Tuesday, 28th Adar 5783/March 21st, 2023
- The deep fried Mincha: If a deep pan Mincha offering is brought, it is to be made of fine flour and oil. You shall bring this Mincha to the Kohen and place it close to the Mizbeiach. The Kohen is to take a memorial portion from the Mincha and offer it to the altar. The remainder of the Mincha is to be distributed to Aaron and his sons, it is a Kodesh Kodashim.
- Chametz: Any Mincha offering may not be made into Chametz, as all Chametz and all honey may not be offered to Hashem. They are to be offered as the first offering [on Shavuos] and are not to be brought to the Mizbeaich.
- Salting the offerings:
- Every Mincha offering is to contain salt, and you shall not discontinue using the salt of Hashem’s covenant from on the Mincha.
- Every Karban is to be salted.
- The Bikurim-Omer offering:
- When you bring a Mincha offering of the first grains to Hashem, it should be made from flour that is ground from ripe ears of grain which is parched over fire. Oil is to be poured over it as well as frankincense. The Kohen is to take a memorial portion from the flour, oil and its frankincense as an offering to Hashem.
Tanya middle of Chapter 37
1. The greatness of Talmud Torah:
- The sages state that the study of Torah is greater than all the other commands.
- Elevates the inner garments of thought and speech: The reason that Torah learning is the greatest of all Mitzvos is due to the great elevation effected through learning Torah. When one performs a Mitzvah he only elevates the external garments of his animal soul, which is the garment of action. However, when one learns Torah, he elevates his inner soul garments, which are speech and thoughts.
- Elevating the essence of the intellect of the animal soul: Furthermore, when learning Torah with intellectual depth one elevates not only his soul garments, but the essence of his Chabad/intellect which derive from the forces of Kelipas Noga of one’s animal soul. Through learning Torah in-depth, this intellect of the animal soul is now literally incorporated within holiness.
- Why the intellect can be elevated, but not the emotions: Although it has already been explained that it is not possible for a Beinoni to transform the essence of his character traits and emotions into holiness, nonetheless, one is able to transform the essence of one’s intellect into holiness. The reason for this is because evil is more intense within one’s emotions than it is within intellect. This itself, that the evil is more intense in one’s emotions, is because it nurtures more from holyness.
- The study of Torah draws down greater G-dly revelation than Mitzvos: An additional reason, which is also the most important reason, for why the study of Torah is greater than all the other commands is because one cannot compare the revelation of G-dliness that is drawn below through the fulfillment of a mitzvah to the revelation of G-dliness drawn below through the study of Torah. Just as one cannot compare the amount of energy and vitality of the soul that is found in the inner limbs to the amount of energy and vitality of the soul that is found in the intellect, all the more so one cannot compare the amount of G-dly revelation in the mitzvahs, which are the 248 limbs of G-d to the amount of G-dly revelation found in Torah which is His wisdom.
- The revelation is within each person according to his understanding: The illumination of godliness found within the study of Torah is in each person commensurate with his level of understanding [and hence the deeper and wider the level of understanding the more revelation he has in his Torah learning].
- The Torah is like water: Although in the study of Torah below in our world one does not actually understand the wisdom of G-d above in the spiritual world, and his understanding is limited to its physical counterpart, nonetheless, the Torah is compared to water which travels from above to below [and hence even the Torah study of this physical world contains the same G-dly revelation].
Rambam, Hilchos Mamrim Chapter 1
Chapter 1: the Halachic power of the Supreme Court
Halacha 1: The obligation to adhere to the Supreme court’s rulings
- The foundation of the oral Torah: The Supreme Court in Jerusalem is considered the main pillar of the oral Torah and its instructions, from which laws are legislated for the entire Jewish people.
- A positive command: This idea that the Supreme Court can serve to pass ruling and legislation on behalf of all the Jewish people is a positive command.
- The necessity to rely on the Supreme Court: Whoever believes in Moses and his Torah is obligated to place all of his trust in relation to the Jewish religion on the Supreme Court, and to rely on them for instruction and legislation.
Halacha 2: The negative command and their power of legislation
- A negative command: Whoever does not follow the laws of legislation of the Supreme Court is considered to have transgressed a negative command.
- Lashes: Transgressing this negative command does not carry with it the penalty of lashes.
- Zakein Mamrei: Nonetheless, a Sage who argues on their legislation is liable for capital punishment through strangulation.
- The legal power of legislation of the Supreme Court: The Supreme Court holds three powers of legislation of law.
- The Supreme Court is able to legislate [biblical law] based on oral tradition dating back to Moses on Sinai, which is otherwise known as the oral Torah.
- The Supreme Court is able to legislate [biblical law] based on one of the rules [i.e. Yud Gimel Midos] in which the Torah is expounded.
- The Supreme Court is able to legislate rabbinical laws in accordance to the necessities of the times in order to make a fence around the Torah. This includes all forms of decrees, institutions and customs.
- It is a positive command to adhere to the directives of the Supreme Court in all the above three matters of legislation and anyone who does not adhere to the directives of the Supreme Court in any of the three above matters, transgresses a negative command.
Halacha 3: Dispute in the Supreme Court
- Traditions from Moses: Traditions that date back to Moses from Sinai and are passed from generation to generation are not subject to debate, and any law which is under debate is certainly not a tradition from Moses.
- Yud Gimel Midos: If there is a dispute amongst the members of the Supreme Court regarding if a certain law should be legislated on the basis of the rules for expounding Torah [i.e. Yud Gimel Midos], then we follow the majority opinion of the Supreme Court.
- Rabbinical Decrees and institutions: If there is a dispute amongst the members of the Supreme Court regarding if a certain decree or custom should be enacted, then the matter is to be debated amongst the members of the court, and have a final judgment given based on the majority opinion of the Supreme Court.
Halacha 4: How the Supreme Court prevented disputes
- No disputes existed in times of the Supreme Court: When the Supreme Court existed, there were no disputed laws amongst the Jewish people.
- The lower courts brings its questions to the higher courts: The reason for this is because any time a halachic matter could not be settled in a local court of one city, it was brought to a Higher regional court in Jerusalem for them to settle. If they too could not settle the matter, then it was brought to the Supreme Court which was found in the temple area.
- The Supreme Court gives a final law: If the Supreme Court has a clear opinion on the matter then they would instruct the people as to the law that could not be settled in the lower courts. If, however, they too are contested regarding the subject, then they would hold a discussion regarding it until they come to a unanimous conclusion or hold a final vote to follow majority. They then tell the petitioner’s final ruling.
- The disputes of today: The above was only in times that the Supreme Court was in existence, however, in today’s times and it is no longer in existence, disputes in Jewish law have spread amongst the Jewish people, as each court in Rabbi gives a decision and ruling based on reasons understood to him, with some prohibiting and some permitting.
Halacha 5: Who to follow in times that we do not have a Supreme Court
- Any time that two sages or two courts have a halachic dispute in times that the Supreme Court is not in existence, then regarding a biblical matter you must follow the more stringent opinion while regarding rabbinical matter you may follow the more lenient opinion.
- The same rule applies if there is no clear ruling on the matter from any rabbi or court.
- The above only applies if you do not know to which side the law leans towards, otherwise you are to follow the opinion that you lean towards.
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