Tisha B’av that falls on Shabbos

Tisha B’av that falls on Sunday

This chapter will mention all the Halachic changes that apply when Tisha B’av falls on Sunday, in contrast to other days of the week. It retains the same laws as a regular Tisha B’av in respect to all other matters that are not mentioned in this chapter. Keep in mind that there are discrepancies between when Tishe Be’av falls on Shabbos and is pushed off to Sunday versus when it falls on Sunday, as will be explained in the text, in the relevant areas.

1. Exemptions for fasting on Tishe Beav Nidche [i.e. falls on Shabbos and pushed off to Sunday]:[1]

Sick: If the fast fell on Shabbos and was hence deferred to Sunday, one may be lenient not to fast even if he or she is a slightly sick, and is not bedridden.

Pregnant and nursing: A pregnant [or nursing[2]] woman may break her fast if she feels even slightly sick [or weak].[3] [This applies even absent of the other reasons for exempting a pregnant woman from fasting, as explained above.]

Yoledes-After birth:[4] Certainly a Yoledes within 30 days is not to fast on Tishe Beav Nidche even according to the stringent opinion mentioned above [Chapter 6 Halacha 1].

Fasting until Mincha:[5] In all the above cases of exemption, there is no need for the person to fast until Mincha time and he may eat right away in the morning [or even at night].

[Regarding Havdalah-See Halacha 11!]

Shabbos Erev Tisha B’av

1. Menu:[6]

When Tisha B’av falls on Shabbos, there are no restrictions towards the Shabbos menu and one may eat meat, fish and wine as much as his heart desires, and may feast to the point that was done on the table of Shlomo Hamelech. [Accordingly, one should add even more foods to the menu on this Shabbos in comparison to a regular Shabbos.[7]]

Seudas Hamafsekes: When Shabbos falls on Erev Tisha B’av there are no Seudas Hamafsekes limitations relevant to the final meal before the fast.

May a Shul hold a Kiddush on Shabbos Tisha B’av, as it is usually accustomed to do weekly?[8]


2. Restrictions against leather shoes; bathing and anointing:[9]

When Tisha B’av falls on Shabbos, the regular Tisha B’av restrictions against leather shoes, bathing and anointing do not apply until after Shabbos, as will be explained. [However, some Poskim[10] rule one is forbidden in all private mourning matters, such as bathing one’s hands, legs and face in hot water. Even in their opinion, wearing leather shoes is permitted, as this is a public mourning matter.]

3. Marital relations:[11]

When Tisha B’av falls on Shabbos and is pushed off until Sunday one may not have marital relations on Shabbos.[12]

Night of Mikveh:[13] If Friday night is the night of Mikveh, marital relations is permitted.[14]

Announcing in Shul: Some[15] are accustomed to announce after Shul that all private mourning matters are in effect this Shabbos. Others[16] avoid this announcement.

Is one to follow Harchakos on Shabbos Tisha B’av?[17]

Some[18] write Harchakos are to be kept throughout Shabbos until after Tisha B’av. At the very least one is to avoid affectionate touch. [According to Admur, and the simple ruling of Shulchan Aruch, there is no need to be stringent regarding Harchakos, as stated above, although one is to avoid affectionate touch or sleeping in the same bed.]

4. Learning Torah after midday on Shabbos:

Before Midday:[19] When Tisha B’av falls on Shabbos and is pushed off to Sunday, some Poskim[20] rule it is forbidden to learn Torah on Shabbos. Others Poskim[21], however, rule one may learn until midday [or even past midday, as explained next] and so is the practical ruling.[22] When Tisha B’av [the 9th of Av] falls on Sunday and Shabbos is the 8th of Av, it is permitted according to all to learn Torah without limitation until midday.

After midday: When Erev Tisha B’av falls on Shabbos, some Poskim[23] rule one is to limit ones Torah learning on Shabbos, beginning from midday of Shabbos, to only those subjects that are permitted to be learned on Tisha B’av itself. Other Poskim[24] however rule one may learn as usual. [Accordingly, some Poskim[25] conclude that one who relies on these Poskim, and continues his regular learning sessions, is not to be protested. Practically, however, one should be stringent as writes the Rama, especially being that there are permitted Torah subjects that one can learn.[26]]

Pirkeiy Avos: See Halacha 7 by Mincha!


One is to limit his Torah learning starting from midday of Erev Tisha B’av to only those subjects permitted on Tisha B’av itself. Nevertheless, those which are lenient to continue their regular Torah sessions have upon whom to rely.


May one learn Chitas past midday?[27]

Initially, one is to complete his studies of Chitas prior to midday. However, if one was unable to do so he may study the regular Chitas studies until sunset.[28]


May one learn Rambam past midday?[29]

One is to complete the Rambam studies before midday. If he did not do so, then it is to be delayed until after Tisha B’av. [One however may study the laws of Aveilus in the Rambam even on Tisha B’av itself. Thus, during those years that the daily lesson for Tisha B’av is the laws of Aveilus there is no limit as to when it must be studied. Furthermore, some[30] are lenient all together, to allow learning all one’s set Shiurim of Torah until sunset, if he was unable to complete it before midday.]

May one say Tehillim after midday?[31]



May one read Shnayim Mikra after Chatzos of Shabbos Erev Tisha B’av if he has not yet done so?[32]


May an Avel recite Mishanyos after Mincha Erev Tisha B’av as he does throughout the regular year?

When Erev Tisha B’av falls on Shabbos, seemingly he is to recite the regular Mishnayos after Mincha.[33] However, some Rabbanim[34] hold that even in such a case he is to recite the Mishnayos of Moed Katan.

5. Taking pleasure walks:[35]

One may not take pleasure walks on Erev Tisha B’av. [This applies even on Shabbos Erev Tisha B’av. If Tisha B’av falls on Shabbos and is pushed to Sunday, then one is to refrain from walks throughout the entire day, starting from Friday night.[36] However, when the date of the 9th of Av falls on Motzei Shabbos one may take pleasure walks on Friday night, the 8th of Av, and the restriction begins only from the morning.]

6. Av Harachamim:[37]

The paragraph of Av Harachamim is recited before Musaf even when Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos.

7. Mincha of Shabbos:

When?[38] One is to Daven Mincha earlier than usual in order to have time to eat the third Shabbos meal.

Tzidkascha:[39] If Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos, the paragraph of Tzidkascha is omitted in Mincha.[40]

Pirkeiy Avos on Shabbos that falls on Erev Tisha B’av: When Tisha B’av falls on Sunday, some Poskim[41] rule Pirkeiy Avos is not recited on Shabbos after Mincha. Other Poskim[42], however, rule it is to be recited. [Regarding the Chabad custom in this matter, the Rebbe spoke about this issue on numerous occasions, at times saying it is to be said[43] and at others leaving it to the person to decide.[44] Practically, when Shabbos falls on Tisha B’av and is Nidche, the widespread custom has become to not say Pirkeiy Avos.[45] Some[46] conclude Pirkeiy Avos is not to be said even when Tisha B’av falls on Sunday and is not Nidche. In any event, one is to repeat that same chapter the next week, even if he decided to recite it.[47]]


May an Avel recite Mishanyos after Mincha Erev Tisha B’av as he does throughout the regular year?

When Erev Tisha B’av falls on Shabbos, seemingly he is to recite the regular Mishnayos after Mincha.[48] However, some Rabbanim[49] hold that even in such a case he is to recite the Mishnayos of Moed Katan.

May one who is not fasting receive an Aliyah?

No. See Chapter 1 Halacha 4!


8. Seudas Shelishis- Seudas Hamafsekes:[50]

When Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos, or on Shabbos and is pushed off until Motzei Shabbos, there is no Seudas Hamafsekes restrictions relevant to the final meal eaten on Shabbos before the fast. One may eat without any restrictions up until sunset. One may eat meat and drink wine by the final Shabbos meal, and may bring foods to his table as like the feast of King Shlomo.

By when must one stop eating and drinking on Shabbos?[51] One must stop eating and drinking while it is still day [prior to sunset[52]]. [Thus, the fast officially commences by sunset of Shabbos. It is a Mitzvah to publicize this matter.[53]]

May one eat with other people? One may eat the third meal of Shabbos as usual with his family.[54] Regarding eating with friends [as is common to do in Shuls which serve the third meal], some Poskim[55] rule it is not to be done.[56] Others[57] rule one is to follow his usual pattern, and hence if he usually eats this meal with friends he is not allowed to refrain from doing so.[58]

Making a Zimun:[59] It is permitted to make a Zimun by Birchas Hamazon of the final Shabbos meal.


Is one to initially recite Birchas Hamazon before sunset?

One may recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset.

May one perform Mayim Achronim after sunset?[60]



Is one to recite Birchas Hamazon with Nachem if he forgot to Bentch prior to night?[62]

No. One only recites Nachem in Birchas Hamazon on Tisha B’av if he actually ate on Tisha B’av, such as one who is sick.


May one take “easy fast” vitamin’s on Shabbos?[63]

It is permitted to do so.[64]

9. When do the bathing and anointing restrictions begin?[65]

The bathing and anointing restrictions begin at sunset. Hence, beginning from sunset, one may not wash his hands, just as is the law on Tisha B’av.


10. When is one to switch his shoes?[66]

One may not switch his shoes prior to the conclusion of Shabbos.[67] This applies likewise to children. Some[68] are accustomed to only remove their shoes after Barchu of Maariv is recited, with exception to the Chazan who removes it before Maariv. Others are no longer accustomed to wait until after Barchu of Maariv to remove their shoes, and rather, immediately after the conclusion of Shabbos, they say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol[69] and then switch their shoes.[70] Practically, this was the Rebbe’s custom.[71] However, in Luach Kolel Chabad it states to remove the shoes after Barchu, as rules the Rama.


Must one say Baruch Hamavdil prior to switching the shoes?

Some Poskim[72] rule one is to say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol prior to switching the shoes. Other Poskim[73] however rule that one is not required to recite Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol prior to switching clothing. Practically, it is to be recited.

Doing Melacha after Shabbos:

One is obligated to say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol prior to doing any actual Melacha.[74] It is however proper for men to not do any Biblical Melacha until the conclusion of Maariv, even after reciting Baruch Hamavdil.[75]


May one continue wearing Shabbos clothing on Motzei Shabbos which is Tisha Beav? Are they to be switched after nightfall before Maariv?

In general, it is forbidden to wear Shabbos clothing during the nine days [with exception to Shabbos], and certainly on Tisha Beav this prohibition applies.[76] Accordingly, some Poskim[77] rule that one is to remove his Shabbos clothing immediately after the conclusion of Shabbos [after reciting Baruch Hamavdil], prior to Maariv. According to this approach, it is proper for Shul’s to schedule for people to go home between Mincha and Maariv, change clothing after Shabbos, and then come to Shul sometime after Shabbos for Maariv and Eicha.[78] However, other Poskim[79] negate the above and rule that one may remain wearing his Shabbos clothing even after Havdalah on Motzei Shabbos.[80] Practically, the widespread custom in many communities on Motzei Shabbos which is Tisha Beav is like the former opinion although some follow the latter approach.[81] The Chabad custom is like the latter opinion, to continue wearing the Shabbos clothes until after Eicha and Kinos, and so was the custom of the Rebbe.[82] The Rebbe spoke quite negatively of the custom to change one’s Shabbos clothing.[83] Those who follow this custom are to wear their Shabbos clothing [i.e. hat, shtreimal, Kapata] before the conclusion of Shabbos, and continue wearing it after Shabbos.[84] According to all one may not change his Shabbos clothing before the conclusion of Shabbos. According to all, leather shoes must be removed immediately after Shabbos, and the above discussion is limited to other Shabbos garments.

Removing the Paroches

Question: [Monday, 3rd Menachem Av 5781]

When Tisha b’Av falls on Motzei Shabbos when is the Paroches and covering of the Bima and Amud, to be removed?


If there is a break between the end of Shabbos and Maariv, then it should be removed before Maariv, as done every year.

Explanation: The Poskim rule that the Paroches is to be removed by Maariv in play of the verse “Betza Imraso” which is recited during Eicha. However, they do not write when this is to be done, and if it is to be done before Maariv or afterwards before Eicha, and seemingly so long as it is done before Eicha it is not a problem. Nonetheless, the widespread custom of world Jewry is to remove it before the start of Maariv, and so is implied from the Levush. This however only applies by a regular year, however in years that Tisha b’Av falls on Motzei Shabbos, it is unclear as to when it is to be removed, and seemingly in previous generations when they were not accustomed to make a break between the leave of Shabbos and Maariv, it was removed either after Barchu, or after Maariv altogether [before Eicha]. Practically, the widespread custom today is to simply remove it before Maariv being that in any event there is a break between the leave of Shabbos and Maariv, and even in areas that remain wearing their Shabbos clothing may remove it before Maariv, as in any event it must be removed before the start of Eicha. Certainly, it may not be removed before the end of Shabbos. However, regarding after Shabbos is over, seemingly there is room to learn this would follow the same custom as the removal of Shabbos clothing, and hence those who delay the start of Maariv and remove their Shabbos clothing before Maariv should likewise remove the Paroches before the start of Maariv. However, those who do not remove the Shabbos clothing before Maariv, seemingly should also leave the Paroches, and coverings of the Bima and Amud in place until after Shemoneh Esrei, and remove it before the reading of Eicha. Nonetheless, even those who remain in their Shabbos clothing may choose to remove the Paroches before Maariv, after the leave of Shabbos, as is done every year, as the two matters are not fully connected.


Sources: See Rama 559:2; Levush 559:1; Derech Hachaim 134:1; Luach Eretz Yisrael; Kol Hamisabel Aleha 25:6 footnote 21; Nitei Gavriel 94:9


11. Havdala:[85]

Havdala over wine is not recited on Motzei Shabbos, it is rather recited on Sunday night. [See below for the relevant laws of Havdala on Sunday night]. 

Meorei Haeish: One is to recite the blessings of Meorei Haeish on Motzei Shabbos upon seeing a candle.[86] One is to recite the blessing prior to Eicha.[87] [Some[88] write that one may recite the blessing any time prior to Eicha, and hence if one is home prior to Maariv, he may say the blessing at home with his family and fulfill the obligation with them. Practically, the custom is like the former opinion to recite Borei Meorei Haiesh in Shul after Maariv, prior to Eicha.[89] The women at home are to recite the blessing over Meorei Haeish on their own.[90] Some[91] write one is not to use the regular Havdala candle for Meorei Haeish but is rather to join to small candles together.] In the event that one did not recite the blessing of Meorei Haeish before Eicha it is to be recited afterwards.[92] If the blessing was not said at night, it may not be said the next day.[93]

Besamim: The blessing of Besamim is not said at all, not on Motzei Shabbos or Sunday night.

Are the Pesukim of Hinei Keil Yeshuasi recited on Motzei Tisha B’av which falls on Sunday?

Yes.[94] However some[95] have the custom to omit it.


Q&A on those who eat on Tisha B’av

Must one who is not fasting say Havdala prior to eating?

Yes.[96] This includes men and women.[97]

What is the Seder of Havdala in such a case? One omits the versus of “Hinei Keil Yeshuasi”[98], and rather begins from the blessing of Hagafen or Shehakol [depending on his beverage]. The blessing of Besamim is omitted. If Havdala is being recited on Sunday, the blessing of Haeish is likewise omitted and is supposed to be said the night before.

Is wine to be used or Chamer Medina? Some Poskim[99] rule one is to use wine or grape juice. Others[100] rule one is only to use Chamer Medina, such as tea or coffee. If there is a child available which has not reached the age of Chinuch for mourning but is past the age of Chinuch for blessings, one may say Havdala over wine and give him to drink.[101]


May one who needs to say Havdala in order to eat be Motzie one who is fasting?[102]



If one’s wife needs to eat, may her husband say Havdala for her and have her drink the beverage?[103]

Yes. Some write it is proper to do so in order for him to approximate Havdala to the leave of Shabbos as much as possible, rather than delay it until Motzei Tisha B’av.


Are children who have reached the age of Chinuch to say Havdala prior to eating?[104]

Some rule children are to say Havdala prior to eating. Others rule they may eat before Havdala and are to hear Havdala on Motzei Tisha B’av with their father.

May an adult say Havdala for his children and have them drink the wine?

The custom is not to do so.

12. Maariv of Motzei Shabbos Tisha B’av:[105]

In Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv one is to recite Ata Chonantanu.

Forgot Ata Chonantanu on Motzei Shabbos which is Tisha B’av:[106] If one forgot to say Atah Chonantanu on Motzei Shabbos which coincides with Tisha B’av, he does not need to repeat Shemoneh Esrei, as he in any event will not be eating until he makes Havdala over wine on Sunday night.[107] [He must however say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing Melacha.]

Ata Kadosh:[108] After the completion of Eicha and Kinos the congregation recites Veata Kadosh [omitting the verses of Uva Letziyon and Veani Zos Brisi]. This applies even when Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos, in which case one skips Vayehi Noam and begins from Veata Kadosh.

Vayiten Lecha:[109] Vayiten Lecha is not recited on Motzei Shabbos which is Tisha B’av.

Greetings: Upon leaving Shul, one is to avoid wishing a Shavua Tov and the like to a friend.[110] One is not to walk in groups but rather alone in a state of mourning.[111]

Shabbos clothing: After Maariv, those who have not yet done so are to remove their Shabbos clothes.


The remainder of Tisha B’av follows the same laws as a regular Tisha B’av

13. Sunday night-Motzei Tisha B’av :

A. Havdala when Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos:[112]

In the event that Tisha B’av falls on Motzei Shabbos, Havdala over wine is recited on Motzei Tisha B’av, which is Sunday night. The blessings of Besamim and Haeish are omitted from Havdala. One is to recite the blessings of Meorei Haeish on Motzei Shabbos upon seeing a candle. The blessing of Besamim is not said at all, not on Motzei Shabbos or Sunday night.

The Nusach of Havdala:[113] On Sunday night, one begins Havdala from “Hinei Keil Yeshuasi”.

Eating and drinking: It is forbidden to eat and drink after Tisha B’av until one says Havdala over wine, just as is the law on Motzei Shabbos. It is permitted to drink water although our custom is to avoid doing so.


Who is to drink the Havdala wine?

Some Poskim[114]  rule one may drink the wine of Havdala himself. There is no need to give it to a child to drink. Others[115] however rule wine should not be used, or is to be given to a child, just like on Motzei Shabbos Chazon.


B. The mourning customs: [116]

In the event that Tisha B’av, the 9th of Av, falls on Sunday, all the regular regulations continue to apply until Monday by midday. In the event that Tisha B’av and Shabbos coincide, and hence Tisha B’av is deferred to Sunday, the custom is to not to eat meat or drink wine throughout the night of Motzei Tisha B’av [Sunday night].[117] See the list below regarding other mourning customs. The next morning [Monday] all the mourning customs are permitted.

The following mourning customs apply until sunrise of Monday the 11th of Av:

  1. Eating meat and poultry.[118]
  2. Drinking wine.[119]

The following customs are permitted immediately on Sunday night, Motzei Tisha B’av, thew 11th of Av:[120]

  1. Haircut[121]
  2. Laundry[122]
  3. Wear new clothing[123]
  4. Bathing[124]
  5. Music[125]
  6. Shehechiyanu[126]


May one have marital relations on Motzei Tisha B’av that was pushed off to Sunday?

Some[127] write one is not to have marital relations that night. Likewise, some[128] write that for health reasons one is to never have marital relations after a fast. Practically, on night of Mikveh one may have marital relations at this time.

May one have a wedding on Motzei Tisha B’av that was pushed off to Sunday?[129]

Some say in a time of great need it is permitted to do so.



[1] Shvus Yaakov 3:37 “And so I am accustomed to rule regarding a slightly ill person, or a Yoledes within 30 days, or a pregnant woman and slightly ill”; Hagahos Rav Akiva Eiger 559:9 “One who is slightly sick, and a pregnant women who feels slightly ill, may eat”; Biur Halacha 559 “Eino”; Gevuros Ari Taanis 30b’ Toras Chaim Sofer 554:4; 559:14; Shevet Halevi 6:70; Nitei Gavriel 65:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 554:5; See Yechaveh Daas 3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule there is no  additional leniency on Nidche. [See M”A 559:11 in the name of Kneses Hagedola; Yaavetz; See Zecher David 54]

[2] Divrei Malkiel ibid

[3] The reason: As we rule that on Tishe Beav Nidche a Baal Bris does not need to fast [Michaber 559:9], hence proving that Nidche has a more lenient status, and certainly we can be lenient in a case of illness. [Shvus Yaakov ibid]

Other opinions by pregnant and nursing that do not need to fast at all: Some Poskim rule a pregnant and nursing woman does not need to fast at all even if they are feeling well, as this fast is similar to any Nidche fast. The proof for this is from the fact that if on a regular fast day we do not allow a Baal Bris to eat, but do allow a pregnant and nursing woman to eat, then certainly on a Nidche fast day that we allow a Baal Bris to eat, that we allow a pregnant and nursing woman to eat. [Divrei Malkiel 3:26 “It has the same status as other fast days, and even a pregnant or nursing woman has the same status as other fast days”; Rav Ovadia Yosef, recorded in Chazon Ovadia and so rules his sons Rav Yaakov and Yitzchak Yosef, as heard in a Shiur] Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as a) The proof from a Baal Bris is not relevant to a pregnant or nursing woman, as a Baal Bris has a personal Yom Tov, while a pregnant and nursing woman is exempt due to the illness category, and since on Tisha Beav the Sages obligated them to fast, there is no proof that this obligation was rescinded if there is no illness involved. [See Zecher David 54] Furthermore, all the Poskim who record the above source of Bris to permit a slightly ill person to eat on Nidche, all explicitly write that by a pregnant woman, she may eat if she is slightly ill, and so not permit it indiscriminately. [See Shvus Yaakov ibid; Rav Akiva Eiger ibid; Biur Halacha ibid] Furthermore, even the Divrei Malkiel ibid who states that it has the same status as a regular fast, in truth by a regular fast the Rama [550:1] rules the custom is for pregnant and nursing woman to fast unless they feel great pain or weakness. Thus, the Divrei Malkiel never advocated for an indiscriminate exemption of pregnant and nursing woman! Nonetheless, in truth some Poskim of today rule that even on a non-Nidche Tisha Beav pregnant woman do not need to fast due to worry of miscarriage, as explained above, and certainly this would apply even more by Nidche.

[4] M”A 554:9; Shvus Yaakov ibid; P”M 554 A.A. 9; Shevet Halevi ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a Yoledes is obligated to fast once she is after seven days from birth even on Tisha Beav Nidche. [M”A 554:9 in name of Rashal in Teshuvah]

[5] Setimas Haposkim who record Shvus Yaakov ibid; Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 4, see there in length, unlike the possible understanding from Shvus Yaakov ibid

[6] Michaber 552:10

[7] Toras Menachem 5751 4:85

[8] Piskeiy Teshuvos 551:5

[9] Michaber 554:19; Rama ibid only differs on Michaber regarding marital relations

[10] Taz 554:9; M”B 554:39 that so is the ruling accoridng to the Yeish Osrin in Rama, as they prohibit all private mourning matters and not just marital relations; See Kaf Hachaim 554:86; Rav Yaakov Yosef stated in the name of the Pachad Yitzchak and Eretz Chaim that the Sefaradi custom is to be stringent like the Rama against the Michaber and not b athe even in cold water.

[11] 554:19

[12] Rama ibid

Ruling of Michaber/Sefaradim: The Michaber ibid rules that even marital relations is permitted on Shabbos, and so is the Sefaradi custom. [Moreh Baetzba 234; Kaf Hachaim 554:86] However, Rav Yaakov Yosef stated in the name of the Pachad Yitzchak and Eretz Chaim that the Sefaradi custom is to be stringent like the Rama against the Michaber, unlike the ruling of the Chida. He writes that it is even forbidden to bateh in cold water, unless it is for the ened of a Mitzvah.

[13] Shlah; Zera Emes 80; M”B 454:40; Many Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 554:88; So concludes Piskeiy Teshuvos 554:17 to be the Rabbinical directive.

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to delay Mikveh night until after Tisha B’av. [Elya Raba 554:19] Some Poskim rule it is not allowed if his wife is pregnant or nursing, as it is only allowed for Peru Urevu. [Minchas Elazar 5:86; Sheivet Haleivi 6:70]

[14] The reason: As the night of Mikveh there is a Mitzvah of Onah. Vetzaruch Iyun from Chasam Sofer who rules there is no Mitzvah of Onah on Mikveh night, and so is the accepted ruling regarding a woman whose Mikveh night coincides with a Yom Chashash.

[15] Darkei Moshe, brought in M”B ibid

[16] See M”B ibid and Shaar HaTziyon 45

[17] Piskeiy Teshuvos 554:17 footnote 80

[18] Mahril Diskin 5:67

[19] See M”A 553:7

[20] Implication of M”A 553:7; Kitzur SHU”A 154:4; Chayeh Adam 136:4; Leket Yosher p. 110

[21] Maharam Lublin brought in M”A ibid; Maharil 44; Mateh Moshe 718; Kaf Hachaim 553:18

[22] Nitei Gavriel 92:1

[23] Rama 553:2; Darkei Moshe 554; Teshuvos Maharil 44; M”A 553:7; Levush 553; Elya Raba 553:4; Mateh Yehuda 553; Kneses Hagedola 554; Degul Merivava 553; Derech Hachaim 1

[24] Taz 553:2 in name of Rashal that he learned after Chatzos by all years of Erev Tisha B’av; Mamar Mordechai 553:2; Aruch Hashulchan 553:4

[25] M”B 553:8

[26] M”A ibid; Kaf Hachaim 553:18; Luach Kolel Chabad; The Rebbe in numerous Sichos records the prohibition of learning past Chatzos; Mamar Mordechai states that although one may be lenient in order to avoid Bittul torah however one who is able to limit his learning to the permissible subjects- Kadosh yomar lo. [brought in Biur Halacha “Vilichein”]

[27] Kaf Hachaim 553:18; Hiskashrus 889

[28] The reason: As even on Tisha B’av itself we allow learning one’s set Torah sessions past midday. Hence, certainly on Erev Tisha B’av that learning is merely a custom which some even allow, one may be lenient past midday.

[29] Based on the lesson schedule of Rambam edited by the Rebbe; Hiskashrus 889

[30] Kaf Hachaim 553:18

[31] Divrei Malkiel 6:20; Nitei Gavriel 50:8

[32] Zechor Leavraham 553:9; Chayeh Adam 136:4; Kaf Hachaim 553:19

[33] Likkutei Sichos 14:185

The reason: As otherwise it is Aveilus Bifarhesya, and so exclaimed the Rebbe to Rav Groner that he is surprised at the ruling of the Rabbanim who ruled to him to say the Mishnayos of Moed Katan. [See Yoman of Rav Groner 1988]

[34] Answer of Beis Din to the Rebbe upon him asking which Mishnayos he is to recite, and so did the Rebbe that year, he recited from Moed Katan

[35] Rama 553:2

[36] Birkei Yosef 553:5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 553:5; Kaf Hachaim 553:20

[37] Elya Raba 554:18; P”M 559 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 559:2

[38] See Rama 552:9

[39] Michaber 559:1

[40] The reason: As Tisha B’av is considered a Moed. [Beis Yosef; Kaf Hachaim 559:1]

[41] Rama 553:2; Maharil; M”A 553:7 in name of Kneses Hagedola

[42] Taz 553:2; Rashal; Gra; M”B 553:8; Aruch Hashulchan 553:2

[43] Likkutei Sichos 19:43 footnote 53

[44] Hisvadyus Shabbos Chazon Erev Tisha B’av 1981

[45] Toras Menachem 1985 5:2695

[46] Hiskashrus 950

[47] Hisvadyus Shabbos Nachamu 1981

[48] Likkutei Sichos 14:185

The reason: As otherwise it is Aveilus Bifarhesya, and so exclaimed the Rebbe to Rav Groner that he is surprised at the ruling of the Rabbanim who ruled to him to say the Mishnayos of Moed Katan. [See Yoman of Rav Groner 1988]

[49] Answer of Beis Din to the Rebbe upon him asking which Mishnayos he is to recite, and so did the Rebbe that year, he recited from Moed Katan

[50] Michaber 552:10

[51] Rama 552:10

[52] M”B 552:24; Kaf Hachaim 552:54

[53] M”B 552:24

[54] M”B 552:23

[55] M”A 552:14; Elya Raba 552:13

[56] The reason: As although one is to eat foods as on the table of King Shlomo, it is to be eaten with some bitterness. [ibid; Rokeiach]

[57] Bechor Shor brought in M”B ibid; Birkeiy Yosef 553:4; Shaareiy Teshuvah 553:11

[58] The reason: As otherwise this is considered showing public mourning on Shabbos. [ibid]

[59] M”B ibid based on Elya Raba

[60] Taharas Hashulchan 557; Nitei Gavriel 66:10

[61] The reason: As this washing is not a washing of pleasure.

[62] Shaareiy Teshuvah 552:13; Nitei Gavriel 51:21

[63] Piskeiy Teshuvos 302 footnote 146 [if dissolved before Shabbos]

[64] The reason: As a) It is not considered medicine being that one is currently healthy and b) It is not considered Tircha from Shabbos to Chol being that one benefits from it also on Shabbos, and is similar to eating food on Shabbos so he has strength after Shabbos. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 302 footnote 146 who permits doing so being it is not recognizable to others that it is being done for after Shabbos, although he writes to dissolve it in water before Shabbos. Seemingly, however, this is not necessary as there is no apparent illness here.

[65] Rama 553:2

[66] 553:2

[67] Admur 254:10 [regarding removing Challah from oven, wine from cellar]; 302:10 [regarding making the beds]; 319:18 [regarding removing fat from soup]; 321:6 [regarding watering vegetables]; 323:6 [regarding washing dishes]; 324:11 [regarding switching plate of food from ox to donkey]; 338:8 [regarding moving fruits from roof]; 611:5 [regarding preparing vegetables on Yom Kippur]

The reason: As it is forbidden to prepare on Shabbos for the sake of a weekday. [254:10; 302:10; 323:6; 503:3; 611:5] And it is forbidden to trouble oneself on Shabbos for the sake of a weekday. [319:18; 321:6; 323:6; 324:11; 338:8; 611:5] Doing so is Rabbinically forbidden [302:10] being that it is a mundane action and a belittling of Shabbos. [338:8]

[68] Rama ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 553:1 for a list of Poskim who rule this way even today; Shraga Hameir 4:23

[69] M”B 553:7 in regard to the Chazzan who removes his shoes prior to Barchu.

[70] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 553:1 for an explanation of why the ruling of the Rama is no longer applicable. In short, he writes in name of Rav SZ”A that the Rama referred to a time that Maariv was Davened before the conclusion of Shabbos.

[71] Hiskashrus 950 that so was the custom of the Rebbe to enter Shul for Maariv wearing non-leather shoes. So concludes Hiskashrus to be the proper custom.

[72] M”B 553:7 in regard to the Chazzan which removes his shoes prior to Barchu; Alef Hamagen 599:5 in name of Achronim; Nitei Gavriel 28:7; Hiskashrus 1025

[73] Elya Raba 299:22; Shaareiy Teshuvah 299:2; M”B 299:40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 299 footnote 110

Ruling of Admur: Regarding the need to say Baruch Hamavdil prior to performing Melacha, Admur 299:15 states “Likewise, some permit performing, after Shabbos is over but prior to saying Havdala, all Rabbinical prohibitions which are forbidden simply due to them being a mundane act.” Thus, if preparing from Shabbos to a weekday is considered a mundane act prohibition it would be permitted according to this opinion. In 338:8 Admur rules that the prohibition of preparing on Shabbos for a weekday is due to being a mundane act, and hence accordingly it would be permitted to be performed according to this opinion. However, Tzaruch Iyun if Admur’s final stance on the matter follows this opinion, as a) The first opinion holds that one may not do any of his preparations or work prior to escorting the king through Havdala. This seems to imply that even preparations of Uvdin Dechol are forbidden according to this opinion. Likewise, b) Admur never concludes that we rule like the second opinion and simply states that regarding Yom Kippur we are lenient to follow it. Vetzaruch Iyun if one can learn from Yom Kippur to other places. From here can be understood the source of the ruling of the Alef Hamagen ibid that rules stringently in this matter. It is a wonderment on the Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid that he omitted this first opinion brought in Admur. It is also a wonderment on Nitei Gavriel ibid who completely omits all the Poskim that are lenient in this matter.

[74] Admur 299:15

[75] See 299:19

[76] Rama 551:1 “By a Mila the custom is for the Baal Bris to wear Shabbos clothing, although otherwise it is forbidden.

[77] Maharil, brought in M”A 559:10 “After the Mila they remove the clothing”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 553:1; Nitei Gavriel 94:5

[78] Nitei Gavriel ibid

[79] Ashel Avraham Butchach Mahadurah Tinyana 551

[80] The reason: As the accustomed prohibition of wearing Shabbos clothing is only the initial wearing, while if he already wore it under allowance, such as on Shabbos or for a Mila, then there is no prohibition to continue wearing it. [Ashel Avraham ibid]

[81] Nitei Gavriel ibid; Minhagei Mahariv Sulitza [Rav Yaakov Yisrael Rubin 1900’s] 507 that he remained wearing his Shterimal for Maariv and removed it before Eicha; Yechidei Segula in Yerushalayim would remove the Shtreimal after Eicha

[82] Yoman of Rav Groner that the Rebbe stated that so was the custom of Jewry in Russia, and of Lubavitch Chassidim; Rav Eli Landa confirmed with his brother Rav Y.L. Landa that the custom is to remain wearing Shabbos clothing until after Maariv/Eicha.

[83] The diary of Rav Leibal Groner documents the Rebbe’s reaction after being told by Rabbi Groner of the custom of some to change their Shabbos clothing “The Rebbe was very surprised at this and asked me to show him where it states such a thing. I showed him in the Sefer Tishe Beav Shechal Beshabbos who brings that a number of Chassidic communities are accustomed to do so. The Rebbe responded that in Yakotrinslov no one did this and I do not understand this and why to delay Maariv for such a thing. Later the Rebbe said on Motzei Tisha Beav that this custom of delaying Maariv to go home and change Shabbos clothing is a wild custom that was the custom of Hungarian Jewry but not in Russia. The Rebbe added that the Rabbannim, and you included were never in Russia. Practically, the Rebbe would remain in his room until after Shabbos was over, would remove his shoes, but not his Shabbos clothing.”

[84] May one even initially put on the Shabbos clothing after Tzeis if he was not wearing it beforehand? If one removed his Shabbos clothing, such as he removed his Kapata, and it is now after Tzeis, it is questionable as to whether he may even initially put on his Shabbos clothing for Maariv and Eicha, as the entire Heter of the Ashel Avraham ibid was based on the fact one remains in his Shabbos clothing into Shabbos, however to initially put on, who says is allowed? Accordingly, ideally one is to wear the clothing before Tzeis. Nevertheless, even if one took it off and is now going to Shul for Maariv, there is room to learn that he may wear it. This is similar to the Heter written in Shulchan Aruch for a Baal Simcha to wear [put on] Shabbos clothing on Tisha B’av itself [See Rama 559:8; Bigdei Yesha, brought in Kaf Hachaim 559:65], and the reason is because it is only a Minhag not to wear Shabbos clothing on Tisha B’av and not forbidden for the letter of the law. This is why we wear Shabbos clothing on Shabbos even though the same Rama writes its forbidden. The same way the custom allows wearing it on Shabbos Lekavod Shabbos, it allows wearing it even initially on Motzei Shabbos Lekavod Motzei Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[85] Michaber 556:1

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule there is no Havdalah recited in a year that Tishe Beav falls on Motzei Shabbos. [Ramban; Reiah; Ritva Sukkah 54; Rashba]

[86] Michaber ibid; Maharitz Geios Havdala; Mordechai Taanis Remes 638; Orchos Chaim Havdala 1; Sifrei Minhagim of Rishonim

[87] Taz 556:1 in name of Beis Yosef 556 in name of Abudarahm p. 69; Elya Raba 556:2; M”B 556:1

The reason: As in Eicha it says “he has placed me in darkness”. Hence the blessing is to be recited beforehand [as afterwards we are to emphasize darkness]. [Taz ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because one is not to read Eicha with light and hence benefit from it prior to saying a blessing over it. [Birkeiy Yosef 693:1] Practically, however, we do not rule this way, and it is permitted to benefit from light before saying Meorei Haeish. [Kaf Hachaim 556:2; See our Sefer “The Laws of Purim” and the “Laws of Motzei Shabbos”]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to light the candle at home after coming home from Shul after Eicha. [Maharil Tisha B’av 16; Many Poskim, brought in Elya Raba ibid]

[88] Piskeiy Teshuvos 556:1; Nitei Gavriel 95:4; Hiskashrus 940; Likkut of Rav Braun

[89] Sheivet Haleivi 7:77 “One is not to swerve from the Minhag Yisrael that everyone says:hears the blessing in Shul prior to Eicha and the women are to say the blessings themselves at home”; Luach Kolel Chabad; The Rebbes custom was to say Meoreiy Haeish in Shul after Maariv, prior to Eicha; Rav Eliyahu Landa that so was always the custom, to say it in Shul after Maariv and not at home prior to Maariv. Rav Groner confirmed the custom is to say it after Maariv, before Eicha.

The reason: See Tehila Ledavid 293:1 and Kitzur Halachos Shabbos p. 119 that one is not to say Havdala, which includes Meorei Haeish prior to Maariv; [In however the Sefer Pear Yisrael 1:207 he writes that the Alter Rebbe at times would say Havdala prior to Maariv.] Perhaps this is also due to the law of Kadima of Tadir, as Maariv is more Tadir. [See The laws of Chanukah regarding Chanukah candles versus Havdala and Bedikas Chametz and Sefiras Haomer regarding preceding Maariv because of Tadir] Likewise, it is improper for men to do Melacha before Maariv, even to light a candle, as brought in Admur 299:20, however if done for a Mitzvah it is allowed, and here too it is done for a Mitzvah. Likewise in any event Eicha is before Ata Kadosh.

[90] Shevet Halevi ibid; See Ketzos Hashulchan 96 footnote 12; So rules also Daas Torah 296; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeitzei 24; Kaf Hachaim 296:54; Igros Moshe 2:47; Kinyan Torah 1:88; Beir Moshe 4:28; Kaneh Bosem 3:17; Sheivet Haleivi 6:42; 7:77; Yechaveh Daas 4:27; Ashel Avraham Mahadurah Tinyana; So is proven from Admur who does not mention anywhere any differentiation regarding women in the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish. Furthermore, even according to those Poskim [M”B in Biur Halacha 296 “Lo Yavdilu Leatzman”] who side women are exempt from the blessing of fire, they are nevertheless permitted to say the blessing as is the law by all Mitzvos that they are exempt from. [Ketzos Hashulchan 96 footnote 12]

[91] Piskeiy Teshuvos 556:1

[92] Taz ibid; Elya Raba ibid; P”M 556 M”Z 1; M”B 556:1

[93] Admur 299:9

[94] So writes Hiskashrus 940 footnote 82 to be custom of the Rebbe. This dispute seemingly follows the same dispute regarding if these verses are to be recited on Motzei Yom Tov.

[95] Mateh Ephraim 581:181; 601:10; 624:5; SSH”K 62:44; In Luach Kolel Chabad it states one is to say Havdala like the order of the rest of Jewry which is to skip the verses of Hinei Keil Yeshuasi

[96] Kneses Hagedola 2:71; Birkeiy Yosef 556:3; Zechor Leavraham 556:9; Shaareiy Teshuvah 556:1; Moed Lekol Chaiy 49; Kaf Hachaim 556:9

[97] As accoridng to many Poskim women are obligated in Havdala

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that women are not obligated to recite Havdala prior to eating/drinking on Tisha Beav. [Ashel Avraham in Ezer Mekadeish]

[98] Divrei Malkiel 6:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 556:4 as is the ruling by an Avel; Regarding an Avel-see Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:2; 391:1 Piskeiy Teshuvos 296:6

[99] Birkeiy Yosef ibid; Shraga Hameir 7:71; Az Nidbaru 11:48

[100] Kaf Hachaim 556:9; Minchas Yitzchak 8:30; Kinyan Torah 2:111

[101] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[102] Kaf Hachaim 556:9

[103] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 556:4 for a list of Poskim which deal with this issue and their reasons.

[104] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 556:4

[105] 559:1; Admur 294:6

[106] 294:6

[107] Vetzaruch Iyun if he accidently eats on Motzei Tisha B’av without Havdala, or broke his fast without Havdala for whatever reason, must he repeat Shemoneh Esrei? See Ketzos Hashulchan 93 footnote 9. SSH”K 62 footnote 95 rules he is not to recite Ata Chonantanu or repeat Shemoneh Esrei.

[108] Michaber 559:2

[109] Rama 559:2; Kol Bo

[110] Nitei Gavriel 95:18 in name of Maharil “One goes like mourners and does not bless the children at night”; Vetzaruch Iyun as to why is this statement different than good night.

[111] M”B 559:41 in name of Shelah; Maharil; Nitei Gavriel 55:11

[112] Michaber 556:1

[113] So writes Hiskashrus 940 footnote 82 to be custom of the Rebbe. This dispute seemingly follows the same dispute regarding if these verses are to be recited on Motzei Yom Tov.

Other Opinions: In Luach Kolel Chabad it states one is to say Havdala like the order of the rest of Jewry which is to skip the verses of Hinei Keil Yeshuasi. So rules Mateh Ephraim 581:181; SSH”K 62:44

[114] M”B 556:3 in name of Degul Merivava; Piskeiy Teshuvos 558:3

[115] Peri Megadim 556 A”A 2; Aruch Hashulchan 556:2; Luach Eretz Yisrael of Harav Tukachinsky

[116] Rama 558:1

[117] The reason: As the night is an extension of the mourning which took place during the day.

[118] Rama ibid

[119] Rama ibid

[120] Other opinions: Harav Tukachinsky in Luach Eretz Yisrael writes that all the mourning customs apply until Monday morning. The list below does not

[121] Shaareiy Teshuvah 558 “Assur”; M”B 558:4

[122] SSH”K 62:49

[123] SSH”K 62:49

[124] Piskeiy Teshuvos 558:3

[125] Shaareiy Tziyon 558:4 regarding the meal of a wedding; brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[126] Daas Torah 558; Maharsham 4:148; Sheivet Haleivi 6:70

[127] Shiyurei Kneses Hagedola on Tur 240

[128] Kaf Hachaim 558:7

[129] Piskeiy Teshuvos 558:3

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