The ideal time of Chanukah lighting and until when may one light

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When to light the Chanukah candles:[1]

The end of sunset:[2] The candles are to initially[3] be lit at the end of sunset.[4] It is not to be lit prior to sunset, nor after the conclusion of sunset.[5] Some Poskim[6] however rule that today since anyways the lighting is done inside the house, there is no obligation to be careful to light on time [and rather one is to light the candles when one’s family is all present[7]].[8] Practically, it is proper to be careful in this matter, even in today’s times that the custom is to light indoors.[9]

When is the end of sunset?[10] The end of sunset refers to nightfall/Tzeis Hakochavim.[11] Accordingly, the candles should be lit right after nightfall [after Maariv[12]].[13] [Other Poskim[14] however rule the candles are to be lit prior to nightfall, at the beginning of Bein Hashmashos, which is right after sunset.[15] Practically, those who Daven Maariv immediately after nightfall[16] should follow this view and light the candles before nightfall.[17] The Chabad custom is to light [after sunset[18]] between Mincha and Maariv.[19] See Q&A for the exact time of lighting according to Chabad Minhag. Those who light after sunset are to place enough oil to last 30 minutes after nightfall.[20]]

Being careful to light at least within a half hour after nightfall:[21] If one forgot or delayed and did not light the candles after sunset [by nightfall], then he is to light the candles within a half hour after nightfall.[22] The candles are to remain lit for at least 30 minutes, even when lighting after nightfall.[23] [Some Poskim[24] rule that in today’s times that people work after nightfall, one who did not light candles by the correct time, may even initially do so until the time that stores close, and is not limited to the first half hour of the night. Other Poskim[25] however, negate this ruling.]

When lighting after nightfall, should one first Daven Maariv or first light? If one did not light before nightfall, he should first Daven Maariv and then light the candles.[26] Those who light after nightfall, and Daven Maariv beforehand, should prepare the candles before Maariv, in order so they can light immediately upon returning from Shul.[27] [If, however, there is no Minyan available at this time, or one is unable to go to Shul at this time for whatever reason, then he should precede the candle lighting, and Daven Maariv later with a Minyan. The same applies if one has a set Minyan of Maariv that he Davens by later on at night, that he should precede the candle lighting.[28] The candles that are customarily lit in Shul, are to be lit before Maariv, even in the event that the time of Maariv has already arrived, and they were not yet lit.[29]]

If it is already a half hour past nightfall:[30] If one did not light within half an hour from nightfall, he may still light [with a blessing[31]] throughout the night, [until daybreak[32]].[33] Nevertheless, one may only light with a blessing if ones family is still awake and will be present by the lighting.[34] If they are all sleeping one is to light the candles without a blessing.[35] In such a case, it is best to wake them up in order to be allowed to say the blessing.[36] It suffices to wake up even one family member in order to be able to light the candles with a blessing.[37] [The need for people to still be awake, however, only applies from when people are no longer found outside on the streets. Though, so long as there are still people outside, one may light with a blessing, even if one is alone at home, or everyone is sleeping. Based on this, some[38] write that one may light with a blessing until 9:00 pm, even if no one is present. Others[39] write one may light with a blessing even if no one is present until 12:00 PM.] The candles are to be lit for at least 30 minutes even when lighting very late into the night.[40]

If the morning has arrived:[41] If the entire night passed and one did not yet light candles, the opportunity is lost and he can no longer fulfill the Mitzvah.[42] The night is considered to have ended starting from Alos Hashachar, and thus once Alos arrives, the Mitzvah can no longer be fulfilled.[43] In such a case, one is nevertheless to continue lighting the same amount of candles as everyone else on the next night[44], even though he did not light the night before.[45] [One who missed a night, and is pained that he cannot make it up, can place double the amount of oil corresponding to both nights.[46]]

Lighting before sunset in times of need:[47] As stated above, one is not to light the candles before the end of sunset. However, if one will be occupied [after sunset and will hence be unable to light the Menorah at that time[48]], there are opinions[49] who rule that one may light the candles [with a blessing[50]] before sunset, starting from Plag Hamincha. [Plag Hamincha is 11/4 Zmaniyos[51] hours prior to sunset.[52] Practically, one may rely on this opinion in a time of need, and so is done in Shuls which light the Menorah after Mincha, before sunset, and so is done on in all homes on Erev Shabbos. Likewise, Bedieved, if one lit the candles after Plag Hamincha even not in a time of need, he fulfils his obligation.[53] If, however, one lit the candles prior to Plag Hamincha, he does not fulfill his obligation, and is required to extinguish the candles and relight them at the proper time.[54]] When lighting after Plag Hamincha, one must place [before lighting[55]] enough oil for the candle to last for a half hour past nightfall.[56] [If one did not place enough oil to last this amount of time, he is to extinguish the candle and relight it without a blessing after filling it with the proper amount of oil.[57]]

 

Summary:

One is to initially light the Menorah after sunset, prior to nightfall, which is the time between Mincha and Maariv. If one did not light at that time he is to light immediately after nightfall. If he did not light at that time he is to light within half an hour from nightfall. If he did not light within that time he is to light anytime up until daybreak. A blessing may be said so long as there is someone still awake in the home.

 

Q&A on the proper time to light

According to Chabad custom, when exactly between sunset and nightfall is one to light the candles?

One is to light the candles at least 20 minutes before nightfall.[58] Thus, in Eretz Yisrael, one is to light immediately after sunset, which is approximately twenty minutes before nightfall.[59] In New York, one is to light approximately 10-15 minutes after sunset, which is approximately twenty minutes before nightfall.[60] Some of Anash in Eretz Yisrael also have the custom to light exactly 10 minutes after sunset, which is only 10 minutes before nightfall.[61]

 

If by lighting on time one will be unable to stay near the candles for a half hour, may he light later on in the night?

Some[62] write it is better to light later in the night, at a time that he will be able to stay near the candles.

 

If one’s wife or/and daughters will not be coming home until after nightfall, is one to delay the lighting until they arrive?

Some[63] write that it is proper to delay the lighting until one’s household is present, in order to publicize the miracle. This certainly applies to one’s wife and daughters, who are included in one’s lighting, and are Yotzei the blessings with him. 

 

If a husband/father will be arriving home very late should the wife/daughter light before him arriving?

The wife is to delay the lighting until her husband returns home, if he will return home before midnight.[64] [Nevertheless, if the children will be sleeping by the time of the husband’s arrival, then it is best to have the wife light candles for the family.[65]]

May the husband light his own candles upon returning home? In all cases that the wife will be lighting before her husband returns home, the husband is to have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with her, and upon his return home he can light with a blessing if there are members of the household still awake. [66] If he did not have in mind to not be Yotzei with his wife’s lighting, and when he came home he unexpectedly realized that his wife had lit, then some Poskim[67] rule he does not fulfill his obligation with his wife’s lighting, and is to hence light candles with a blessing. Practically, however, he is to light candles without a blessing.[68]

 

If a child is becoming Bar Mitzvah on Chanukah, when is he to light his candles, before or after nightfall?

Some Poskim[69] rule he is to light candles after Tzeis Hakochavim, after he is already Bar Mitzvah. Others[70], however, rule that he may continue to light at the regular time, after sunset.


Q&A on lighting before or after the proper time
 

If one is unable to light at the proper time, is it better to light by Plag Hamincha or after nightfall?[71]

If one is accustomed to light inside his house:[72] One who lights candles inside his home, is to light candles after nightfall, rather than light before sunset, in the event that he cannot light at the proper time.

If one is accustomed to light outside: One who lights candles outside his home, and cannot light the candles at the proper time, some Poskim[73] rule that it is better to light after nightfall, rather than light before sunset. Other Poskim[74] however rule that it is better to light before sunset, after Plag Hamincha.

 

If one is only able to light by Plag Hamincha, is it better for him to personally light during Plag, or to have an emissary light on his behalf at night?[75]

It is better for him to have an emissary light on his behalf at night.

 

If one is unable to light at the proper time, is it better for him to personally light after nightfall, or to have an emissary light on his behalf at the proper time?[76]

It is better for him to personally light the candles upon his arrival at night, than to have them lit on time by an emissary.

 

If it is after nightfall, and one did not yet light or Daven Maariv, and there is no Minyan currently available, what is he to do?[77]

If there will be a Minyan available later on, he is to first light the Chanukah candles and Daven Maariv with the Minyan. If, however, he plans to Daven Maariv in private, then he is to first Daven Maariv and the light.

 

May a couple light past midnight with a blessing?

Yes. 

 

May one light with a blessing within 30 minutes before Alos?

Some Poskim[78] rule one may still light with a blessing even within a half hour before Alos [if a household member is awake, as explained above].

 

The custom of the Chabad Rabbeim-To light in private:[79]

Many Rabbanim and Chassidic Rebbe’s are particular to light the candles at a time that an abundance of people have gathered, and come to watch the lighting. However, the Rebbe Rayatz, acted on the contrary, and was displeased when non-family members were around for the candle lighting.

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[1] 672:12; Shabbos 21a

[2] 672:12; Shabbos 21a “The Mitzvah is from sunset until..”

[3] So writes Michaber ibid in the continuation of this Halacha, that this time of sunset is only Lechatchila.

[4] The reason: As during this time, those passing by notice the candles. [Levush; M”B 672:1; Kaf Hachaim 672:2] One is not to light prior to sunset being that one does not benefit from the light. [M”A 672:1]

[5] Michaber 672:1 “One is not to light the Chanukah candles prior to sunset but rather towards the conclusion of sunset. One is not to delay it past the end of sunset or precede it to this time”; Rambam 4; See Biur Halacha 672:1 “Velo Makdimim”

[6] Opinion in Rama ibid; Tur in name of Tosafus

[7] M”A 672:5 in name of Maaglei Tzedek; Chayeh Adam 154:20; M”B 6762:10; Kaf Hachaim 672:24

[8] The reason: As the entire lighting today is done only one’s family, and not to the people outside. [Tur; M”B 672:9]

[9] Rama 672:2 “Some Poskim however rule that today since anyways the lighting is done inside the house, there is no obligation to be careful to light on time, nevertheless it is best to be careful to light within the time even today.”; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv; Igros Kodesh 14:184; 10:153 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:265]

Other customs: There are many Tzadikkei Polin which would intentionally light much time past nightfall due to there being a greater publication of the miracle at that time. [Nimukei Orach Chaim 672; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4 footnote 18]

[10] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:1

[11] Beis Yosef; Bach; Magen Avraham 672:1; Elya Raba 672:1; Kneses Hagedola 672:1; Mamar Mordechai 672:1; Chayeh Adam 154:18; Derech Hachaim 2; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 7; M”B 672:1; Kitzur SH”A 139:10; Kaf Hachaim 672:2; So is the custom of the Sefaradim; Custom of Chazon Ish is to light by Tzeis Hakochavim of Geonim [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:234] Custom of Gur [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

The reason: The Beis Yosef explains that the end of sunset means after nightfall and so rules Magen Avraham 672:1. Nightfall here in the Michaber refers to nightfall of Rabbeinu Tam. However, we rule in accordance to the nightfall of the Geonim. See coming footnotes. According to these opinions, one is not to light the candles before nightfall, during Bein Hashmashos, as we do not view this period of time as a questionable Rabbinical time of which we rule leniently. [P”M 672 A”A 1; Kaf Hachaim 672:2]

If one is in doubt if nightfall arrived: If one is in doubt as to whether nightfall has arrived, he is to light the candles, as it is better to light earlier than later. [Chayeh Adam ibid]

[12] See the end of this Halacha for sources; Maariv should be davened either before nightfall, for those accustomed to do so, or right after nightfall before lighting.

[13] P”M 672 A”A 1; Biur Halacha 672 “Lo Meachrim”

[14] Bahag; Ran; Rashba; Meiri; brought in Gr”a, Peri Chadash 672:1; Custom of Kneses Hagedola on Tur; M”B 672:1; See Biur Halacha 672:1 “Velo Makdimim”; The custom of Jerusalem Jewry [Yishuv Hayashan] based on the Gr”a is to light immediately after sunset

[15] Bein Hashmashos begins immediately after sunset. [In accordance to our ruling to follow the Geonim] However, in the ruling of the Michaber, this Bein Hashmashos refers to the time of Rabbeinu Tam, as the Michaber in his Shulchan Aruch 261:1 rules like Rabbeinu Tam. The Bein Hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam begins 15 minutes prior to nightfall and his nightfall begins 72 minutes after sunset. [M”B 672:1] Hence, according to this opinion, the candles are to be lit 15 minutes prior to nightfall. The reason this opinion interprets “after sunset” as Bein Hashmashos is because according to Rabbeinu Tam there are two sunsets. Hence, they interpret “the end of sunset” to refer to the end of the first sunset prior to the start of the 2nd sunset, which is approximately 15 minutes prior to nightfall. According to the opinion of the Geonim that Bein Hashmashos begins immediately after sunset, which is the final ruling today, one is to light the Menorah immediately after sunset. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:1; See Az Nidbaru 7:70]

[16] This is opposed to those who Daven Maariv while it is still day, as was a common custom in those times, and is likewise opposed to one who Davens Maariv only later on at night.

[17] Mor Uketzia; Custom of Gr”a; Machazik Bracha 672:3 “One who does so does not lose out”; Shaareiy Teshuvah 672:2; M”B 672:1; Biur Halacha 672:1 “Lo Meachrin”; Igros Moshe 4:101; Kaf Hachaim 672:5 concludes it all depends on whether one can make it home with enough time to light prior to the passing of a half hour, and if one can’t, then he should follow the above ruling and light before nightfall.

The reason: As a) If one waits until after Maariv he has delayed from the main time of Tzeis Hakochavim; b) As many Poskim hold one is to light before Tzeis Hakochavim and c) Perhaps even according to the Tur/Michaber one can light within a half hour before Tzeis Hakochavim, d) According to the Rambam, it can be learned that one is to light exactly at sunset, and if a half hour passes after sunset it is no longer valid. [Biur Halacha ibid]

[18] Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 908

[19] Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; Hayom Yom  25th Kisleiv; Igros Kodesh 14:184; 10:153 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:265]

The reason: This is done in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to all opinions. [Igros Kodesh 10:153; printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:266; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:280]

[20] M”B 672:1; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English] that we place in oil for 50 minutes; Igros Kodesh 10:153; Shulchan Menachem 3:266; See Eretz Tzevi; Az Nidbaru 7:70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:1 that one is to place enough oil in at least one candle to last 30 minutes past nightfall of Rabbeinu Tam

[21] Michaber 672:2; Shabbos ibid

[22] Michaber ibid “Until Shetichleh Regel Min Hashuk which is around a half hour”

The reason:  As within a half hour after nightfall people are on the streets and pass by one’s home and hence the miracle becomes publicized. [Michaber ibid]

[23] M”B 671:5 in name of Peri Chadash

Background: From the letter of the law, it must only be lit until a half hour after nightfall, even if the candle itself will not be lit for a half hour, due to it being lit sometime after nightfall. [M”A 672:2-3; M”B 671:5 in name of Peri Chadash] Nevertheless, this only applied in the times of the Gemara. However, today, that we light inside and the publication of the lighting is mainly directed towards one’s family and not towards the public, therefore, the candle is always to remain lit for a half hour, irrelevant of when it was lit. [Peri Chadash; P”M 672 A”A 2; M”B 671:5; Kaf Hachaim 672:15]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that today, when lighting after the proper time, it is not necessary for the candles to last a half hour, or until a half hour passes from nightfall. [Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[24] Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; 6:86; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:390; Mishneh Halachos 4:79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4; See Bnei Yisachar, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 16 for a similar ruling

[25] Or Letziyon 1:45

[26] Beir Heiytiv 672:2 in name of Kneses Hagedola; Shvus Yaakov 2:40; Shaareiy Teshuvah 672:2; M”B 672:1; Biur Halacha 672:1 “Lo Miachrin”; Kitzur SHU”A 139:10; Kaf Hachaim 672:5; Shulchan Menachem 3:266

The reason: As Maariv is a more common Mitzvah [Tadir] and includes the recital of Shema which is Biblical and hence takes precedence. [Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; M”B ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to first light and then Daven Maariv. [M”A 672:5 in name of Kneses Hagedola, P”M 672 A”A 1 that leaves this matter in question]

[27] M”B 672:1; Kaf Hachaim 672:6

The reason: As if they delay lighting until after Maariv and only then begin to set up the candles, there is strong worry that the time of lighting will pass by the time they light. [ibid]

[28] Shagas Aryeh 22; Yeshuos Yaakov 679; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:338; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:3

[29] Maharsham 9:38

[30] Michaber 672:2; Tur 672; Ravayah 972; Hagahos Maimanis brought in M”A 672:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that once a half hour has passed after nightfall, the Mitzvah can no longer be fulfilled. [Rambam Chanukah 4:5, brought in Tur 672] Others rule it is questionable whether one can still fulfill the Mitzvah. [Tosafus Shabbos 21, Implication of Rosh ibid, brought in Beis Yosef 672, and M”A 672:6] Other Poskim rule that one must light the candles prior to midnight, and hence once midnight has arrived, the Mitzvah can no longer be fulfilled. [Rashal 85 brought in M”A ibid; Taz 672:1]

[31] M”A 672:6 that so is implication of Michaber ibid; Peri Chadash 672; Chemed Moshe 672:3; Machazik Bracha 672:2; M”B 672:11

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one must light the candles prior to midnight and hence when lighting after midnight one may not recite a blessing. [Rashal 85 brought in M”A ibid; Taz 672:1] Other Poskim rule one may never light the candles with a blessing, after 30 minutes pass after midnight. [Tosafus Shabbos 21, Implication of Rosh ibid, brought in Beis Yosef 672, and M”A 672:6]

[32] Hagahos Maimanis brought in M”A 672:6; M”B 672:11

May one light with a blessing within 30 minutes before Alos? See Q&A!

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may light the candles even after Alos, so long as it is still dark outside. [Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:119]

[33] Michaber ibid

Is the lighting past nightfall included in the initial Mitzvah, or it is Tashlumin? Some Poskim explain that the initial Mitzvah can only be fulfilled until a half hour past nightfall, and the lighting of later on is merely a status of Tashlumin. [Ravayah 972; Shut Magidos 2:163]

[34] M”A 672:6; Hagahos Maimanis

[35] M”A ibid; Elya Raba 672:3; Chayeh Adam 154:19; Derech Hachiam 2; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 7; Kitzur SHU”A 139:10; M”B 672:11; Kaf Hachaim 672:26

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may light with a blessing up until Alos Hashachar even if he is alone and all his family members are asleep. [Chemed Moshe 672:3] Some Poskim conclude that one who is lenient like this opinion is not to be protested against. [Shaar Hatziyon 672:17; Igros Moshe 4:105; Mishpat Leyaakov 36; Chazon Ovadia]

[36] Chemed Moshe 672:3; M”B 672:11;

[37] Ben Ish Chaiy ibid that so long as two people are awake, it may be lit with a blessing; Kaf Hachaim ibid; However the Chemed Moshe ibid writes one is to wake up 2-3 family members. In any event, the Chemed Moshe rules one can say a blessing even if no family members are present.

[38] Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; 6:86; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:390; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4; See Bnei Yisachar, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 16 for a similar ruling

[39] Mishneh Halachos 4:79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4

[40] P”M 672 A”A 3; M”B 671:5; Kaf Hachaim 672:15

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that when lighting after the proper time it is not necessary for the candles to last a half hour. [Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[41] Michaber 672:2

Other opinions: From some Poskim it can be understood that one is able to light Chanukah candles even the next day, with a blessing, as a form of Tashlumin. Vetzaruch Iyun [See Ravayah 972 who compares it to Tashlumin of Tefila; See Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:119 who permits past Alos until light]

[42] Michaber ibid

[43] Hagahos Maimanis brought in M”A 672:6; M”B 672:11

May one light with a blessing within 30 minutes before Alos? See Q&A!

[44] Meaning that if the next night is the 2nd night of Chanukah, then he is to light two candles, and on the third night he is to light three candles. We do not say that for this person the second night is considered the first night. [M”B 672:12; Darkei Moshe]

[45] Rama ibid; Maharil; Aguda

The reason: The Mitzvah of lighting candles each night is not similar to the Mitzvah of Sefiras Haomer, as there is a separate Mitzvah each night to light candles, unlike Sefiras Haomer which is a Mitzvah that is dependent on the completeness of the count. [Beis Yosef; Levush; Biur Hagr”a; Kaf Hachaim 672:27]

[46] Ruach Chaim brought in Kaf Hachaim 672:29

[47] Michaber 672:1

[48] M”B 671:2; Kaf Hachaim 672:8

[49] Mahariy Abuhav

[50] Peri Chadash 672:1; Birkeiy Yosef 672; M”B 672:3 in name of Peri Chadash ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to recite a blessing when lighting prior to sunset. [Miseches Sofrim 20:2; M”A 672:1; Siddur Beis Oved 1; Tefila Ledavid; Chida in Kisei Rachamim chapter 20; Kaf Hachaim 672:10]

[51] M”B 672:3

This means that one calculates the amount of day hours in the day and then divides that by 12. One then times that by 1.25 hours, which is the number of hours in Plag Hamincha [1 hour and 15 minutes]. Thus, if there are 14-day hours in the day, then each hour when divided into 12 contains 70 minutes, and thus Plag Hamincha would be 1.25 hours times 70 minutes which equals 87.5 minutes prior to sunset. 

[52] Admur in Siddur Hilchos Kerias Shema and 443:4 [that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset]; Ketzos Hashulchan 27:4; 74:11 and footnote 25; 76:1; So also rules Gr”a; Chok Yaakov and other Poskim

Background: Admur in the Siddur in Hilchos Kerias Shema and 443:4 rules the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset, and so is the custom today of all Jewry. In accordance to this calculation, Plag Hamincha is 1 and ¼ hours prior to sunset, and so rules Ketzos Hashulchan ibid. See also Admur in 261:5; 443:4.

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In 263:6 Admur rules that Plag Hamincha is 1 hour and 15 minutes before nightfall. This is based on 58:3; 89:1 in which Admur rules the day is from Alos until Tzeis. Likewise, in 261:5 where Admur rules that although one may be stringent to accept Shabbos from 1 and ¼ hours prior to sunset, he may not be lenient to light candles until 1 and ¼ hours prior to nightfall. However, in Admur 443:4 he rules it is counted from sunrise until sunset and so rules Admur in the Siddur.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule Plag Hamincha is 1.25 Zmaniyos hours prior to nightfall. [Chayeh Adam 154:18; M”B 672:3; 679:2; 692:13; Kaf Hachaim 672:9; 692:29]

[53] Bach; Kaf Hachaim 672:7

[54] P”M 672 A”A 1; Shaar Hatziyon 672:4; Kaf Hachaim 672:11

[55] Pashut; Kaf Hachaim 672:1; See M”B 672:4

[56] Michaber ibid

The reason: As the candles must remain lit during the night time, which is when the publication of the miracle is achievable. [M”B 672:4]

[57] P”M 672 A”A 1; M”B 672:4; Kaf Hachaim 672:12

The reason: One does not say a blessing, as perhaps it suffices if the candle remains lit for a half hour during Plag Hamincha, as the entire allowance to light the candles during Plag is because we consider it as night. [P”M ibid]

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule one is to relight the candles with a blessing. [Chayeh Adam 154:18, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[58] See Igros Kodesh 14:184; 10:153 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:265] based on Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv that we are particular to light 50 minutes total in order so it be lit for a half hour after nightfall. This implies that the candles should be lit for at least 20 minutes before nightfall. Seemingly the reason for this is in order so the first half hour of the lighting extend into Tzeis Hakochavim. Vetzaruch Iyun. Reply of Harav Groner “Our custom to light about ten-fifteen minutes after the Shekia to let them burn for fifty minutes. “; See Hiskashrus 752 footnote 15

[59] Reply of Rav Eliyahu Landa Shlita, that so is the custom of Anash, and so was the custom of his father to look at the clock and light immediately after sunset. This is seemingly the best custom as a) It fulfills the Mitzvah according to all opinions, as some require the lighting to take place immediately after sunset. b) The candles are lit approximately 20 minutes before nightfall, as is the Chabad custom, as stated above.

[60] Reply of Rav Groner ibid that so is our custom; So rules: Igros Moshe 4:101; Az Nidbaru 7:70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:1 footnote 5;

[61] Heard from many of Anash in Yerushalayim area, and so testified to me Harav Asher Lemel Hakohen

[62] Nitei Gavriel 3:4

[63] Nitei Gavriel 3:10 based on Makor Chaim 672:1; Minhagei Wormz p. 240, Machzor Maglei Tzedek, brought in M”A 672:5; Hiskashrus Chanukah

[64] Birchas Habayis 54:6

[65] So seems Pashut as otherwise the family will miss out on the lighting and on the Pirsumei Nissa. [Nitei Gavriel 9:8]

[66] Machatzis Hashekel 677:1; Nitei Gavriel 9:8

[67] Rashal 85 [Thus, even according to Rashal who holds one cannot negate being Yotzei with his wife’s lighting when he is away from home, even if he has in mind, one can negate being Yotzei with his wife when they are both at home, as is the classical rule of Mehadrin. See Machatzis Hashekel 677:1]; See Birchas Habayis 54 footnote 10 that if he did not have anything in mind, then if upon his return home he does not desire to be Yotzei with his wife’s lighting, he may light the candles. No mention however is made regarding the blessing

[68] M”A 677:1; Chayeh Adam 154:34; M”B 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:7

The reason for the doubt: On the one hand, perhaps he can no longer light with a blessing being that his wife was Motzi him, as ruled in 677:1. On the other hand, perhaps we only say that he is automatically Yotzei with his wife if he knew she would be lighting, otherwise we say there is an Anan Sahadi that he does not intend to be Yotzei with her. [Machatzis Hashekel ibid] In the event that we assume he is not Yotzei it should be permitted to light with a blessing due to the law of Mehadrin, just like we permit the wife to light, if she so chooses, despite her husband’s lighting. [See M”B 675:9; Nitei Gavriel 9:8] However, since perhaps he is Yotzei, being he had nothing in mind, therefore, the above Poskim conclude to light without a blessing. [Machatzis Hashekel ibid]

[69] Mikraeiy Kodesh Chanukah 11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:4

[70] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:337

[71] Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:2

[72] Shevet Halevi 4:66

[73] Shevet Halevi 4:66

[74] Chovas Hador Chanukah 1 footnote 50

[75] Shevet Halevi 4:66; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:2 footnote 13

[76] Shevet Halevi 4:66; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:2 footnote 13

[77] See Halacha above; Yeshuos Yaakov 681:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:3

[78] Shevet Halevi 8:156 based on Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:119; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5; See Nitei Gavriel 3:19 who writes [on his own basis] that one may only light with a blessing up until a half hour before Alos, as the candle is required to light for a half hour. However, from the Setimas Haposkim ibid it implies that this is not necessary. See Kaf Hachaim 672:15 that not all Poskim agree that the candles must light for a half hour when lit after the time, and perhaps Bedieved, all Poskim agree this is not necessary.

[79] Toras Menachem 15:314; See Igros Kodesh 24:280; Sefer Haminhagim p. 70 footnote 10

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