Chapter 89

1. Waiting between eating meat and milk:

A. How much time must one wait?[1]

  • Michaber[2]

    Wait 6 hours:  One who ate meat, whether meat of a domestic animal, or even meat of a wild animal or poultry[3],  must wait 6 hours prior to eating milk products.[4]

     

  • Rama

    No need to wait: There are opinions[5] which rule there is no need for one to wait six hours between eating meat and milk and rather it suffices for one to simply recite an after blessing after the meat meal[6] and then perform kinuach/hadacha to his mouth. After doing the above he may then eat cheese.

    Saying an after blessing intentionally: Nevertheless according to some opinions one may not say an after blessing simply in order to be allowed to eat cheese. However people are not careful in this. [Some[7] rule that those which are lenient in this matter have no basis for their actions, and are hence to be protested.[8] They rule one is not to join them for a meal as a sign of protest.]

    The Practical custom: Practically the widespread custom is to wait 1 hour[9] and say an after blessing between eating meat and milk [see footnote regarding Kinuach Vehadacha[10]]. It makes no difference whether one waits the hour before or after reciting the after blessing.

    The suggested practice: Nevertheless despite the above custom which follows the lenient opinion, it is proper to follow the meticulous which wait six hours between eating meat and milk.

     

  • Shach[11]/Taz[12]:

    Anyone with a radiance[13] of Torah is to wait 6 hours[14] and one who does not wait six hours is proper to be screamed and protested against, especially if he is a Ben Torah.[15]

     

  • Peri Megadim:

The Halacha and custom is like the opinion which requires one to wait 6 hours, and one may not break the accepted ruling.

 

Summary:

One must wait 6 hours between eating meat and milk.[16] One is not to be lenient in this matter like those opinions which do not require waiting.[17] [However those countries which have an accepted custom to wait less than 6 hours may continue to do so.]

 

Q&A

Must one clean out his mouth from meat after waiting 6 hours?

No.

 

B. Why must one wait between eating meat and dairy?[18]

  • Rashi[19]/Tur:

    Meat that is swallowed has the ability to give off a fatty taste for up to six hours after consumption.

     

  • Rambam:

    Meat becomes stuck between the teeth and retains its meat status up until 6 hours pass. 

     

    The Nafka Mina:

  1. The practical ramification between the two reasons is with regards to a case that one chewed but did not swallow the meat, such as one who chews meat for child. According to the Rambam one will have to wait the full six hours being that the meat was chewed. According to the Tur this would not be required as the meat was not swallowed.

     

  2. A further ramification[20] is with regards to if one found meat in-between his teeth after 6 hours. According to the Rambam this residue between the teeth is no longer considered meat and hence does not need to be removed.According to the Tur however it would need to be removed.

     

  • The final ruling:[21]

One is to be stringent like both opinions. Hence one is to wait 6 hours after chewing meat for a child, and is to remove any meat found in the teeth after 6 hours have passed.

 

C. Must one wait one hour according to the Rama from after he Bentches or from when he finishes eating?[22]

One may begin counting the time from right after he finishes eating the meat, even though it is prior to Bentching.  [See Q&A regarding waiting 6 hours!]

 

Q&A

Does one have to wait six hours from after finishing eating the meat or from after saying the after blessing for the meal?[23]

One needs to wait six hours only from the time he finished eating the meat, even if the meal itself concluded at a much later time. Others[24] however rule one is to wait six hours from the end of the meal. Practically the custom is like the first opinion.

 

May one begin eating a dairy meal within the 6 hours, if he will refrain from eating actual dairy products until 6 hours have passed?[25]

Yes.

 

D. May one ever eat milk prior to saying an after blessing for the meat?[26]

No. One must always say an after blessing for the meat prior to eating milk products. This applies even if he waited 6 hours[27] from the time that he ate the meat, and even if he did not eat bread in the meat meal.[28] [If however he is no longer Halachicly able to say the after blessing then he is not required to say it.]

 

E. What is the law if one chewed meat but did not swallow it, must he wait 6 hours?[29]

Yes.

 

F. What is the law if one finds meat in between his teeth after 6 hours?[30]

One must remove the meat[31] and clean[32] and wash out his mouth prior to eating milk products[33]. One does not however have to re-wait 6 hours.[34]

 

Q&A

If one found meat in between his teeth and swallowed it must he wait another set of 6 hours?[35]

No.

 

If one has cavities must he floss and clean his mouth prior to eating, even if he waited 6 hours?[36]

No.

 

G. Waiting between eating a Tavshil Shel Basar and milk:[37]

  • Michaber:

    One who ate a dish which was cooked with meat [“Tavshil Shel Basar”] is not required to wait 6 hours prior to eating dairy. Rather it suffices for him to wash his hands. If one desires to eat a dairy dish [and not actual dairy] then even washing the hands in between is not required. [However some opinions[38] say that one must wash hands even before eating a dairy dish. Practically the custom today of even Sefaradic Jewry is to be stringent like the Rama to wait 6 hours as is brought next.[39]]

     

  • Rama:

The custom is to be stringent not to eat any milk products after eating a meaty dish [“Tavshil Shel Basar”] just as is the law with one who ate actual meat. [Thus one must wait 1 or 6 hours depending on his custom.] One may not break away from this custom.

Is meat soup defined as meat or Tavshil of meat?[40] If the soup is liquidly it is considered a Tavshil shel Basar. If however if it is thick it is considered actual meat.

Is fat of meat defined as actual meat?[41] Fat of meat [and poultry[42]] is defined as meat.

 

H. If Pareve food was cooked in a meat pot must one wait six hours after eating it?[43]

If Pareve food was cooked in a meat pot it is permitted to eat dairy products after eating that food without waiting at all. There is no custom to be stringent. [This applies even if the pot is Ben Yomo.[44]]

If the pot was dirty with meaty leftovers:[45] Even if the pot was still dirty with some leftover meat when the Pareve food was cooked one does not need to wait prior to eating milk products [even if the food did not have 60x the meat[46]], although one may not eat this food with milk products.

 

Final Summary:

One must wait 6 full[47] hours, and say an after blessing, between eating meat or chicken products and eating milk products. This applies even if one did not eat any actual chicken or meat but rather only its gravy. This likewise applies even if one desires to merely eat a dish that contains cheese or milk which is not its main ingredient.

Q&A

If one slept after eating meat may he wait less than six hours prior to eating milk?

No. However there are Poskim[48] which are lenient and allow waiting 1-2 hours less.

 

Must one wait 6 full hours, or does it suffice to wait “into” the 6th hour, which is after 5 hours have passed?

One must wait six full hours[49], although there are Poskim[50] which permit waiting past five hours. The final ruling and custom is like the former opinion.

 

Are the six hours that one must wait Zmaniyos or of 60 minutes each?[51]

The hours are not Zmaniyos and contain 60 minutes each whether in the winter or the summer..

 

If one tasted a meaty food and spit it out must he wait 6 hours?[52]

If one licked a meaty food and immediately spit it out, or entered a piece of meat into his mouth and then removed it prior to chewing it, then he does not need to wait 6 hours prior to eating milk. Hence one may taste a meaty soup or chicken soup and then spit it out if he wants to eat dairy within the next 6 hours.

 

If one chewed a food that was cooked with meat and spat it out must he wait 6 hours?[53]

Yes. Thus if one chewed a potato that was cooked in a chicken soup he must wait six hours.[54]

 

If one deep fried falafel in oil that was used to deep fry chicken must one wait six hours after eating the falafel?

Yes.[55]

 

If one ate pastries which were partially in contact with meat gravy must one wait 6 hours?[56]

Yes.

 

If one ate a meat meal and vomited must he still wait six hours before having milk?

Yes. He must wait from the time he originally finished eating[57] [and not from the time he vomited].

 

If one said a blessing over a milk product within 6 hours what is he to do?[58]

He may taste and swallow[59] the food in order to avoid a blessing in vain [so long as he has recited an after blessing from his meat meal and at least one hour has passed[60]].

 

If one remembered in middle of a milk meal that he is still Fleishig what is he to do?

Some Poskim[61] rule that he may continue eating, and he does not need to atone for his mistake.[62] Others[63] however rule he is to stop eating immediately.

 

If one is unsure how much time has passed since he ate meat, may he be lenient?[64]

Some Poskim[65] rule if one is in doubt in whether six hours have passed he must wait until he is certain the time has passed.[66]  Others[67] rule one may be lenient. Practically one who chooses to be lenient may do so.[68]

 

May one who has fillings eat hot milk after eating hot meat or vice versa?[69]

Yes. One who has fillings follows the same laws as one with regular teeth. [This leniency likewise applies for metal braces.[70]]

 

Must one have separate dentures for meat and milk foods?[71]

No.[72] However there are Poskim[73] which rule that every G-d fearing Jew is to do so.[74]

 

Must one wait six hours after eating a Davar Charif which was cooked or cut with meaty utensils?[75]

No.[76] However there are Poskim[77] which are stringent to wait six hours if one ate a Davar Charif which was cut with a meat knife.

 

May one eat onions that were cut with a dairy knife during a meat meal and vice versa?

Seemingly it is forbidden to do so due to leftover meat that remains in the mouth.

 

May one eat a Davar Charif which was cooked or cut with dairy utensils within 6 hours of eating meat?

Yes.[78] However some Poskim[79] rule one is not allowed to eat a Davar Charif which was cut with dairy utensils, within six hours of eating meat. If the knife was not Ben Yomo one may certainly be lenient.[80]

 

If one ate an egg which was cooked in a meat dish with its shell, must he wait 6 hours?[81]

Yes.

 

If one accidently ate non-Kosher meat must he wait 6 hours prior to eating dairy products?[82]

If he ate meat of a Kosher species then he must wait 6 hours. If he ate meat from a non-Kosher species he does not need to wait.

 

May one eat Pareve food cooked in a milk pot if he is within six hours of eating meat?[83]

Some write it is permitted for one who is within 6 hours of eating meat to eat Pareve foods that were cooked in a milk pot, even if the pot was dirty with leftover milk.

 

How long are children to wait between eating meat and milk?[84]

Below three: There is no need for them to wait at all.

From three: The custom is to begin waiting 1 hour and then gradually wait 2/3 hours as the child gets older.

From 6: The custom is to wait 6 hours. [Others[85] state that from 5-10 the child is to wait up to 3 hours, while from 10 he is to wait 6 hours. Some[86] rule that if a child is hungry and is below the age of 9, then if he has waited one hour and refuses to eat other foods one may be lenient to give him dairy.]

 

May one who is sick and is in need for milk products, eat them within 6 hours of eating meat?[87]

One who is sick and is in need for milk products may be lenient to wait one hour between milk and meat and then wash out the mouth. The same applies for a nursing or pregnant woman which is in need of milk.

 

Need one wait 6 hours before taking a dairy medicine?[88]

Medicines which contain dairy ingredients [such as pro-biotics] may be taken within 6 hours of eating meat by one who is sick and is in need of them within this time.

 

2. Eating meat after dairy:[89]

A. Waiting between eating dairy and meat:

  • Michaber:

    Cleaning hands and mouth in between: One may eat meat products immediately after eating milk products so long as he verifies that his hands are clean and he does Kinuach and Hadacha to his mouth. However Kinuach and Hadacha are only needed if one desires to eat animal meat.[90] However if one desires to eat poultry then there is no need to wash the hands or do Kinuach and Hadacha. [See footnote[91]]

     

  • Rama:

    Waiting after eating cheese: There are those which are stringent to wait between eating cheese and then eating meat. Practically the custom is to avoid eating any meat, including poultry, after eating hard cheese, for the same amount of time that one waits between eating meat and cheese, [which is 6 hours according to our custom[92]]. However there are those which are lenient and do not wait prior to eating meat. One should not protest their custom so long as they wash their hands and clean and wash their mouths prior to eating the meat. Nevertheless it is best for one to be stringent.[93]

     

    B. Must one wash his hands between eating dairy and meat?

  • Michaber:

    If one sees that his hands are clean there is no need to wash them [unless he ate a Tavshil of cheese rather than actual cheese[94]]. At night if there is not [good quality[95]] light available, since it is not possible to verify whether there is remnant of cheese on one’s hands simply through looking at them, one is therefore required to wash his hands prior to eating meat.

     

  • Shach:[96]

    The Rif rules that one is to wash his hands even if they appear clean, as there is unnoticeable cheese fat which ones hands may contain. The Levush concludes that the custom is like the Rif and so is the opinion of the Achronim.

     

  • Summary:

    Some Poskim[97] rule one is required to wash the hands even if they appear clean. Others[98] rule it is not required if they appear clean, unless it is at night and proper lighting is not available.

     

    Must the waiter wash his hands in between serving cheese and meat?

  • Rama:[99]

    The waiter is not required to wash his hands prior to serving the next course which is the opposite food, as this requirement was only made for those which are eating.

     

  • Shach:[100]

Obviously the waiter is also required to wash his hands in between serving the next course of the opposite food, as perhaps his hands have become dirty from the previous food.

 

Summary:

Some Poskim[101] rule it is required. Others[102] rule it is not required.

Which liquids may be used to wash ones hand?[103] One may only use water for this washing, as only water is capable of properly removing the fat of the cheese. Other liquids however are sticky and hence do not have a proper ability to clean.[104]

 

Q&A

Must one wash his hands if he ate the milk product with a fork?

It is not required for him to wash hands[105] although it is proper to be stringent to wash one’s hands being that doing so does not contain much difficulty.[106]

C. Which cheeses are defined as hard cheese for which one must wait 6 hours?

  • Shach:[107]

    If the cheese is 6 months old, [or is not but is wormy[108]] it is defined as hard cheese.[109]

     

  • Taz:[110]

Cheese which is aged six months is not considered hard cheese and there is thus no need to delay eating meat after eating this cheese, and rather it suffices to wash one’s hands and perform Kinuach/Hadacha.[111] However cheese which is wormy is defined as hard cheese due to the fat that it releases[112], and hence one must wait [six hours] between eating this cheese and meat. Likewise all cheese which has been catalyzed using stomach milk is considered hard cheese. One who is extra meticulous can be stringent even regarding old cheese.

Practically: All soft cheese such as cream cheese, sour cream, yogurts, cottage cheese are all considered soft cheese which one does not need to wait at all before eating meat. One must however clean his mouth and wash his hands prior to eating meat.  Hard cheeses which have not aged 6 months such as yellow cheese[113] and the majority of forms of hard cheese are disputed amongst Poskim[114] if they are considered like hard cheese and one must thus wait six hours before eating meat.[115]  One is to follow the ruling of his personal Rav. Those hard cheeses which one knows for certain have aged 6 months, or that they contain larvae, such as parmesan, Cazu Matzu, and other exotic forms of hard cheese, if one eats them one must wait six hours prior to eating meat or poultry.

 

Custom of Chabad and Shlah Hakadosh[116] to wait one hour:

It is the Chabad custom[117] to wait at least one hour between eating or drinking all dairy products and eating meat. This applies even to soft cheese and milk. Even after waiting an hour, prior to eating meat one is to do Kinuach and Hadacha and wash his hands.[118] Those cheeses which are defined hard are subject to a six hour wait as explained above.

 

Other customs:

Some have a custom to wait 30 minutes between milk or cheese and meat.[119]

 

How is it permitted to eat wormy cheese? Aren’t worms not-Kosher?[120]

Those worms which have been formed in the cheese are permitted to be eaten even if they have come out of the cheese and are jumping on the cheese [or have even jumped to the plate[121]].

 

D. Waiting between eating a cheese dish and meat:[122]

The custom is to not require any wait at all between eating a cheese dish [Tavshil Shel Gevina] and meat, and rather one is to simply wash his hands. One is to wash his hands even if he wants to simply eat a Tavshil shel Basar[123] [and even during the day.[124]]

 

List of soft cheeses:

  • Milk
  • Leben
  • Sour cream
  • Yogurt
  • Pudding
  • Cream cheese
  • Cottage cheese

 

List of hard cheeses:

*Some of these hard cheeses are aged 6 months, or are wormy and hence according to all one must wait 6 hours.

  • Yellow cheese
  • parmesan[125]
  • Gorgonzola
  • Pecorino
  • Ricotta
  • Cheddar
  • Maggot cheese or Cazu Mazu[126]
  • Blue cheese[127]

 

Summary:

All soft cheeses such as cream cheese, sour cream, yogurts, cottage cheese are all considered soft cheeses which when eaten one does not need to wait at all prior to eating meat afterwards.  Rather one who eats soft cheese may eat meat or poultry[128] immediately afterwards so long as he washes his hands, and cleans and washes his mouth. Hard cheeses which have not aged six months such as yellow cheese and the majority of forms of hard cheese are disputed amongst Poskim[129] if they are considered like hard cheese and one must thus wait six hours before eating meat.[130]  One is to follow the ruling of his Rabbinical authority. Those hard cheeses which one knows for certain have aged 6 months, or have larvae, such as parmesan, Cazu Matzu, and other exotic forms of hard cheese, one must wait six hours prior to eating meat or poultry.

The Chabad custom in waiting an hour: Some have the custom to wait an hour prior to eating meat after eating any cheese or milk and so is the Chabad custom.

The Sefaradic Custom: Some Sefaradim[131] are accustomed to wait one hour between hard cheese and meat. Others[132] are accustomed to wait one hour per month of its age. Others[133] rule it is not required to wait at all, as is the ruling of the Michaber.

 

Does one have to say an after blessing between eating dairy and meat?

Some Poskim[134] rule one does not have to say an after blessing between dairy and meat unless he is required to wait 6 hours, such as by aged cheese. Others[135] however rule it is required, and so is the custom.

 

One who drank milk, must he wash out his hands and mouth prior to eating meat?[136]

It suffices for him to simply rinse out his mouth or take a drink.

 

If a Davar Charif was cooked in a dairy pot must one wait prior to eating meat?[137]

No.

 

3. What is defined as cleaning and rinsing the mouth?[138]

Cleaning: One is to chew bread or another food in order to clean his teeth. [Some opinions[139] rule that it is necessary to swallow the chewed food, and it does not suffice to merely chew it and spit it out. Others[140] rule it is unnecessary to swallow the chewed food.]

The following foods may not be used for this cleaning due to that they stick to the gums and thus do not clean well:

  1. Flour
  2. Dates
  3. Vegetables
  4. According to some opinions fruits likewise may not be used but this is not the accepted ruling.[141]

Washing the mouth: One is to rinse his mouth using water or wine.

What should be done first the cleaning or rinsing?[142] One can precede whichever one he wishes, whether he first does the cleaning and then the rinsing or first the rinsing and then the cleaning.[143] [However there are Poskim[144] which rule it is better to first do the cleaning and then the rinsing.]

 

Q&A

Is brushing one’s teeth considered like Kinuach and Hadacha?[145]

Yes.

 

4. Having a separate tablecloth for milk and meat:[146]

It is forbidden to eat meat on a tablecloth that was used to eat cheese[147]. The same applies vice versa.[148]

The reason:[149] Because we suspect that perhaps some meat or cheese has remained stuck to the tablecloth and will now enter into one’s food.

A long tablecloth: A long tablecloth may be designated one side for meat and another side for milk.[150]

If one only eats on plates:[151] Being that today the custom is to eat on plates and not directly on tablecloths, therefore from the letter of the law separate tablecloths for milk and meat and not required.[152] Thus even one who desires to be stringent may designate one side of the tablecloth for milk and the other side for meat.

 

Q&A

May one use one side of the tablecloth for dairy and the other side for meat?[153]

If the tablecloth is made of a durable material which prevents leakage to the other side, one may use one side for meat and the other for dairy.

 

5. Cleaning the table from the bread of the previous meal:[154]

One must remove from the table any remaining bread which was used to eat cheese, prior to eating meat on that table. The same applies vice versa.

 

6. Having separate knives for milk and meat:[155]

It is forbidden to cut cheese, or even bread which one plans to eat with cheese, using a knife which is usually used to cut meat.[156] The same applies vice versa.[157]

If the knife was cleaned or had Neitza done: If the knife had Neitza[158] done to it, one may use the knife for either meat or cheese.[159] [see footnote for ruling of Shach] Furthermore according to some opinions[160] if one cleans the knife well this suffices for one to be allowed to cut bread to be used for the opposite food, and Neitza is not required. Others[161] however hold that Neitza is required even for cutting bread which will be eaten with the opposite food. 

The custom today: Nevertheless the custom is to designated separate knives for both milk and meat and to mark on the dairy knives that they are designated for milk. One may not divert from this custom of Jewry.[162] However in a time of need where only one knife is available one may rely on the above law and use the knife[163] by having Neitza done to it.[164] Likewise, even today, according to some Poskim[165] one may initially use a meat knife to cut bread [or other Pareve foods] which he plans to eat with cheese, if one cleans the knife.[166] [According to other Poskim one must do Neitza and even this may only be done in a time of need.[167] Seemingly in a time of need one may rely on the opinion which requires a mere cleaning.[168]]

If one cut a Charif food with a meat knife or vice versa: See chapter 96

 

Summary and Final Ruling:[169]

One is to avoid cutting with a dairy knife Pareve foods which he intends to eat with meat.[170] The same applies vice versa. If one does not have another knife available[171], one may clean the knife well and then use it.[172]

In a time of need one may use a meat knife to cut cold cheese and vice versa so long as one performs Neitza[173] to the knife. [174] Alternatively one may clean the knife well and pour on it hot water from a Keli Rishon.[175]

 

Summary of Opinions:

  • Michaber: It is forbidden to cut cheese, or even bread which one plans to eat with cheese, using a meat knife.

     

  • Rama:

    If one did Neitza to the knife it is permitted.

     

  • Shach:

    Rama means to say it is permitted to cut bread with the meat knife, [however cheese is initially forbidden to be cut with the meat knife even if one did Neitza].

     

  • Taz:

Rama means to say it is permitted to cut even cheese with the meat knife, [while bread is permitted to be cut even if the knife is merely clean and did not have Neitza done].

 


[1] 89/1

[2] So rules the Rif and Rambam.

[3] Which are all only Rabbinically forbidden to be eaten with milk and hence we would think is more lenient in this law. [Shach 89/1]

[4] The Arizal was accustomed to avoid eating milk products until the next day. Likewise after he ate cheese, he would not eat meat until the next day. [see Darkei Teshuvah 89/2]

[5] Tosafus

The basis of this dispute is the words of the Talmud which requires one to wait from meal to meal between eating meat and milk. The first opinion rules “from meal to meal” refers to from the morning meal to the evening meal which is 6 hours. The second opinion rules it simply refers to two different meals separated by an after blessing. [Shach 89/5]

[6] The reason: The reason for why an after blessing is required is because that is what separates the two meals. If one does not say an after blessing then it is considered as if he is eating meat and milk in the same meal according to all. [Rama 89/1; Shach 89/5]

[7] Taz 89/3

[8] The Taz ibid writes that one who is not careful to avoid bentching just in order to eat the dairy is going against the Talmud, as according to all opinions one must remove himself from his previous meal in order to eat the next meal. Here however not only are they not removing themselves from eating more but they are preparing to eat more by saying this after blessing. It is hence not considered “removal from the previous meal” on any basis and thus it remains forbidden according to all to eat cheese afterwards.

[9] So was the custom in Holland. In many other European countries the custom was to wait three hours between meat and milk.

Ruling of Taz: This custom does not really have any basis and simply became widespread as a commonly accepted form of compromise between the two opinions of whether a six hour wait is required. [Mahariy mentioned in Taz 89/2]

[10] Ruling of Taz: According to the Taz [89/2] even those who are accustomed to wait one hour must clean and wash their mouths prior to eating milk products. His reasoning is because those which wait an hour are only an offshoot of the opinion which does not require waiting at all, and according to that opinion Kinuach and Hadacha is required.

Ruling of Shach: The Shach [89/7] however rules that those which wait an hour for certain do not need to clean or rinse their mouth prior to eating milk products. However according to all if one then found meat in between his teeth he must then clean and wash his mouth prior to eating milk products, as will be stated in F.

[11] Shach 89/8 in name of Rashal

[12] Taz 89/2 in name of SH”D

[13] Lit. Reiach/smell

[14] Shach ibid in name of Rashal

[15] Taz ibid

[16] Michaber 89/1; Rashal and SH”D brought in Taz 89/2; Peri Megadim; Rama in his conclusion that so is proper to follow.

[17] Taz 89/2

[18] Brought in Taz 89/1 and Shach 89/2

[19] Brought in Beis Yosef 89

[20] Brought in Taz 89/1

[21] Shach ibid; Taz ibid and so rules Michaber 89/1

[22] Rama 89/1:” It does not make a difference if one waits the hour before or after he bentches”

[23] Rama 89/1:” It does not make a difference if one waits the hour before or after he bentches”; Degul Merivava on Shach 89/3; Darkei Teshuvah 89/4; Kaf Hachaim 89/9

[24] Aruch Hashulchan 89/4

[25] Hakashrus 10 footnote 69

[26] Rama 89/1; Shach 87/5

[27] Many people are lenient in this and it is a mistake in their hands [Rashal brought in Shach 89/5]

[28] Shach 89/6

[29] Michaber 89/1; See Halacha 1B above!

[30] Michaber 89/1

[31] Michaber 89/1

[32] Shach 89/4

[33] Rama 89/1

[34] Shach 89/3

[35] Hakashrus 10 footnote 78

[36] Chasam Sofer Chulin 105a

[37] 89/3

[38] Rama 89/3

[39] Zivcheiy Tzedek 89/31; Birkeiy Yosef 89/30; Beis Yosef 173; Peri Chadash 89/18; Lechem Hapanim 89/33; Kaf Hachaim 89/50 and 55

[40] Taz 89/5 in the name of Rabeinu Yona

[41] Rama 89/3

[42] Shach 89/18; Taz 89/5

[43] Rama 89/3

[44] Pashut as otherwise there is no novelty in the Rama, and so is evident from Shach 89/19.

[45] Shach 89/19 and so rules Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 46/10

Other Opinions: The Elya Raba argues on Shach and rules that if the pot had leftover meat, one is required to wait a full 6 hours prior to eating dairy.

[46] Yad Avraham; Pischeiy Teshuva 89/7

[47] Each hour contains 60 minutes, and is not Shaos Zmaniyos. [Kaf Hachaim 89/5]

[48] Daas Kedoshim Butshatsher 89/2

It is told of the Chasam Sofer that he ruled this way as well and after twice having tried to drink milk after awakening to only have the milk spill, he retracted his ruling. [Hakashrus 10 footnote 77]

[49] Yabia Omer 1/4; 3/3; Mishneh Halachos 5/97

[50] Rav Elyashiv [brought in Hakashrus 10 footnote 76] based on wording of Meiri 5-6 hours.

[51] Kneses Hagedola 89/6; P”M 89 M”Z 1; Beis Lechem Yehuda 3; Kreisy 89/6; Perech Shushan 89/1; Gan Hamelech 154; Shulchan Gavoa 89/3; Birkeiy Yosef 89/4 [Shiyurei Bracha]; Erech Hashulchan 89/2; Chochmas Adam 40/12; Pischeiy Teshuvah 89/3; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89/2; Kaf Hachaim 89/5

Other Opinions: The Peri Chadash rules one only has to wait 4 hours in the winter. [brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]The above Poskim negate his opinion.

[52] Ben Ish Chaiy Shlach 9; Hagahos Mahrashak on P”M; Zivcheiy Tzedek 89/5 brought in Kaf Hachaim 89/4

[53] P”M 89 M”Z 1; Pischeiy Teshuvah 89/1 in name of Peri Megadim

[54] The reason for this is because the Sages applied a “Lo Pelug” a non-negotiable status, to this food as the Jewish people are holy and are not Poreitz Geder. However from the letter of the law there is no reason to wait six hours in this case as he did not swallow the meat taste or chew meat in his teeth. [P”M ibid]

[55] This follows the same rule as above.

[56] Hakashrus 10 footnote 96

[57] As we are stringent like the opinion of the Rambam that the wait is due to the chewing. [Michaber/Taz/Shach 89/1]

[58] Zivcheiy Tzedek 89/3; Kaf Hachaim 89/6

[59] One is to swallow the food and not merely taste it and spit it out. [See Orach Chaim 167/9; Seder Birchas Hanehnin 9/1; Kaf Hachaim 89/6] This is unlike the ruling of Mur Uketzia 210; Shut Kol Gadol 72 that rule so long as one had intent to eat it, if he spits it out it is not a blessing in vain. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 210/9 Vetzaruch Iyun on his omitting the ruling of Admur brought above.]

[60] So is implied from Kaf Hachaim ibid which depends the allowance on opinions that rule it is permitted toeat dairy after this time.

[61] Kaf Hachaim 89/7; Daas Kedoshim 89/2

[62] Vetzrauch Iyun if this allowance applies even prior to one saying a Bracha Achrona on the meat meal. Seemingly it does not.

[63] Hakashrus 10/43 in name of Rav Moshe Halbershtam.

[64] Darkei Teshuva 89/5

[65] Yad Yehuda 89

[66] As they consider this a Davar Sheyeish Lo Matirin. [ibid]

[67] Darkei Teshuvah based on that we do not say the concept of Davar Sheyeish Lo Matrin regarding a matter that one can do both today and tomorrow.

[68] Mishnhe Halachos 5/97; Hakashrus 10/33

[69] Darkei Teshuvah 89/11; Mahrsham 1/197; Kaf Hachaim 89/22; Yabia Omer 3/24

[70] Although metal is able to absorb, nevertheless we usually do not place Yad Soledes food in their mouth.

[71] Hakashrus 10 footnote 78

[72] Mahrsham 1/197; Sheilas Shalom brought in Darkei Teshuva 89/11. His reasoning is because the materials used for dentures do not absorb. Mahrshal explains the dentures do not absorb as one does not eat food which is Yad Soledes.

[73] Darkei Teshuvah 89/11

[74] It has been claimed that the Rebbe Rashab had two sets of dentures, one for meat and the other for milk. However Rav Yaakov Landau has vehemently denied this claim. [See Oatzer Minhagei Chabad Nissan p. 65]

[75] Hakashrus 10/35 and 36

[76] Yad Yehudah regarding cooking; Rav Akiva Eiger on Shach 89/19 regarding cooking. Hakashrus learns the same applies for if the Davar Charif was cut with a knife. However see Darkei Teshuvah 42 that the Yad Yehudah differentiates between the two.

[77] See Darkei Teshuvah 89/42

[78] See Darkei Teshuvah ibid that the custom is to be lenient.

[79] Peri Megadim 494 A”A 6

[80] Yad Yehuda; Daas Torah

[81] Michaber 95/2

[82] Darkei Teshuvah 89/1

[83] Hakashrus 10/34

[84] Beir Moshe 8/36

The ruling of Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin [Koveitz Zalman Shimon p. 62]: Those that are very young and weak may be lenient to wait one hour after cleaning and washing the mouth. Those which are a bit older, but are under Bar and Bas Mitzvah can wait 3-4 hours if there is difficulty for them to wait 6 hours. The reason for this leniency is because there are opinions which hold that in the winter when the days are short the amount of hours between meals is 3-4 hours. Now although we do not rule like this opinion, nevertheless for children one may be lenient.

[85] Hakashrus 10/44 partially based on Sheivet Haleivi 4/84 that all children which are still considered a Choleh Sheiyn Bo Sakana regarding Shabbos are likewise able to be lenient to not wait 6 hours.

[86] Chelkas Yaakov 2/88

[87]Aruch Hashulchan 89/6; Chachmas Adam 40/11

[88] Based on above Q&A. See also Sheivet Haleivi 7/118

[89] 89/2

[90] Whether wild or domestic. [Michaber ibid] As although wild meat is only Rabbinical it looks similar to real meat of a domestic animal, and thus the Sages were strict by it. [Shach 89/14]

[91] This ruling of the Michaber that no washing is needed between cheese and chicken is not argued by the Rama or any of the Nosei Keilim. It is hence a conclusive ruling that after soft cheeses [as rules Rama] one does not even need to wash his hands in order to eat chicken. So rules also Peri Chadash 89/1 and Peri Megadim. Nevertheless the Ben Ish Chaiy Shlach 14 rules that despite the above it is proper to be stringent to do Kinuach and Hadacha also between cheese and poultry and so is the custom. So rules also Zivcheiy Tzedek 89/26; Kaf Hachaim 89/45

[92] Taz 89/4

[93] The Rashal rules that one which is stringent is doing a action of heresy. The Shach [89/17] however negates this opinion.

[94] Shach 89/20 in which case even the Michaber would agree the hands must be washed even if they appear clean by day, as a Tavshil of cheese sticks more to the hands than does cheese itself.

[95] Shach 89/9 explains that a mere candle does not suffice but rather a torch is required.

[96] 89/9

[97] Shach 89/9

[98] Michaber 89/2

[99] 89/3

[100] 89/21

[101] Shach 89/21

[102] Rama 89/3

[103] Shach 89/10 in name of Beis Yosef, Orchos Chaim and Raavad

[104] This is opposed to the ruling of the Rashal which allows washing with other liquids under the claim that if they can wash off the salt for Mayim Achronim then so too they are valid here. The Shach argues against this allowance claiming it is easily attainable to wash with water, and hence one should not be lenient against the Raavad simply based on his argument. [ibid]

[105] Peri Chadash brought in Beir Heiytiv 89/5

[106] Peri Megadim S.D. 89/20

[107] Shach 89/15; Issur Viheter; Toras Chatas

[108] Issur Viheter brought in Taz 89/4

[109] As these cheeses get stuck between one’s teeth. [see Taz 89/4; P”M 89 M.Z. 4 in name of Peri Chadash]

[110] Taz 89/4

[111] As cheese which has aged nevertheless does not give off fat and hence there is no need to wait between it and meat, as rules the Rosh/Tur. Now, although the Rambam rules that if the food gets stuck in between the teeth one must wait, and hard cheese does get stuck in between one’s teeth, nevertheless this only applied by meat as there is a verse brought in the Gemara which teaches us that meat in between one’s teeth is still considered meat. However other foods are not considered food when they are in one’s teeth. [Taz 89/4]

[112] Some explain this to mean that the eating of the worms which is considered fatty gives off a taste of fat for 6 hours. [See Darkeiy Halacha 89]

[113] These take approximately 1-2 months to be prepared. [Hakashrus 10 footnote 120]

[114] Sheivet Haleivi 2/35 and Rav Elyashiv rule one is to wait 6 hours after all hard cheeses. [See Hakashrus 10 footnote 125] So ruled to me Rav S.Z. Labkowsky.

Rav Y. Farkash however ruled to me that we are lenient today by all hard cheese [unless we know it is aged], and so writes Hiskashrus 931 “Majority, if not all, cheeses on the Mehadrin market today are not hard, and one does not need to wait 6 hours after them.”

[115] Some are stringent being that although they are not wormy and have not aged 6 months nevertheless they do maintain a hard cheese quality due their ingredients, and high fat content which is result of the new technology in cheese processing. [See Hakashrus 10 footnote 120, 125 and 126. This is also as I heard from Rav S.Z. Labkowsky, and so he rules to be stringent by all hard cheeses.] Others are stringent because it is not written on the cheese as to how many months they have been aged and hence due to doubt one is to be stringent by all hard cheeses.

[116] Tractate Shavuos p. 30

[117] Rebbe in Igros Kodesh 20 p. 289; This custom is mentioned in the Shlah Hakadosh Tractate Shavuos p. 30

In the above letter the Rebbe mentions he is unsure if this custom of waiting an hour is meant for all to follow or only for select individuals. However it is told the Rebbe mentioned this as a classical Chabad custom to the Bochurim learning Semicha in 1953. [See Oatzer Minhagei Chabad Sivan]

[118] Shlah ibid; See Taz 89/2 unlike Shach 89/7; Shevach Hamoadim p. 241 writes one is to wash out the mouth.

However others [Hakashrus 10/48] rule there is no need to do Kinuach and Hadacha once one has waited an hour, even according to the Taz. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as the Shlah explicitly writes to do so despite his ruling of waiting an hour, and so quotes Darkei Teshuvah 89.

In Igros Kodesh 20 p. 28 the Rebbe mentions the commentary of the Peri Megadim SD 89/7 that the Shach holds the delay of an hour takes the place of needing to clean the mouth. Vetzaruch Iyun if the intent of the Rebbe here is to rule that one who waits an hour does not need to clean his mouth, or is simply showing another source to the asker for the idea of waiting an hour, although in truth we also clean our mouth afterwards. To note the Peri Megadim himself on Taz 89/2 explains as the Taz that one is required to wash the mouth even after waiting one hour. Hence one cannot deduce the opinion of the Peri Megadim from his commentary on the Shach.

[119] Hakashrus 10/47

[120] Rama 84/16

[121] Shach 84/46

[122] 89/3

[123] Rama ibid. However the Michaber ibid rules that hands must only be washed prior to eating actual meat. In such a case however even the Michaber agrees one must wash his hands even if they seem clean such as during the day. [see Shach in next footnote]

[124] Shach 89/20 as a Tavshil of Gevina gets more stuck on one’s hands then other foods.

[125] It takes a minimum of 12 months of aging to make Parmesan cheese. The Vecchio takes 18-24 months, while the Starvecchio takes 24-36 months.

[126] Casu marzu is created by leaving whole [127] Blue cheese is a general classification of cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, or goat’s milk [128] Practically the custom today is to be stringent also by poultry as explained above.

[129] Sheivet Halevy 2/35; Rav Elyashiv and Rav Wosner rule one is to wait 6 hours after all hard cheeses

Rav Farkash however ruled to me that we are lenient by all hard cheese [unless we know it is aged].

[130] Some are stringent being that although they are not wormy and have not aged 6 months nevertheless they do maintain a hard cheese quality due their ingredients, and high fat content which is result of the new technology in cheese processing. [See Hakashrus 10 footnote 120, 125 and 126. This is also as I heard from Rav S.Z. Labkowsky, and so he rules to be stringent by all hard cheeses.] Others are stringent because it is not written on the cheese as to how many months they have been aged and hence due to doubt one is to be stringent by all hard cheeses.

[131] Ruling of Rav Aba Shaul, brought in Hakashrus 10/49

[132] Ben Ish Chaiy Shlach 15 states this is the custom in Bagdad

[133] Yabia Omer 6/7

[134] M”B 494/16

[135] Darkeiy Teshuvah 89/14 and 19

[136] Hakashrus 10/48; Darkei Teshuvah 89/31

[137] Hakashrus 10/51

[138] Michaber 89/2

[139] Pischeiy Teshuvah 89/5

[140] Darkeiy Teshuvah 89/30

[141] Pischeiy Teshuvah 89/6

[142] Shach 89/11

[143] The Michaber writes that the cleaning is to be done first, although the Shach explains this to not be taken literally and rather one may do either one first.

[144] Shiyurei Bracha 89/3

[145] Beir Moshe brought in end of Sefer Pischeiy Halacha

[146] 89/4

[147] Michaber 89/4

[148] Rama 89/4

[149] Yad Avraham on 89

[150] This is evident from the ruling that two people may eat milk and meat on the same tablecloth if there is a reminder between them. [Yad Avraham on 89]

[151] Pischeiy Teshuvah 89/4

[152] So rules Ridbaz  brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid

[153] Hakashrus 10/20

[154] Michaber 89/4

[155] 89/4

[156] Michaber 89/4

The reason: As we suspect there is fat leftover on the blade of the knife. [Nekudas Hakesef 89]

[157] Rama ibid

[158] Stabbed 10 times into hard ground in ten different areas. [Michaber 121/7]

[159] Rama 89/4 as is understood by Taz 89/6; However Shach 89/22 learns it only refers to cutting bread, while to cut actual meat or cheese would be forbidden according to the Rama. [so understands Peri Megadim [S.D. 89/22] on Shach]

The Shach and Taz ibid argue as to which case the Rama was discussing when he mentioned his allowance to stab the knife in the ground and then use it. Was he referring to using it for cheese, as understands the Taz, or was he referring to using it for the bread which one desires to eat with cheese, as understands the Shach [see Nekudos Hakesef for his argument against the understanding of the Taz].

Other Opinions: The Rashal rules that even if one does Neitzah it is forbidden to use the knife for dairy, and rather it is only permitted through Neitza if the knife is not meaty and just happened to be used one time for meat. [brought in Shach 89/22]

[160] Taz 89/6 and so rules Chachmas Adam 40/14; unlike the Shach ibid

[161] Shach 89/22; See also Nekudas Hakesef; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 46/12 rules one may not initially use even a clean knife to cut bread, although in a time of need one may be lenient to do so.

[162] Rama 89/4

[163] According to the Shach it may only be used to cut Pareve which one desires to eat with the opposite food. According to the Taz it may even be used with cheese or meat itself.

[164] Shach 89/22

[165] Meaning even if there is no pressing need to do so. [Taz 89/7] However from Shach 89/22 it is implied that it is only allowed to be done in a time of need. [Hakashrus ]

[166] Taz 89/7

[167] Shach 89/22; Vetzaruch Iyun from Shach 96/6 and 22 which writes that if the knife is clean [and not Ben Yomo-6, although in 22 implies even if it is Ben Yomo] that a Pareve food may be used for the opposite food even without washing it. Although perhaps one can answer that a) in 96 the Shach is referring to Bedieved while in 89 refers to Lechatchilah [that Bedieved it suffices if it was simply washed while Lechatchilah it must have Neitza]. Or b) The intent of clean which the Shach uses in 96 is referring to Neitza as without Neitza it cannot be considered clean. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[168] Hakashrus 10/18 rules in a time of need one may clean the knife to use it to cut bread. In 10/87 he writes that today we consider a knife to be clean when washed with soap, and thus if the knife is clean a Pareve food which was cut with that knife may be eaten with the opposite food even if knife did not have Neitza done. One is not required to wash the Pareve food.

[169] Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 46/12 ; See Hakashrus 10/92

[170] Shach 89/22

[171] Shach ibid

[172] Taz 89/7 as opposed to Shach 89/22 which requires Neitza. Hakashrus 10/92 rules like Taz.

[173] Stabbing the knife in hard earth in 10 different areas.

[174] Taz 89/7

[175] Hakashrus 10 footnote 225

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