Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach and Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach

 

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Eiruv Tavshilin-In applicable years:

*The laws below are pertinent to both Erev Pesach, and Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach, in applicable years!

The law:

In the Diaspora, whenever the 2nd day of Pesach[1] falls on Erev Shabbos, one must do Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach [Wednesday] in order to be allowed to cook on the 2nd day of Pesach for Shabbos.

Cooking on the first day of Yom Tov for Shabbos:[2] It is forbidden to cook foods on the first day of Yom Tov [i.e. Thursday] on behalf of Shabbos even if Eiruv Tavshilin was performed. The Eiruv Tavshilin only allows one to cook on the second day of Pesach [i.e. Friday] on behalf of Shabbos.

Cooking with enough time so the food is ready before Shabbos:[3] Even when Eiruv Tavshilin is performed, it is only permitted to cook food for Shabbos if there is enough time for the food to be fully cooked and servable to guests on Yom Tov, prior to sunset. It is Biblically forbidden to cook foods if there isn’t enough time left for the food to be served before sunset. Many are unaware of this matter.

 

When?

The Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed on Erev Pesach [starting from the night of the 14th].[4] It may be performed any time on Erev Pesach. If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach, then if it is prior to nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim] one may still do the Eiruv Tavshilin, even if it is already past sunset.[5] If, however, one remembered only after nightfall then by a regular Yom Tov that falls on Thursday-Friday one may [Bedieved] make an Eiruv Tavshilin on Thursday using a Tnaiy that “if today is Yom Tov tomorrow is a weekday etc.”[6]

 

How is it done?

The foods:[7] The owner of the house takes a [whole[8]] loaf of Matzah the size of a Kebeitza[9] [which is to later be used on Shabbos[10] for the meal[11]] and a Kezayis[12] of a cooked[13] piece of meat or other food[14] which one eats together with bread.[15] Nevertheless, initially it is best to use an honorable food, such as meat or fish.[16]

Being Mizakeh on behalf of others:[17] The custom is to acquire the food to all the other members of the city in order to merit them with the Mitzvah in case someone forgot to do so.[18] This is done through placing the food into the hands of a non-family member[19], or one’s married son[20], or any child above Bar/Bas Mitzvah which supports himself/herself. After the food is placed in their hands, the owner of the house says “I hereby acquire [this food] to all those that want to acquire and rely on this Eiruv”.[21] The person then lifts up the food one Tefach from its current area, hence acquiring it for the townspeople.[22] The owner then takes back the food and recites the blessing of “Al Mitzvas Eiruv”, as explained next. If there is no non-family member or married son available, then one may give it to one’s wife, or one’s child who is over Bar Mitzvah, to lift up one Tefach and acquire the Eiruv to the city members.[23] However, children under the age of Bar Mitzvah which are supported by the household may not be used for this acquisition.

The blessing: One says the following blessing upon making the Eiruv Tavshilin: “…Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Mitzvas Eiruv”. After the blessing, one says in a language that he understands “With this Eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and do all our needs for Yom Tov to Shabbos”.

 

Q&A on what to use for Eiruv Tavshilin

May one use frozen cooked meat for the Eiruv Tavshilin?[24]

Yes.

 

May one use for Eiruv Tavshilin products that one does not eat due to a stringency?

Some Poskim[25] rule it is invalid to use for the Eiruv any food that one does not eat even due to merely a Chumra.[26] Others[27] conclude that while initially one should refrain from doing so, in a case of need the Eiruv is valid.

 

May one use machine Matzah, Gebrochts and other non-Pesach products for the Eiruv Tavshilin of Pesach?

This follows the same ruling as above, and hence one should avoid using for the Eiruv Tavshilin products that one is careful not to eat on Pesach.[28] This, however, only applies if the food is also not eaten on Shabbos, such as when Shabbos falls during the Yom Tov of Pesach. However, if Shabbos falls after Pesach [as explained next] and the food will be eaten on Shabbos, then the food may be used.

Shevi’i Shel Pesach that falls on Friday in Eretz Yisrael:[29] So long as the food used for Eiruv Tavshilin can be eaten on Shabbos, it is valid even if on Yom Tov it cannot be eaten. Accordingly, residents of Eretz Yisrael who only keep one day of Yom Tov may use for the Eiruv Tavshilin foods that they avoid eating on Pesach but will eat on Shabbos. Thus, when Shevi’i Shel Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos, residents of Israel may use for the Eiruv Tavshilin machine made Matzah, Gebrochts, and Kitniyus products, which they will eat on Shabbos.

 

May one use food that he does not own for the procedure of Eiruv Tavshilin?[30]

No. The food used for Eiruv Tavshilin must be owned by him.

If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin:

If one forgot to perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach and it is already after nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim] one may only do so through making a Tnaiy, as explained above in B. However, this only applies when Yom Tov falls on Thursday-Friday, however when Yom Tov falls on Friday-Shabbos, a Tnaiy does not help. One is to speak to a Rav in regard to how he may cook food on Erev Shabbos for the sake of Shabbos.

 

What does one do with the Eiruv Tavshilin food?[31]

The Matzah and food used for the Eiruv Tavshilin must be put away in a secure area in order so it will not get eaten or destroyed prior to the completion of the Shabbos preparations on Friday. From the letter of the law, once the Shabbos preparations have been completed, one may eat the foods designated for the Eiruv Tavshilin. Nevertheless, if the Matzah is whole, and can hence be used for Lechem Mishneh, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to delay eating the Matzah until one of the Shabbos meals.[32] Some have the custom to use the Matzah as Lechem Mishneh for the first and second Shabbos meal and then eat it only by the third Shabbos meal.[33]

If the food was eaten or lost:[34] If the cooked food was partially eaten or lost prior to completing the Shabbos preparations, then it is forbidden to cook or do any more preparation on behalf of Shabbos unless a Kezayis worth of the cooked food remains. If, however, only the Matzah was eaten or lost then it remains permitted to cook and prepare on Friday for Shabbos.

 

Reminding the public:[35]

In those years that Eiruv Tavshilin must be performed it is proper to place signs by the public areas [i.e. Shul; Mikveh; Website] in order to remind the public of this matter. [It is suggested to also announce this in Shul at the conclusion of Shacharis and prior to Mincha.[36]]

 

 

Summary:

Whenever the 2nd day of Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos one performs an Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach [Wednesday]. The owner of the house takes a whole Matzah the size of a Kebeitza [which is to later be used on Shabbos] and a Kezayis of a cooked piece of meat or other food which one eats together with Matzah. If one has another person to use to acquire the food to him on behalf of the city then the owner is to say: 

“אני מזכה לכל־מי שרוצה לזכות ולסמוך על ערוב זה”

 

The person who is acquiring the food for the townspeople then lifts the food up one Tefach. The owner then takes back the food and recites the following blessing: [If one does not have another person to use to acquire the food to the townspeople then he is to simply hold the food and begin from here with the following blessing:]

 

ברוך אתה ה’ אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על מצות  עירוב.

 

After the blessing one says in a language that he understands “With this Eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and to do all our needs on Yom Tov for Shabbos”.

 

בדין יהא שרא לנא לאפויי ולבשולי ולאטמוני ולאדלוקי שרגא ולתקנא ולמעבד כל צרכנא מיומא טבא

לשבתא לנא ולכל ישראל הדרים בעיר הזאת

 

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[1] It is not possible for the 1st day of Pesach to ever fall on Erev Shabbos. [See Michaber 428:1-3; Rambam Kiddush Hachodesh 7]

[2] Admur 527:23

[3] Admur 527:8; M”B 527:3; See Aruch Hashulchan 527:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 527:3 for other opinions in this matter

[4] Initially one may not do the Eiruv Tavshilin before Erev Pesach. [527:2-see there for a dispute on this matter and that initially we are stringent]

[5] Admur 527:9; Biur Halacha 261 “Mearvin”

The reason: As the time of Bein Hashmashos is doubtful whether it is day or night, and since Eiruv Tavshilin is a Rabbinical in junction one may be lenient. [Admur ibid]

[6] Admur 527/21

[7] Siddur Admur; Admur 527:3

[8] The reason: In order to be able to say Lechem Mishneh over it on Shabbos as rules Admur 527:25

[9] 57.6 grams [Shiureiy Torah p. 177]

[10] Siddur Admur

[11] Admur 527:25; “Some are accustomed to use it for Lechem Mishneh for the first and second meal and then eat it by the third meal”; See Likkutei Sichos 16:183

[12] 27 grams [See Shiureiy Torah p. 193]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to take a Kibeitza of food. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 527:7 based on Tzlach Pesachim]

[13] Admur 527:3; 527:12; It is valid whether it is cooked or roasted. [ibid] If the food is raw it is invalid.

[14] Admur mentions meat, fish or egg. [527:11]

[15] Admur 527:11

[16] Admur in Siddur; Shlah brought in Beir Heiytiv 527:2; See Admur 527:13 regarding negating the use of leftovers

[17] Siddur Admur; 527:17; See also 366:13

[18] Siddur Admur writes this directive to the general public as does the Shlah Miseches Sukkah 246; however in 527:14 this is only mentioned regarding the Rav and leaders of the city.

[19] This is allowed even if the non-family member is a member of one’s household. [527:17]

[20] This applies even if he is supported by his parents in all matters. [527:17]

[21] Siddur Admur; In 527:17 Admur writes a slightly different wording

The reason: By doing so the owner officially appoints the person holding the food as a messenger to acquire the food. [Admur 527:17]

[22] If however he does not lift it one Tefach then he does not acquire it at all for others as less than a Tefach does not acquire. [ibid] This order [to first say the statement and then have the acquirer lift a Tefach] follows the wording in the Siddur. However in 527:17 Admur writes the opposite order, to first to lift it up a Tefach and then to say the statement.

[23] Admur 527:17 and 366:13 that there is a dispute amongst Poskim as to whether a wife and children above Bar and Bas Mitzvah may perform the acquisition. Admur ibid concludes that Lechatchila one should not do so although Bedieved if one did so through them it is valid.

[24] Shevet Halevi 9:129-1; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 2 88:19; Yom Tov Kehilchaso 25 footnote 133

[25] See Hisorerus Teshuvah 2:31; However, see regarding Eiruv Chatzeiros Michaber 386:8 that it is valid to use foods Teruma even though it is not fit for Yisraeilim and Levi’im; See Kol Bo 59; Orchos Chaim Eiruv Tavshilin 3; Yom Tov Kehilchaso 25 footnote 132; See also Ketzos Hashulchan 105 footnote 20 who implies it is not an issue.

[26] The reason: As the purpose of the food of the Eiruv is that it considers one to have already begun his Shabbos cooking in which case he may continue and finish off the cooking on Yom Tov. However here, since he will not be eating the food on Shabbos due to his Chumra, this justification is not applicable. [Hisorerus Teshuvah ibid]

[27] Nitei Gavriel 82:14 in name of Divrei Shalom 4:91

[28] Nitei Gavriel 13:4 in name of Michla Diesvasa 45; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 82:15 in name of Ketzos Hashulchan 105 footnote 20 and Hisorerus Teshuvah ibid [however in truth the Ketzos Hashulchan does not make any mention of this matter, and simply states that one cannot be Mezakeh to others when using such a product, such as machine Matzah, as perhaps other people do not want to be Zoche in such foods over Pesach. However, regarding the person himself, no mention is made in whether he can use it for his Eiruv if he so chooses, even though he is Machmir not to eat it.]

[29] Tzitz Eliezer 14:54; Yom Tov Kehilchaso 25 footnote 132

[30] Admur 527:14 “The Eiruv is to be done in ones house from one’s own food”; Kuntrus Acharon ibid 2

[31] Admur 527:25

[32] The reason: As every item which had one Mitzvah done with it should have an additional Mitzvah performed with it as well. [ibid]

[33] Admur 527:25 “Some are accustomed to use it for Lechem Mishneh for the first and second meal and then eat it by the third meal”; See Likkutei Sichos 16:183

The reason: As it is proper to do many Mitzvos with an item that was already used for a Mitzvah. [ibid]

[34] Admur 527:24

[35] Aruch Hashulchan 527:14

[36] Alef Lamagen 581:131

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