, lettuce or horseradish on Erev Pesach:[138]

Some[139] are accustomed not to eat Maror on Erev Pesach, or by the daytime of the first day of Pesach, in the Diaspora, in order so they can eat it at night with an appetite. Others are accustomed to avoid eating fruits on Erev Pesach in order so they can eat the Charoses at night with an appetite, however there is no need to abide by this latter custom.

The Chabad custom:[140] Practically, the Chabad custom is to abstain from eating on Erev Pesach any of the foods that enter into the Charoses [i.e. nuts, apples, pears] and Maror [lettuce or horseradish], until Korech [of the second Seder in the Diaspora].

Eggs/Potatoes/onions/meat: One may eat eggs, potatoes, onions[141] or roasted meat.[142] This applies even according to the Chabad custom.

Children:[143] A child who is not old enough to understand the story of the exodus that is told on the Seder night, may be fed any of these foods throughout  Erev Pesach, as well as on Pesach even prior to Kiddush.

 

Food restrictions that apply past the 10th hour:[144]

It is forbidden for any person to eat non-Chametz bread[145], drink a small amount of wine[146] [or grape juice[147]] or a large amount of any food[148] from the beginning of the tenth hour of Erev Pesach until the nighttime. The tenth hour of the day is three Zmaniyos/fluctuating hours before sunset.[149] It is forbidden to eat the above items past the 10th hour of the day  even if one begins his meal prior to the 10th hour.[150] However, one may eat a small amount of fruits or a small amount of vegetables, whether cooked or raw, or a small amount of meat, fish, cheese and eggs, and a small amount of all other foods.[151]

 

  1. Getting a haircut on Erev Pesach:[152]

It is a Mitzvah upon a person to get a haircut on Erev Pesach [prior to midday] in honor of Yom Tov, in order so one does not enter into the holiday looking unrespectable. It is forbidden for a Jew to cut hair past midday, however a gentile may cut one’s hair even after midday, as explained in Halacha 7B!

 

Q&A   

May one get a haircut prior to Davening?

It is forbidden to get a haircut prior to Davening. This prohibition begins from Alos Hashachar.[153] However, prior to Alos, it is permitted.[154]

 

If one began a haircut before midday and it is now past midday, may he complete the haircut?[155]

Yes.

 

 

The Kavanos of a Haircut:[156]

One is to intend upon getting a haircut that he is removing the powers of severity and is fulfilling the Mitzvah of having Peyos and the Mitzvah of paying a worker for his job on the same day and the Mitzvah of honoring Yom Tov. One can fulfill a total of fourteen Mitzvos when he gets a haircut.[157]

 

 

  1. Cutting the nails:

It is a Mitzvah to cut one’s nails on Erev Pesach [before midday] in honor of Yom Tov, just as is the law on Erev Shabbos. Although one is initially to cut his nails prior to midday, if one did not do so, then he may be lenient to cut them after midday, as explained in Halacha 7B! [One is to cut his nails prior to immersing in the Mikveh.[158]]

  1. Bathing and Mikveh:[159]

It is a Mitzvah to bathe one’s body in hot water on Erev Pesach in honor of Yom Tov. 

Mikveh:[160] It is a customary to immerse in a Mikveh on Erev Pesach in order to purify oneself for the Regel.

 

Q&A

When on Erev Pesach is one to go to Mikveh?

One is to only go to Mikveh after midday[161], or at the very least past the 5th hour of the day.[162] If one cannot immerse at that time then he may immerse anytime in the morning.[163] One is to cut his nails prior to immersing.[164]

 

Taking a shower after Mikveh:

It is permitted to shower after Mikveh[165], although some are stringent not to do so.[166] Nevertheless, on Erev Shabbos [and Erev Yom Tov] according to all it is better not to do so, in order so one not completely wash off the Mikveh water from his body, as will be explained next.

Drying oneself after Mikveh:[167]

Based on the teachings of the Arizal one should not dry the Mikveh water off his body after immersing.[168] Practically we are particular to dry ourselves with a towel after immersion and one who desires to follow the directive of the Arizal is to leave some part of his body not dried.[169] It suffices for one to leave his feet wet in order to fulfill this directive.[170]

 

 

Sparks of Kabala

The purification affected by a Mikveh:[171]

There is a tradition from the Kabalists that there are four hundred aspects of impurity that reside upon an impure person. In order to remove these 400 aspects of impurity one must immerse in a Mikveh of 40 Seah. The waters represent Chesed and hence have the ability to purify the body. One’s entire body must be immersed in the Mikveh simultaneously as if even one hair is protruding from the water the impurity remains on that hair and then spreads to the rest of the body [upon coming out of the water].

 

  1. Blood test:[172]

It is customary not to let blood on Erev Yom Tov, and one may not swerve from this custom.[173] [However, one may have a blood test, or other form of blood work, done on Erev Yom Tov, with exception to Erev Shavuos, unless it involves a case of danger.[174]]

  1. Not to roast the meat for the Seder?[175]

It is forbidden to eat roasted meat on the night of the Seder, and thus one must beware to avoid roasting the meat that will be eaten by the Seder meal. In the Diaspora, this applies towards the meals of both Sedarim. It is however permitted to eat roasted meat during the Pesach day meal.[176] Thus, it is permitted to roast meat on Erev Pesach for the sake of eating it during the day meals, with exception to a whole lamb or goat, as will be explained next.

Roasting a whole lamb or goat:[177] It is forbidden to roast a whole lamb[178] on Erev Pesach past midday or on Pesach night [even if one does not plan to eat it for the Seder night]. It goes without saying that if one went ahead and did so, it is forbidden to eat the meat on the night of Pesach.

The types of meat included in the above prohibition:[179] All meats that require Shechita are included in the roasting prohibition, and may not be eaten roasted on the night of Pesach. Thus, one may not roast beef, lamb, chicken or other meats or poultry for the Seder night menu. One may, however, roast fish.

The definition of roasting?[180] Roasting includes any cooking that is done without external liquids, such as barbecuing, baking or cooking the meat in a pot without adding any external liquid. Meat that is being cooked in a pot [i.e. Tzeli Kadar] and simmers in the gravy that it releases during cooking, is nevertheless considered roasted and forbidden to be eaten if no other external liquids were added.[181] [Some Poskim[182] rule it is likewise forbidden to fry the meat with only oil, and one must add water or other liquids.]

Roasting and then cooking the meat in water/juice?[183] One may eat on the night of Pesach meat or poultry which was roasted and then later cooked.[184] One may thus simmer/roast the meat for the Seder prior to cooking it in liquids.

Cooking the meat and then roasting it without liquid?[185] On the night of Pesach, one may not eat meat or poultry which was roasted without external liquids even if it was cooked in liquids before the roasting. Thus, one may not simmer the meat of the Seder night without external liquids even after it has been cooked with gravy. One may, however, simmer the meat prior to the cooking, as explained above.

 

Summary:

It is forbidden to eat roasted meat or poultry during the Seder night. One may however eat roasted fish. The meat may not be cooked in a pot without liquids, even if it will simmer in its own juice. One may roast the meat and then cook it.

 

Liver:[186]

One may not eat liver on the night of Pesach as liver is roasted. If, however, the liver was cooked after it was roasted, then it may be eaten.

Smoked meat/turkey/chicken:[187]

One may not eat smoked meat on the night of Pesach as it is considered like roasted. Thus, beef jerky, pastrami [beef and poultry], salami, and all other cuts of dried meat or poultry, may not be eaten on Seder night unless they have been cooked in liquids afterwards.

 

  1. Setting the table:[188]

One is to prepare the Seder table on Erev Pesach, before Yom Tov.[189] [This, however, is with exception to the Seder plate which is only prepared once the father returns from Shul.[190] The cushions for leaning are to also be prepared at this time. It is not necessary to prepare cushions for women if they are not accustomed to lean.]

Having beautiful vessels on the table:[191] On the night of Pesach [by the Seder] it is proper to place many beautiful vessels [of gold and silver[192]] on the table, in accordance to that which one can afford. One should not diminish in placing beautiful vessels on the table even though it is proper to do so during the year in commemoration of the Churban.[193] Even vessels that are not needed for the meal are to be placed on the table.[194] Even [non-Chametz[195]] vessels that one is holding as a Mashkon from a gentile are to be set on the table.[196] The vessels are to be well organized on the table, thus making the table beautiful. All this is done in order to serve as remembrance of the redemption [and expresses one’s great joy and gratitude of all the kindness that Hashem has done for us[197]].[198]

  1. Guests:

The Mitzvah:[199]

It is a Mitzvah and obligation to host paupers, orphans, widows and other unfortunate individual’s as guests for one’s Yom Tov meals. One who refuses to do so, is not considered to be having a meal of a Mitzvah, but rather a one of abomination.   

 

Gentile guests:[200]

It is forbidden to invite gentile guests on Yom Tov, for the Yom Tov meal.[201] If, however, the gentile arrived on his own, one may offer him and give him to eat, although it is forbidden to press on the gentile to eat if he does not accept the initial offer.[202]

Housemaid:[203]  It is permitted to have a gentile housemaid eat the Yom Tov meals with one’s family.

 

Q&A

May one give a piece of his Matzah to a gentile guest?[204]

One may not distribute from his Matzahs Mitzvah, which is the three Matzahs of his Seder plate, to a gentile. [Other Matzah, however, may be given to a gentile.]

 

 

Preparing for the Seder checklist:

The following is a checklist of reminders that are to be done on Erev Pesach in preparation for the Seder:

Ö        Wash and clean the lettuce to be used for Maror.

Ö        Roast the Zeroa-neck of the chicken.

Ö        Make the Charoses

Ö        When Pesach falls on Shabbos: Place wine in some of the Charoses before Shabbos.

Ö        Cook the egg for Beitza.

Ö        Make salt water

Ö        If you don’t have a broken plate for the spilling of the wine by the Makos, then chip a piece off a disposable bowl before Yom Tov.

Ö        Check the Matzos for Kefulos.

Ö        Separate Challah from the Matzos if needed.

Ö        Set up the Seder table

Ö        Cut enough disposable tablecloths and garbage bags before Yom Tov.

Ö        Premeasure the Kezayis of Matzah and Maror.

Ö        Make sure you and your family get enough sleep so everyone is wake by the Seder.

 

 

  1. Mincha Erev Pesach:

Seder Karban Pesach:[205] The details of the Pesach offering are to be read after Mincha[206] of Erev Pesach, as written in the Siddur. It is to be read before sunset. [If it was not read before sunset, it is to be read until nightfall.[207]] The detailed laws of the Karban Pesach are read in preparation, and in correspondence, to the original Pesach offering, as the verse states that the service of the lips takes the place of the sacrifice. Thus, every G-d fearing Jew is to beware to read it on time, and is to be pained by the destruction of the Temple and supplicate to Hashem that the Temple be rebuilt speedily in our days. [The Rebbe Rashab was accustomed to recite it while standing facing south.[208]]

Pesach Erev Shabbos: When Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos, one is to recite Hodu and Patach Eliyahu before Mincha.

  1. Eiruv Tavshilin-In applicable years:

*The laws below are pertinent to both Erev Pesach, and Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach, in applicable years!

The law:

In the Diaspora, whenever the 2nd day of Pesach[209] falls on Erev Shabbos, one must do Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach [Wednesday] in order to be allowed to cook on the 2nd day of Pesach for Shabbos.

Cooking on the first day of Yom Tov for Shabbos:[210] It is forbidden to cook foods on the first day of Yom Tov [i.e. Thursday] on behalf of Shabbos even if Eiruv Tavshilin was performed. The Eiruv Tavshilin only allows one to cook on the second day of Pesach [i.e. Friday] on behalf of Shabbos.

Cooking with enough time so the food is ready before Shabbos:[211] Even when Eiruv Tavshilin is performed, it is only permitted to cook food for Shabbos if there is enough time for the food to be fully cooked and servable to guests on Yom Tov, prior to sunset. It is Biblically forbidden to cook foods if there isn’t enough time left for the food to be served before sunset. Many are unaware of this matter.

 

When?

The Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed on Erev Pesach [starting from the night of the 14th].[212] It may be performed any time on Erev Pesach. If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach, then if it is prior to nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim] one may still do the Eiruv Tavshilin, even if it is already past sunset.[213] If, however, one remembered only after nightfall then by a regular Yom Tov that falls on Thursday-Friday one may [Bedieved] make an Eiruv Tavshilin on Thursday using a Tnaiy that “if today is Yom Tov tomorrow is a weekday etc.”[214]

 

How is it done?

The foods:[215] The owner of the house takes a [whole[216]] loaf/role of Matzah the size of a Kebeitza[217] [which is to later be used on Shabbos[218] for the meal[219]] and a Kezayis[220] of a cooked[221] piece of meat or other food[222] which one eats together with bread.[223] Nevertheless, initially it is best to use an honorable food, such as meat or fish.[224]

Being Mizakeh on behalf of others:[225] The custom is to acquire the food to all the other members of the city in order to merit them with the Mitzvah in case someone forgot to do so.[226] This is done through placing the food into the hands of a non-family member[227], or one’s married son[228], or any child above Bar/Bas Mitzvah which supports himself/herself. After the food is placed in their hands, the owner of the house says “I hereby acquire [this food] to all those that want to acquire and rely on this Eiruv”.[229] The person then lifts up the food one Tefach from its current area, hence acquiring it for the townspeople.[230] The owner then takes back the food and recites the blessing of “Al Mitzvas Eiruv”, as explained next. If there is no non-family member or married son available, then one may give it to one’s wife, or one’s child who is over Bar Mitzvah, to lift up one Tefach and acquire the Eiruv to the city members.[231] However, children under the age of Bar Mitzvah which are supported by the household may not be used for this acquisition.

The blessing: One says the following blessing upon making the Eiruv Tavshilin: “…Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Mitzvas Eiruv”. After the blessing, one says in a language that he understands “With this Eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and do all our needs for Yom Tov to Shabbos”.

 

Q&A on what to use for Eiruv Tavshilin

May one use frozen cooked meat for the Eiruv Tavshilin?[232]

Yes.

 

May one use products of a Hashgacha that one does not eat as Eiruv Tavshilin?

Some Poskim[233] write that initially one should refrain from doing so, although in a case of need the Eiruv is valid.

May one use machine Matzah, Gebrochts and other non-Pesach products for the Eiruv Tavshilin of Pesach?

Some[234] write that one is not to use products that one is careful not to eat on Pesach for the Eiruv Tavshilin.

May one use food that he does not own for the procedure of Eiruv Tavshilin?[235]

No. The food used for Eiruv Tavshilin must be owned by him.

 

If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin:

If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach and it is already after nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim] one may only do so through making a Tnaiy, as explained above in B. However, this only applies when Yom Tov falls on Thursday-Friday, however when Yom Tov falls on Friday-Shabbos, a Tnaiy does not help. One is to speak to a Rav in regard to how he may cook food on Erev Shabbos for the sake of Shabbos.

 

What does one do with the Eiruv Tavshilin food?[236]

The Matzah and food used for the Eiruv Tavshilin must be put away in a secure area in order so it will not get eaten or destroyed prior to the completion of the Shabbos preparations on Friday. From the letter of the law, once the Shabbos preparations have been completed, one may eat the foods designated for the Eiruv Tavshilin. Nevertheless, if the Matzah is whole, and can hence be used for Lechem Mishneh, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to delay eating the Matzah until one of the Shabbos meals.[237] Some have the custom to use the Matzah as Lechem Mishneh for the first and second Shabbos meal and then eat it only by the third Shabbos meal.[238]

If the food was eaten or lost:[239] If the cooked food was partially eaten or lost prior to completing the Shabbos preparations, then it is forbidden to cook or do any more preparation on behalf of Shabbos unless a Kezayis worth of the cooked food remains. If, however, only the Matzah was eaten or lost then it remains permitted to cook and prepare on Friday for Shabbos.

 

Reminding the public:[240]

In those years that Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed it is proper to place signs by the public areas [i.e. Shul; Mikveh; Website] in order to remind the public of this matter. [It is suggested to also announce this in Shul at the conclusion of Shacharis and prior to Mincha.[241]]

 

 

Summary:

Whenever the 2nd day of Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos one performs an Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach [Wednesday]. The owner of the house takes a whole Matzah the size of a Kebeitza [which is to later be used on Shabbos] and a Kezayis of a cooked piece of meat or other food which one eats together with Matzah. If one has another person to use to acquire the food to him on behalf of the city then the owner is to say: 

“אני מזכה לכל־מי שרוצה לזכות ולסמוך על ערוב זה”

 

The person who is acquiring the food for the townspeople then lifts the food up one Tefach. The owner then takes back the food and recites the following blessing: [If one does not have another person to use to acquire the food to the townspeople then he is to simply hold the food and begin from here with the following blessing:]

 

ברוך אתה ה’ אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על מצות  עירוב.

 

After the blessing one says in a language that he understands “With this Eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and to do all our needs on Yom Tov for Shabbos”.

 

בדין יהא שרא לנא לאפויי ולבשולי ולאטמוני ולאדלוקי שרגא ולתקנא ולמעבד כל צרכנא מיומא טבא

לשבתא לנא ולכל ישראל הדרים בעיר הזאת

 

Lighting candles:

When are the candles lit?[242] The custom is to light the candles prior to sunset at the same time that they are lit on Erev Shabbos.[243] [One who did not light the candles prior to sunset is to light the candles at night, on Yom Tov, from a preexisting flame. It is to be lit, at the very least, prior to the return of the men from Shul.[244]]

Erev Pesach that coincides with Shabbos:[245] When Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos one may not begin doing any Melacha which is permitted on Yom Tov until he says Havdalah, or recites Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh[246], after the conclusion of Shabbos. It is of importance to remind women of this requirement, and have them say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing any Yom Tov preparations. Thus, when Erev Shavuos coincides with Shabbos the candles are only to be lit after nightfall, and only after reciting “Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh.

The blessings:[247] One first lights the candles, as is done every Erev Shabbos, and then says the blessing of “Lehadlik Ner Shel Yom Tov”.[248] This is then followed by the blessing of Shehechiyanu.

A child that is lighting for the first time:[249] It is proper for young girls who are able to recite the blessing, to begin lighting candles for the first time on Yom Tov. Those who are extra scrupulous can begin the previous Shabbos, and wear a new dress to include in their blessing of Shehechiyanu. 

Covering eyes:[250] It is customary to cover the eyes immediately after lighting the candles, until the conclusion of the blessing. This applies both on Shabbos and Yom Tov.

 

Q&A

Said Shel Shabbos instead of Shel Yom Tov:[251]

If one accidently said in the blessing “Shel Shabbos” instead of “Shel Yom Tov”, then if one remembers right away, within Kdei Dibbur, she is to correct herself and say Shel Yom Tov. If one only remembered after Kdei Dibbur, it is questionable as to whether she fulfills her obligation of the blessing, and thus she is not to repeat the blessing. Nonetheless, she may ask her father/husband to light another candle with a blessing and have in mind to be Yotzei her with his blessing.

 

If a man is lighting candles, when is he to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu, by lighting or by Kiddush?

A man always says the blessing of Shehechiyanu by Kiddush, even in the event that he is lighting candles.[252] However, in such a case, he is to light candles directly before Kiddush, hence having the blessing of Shehechiyanu also go on the candle lighting.[253] If, however, he said the blessing by candle lighting he does not repeat the blessing by Kiddush.[254]

 

Does a woman who will be saying Kiddush say Shehechiyanu by candle lighting or by Kiddush?
She is to say the blessing by candle lighting.[255]

If a man is lighting candles, does he first light the candles and then say the blessing or vice versa?[256]

Some Poskim[257] rule men are to follow the same order as women and hence first light the candles and then say the blessing. Other Poskim[258] however rule that men are to always first say the blessing and then light. [See footnote for opinion of Admur[259]]

 

Q&A Baruch Hamavdil

If a woman lit Yom Tov candles on the night of Yom Tov which is Motzei Shabbos, and after saying the blessing remembered that she did not yet say Baruch Hamavdil, what is she to do?[260]

Some write she is to think the words in her mind and then light one candle, and then verbalize the Baruch Hamavdil. Afterwards, she may light the remaining candles.

 

 

 

 

If one recited “Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol” instead of “Bein Kodesh Lekodesh” on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov, has he fulfilled his obligation?

Some[261] rule that he has fulfilled his obligation, although seemingly he should repeat the correct Nussach.[262]

 

 

Preparing a 24-hour candle:

It is proper to prepare a 24:48 hour candle on Erev Shavuos in order to have a preexisting flame available to use on Yom Tov. [In those years that Shavuos falls on Motzei Shabbos, one is to light a 48/72 hour candle.]

 

Yartzite candle [and Yizkor candle on Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach]:

It is customary to have a candle lit on the occasion of a Yartzite of a parent.[263] Likewise, many are accustomed to have a Yizkor candle lit during the days that Yizkor is recited.[264]

When to light it:[265] It is forbidden to light a candle on Yom Tov unless its light is needed for the room.[266] Therefore, those who have a Yartzite on Yom Tov are to light the Yartzite candle before Yom Tov.[267] Likewise, those who light a Yizkor candle for the last day of Yom Tov, are to light it before Yom Tov. [Accordingly, in Eretz Yisrael, a 24-hour candle is to be lit before Yom Tov, while in the Diaspora a 48-hour candle is to be lit before Yom Tov.]

Lighting in Shul if one did not light the candle before Yom Tov: One who did not light the Yartzite/Yizkor candle before Yom Tov may light it on Yom Tov inside an active Shul, [in the room where the prayer takes place[268]].[269] One is not to light the candle in one’s home on Yom Tov, unless it is lit in an area that is dark and one intends to also use the light in order to see in the room.[270]

Lighting at home if one cannot light in Shul: In a case that one did not light the candle before Yom Tov and one is unable to light the candle in Shul, some Poskim[271] rule it is permitted to light the Yartzite candle at home, even if there is enough light in the room without the candle. Nonetheless, initially in such a case, one is to light it near one’s dining room table prior to the night meal, thus giving it a use for one’s meal. However, if this too is not possible, then one may light it in any area that he desires.[272] Other Poskim[273] however argue and rule one may never light a candle at home if one does not need its light. [Practically, one may be lenient in a time of need regarding a Yartzite candle, for one who has a Yartzite of a parent on Yom Tov. However, a Yizkor candle should not be lit on Yom Tov.[274]]

Asking a gentile to light the candle:[275] In all cases that one did not light a Yartzite or Yizkor candle before Yom Tov, it is permitted to ask a gentile to light it for him.

Lighting a candle for other relatives: The above leniency of lighting a Yartzite:Yizkor candle on Yom Tov in one’s home only applies towards one’s the Yartzite or Yizkor of one’s parents, and not other relatives. It is forbidden to light candles on behalf of other relatives inside one’s home, if one does not need the light.[276] Even in Shul, one is not to light too many candles.[277]  

 

 

_____________________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 429:16

[2] Admur 470:1

[3] Admur ibid; Michaber 470:1; Tur 470; Tosefos Pesachim 108a; ; Rosh 10:19; Miseches Sofrim 21:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is not necessary to actually fast, but one is to simply avoid eating a meal, such as Hamotzi or Mezonos. [Rav Yechiel, brought in Mordechai and M”B 470:2]

[4] Admur 470:7

[5] Admur 470:7; M”A 470:4

[6] Admur 470:1

[7] The reason: As in Egypt both types of firstborns were smitten in the plague, as they each have an aspect of the advantage of a firstborn. The firstborn of the father is considered the first born regarding inheritance, while the first born of the mother is considered the firstborn regarding Pidyon Haben. [Admur ibid]

[8] The novelty here is that even if he is only a firstborn to his mother, and the mother or father is a Kohen or Levi in which he is exempt from Pidyon Haben, nonetheless, he is included as a first born regarding the fast. The reason for this is because he is still in truth a first born, and it is just that the Torah exempted him from needing a Pidyon. [See Admur ibid]

[9] Admur 470:2

The reason: As although he is not considered a firstborn regarding Pidyon Haben, as he is not Peter Rechem, nonetheless, he is considered a firstborn regarding Nachal, inheritance. [Admur ibid]

[10] Admur ibid

The reason: As in such a case he is not considered a firstborn regarding any issue, not inheritance, nor Pidyon Haben. [Admur ibid]

[11] Admur 470:3; Rama 470:1

[12] Opinion in Michaber 460:1; Aguda 10:91

[13] The reason: As the entire idea of firstborns fasting is merely a custom, and since the main warning and plague written of in the Torah was only regarding the male firstborns, therefore the females are not accustomed to fast. [Admur ibid; Levush 470]

[14] Admur 470:3;Tur 470;  Ravaya 2:525

[15] The reason: Although they too were included in the plague since the main warning and plague written of in the Torah was only regarding the male firstborns, therefore elders of the household are not accustomed to fast. [Admur ibid]

[16] Admur 470:4; Rama 470:2

[17] Meaning, the father had a child with another woman prior to having this son, who is a firstborn to his mother. However, step-firstborn son would not require the step father to fast. [See Admur ibid]

[18] Admur 470:4; Chok Yaakov 470:6

[19] Admur 470:5; Rama 470:2

[20] 1st opinion in Admur 470:5; Rama 470:2

[21] 2nd opinion in Admur ibid; M”A 470:2; Mateh Moshe 561

[22] Admur ibid; M”A ibid

[23] Aruch Hashulchan 470:4 that so is custom; Heard from Rav Eli Landau, that we have never seen mothers fast or join the Siyum; So is the custom of the world, seemingly due to the fact that today all women are considered under pain to fast on Erev Pesach and are hence exempt

[24] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 470 footnote 21 who writes that the mother may be lenient to participate in a Siyum. See also Nitei Gavriel 42:5  who writes the custom is not to fast [see Poskim there in footnote 8] and rather they rely on the fact that the father, mother and firstborn son join the Siyum. In footnote 10 he writes that the Bier Moshe testified that in their home, his father would make a Siyum each year, and many women came to hear the Siyum and then eat.

[25] Beis Yehuda 2:23

[26] Shevet Haleivi 8:117; Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:2

[27] Admur 470:8; M”AA 470:4; Olas Shabbos; Maharash Halevi 3; M”B 470:10

[28] Igros Moshe 4:69; Minchas Yitzchak 2:93; Likkutei Sichos 17:67; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 89; Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:8

[29] Eretz Tzevi 1:79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:6; See Minchas Yitzchak 8:45

[30] Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:6 footnote 28

[31] Admur 470:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:6

[32] See Minchas Yitzchak 9:45; Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:11

[33] Maharam Brisk 1:133; Mikraeiy Kodesh 2:22; Minchas Yitzchak 9:45 [Lechatchila]; Chazon Ovadia p. 98; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:300; See Michaber 568:1

[34] Beis Avi 2:16; Rav Elyashiv, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 58

[35] Minchas Yitzchak ibid

[36] Maharam Bris 1:133; Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:11

[37] See Pnei Baruch 21:11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:10

[38] Yad Shaul 393:3

[39] The reason: As it is forbidden for an Avel to hear words of Torah during Shiva. [ibid]

[40] Peri Hasadeh 4:57; Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 52

[41] Leket Yosher 2:98; Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos footnote 53 that may go anytime; Mishmeres Shalom Samech 23 that may go after midday; Rav Fisher in end of Sefer Pnei Baruch

[42] See Sefer Askinu Seudasa for a full digest on this topic

[43] Rama Y.D. 246:26; O.C. 551:10; Nimukei Yosef Bava Basra Perek Yeish Nochalin; Shabbos 118b “Abayey said “When we would see a Torah scholar complete a Misechta we would have a celebratory day.”; Midrash Raba Koheles; Midrash Raba Shir Hashirim; Lekach Tov Tzav in name of Pesikta;

[44] Igros Kodesh 14:374

[45] Chavos Yair 70 that a meal may be held also the next day, and perhaps even the day later, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 246:78; Aruch Hashulchan 246:27

[46] Rama Y.D. 246:26; O.C. 551:10; Nimukei Yosef Bava Basra Perek Yeish Nochalin; Or Zarua 2:407

[47] Shach 246:27 in name of Mahram Mintz 2:119; Aruch Hashulchan 246:44 based on Moed Katan 9a; Kaf Hachaim 551:161

[48] Shach 246:27 in name of Mahram Mintz 2:119; Taz 246:9 in name of Rashal

[49] Shach 246:27 in name of Mahram Mintz 2:119

[50] Shach ibid; Maharam Mintz 2:119; Teshuvas Harama in end; Rashal in Yam Shel Shlomo Bava Kama 37; Rav Haiy Gaon, brought in Sefer Haeshkol

The reason: Some suggests that Rav Papa was wealthy, and was accustomed to make a large Siyum for his sons when they would complete a Misechta. The ten sons also correspond to the ten utterances with which the world was created. [Rama ibid] Alternatively, the sons of Rav Papa are mentioned because they all passed away Al Kiddush Hashem during the lifetime of their father, and hence we mention their name Leilui Nishmas. [Zecher Yehoseif on Miseches Brachos]

[51] Reshimos Devarim of Rav Chitrik 4:219; Directive of Rebbe to Rav Binyamin Althouse; Toras Menachem 4:239 that the Rebbe remarked to Rav Meir Ashkenazi who said the long Kaddish “This is a novelty to me, and I have never seen this done beforehand.”; See also Hisvadyus 5745 3:1700

[52] Igros Moshe O.C. 1:157; See Rama 669; Askinu Seudasa Miluim 1

[53] Minchas Pitim Y.D. 246:26; Pnei Yehoshua Brachos 17a; Halef Lecha Shlomo 386; Igros Moshe O.C. 1:157; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:300

[54] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:9

[55] Rama ibid

[56] Pischa Zuta in name of Hadras Kodesh; Rebbe in meeting with Pnei Menachem of Ger, printed in Hisvadyus 5744 13th Adar Rishon

[57] Mentioned in Hisvadyos 5749 4:86; 5750 1:97; Rebbe in meeting with Pnei Menachem of Ger, printed in Hisvadyus 5744 13th Adar Rishon

[58] Rebbe ibid

[59] Rebbe in meeting with Pnei Menachem of Ger, printed in Hisvadyus 5744 13th Adar Rishon

[60] Pnei Meivin 103; Betzeil Hachochma 4:99

[61] Peri Hasadeh 3:91; Binyan Shlomo 59; Betzeil Hachochma 4:99; Afrakasa Deanya 1:154-3; Mentioned in Hisvadyos 5749 4:86; 5750 1:97; See Yabia Omer 1:26

[62] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:9

[63] Rebbe ibid

[64] Yabia Omer 1:26

[65] Beis Avi 2:52; Mishneh Halachos 6:166

[66] Likkutei Sichos 32:271

[67] Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 113:10 in name of Tiferes Shmuel 55

[68] Piskeiy Teshuvos 470:9

[69] Yabia Omer 1:26

[70] Afrakasa Deanya 1:154

[71] See Shach ibid in name of Maharam of Mintz that one who desires to delay the Siyum celebration is to leave some lines unlearned.

[72] Minchas Yitzchak 2:93; Betzeil Hachochma 2:28

[73] Kinyan Torah 5:52

[74] Admur 470:6

[75] 429:12

[76] Admur 429:13; Kama 1:17; 51:1; Siddur Admur; Kitzur SHU”A 14:5

Other Opinions: Some are accustomed to recite Mizmor Lesoda on Erev Pesach. [See Tzemach Tzedek Chidushim Pesachim p. 208 who defends the custom; See Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 3 p. 71-72]

[77] The reason: This is due to that the Toda sacrifice contained a Chametz bread offerings and was thus not allowed to be brought on Erev Pesach being that it diminishes its eating time. [Kama 1:17; 51:1] It cannot be brought on Erev Pesach even before midday as this would then diminish in its amount of time that it would be allowed to be eaten. [M”B 429:12]

[78] Implication of Admur 471:6

[79] Noda Beyehuda 21 brought in Kaf Hachaim 443/7

[80] Piskeiy Teshuvos 444:3 [He makes no mention of the opinion of the Noda Beyehuda ibid]

[81] See Chapter 2 Halacha 5G for the full details of this matter!

[82] See Chapter 2 Halacha 8 for the full details of this matter!

[83] See Chapter 5 Halacha 5 for the full details of this matter!

[84] See Chapter 2 Halacha 6 and 8-9 for the full details of this matter!

[85] See Chapter 2 Halacha 9A for the full details of this matter!

[86] Admur 468

[87] Admur 468:1-2; Michaber 468:1; Mishneh Pesachim 52

The reason: As Erev Pesach was a Holiday, as on this day they brought the Pesach sacrifice as an offering to the Temple. [Admur 468:1] Now, although after the destruction we ceased to bring the Pesach offering, nonetheless, the Rabbinical decree remains in place until, as is true of all Rabbinical decrees that even if their reasons become no longer relevant the decree still applies until it is properly overturned. [Admur ibid]

[88] Admur 468:3

[89] Admur 468:4 and 18

[90] Admur 468:9; Michaber 468:3; Mishneh Pesachim 50a

[91] Aruch Hashulchan 468:5

Regarding Yerushalayim: See Peri Chadash 468 who writes that the custom was to do Melacha before midday; However, see Yechaveh Daas 4:20 that it is proper to be stringent.

[92] See Admur 468:5-6

[93] Admur 468:5

[94] Admur 468:4

[95] Admur 468:5

[96] The reason: As Erev Pesach after midday does not have any holiness of Yom Tov at all, and is hence more lenient than Chol Hamoed. [Admur ibid]

[97] Admur 468:4

[98] Admur 468:6

[99] Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to do so, just as is the ruling on Chol Hamoed. [1st opinion in Admur ibid; M”A 468:13; Maharil] Other Poskim rule that since even on Chol Hamoed there are Poskim who permit, therefore, certainly one may be lenient to cut nails after midday. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Elya Zuta 468:4]

[100] Admur 468:7; Michaber 468:2

[101] Admur 468:8

[102] The reason: As writing for oneself does not appear like a complete Melacha, as he certainly is not particular that the writing come out in perfection, and it is thus viewed like fixing an item, which is permitted past midday for the need of the Holiday, and the same applies for the sake of remembering Torah. [Admur ibid]               

[103] The reason: As when writing for others, the writing is considered a complete Melacha. Likewise, even when writing for oneself, it is only permitted for the sake of the Moed or for the sake of remembering Torah. [Admur ibid]

[104] As even on Chol Hamoed there is reason to permit using a printer today as it does not involve any actual work but just simply the press of a button.

[105] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 468:4

[106] The reason: As there are Poskim who rule that it is forbidden to shine shoes on Chol Hamoed, and the same would apply after midday. [Kitzur Shlah] Nonetheless, since many Poskim permit shining shoes even on Chol Hamoed, one may therefore do so after midday if he did not do so beforehand. [Yabia Omer 1:32]

[107] See Admur ibid

[108] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 468:4

[109] Piskeiy Teshuvos 468:6

[110] Piskeiy Teshuvos 468:6

[111] Admur 471:4

[112] Admur 471:4; Rama 471:2; Tur 471; Rambam Chametz 6:12; Yerushalmi Pesachim 10:1; See “Kuntrus Erev Pesach Shechal Beshabbos” by Rav Raitpart for an extensive research on this ruling.

The reason: The Sages stated that one who eats Matzah on Erev Pesach is similar to a Chasan who was intimate with his Kallah on the day of the wedding, prior to the Chuppah and Sheva Brachos. [Admur ibid; Yerushalmi ibid] A Chasan who is intimate prior to the wedding shows that he is obsessed with lust and control his desires. Similarly, one who eats Matzah on Erev Pesach shows that he cannot control his desires. [Levush 471:2; Chok Yaakov 471] Thus, one is required to recite an equivalent of Sheva Brachos prior to eating the Matzah, and therefore there is a total of seven blessings said on the night of the Seder prior to eating the Matzah. [Levush 471:2; Perisha 471:3; Chok Yaakov 471; Maharil p. 80; Mahariy Viyaal 193; Kol Bo; Abudarham; Kaf Hachaim 471:19] Alternatively, the reason is because is because included in the Haggadah is the verse “For this sake [of us fulfilling the Mitzvah of eating Matzah and Maror-Rashi] did Hashem remove you from Egypt”. Now, if one has already filled himself with Matzah how can he say that it is for this sake, [as the Matzah is no longer a novelty for him-Machatziz Hashekel]. [Admur 471:10 regarding a child and 483:2 in parentheses regarding even adults; M”A 471:7; Terumos Hadeshen 125; Vetzaruch Iyun why this reason was not mentioned earlier.]

[113] Admur ibid; Perisha 471:3; Levush 471:2; Maggid Mishneh on Rambam ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the prohibition only begins from the 5th hour of the day. [Rosh Pesachim 3:7, brought in Beis Yosef 471; Maor Terumos Hadeshen, brought in Bach 471; Ritva Pesachim 50a] Others abstain from eating Matzah from the night before the Seder, which is the night of the 14th. [M”A 471:6 in name of Ran; So rules Igros Moshe 1:155; Rav Poalim 3:27]

[114] Admur ibid; Rambam ibid; Yerushalmi ibid; See Rambam ibid in some versions that he is hit until his soul leaves his body. This is based on the Tosefta in Makos 4:17 that Makas Mardus is given until one accepts upon himself to do Teshuvah, or until death. See Tashbatz 2:51. Nonetheless, in truth many versions of the Rambam do not include the above statement at all, and so writes Rav Kapach that in all the manuscripts it is omitted

[115] Admur 471:10; Rama 471:2; Terumos Hadeshen 125;

[116] The reason: As Kosher foods which are time forbidden may be fed to a child if he is in need of them. [Admur ibid; See Admur 343:6]

[117] The reason: The reason for this is because once the child is old enough to understand the story of the Exodus there is a Mitzvah for his father to teach him the story as written in the Haggadah, and included in this story is the verse “For this sake [of us fulfilling the Mitzvah of eating Matzah and Maror-Rashi] did Hashem remove you from Egypt”. Now, if the child has already filled himself with Matzah how can he be told that it is for this sake, [as the Matzah is no longer a novelty for him-Machatziz Hashekel]. [Admur ibid; M”A 471:7; Terumos Hadeshen 125; Vetzaruch Iyun: 1) The reason given for why an adult cannot eat Matzah on Erev Pesach is because it is similar to having relations with ones bride in her father’s house prior to the wedding [Admur 471:4]. Why then is a different reason mentioned here regarding why a child cannot eat Matzah on Erev Pesach? So too vice versa why was the reason mentioned by the child not also mentioned by the adult? 2) Why does Admur/Magen Avraham emphasize the words “the child became full with Matzah”, does this mean if the child just eats a mere piece on Erev Pesach that it does not contradict the “Bavur Zeh”? 3) What is the logic of the reasoning mentioned above; how does the child becoming full from Matzah contradict the statement that it is for the Matzahs sake that we were removed from Egypt?

[118] Admur 472:23 in parentheses

[119] Admur 471:4

[120] Admur 471:4 and 6

[121] In this regard it is only defined as Matzah Ashira if the eggs or other fruit juices added to these Matzos have altered the taste of the Matzah. If, however the fruit juice is nullified in 60x, then although the Ashkenazi custom is not to eat such Matzah on Pesach, nonetheless it may not be eaten on Erev Pesach starting from daybreak. [See Admur 462:6]

[122] However, past the 5th hour of the day we no longer eat Matzah Ashira, as according to Ashkenazi custom, we do not eat Matzah Ashira on Pesach. [Admur 471:6; See Halacha 4 in Q&A!] Sephardim, however, may eat Matzah Ashira up until the 10th hour of the day. [Admur 471:1 and 4]

[123] Admur 471:8

[124] The reason: As one cannot fulfill his obligation with cooked Matzah, and the prohibition from eating Matzah on Erev Pesach only applies to Matzah that one can fulfill his obligation with. [Admur ibid]

[125] How much oil is one to use, and does the frying affect the blessing of the Matzah?

If the Matzah is a Kezayis in size when fried: Then regardless of the amount of oil used, even if the Matzah is deep fried it remains Hamotzi. [Seder 2:12]

If the Matzahs are less than a Kezayis in size prior to frying: If the Matzah was less than a Kezayis in size from the start of the frying, then a very minute amount of oil is to be used for the frying, but enough so that the taste of the Matzah changes, for when a very minute amount of oil is used, simply to keep the dough from sticking to the pan, the Matzah remains Hamotzi according to all. [Seder 2:11]. If, however, one uses a larger amount of oil, then there is a dispute as to its blessing, and the main ruling holds that it is Mezonos and Al Hamichyah. [See Seder 2:12-13, that there are two disputes in this matter, one regarding if frying is considered cooking or baking [Seder 2:12], and another as to whether cooking less-than-Kezayis breads makes them Mezonos [Seder 2:13]. Thus, in order to avoid turning the Matzah into Mezonos, one should use a minute amount of oil if the Matzah pieces are less than a Kezayis. However, one must still use enough oil to change the taste of the Matzah so that the Matzah is now considered Matzah Ashira, and one can no longer fulfill his Pesach obligation with it.

If the Matzah started off as a Kezayis, but became less than a Kezayis through the frying: The Matzah is Mezonos unless a very small amount of oil was used (simply so the dough does not stick,) in which case it remains Hamotzi. [See Seder 2:12-13]

[126] Admur 471:9

[127] It is disputed amongst Poskim as to whether Matzah dipped in wine is defined as Matzah Ashira, and hence may be eaten on Erev Pesach. Practically, one may not do so. [Admur 471:9 and 461:13]

[128] Admur 471:7

[129] The reason: As such Matzah is only forbidden to be eaten due to doubt, and is hence perhaps valid for the Mitzvah of Matzah. [Admur ibid]

[130] As both Non-Shmurah and machine-made Matzahs are valid, or possibly valid, from the letter of the law for fulfilling the Mitzvah of eating Matzah. [See Chapter 8 Halacha 2-3]

[131] Mishneh Halachos 6:102; Mishnas Yaakov 3:471

[132] The reason: As one is only forbidden from eating Matzahs on Erev Pesach if they are possibly Kosher for Pesach, as is evident from the ruling of Admur ibid regarding eating Kefula and Nefucha on Erev Pesach and regarding the allowance to eat Kneidlach. Furthermore, such Matzos are not made Lishma and are thus invalid on the first night of Pesach. [See Admur 453:15]

[133] Matzahs Mitzvah 12 footnote 29; Mikraeiy Kodesh Pesach 2:25; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 471:4; Chikreiy Minhagim p. 151

[134] The reason: As although the packaging of these Matzahs state they are Chametz, this is not for certain, as it is possible that some of the Matzahs were indeed baked within 18 minutes. Furthermore, even if the Matzahs are Chametz since they have the taste of Matzah they are to be avoided. [See Maharsha Pesachim 99b]

[135] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 444:3

[136] Rivash 402; Tashbetz 3:260; Minchas Yitzchak 8:37; Kinyan Torah 3:56; Lehoros Nasan 4:40; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:211

The reason: As some Poskim rule one is Yotzei with Matzah even if not made Lishma. [See Poskim ibid; Oneg Yom Tov 42] Alternatively, because it retains the same taste as regular Matzah.

[137] Yechaveh Daas 3:26; Az Nidbaru 11:37

[138] Admur 471:11-12; See M”B 471:15

[139] Custom of Rashba, brought in Rabbeinu Yerucham 5:4

[140] Rebbe in Haggadah Shel Pesach p. 37; Sefer Haminhagim p. 73 [English]; Shulchan Menachem 2:302; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 39; See Chikrei HaMinhagim 1:155

[141] Pesach Chasidi

[142] Admur 471:7

[143] Admur 471:10 regarding Matzah

[144] Admur 471:1

[145] Such as fried or cooked Matzah that has retained its blessing of Hamotzi.[See Admur 471:8] Or Matzah Ashira for those who allow eating it on Pesach. [Admur 471:1

[146] Admur 471:2 that one may not drink a small amount of wine, as it satiates, but one may drink a lot of wine, as it makes one hungrier, so long as one does not drink to the point of satiation.

[147] Piskeiy Teshuvos 471:1

[148] Admur 471:2

[149] Admur 471:1 that it is ¼ of the day, which is three hours, whether the days are long or short.

[150] See Admur 471:1

[151] Admur 472:2; Sephardim may eat a small amount of Kitniyos and Mezonos Matzah Ashira. [See Admur ibid and 8]

[152] Michaber 531:1 regarding every Erev Yom Tov; Admur 529:2 regarding every Erev Yom Tov

[153] Admur 70/5

[154] Admur 89/8

[155] So rule regarding one who began a haircut before Chol Hamoed: Kapei Ahron 51; Chol Hamoed Kihilchaso 3:6 [p.122]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 531:2; See P”M 531 A”A 12

[156] Shaar Hamitzvos brought in Kaf Hachaim 232:15; 581:80

[157] Kaf Hachaim 232:15: 7 negative commands relating to the Peyos and beard; One negative command of Bechukoseihem Lo Seliechu; One negative command of Lo Yilbash Gever; One negative command of Lo Savo Alav Hashemesh; One negative command of Lo Salin; One positive command of Beyomo Titen Secharo; If the barber is poor he also fulfills the negative command of Lo Yikra Alecha; One Rabbinical Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos and Yom Tov.

[158] See Kaf Hachaim 260:1 and Mateh Ephraim 625:13; Shlah 138 that the nails are to be cut prior to Mikveh.

[159] Admur 529:2 regarding every Erev Yom Tov

[160] Sefer Hasichos 5696 p. 129 and 5703 p. 74

[161] The following sources state this regarding Erev Shabbos: Kanfei Yona 1:95; Mishnes Chassidim Yom Hashishi 7:1; Shlah p. 138a last line in name of Kanfei Yona; Likkutei Mahrich 2 p. 7b; See also Likkutei Dibburim 3:568

[162] Mateh Ephraim 625:14 in name of Shaar Hakavanos and Peri Eitz Chaim; Chayeh Adam 138:5; Kaf Hachaim 581:82; Alef Lamagen 581:121; Likkutei Mahrich 2 p. 7b in name of Siddur Rav Shabsi

The reason: As from that time and on the radiance of Shabbos begins to shine. [Mateh Ephraim 625:14 in name of Shaar Hakavanos and Peri Eitz Chaim]

[163] Mateh Ephraim 625:14

[164] See Kaf Hachaim 260:1 and Mateh Ephraim 625:13; Shlah 138 that the nails are to be cut prior to Mikveh. To note however of the custom of the Rebbe Maharash which would cut the nails after Mikveh. His reasoning was because at this time the nails are softer. [Story heard from Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin]

[165] Sheivet Halevy 7:33; Piskeiy Teshuvos 88:8; Even regarding a Nidda the Rama Yoreh Deah 201:75 rules that only some opinions are stringent and so is the custom. However others argue on Rama and rule doing so is permitted even by a Nidda. [See Gr”a ibid; Darkei Teshuvah 202:332; Lechem Vesimla 122]

[166] Piskeiy Teshuvos 260:1 in name of Sheivet Halevy that so is the custom of the world to avoid doing so despite it being allowed from the letter of the law. See also Tiferes Adam 1:28 which rules one should never shower after Mikveh.

[167] Based on Kaf Hachaim 260:8

[168] As the water is considered holy with the spirit of Shabbos [and Yom Tov] and it is thus proper for the body to absorb it. [ibid] However see Kaf Hachaim 260:8 which writes that this only applies if one did not immerse more than once, otherwise he has already washed away the main Mikveh water. Nevertheless he concludes that even these second waters of the Mikveh has some holiness and is thus not to be dried.

[169] The holiness of that leftover water from the Mikveh will then subsequently spread to the rest of the body. [Rebbe Shaarei Halacha Uminhag 1:131]

[170] Shaarei Halacha Uminhag 1:131

[171] Chesed Leavraham Mayaan 2:59

[172] Admur 468/22-23; M”A 468/15; Shabbos 129b

[173] The reason: As on the day of Shavuos, before Matan Torah, a spirit called Tavuach came and said that if the Jewish people do not accept the Torah he will slaughter them, their blood and flesh. Therefore, there is an everlasting danger in every generation to let blood on this day, which is Erev Shavuos, and the custom extended against doing so on every Erev Yom Tov. [468/22] 

[174] Nitei Gavriel 8:3 based on Admur 468:23

[175] Admur 476:1-2; 469:4; Michaber 476:1; Mishneh Pesachim 53a

Background: It is forbidden for one to eat a roasted whole sheep or goat on Pesach night, being that it is similar to the Pesach sacrifice. [Admur 476:2] Furthermore, it is even forbidden to cook it whole on Erev Pesach past midday due to it looking similar to the Pesach sacrifice. [Admur 469:4] However, other meats, as well as pieces of lamb and goat, is not forbidden from the letter of the law, but rather due to custom. Some are accustomed to eat cuts of roasted meats on Pesach night, while others are accustomed not to eat any roasted meat on Pesach night, due to a decree that people may come say that the Pesach sacrifice is being eaten. Practically, the custom in these provinces is to be stringent, and it is therefore forbidden to eat roasted meat on Pesach night. [Admur 476:1]

[176] See Shaarei Teshuvah 473:10

[177] Admur 469:4; 476:2

[178] Meaning it is being roasted in entirety with its innards, as was done by the Pesach sacrifice. [Admur ibid]

[179] Admur 476:3

[180] Admur 476:4

Other opinions in Admur: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to eat Tzeli Kadar. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Nachalas Tzevi 476:2] One may rely on this opinion for the sake of an ill person. [Admur ibid]

[181] The reason: This is forbidden due to Maras Ayin, as it may lead people to permit eating even roasted meat. [Admur ibid]

[182] Pnei Meivin 123

[183] Admur 476:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to eat roasted meat/poultry even if it is later cooked in liquids. [Peri Chadash 476, brought in Kaf Hachaim 476:4]

[184] The reason: As the cooking nullifies the roasted taste. [Admur ibid]

[185] Admur 476:4; M”B 476:1

[186] Aruch Hashulchan 476:4

[187] Piskeiy Teshuvos 476:1

[188] Admur 472:1; Michaber 472:1

[189] The reason: The table to be set before Yom Tov in order so one can start the meal immediately after dark. The reason one is to begin the meal immediately upon the entrance of night is in order to be able to perform the Seder [the portion of Maggid] while the children are still awake, as the Torah states “Vehigadta Livincha Bayom Hahu”. [Admur ibid]

[190] Haggadah of Rebbe; See 473:25

[191] Admur 472:6; Michaber 472:2

[192] Shlah Hakadosh Miseches Pesachim

[193] Admur ibid; M”A 472:2; Maharil p. 88; See

[194] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 472:4

[195] Such as vessels that a gentile never yet used, or that one Kashered before Pesach. Upashut, that it is forbidden to place Chametz vessels of a gentile on the table, as brought in 451:1.

[196] Admur ibid; M”A 472:2; Maharil p. 88; See Admur Gezeila Ugeneiva 4 and Kuntrus Acharon 6 that using the Mashkon of a gentile is not considered stealing; See also Shach Y.D. 120:19 and Taz Y.D. 120:11; However one may not use the Mashkon of a Jew due to stealing. [Admur ibid] The Mashkon of a gentile does not require Tevila. [Shach ibid]

[197] Shlah Hakadosh Miseches Pesachim

[198] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 472:4

[199] Admur 529:11 “When one eats and drinks on Yom Tov he is obligated to feed converts, orphans and widows, amongst all other unfortunate paupers. One who locks the doors of his home and eats and drinks with his wife and kids alone and does not feed or give to drink the paupers and people of misfortune, their meal is not considered a Simchas Mitzvah, but rather a Simcha of their stomachs. On this the verse states that their bread is impure, and it is as if they have placed manure on their face. This form of joy is considered a mockery of themselves.”; Rama 529:1; Rambam Yom Tov 6:18

[200] Admur 512:1; 325:1

[201] The reason: It is forbidden to invite gentile guests on Yom Tov due to a decree that one may come to cook more food on his behalf. [ibid]

[202] Admur 512:2

[203] Admur 512:3

[204] Taz 167:18; Rikanti in Taamei Hamitzvos; Shlah Miseches Pesachim; Siddur Yaavetz; Kaf Hachaim 167:140

[205] Siddur Admur “Bizmano”; see Hisvadyus 5748, p. 448; Likkutei Sichos 32 p. 36-43

[206] The reason: As Mincha corresponds to the afternoon Tamid offering which was brought prior to the Pesach offering. [Admur ibid]

[207] As according to some opinions, one may bring the Karban Pesach until nightfall.

[208] Likkutei Dibburim p. 1367

[209] It is not possible for the 1st day of Pesach to ever fall on Erev Shabbos. [See Michaber 428:1-3; Rambam Kiddush Hachodesh 7]

[210] Admur 527:23

[211] Admur 527:8; M”B 527:3; See Aruch Hashulchan 527:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 527:3 for other opinions in this matter

[212] Initially one may not do the Eiruv Tavshilin before Erev Pesach. [527:2-see there for a dispute on this matter and that initially we are stringent]

[213] Admur 527:9; Biur Halacha 261 “Mearvin”

The reason: As the time of Bein Hashmashos is doubtful whether it is day or night, and since Eiruv Tavshilin is a Rabbinical in junction one may be lenient. [Admur ibid]

[214] Admur 527/21

[215] Siddur Admur; Admur 527:3

[216] The reason: In order to be able to say Lechem Mishneh over it on Shabbos as rules Admur 527:25

[217] 57.6 grams [Shiureiy Torah p. 177]

[218] Siddur Admur

[219] Admur 527:25; “Some are accustomed to use it for Lechem Mishneh for the first and second meal and then eat it by the third meal”; See Likkutei Sichos 16:183

[220] 27 grams [See Shiureiy Torah p. 193]

[221] Admur 527:3; 527:12; It is valid whether it is cooked or roasted. [ibid] If the food is raw it is invalid.

[222] Admur mentions meat, fish or egg. [527:11]

[223] Admur 527:11

[224] Admur in Siddur; Shlah brought in Beir Heiytiv 527:2; See Admur 527:13 regarding negating the use of leftovers

[225] Siddur Admur; 527:17; See also 366:13

[226] Siddur Admur writes this directive to the general public as does the Shlah Miseches Sukkah 246; however in 527:14 this is only mentioned regarding the Rav and leaders of the city.

[227] This is allowed even if the non-family member is a member of one’s household. [527:17]

[228] This applies even if he is supported by his parents in all matters. [527:17]

[229] Siddur Admur; In 527:17 Admur writes a slightly different wording

The reason: By doing so the owner officially appoints the person holding the food as a messenger to acquire the food. [Admur 527:17]

[230] If however he does not lift it one Tefach then he does not acquire it at all for others as less than a Tefach does not acquire. [ibid] This order [to first say the statement and then have the acquirer lift a Tefach] follows the wording in the Siddur. However in 527:17 Admur writes the opposite order, to first to lift it up a Tefach and then to say the statement.

[231] Admur 527:17 and 366:13 that there is a dispute amongst Poskim as to whether a wife and children above Bar and Bas Mitzvah may perform the acquisition. Admur ibid concludes that Lechatchila one should not do so although Bedieved if one did so through them it is valid.

[232] Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 2 88:19

[233] Nitei Gavriel 82:14 in name of Divrei Shalom 4:91

[234] Nitei Gavriel 13:4 in name of Michla Diesvasa 45; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 82:15 in name of Ketzos Hashulchan 105 footnote 20 and Hisorerus Teshuvah 321[however in truth the Ketzos Hashulchan does not make any mention of this matter, and simply states that one cannot be Mezakeh to others when using such a product, such as machine Matzah, as perhaps other people do not want to be Zoche in such foods over Pesach. However, regarding the person himself, no mention is made in whether he can use it for his Eiruv if he so chooses, even though he is Machmir not to eat it. I likewise have not found the source in the Hisorerus Teshuvah]

[235] Admur 527:14 “The Eiruv is to be done in ones house from one’s own food”; Kuntrus Acharon ibid 2

[236] Admur 527:25

[237] The reason: As every item which had one Mitzvah done with it should have an additional Mitzvah performed with it as well. [ibid]

[238] Admur 527:25 “Some are accustomed to use it for Lechem Mishneh for the first and second meal and then eat it by the third meal”; See Likkutei Sichos 16:183

The reason: As it is proper to do many Mitzvos with an item that was already used for a Mitzvah. [ibid]

[239] Admur 527:24

[240] Aruch Hashulchan 527:14

[241] Alef Lamagen 581:131

[242] Mateh Ephraim 599:11; 625:33; Hakdama of the son of the Derisha to Tur Yoreh Deah 1; Shevach Hamoadim p. 13 [4:1] in name of Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin and the Toras Chesed of Lublin; See Likkutei Sichos 24 p. 792 footnote 96.

Other opinions: Some write that due to the ruling in 494:2 [brought in Chapter 2:1] on the night of Shavuos, women are to light candles after nightfall. [Luach Tukichinsky; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 494:1; M”B Dirshu 494]

[243] As the Mitzvah of lighting candles begins with the entrance of Yom Tov and it is hence improper for them to delay this Mitzvah. [Alef Lamateh 625:51]

[244] See Alef Lamateh 625:51; In order so they return from Shul with a set table that contains lit candles. [ibid]

[245] Admur 299:17-18

[246] Other Opinions: The Elya Raba rules it does not suffice on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov to simply say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh. Rather one must say the entire blessing of Hamavdil without Sheim Umalchus. [Brought in Kaf Hachaim 299:58]

[247] Admur 263:8; M”A 263:12; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 514:20; 263:18

At night: This ruling applies even if one is lighting the candles at night. [Hiskashrus]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that on Erev Yom Tov one is to first recite the blessing and then light the candles. [Hakdamas Ben Haderisha Tur Y.D. 1 in name of his mother; Mateh Ephraim 625:33; M”B 263:27] Some rule that this especially applies when one is lighting the candles at night as at that time no one would mistakenly think one can also do so on Shabbos. [Mateh Ephraim ibid; Alef Lamateh 625:50]

[248] The reason: Although on Yom Tov extending a flame is permitted, the Sages did not wish to differentiate between the lightings of Shabbos and Yom Tov. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[249] Sefer Hasichos 1990 2:481

[250] Admur 263:8

Those who light after the blessing: The above custom is only applicable to those who light candles before the blessing. Those however who light the Yom Tov candles after the blessing do not need to cover their eyes.

[251] Some Poskim rule that she is Yotzei, as Yom Tov is also called Shabbos. [Maharam Brisk 2:44; Halichos Bas Yisrael 17/11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:17; Kitzur Dinei Neshek p. 40] Others leave this matter in question. [Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:114] As Admur rules in 487:1 that one is not Yotzei Shemoneh Esrei if he said Mikadesh Hashabbos, as he changed the dialect of the Sages.

[252] Mateh Ephraim 599:9; Vayagel Yaakov 39; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 896

The reason: As even by women there is no source in Poskim to say the blessing by candle lighting, and it is only because of the time honored custom of women to do so that we allow them to say it then. [See Poskim in previous footnotes] However men who never accepted such a custom certainly are to say the blessing by Kiddush. [Vayagel Yaakov ibid]

[253] Mateh Ephraim ibid

[254] Mateh Ephraim 619:12; Sefer Haminhagim p. 128 [English]

[255] As this was their accepted custom. However, Piskeiy Teshuvos 518:21 rules that they are to say the blessing by Kiddush. However, after looking in his sources, one clearly sees that the cases discussed there are regarding men and not women. Hence, seemingly by women the custom should remain to say Shehechiyanu by candle lighting as is always done.

[256] See Admur 263:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263 footnote 168

[257] Derech Hachaim 50:7; Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 19; Customs in new Siddur Tehillas Hashem; Maharam Shick 119; Birchas Habayis 45:4

[258] Aruch Hashulchan 263:13; Toras Yekusiel 61; Ashel Avraham Butchach; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:18

The reason: As men do not accept Shabbos right away upon lighting. [See 263:7]

[259] Some rule based on Admur [who does not differentiate between men and women] that men follow the same order as women and light before the blessing. [Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 19; Customs in new Siddur Tehillas Hashem; To note the Nesiv Hachaim did not argue on the ruling of Derech Hachaim ibid] Others however rule that according to [the M”A and] Admur [who states the above custom to first light in Lashon Nikeiva, in contrast to the wording of the Rama] men are to first say the blessing and then light. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun on the above Poskim who did not infer differently from Admur as seems clear from his wording and as writes Piskeiy Teshuvos.

[260] Sheivet Hakehasy 6:153

[261] Piskeiy Teshuvos 299 footnote 102

[262] Based on M”A 299:9 that one who says Bein Kodesh Lekodesh when he is meant to say Bein Kodesh Lechol is saying a lie.

[263] Kesav Sofer 75; Biur Halacha 514:5 “Neir”; Kaf Hachaim 514:79; Sefer Haminhagim p. 180

[264] See Aruch Hashulchan 514:19; Betzel Hachochma 4:29; Sefer Hachaim Hanitzchiyim 12:2

The Chabad custom: It is not the Chabad custom to light a candle for Yizkor. The Rebbe and Rebbe Rayatz did not light Yizkor candles. [Hamelech Bemisibo 1:321 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:250]; Heard from Rav Leibel Groner; However, in Luach Kolel Chabad it says to light it]

[265] See Admur 514:13-14; Biur Halacha 514:5 “Ner”; Kaf Hachaim 514:79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 514:14; Nitei Gavriel 55:2

[266] Admur 514:13; Michaber 514:5

[267] Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 70; Nitei Gavriel ibid; See SSH”K 13 footnote 27

The reason: As it is forbidden to light a Ner Shel Batala on Yom Tov. [Admur 514:13; Michaber 514:5]

[268] Nitei Gavriel ibid

[269] Admur 514:14; Michaber 514:4; P”M 132 M”Z 2; Kesav Zofer 75; Biur Halacha ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid;  Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Nitei Gavriel ibid

The reason: One may light any candle in Shul, as it is considered a Neir Shel Mitzvah, as it gives honor to the Shul. [Admur 514:14; Michaber 514:4]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one may never light a Yartzite candle on Yom Tov, even in Shul. [Daas Torah 514 in name of Imrei Eish] Some rule one may only do so through a gentile. [Kitzur SHU”A 98:1]

[270] P”M 132 M”Z 2; Daas Torah 514 in name of Imrei Eish 40; Kitzur SHU”A 98:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

The reason: As it does not add any light to the house even at night being that we have electricity. Thus, it may not be lit as it is considered a light that serves no purpose which is forbidden to be lit on Yom Tov. [Admur 514:13; Michaber 514:5; P”M ibid]

[271] Kesav Sofer 75; Biur Halacha 514:5 “Neir”; Kaf Hachaim 514:79

[272] Kesav Sofer ibid; Biur Halacha ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid; Nitei Gavriel ibid

The reason: As it is permitted to light a Ner Shel Mitzvah [Admur 514:14; Michaber 514:5] and a Yartzite candle can be considered a Ner Shel Mitzvah, being that it is lit for the honor of one’s parents. [Kesav Sofer ibid; Biur Halacha ibid; Kaf hachaim ibid] 

[273] P”M 132 M”Z 2; Daas Torah ibid; Kitzur SHU”A ibid

[274] The reason: As the custom of lighting a Yizkor candle is not very clear, and many even initially are not accustomed to do so. Nevertheless, one who is in great anguish that a candle is not lit and is doing so in honor of a parent, seemingly may be lenient if there is no other alternative of lighting it.

[275] Kitzur SHU”A ibid

[276] See Nitei Gavriel 56:5

The reason: As there is no Mitzvah of honoring these other relatives, and hence the candle is not considered a Ner Shel Mitzvah, but rather a Ner Shel Batala.

[277] Aruch Hashulchan 514:19; Nitei Gavriel 56:6

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