See Chapter 1 Halacha 10 for the full details of this subject!
One does not recite a blessing over Tzitzis at night even if one is wearing a pair of Tzitzis that is designated to be worn during the day. The definition of night; what time it begins and what time it ends, will be explained in B-C!
Wearing night Tzitzis during the day: One does not recite a blessing over a pair of Tzitzis that is designated to be worn only at night even when the Tzitzis is worn during the day.
B. From what time in the morning may the blessing over Tzitzis be recited?
In the morning, one may begin to recite a blessing over a Tallis Gadol/Katan from when there is enough light outside to be able to distinguish between the Techeiles and Lavan strings of the Tzitzis. Some opinions rule that this above mentioned time is the same time in which there is enough light that one can recognize an acquaintance which is not often seen, from a distance of four Amos. [This time period is formally known as “Mi-Sheyakir”. Other Poskim however rule one may say the blessing starting from Alos. Practically, we do not follow this opinion and a blessing may not be recited until the time of Mi-Sheyakir has arrived. The exact time of Mi-Sheyakir is disputed and fluctuates based on city and time of year. See Q&A below for the full details on this subject! Practically, to verify the exact time of Mi-Sheyakir in one’s city for that day, one is to look at a Jewish calendar/Luach that lists his location and his custom.]
May one wear a Tallis Gadol/Katan prior to the time of Mi-sheyakir, without a blessing? It is permitted [even initially] to wear the Tallis Gadol/Katan without a blessing prior to Mi-Sheyakir. [In such a case, when the time of Mi-Sheyakir arrives, he is to shake the fringes of the Tallis and then say a blessing over it, as explained next.]
Wearing a Tallis Gadol/Katan prior to Alos: In the event that one wears Tzitzis [whether a Tallis Katan or Gadol] prior to Alos Hashachar, such as during the days of Selichos [in which the Chazan wears a Tallis Gadol at night], one is not to say a blessing over it at that time [as explained above]. [Nevertheless, initially one is not to wear a Tallis Gadol while it is still night [prior to Alos], with exception to the nights of Selichos and other cases explained in Chapter 1 Halacha 10B See there! However a Tallis Katan may even initially be worn at night without a blessing.]
Saying the blessing when Mi Sheyakir arrives: In the event that the Tallis was worn before Mi-Sheyakir without a blessing, then when it is light enough outside to say a blessing, one is to shake the fringes of the Tallis and then say a blessing over it. One cannot say the blessing without first shaking the Tzitzis. [After the blessing one is to look at the Tzitzis and kiss them.]
A blessing may be recited over Tzitzis [whether a Tallis Gadol or Katan] starting from Mi-Sheyakir. To verify the exact time of Mi-Sheyakir for that day, one is to look at a Luach that contains the times of one’s geographical location. Prior to Mi-Sheyakir, it is permitted to wear the Tallis Gadol/Katan without a blessing. When the time of Mi-Sheyakir arrives, he is to shake the fringes of the Tallis and then say a blessing over it. After the blessing one is to look at the Tzitzis and kiss them. Prior to Alos, one is not to wear a Tallis Gadol even without a blessing, although a Tallis Katan may be worn without a blessing.
Practically, when is the exact time of Mi-shayakir?
The exact time of Mi-Sheyakir is difficult to ascertain, and there are various opinions in its regard. Practically, the widespread custom in Jerusalem/Eretz Yisrael is to consider Mi Sheyakir exactly 60 minutes before sunrise throughout all times of the year, although other customs do exist. The widespread custom in the Diaspora is to consider Mi Sheyakir either from when the sun is 12.9 Degrees from the horizon, or 11.5 degrees from the horizon. Practically, each person is to follow a calendar that contains the listing of his city, and follows the Halachic opinion that he is accustomed to follow. There is no known Chabad custom in this regard.
If one wore the Tzitzis with a blessing before Mi Sheyakir is the blessing to be repeated when Mi Sheyakir arrives?
No. This applies even if he transgressed and wore the Tzitzis with a blessing before Alos.
C. Until what time during the day may the blessing over Tzitzis be recited?
The blessing over Tzitzis may be recited until the beginning of Bein Hashmashos, which is until sunset. Once the beginning of sunset has commenced, a blessing may no longer be recited upon wearing Tzitzis.
Davened Maariv early: In the event that one Davened Maariv early, past Plag Hamincha but prior to sunset, a blessing may no longer be recited upon wearing Tzitzis even if it is still before sunset.
May one wear the Tallis without a blessing? It is permitted to put on a Tallis Katan without a blessing, even at night. However a Tallis Gadol may not be worn at night [past sunset] with exception to those cases brought in Chapter 1 Halacha 10C See there!
May a blessing be recited if one is unsure if sunset has arrived?
D. Is a blessing said in the morning over a Tallis Katan that one wore at night?
- Example: One said a blessing on his Tzitzis yesterday and slept with that Tzitzis at night. One plans to wear this Tzitzis also today. Is he to recite a blessing over it?
- Example: One said a blessing on his Tzitzis yesterday and remained awake throughout the night wearing this Tallis Katan. Is a blessing said over it in the morning?
If one did not remove his Tallis Katan at night [and he had worn it that day with a blessing], a blessing is not to be recited over this Tallis in the morning. This applies even if the Tallis Katan is a day garment; one’s day pair of Tzitzis that he happened to wear throughout the night. [This applies even if one removes the Tzitzis and re-wears it in the morning, unless a validating interval was made, as explained in Halacha 15.]
Saying a blessing on another Tallis: Despite the above, it is proper for one to recite a blessing on a different pair of Tzitzis and have in mind to include within the blessing also the pair that he slept with and is still wearing. [Alternatively, he is hear the blessing over a Tallis from another person. If one wears a Tallis Gadol for Davening, such as one who is married, then upon saying the blessing over the Tallis Gadol he is to intend to exempt the Tallis Katan.]
One who wore a Tallis throughout the night is not to recite a blessing over the Tallis in the morning. However, he is to try to include the blessing of this Tallis within a blessing said over another Tallis.
If one changed his Tallis Katan at night, may he recite a blessing over it in the morning?
Yes. If one switched his Tallis Katan at night and thus did not make a blessing on it [due to the night] then a blessing may be said in the morning after shaking the Tzitzis. See B above and Halacha 11!
If one transgressed and wore a pair of Tzitzis at night with a blessing, is a blessing to be repeated in the morning if he plans to wear the Tzitzis that day?
If at night one slept with his Tzitzis and is wearing it the next day, may a blessing be recited after Mikveh or after taking a shower?
No, as explained in Halacha 15!
Some Poskim rule the Mitzvah of Tzitzis does not apply at all at night to any garment although it does apply to night garments that are worn during the day. Others however rule that a garment that is designated for only night use, is not obligated in Tzitzis even if worn during the day, while a day garment is obligated in Tzitzis even at night. Practically, due to this being a Biblical dispute which has not been arbitrated, one is to be stringent like both opinions. Thus, a blessing may only be recited over Tzitzis that are day garments, or day and night garments, and only when they are worn during the day. [Admur ibid; See Chapter 1 Halacha 10 for the full details of this subject!]
 Siddur Admur; Admur 18/6 in his Lechatchila opinion; Michaber 18/3; Biur Gr”a 18; Chayeh Adam 11/3; Kitzur SHU”A 9/9; Keren Ledavid 4; Kaf Hachaim 18/20; M”B 18/10; Igros Moshe 4/7
Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch and other opinions: In 18/6 Admur records a dispute on this matter: The first opinion, recorded as a “Yeish Omrim”, rules as mentioned above that we follow the time when Techeiles can be distinguished. [This is the opinion of the Michaber ibid and Rambam Tzitzis 3/8] Admur then mentions a second opinion which states that the blessing may be said beginning from Alos [Amud Hashachar]. [This follows the opinion of the Rama 18/3 and Mordechai Megillah 801] The reason for this is because starting from Alos one is able to see the Tzitzis, and although he is not yet able to differentiate between the Techeiles and the white, nevertheless he may say a blessing, being that the obligation of donning the Tzitzis has already begun. [Admur ibid] Practically, Admur 18/6 concludes that although the custom is like this latter opinion, nevertheless initially it is proper to beware not to wear the Tallis with a blessing until there is enough light to differentiate between the Techeiles and white strings. [Admur ibid; Elya Raba 18/5; M”B 18/10] In the Siddur however Admur completely omits this latter opinion and so rules [like the first opinion] Michaber ibid; Biur Gr”a 18; Chayeh Adam 11/3; Kitzur SHU”A 9/9; M”B 18/10; Keren Ledavid 4; Kaf Hachaim 18/20; Igros Moshe 4/7. Vetzaruch Iyun why we do not apply a Sfek Sfeka Lihachmir in this case as a) Perhaps we rule like the Rosh that a Tallis is obligated in Tzitzis even at night, and b) perhaps it is already day with regards to Tzitzis. [See Ketzos Hashulchan 7 footnote 3 that Admur ruled this way regarding Bein Hashmashos] Perhaps the reason is because according to all one may not initially enter himself even into a Safek Sfeka of a bracha, Vetzaruch Iyun.
 Siddur ibid as the Stam opinion; Admur 18/6 as “Yeish Omrim” and concludes that initially one is to beware to follow this opinion; This is the opinion of the Rambam Tzitzis 3/8 and so rules Michaber 18/3 and Poskim ibid
The reason: As the verse states “And you shall see it”, hence teaching us that from the time of the visibility of the Tzitzis, and the ability to differentiate between the Techeiles and the white, begins the obligation to wear Tzitzis on the four cornered garment. [Admur 18/6; Levush 18/3] Alternatively, this follows the time of saying Shema, which is Misheyakir. [Mishneh Brachos 9b; Kesef Mishneh on Rambam ibid]
 2nd opinion in Siddur ibid; Ramban Brachos 1/2 brought in Bach 58; M”B 18/9
 Meaning, they do not argue on the actual time of morning, but rather simply state that another way of telling if the time has arrived [especially today when we do not wear Techeiles] is when one can recognize an acquaintance from the distance of four Amos. [Chidushei Tzemach Tzedek on Brachos 1/2; M”B ibid] However see P”M 30 M”Z 1 that holds in truth it is considered two different times, and that this time is later than the time of recognizing the difference between the white and Techeiles.
 Mordechai Megillah 801; Rama ibid; 2nd opinion in Admur 18/6; See above “Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch and other opinions”
 Based on Siddur Admur which omits this opinion, as does the Ketzos Hashulchan 7/2; So also rules: Michaber ibid; Biur Gr”a 18; Chayeh Adam 11/3; Kitzur SHU”A 9/9; Keren Ledavid 4; Kaf Hachaim 18/20; Igros Moshe 4/7; M”B 18/10
Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: Admur 18/6 concludes that although the custom is like this latter opinion, nevertheless initially it is proper to beware not to wear the Tallis with a blessing until there is enough light to differentiate between the Techeiles and white strings.
 Kaf Hachaim 18/18
 One needs to use a calendar that shows the times of a) his geographical location and b) the accustomed opinion that his community rules accordingly regarding the time of Mi Sheyakir.
 Implication of Admur 18/6 that the prohibition is only regarding saying a blessing, however one may wear it without a blessing; So also rules: Elya Raba 18/5; M”B 18/10; P”M 18 A”A 4; Igros Moshe 2/7; The novelty of this ruling is that we do not say that one may not wear the Tzitzis if he cannot say a blessing over it at that time, and also that it is not forbidden to wear a Tallis Gadol at that time, even though we do not wear a Tallis Gadol at night.
 Implication of Admur 18/6 [regarding a Tallis Gadol]; Siddur Admur [regarding Tallis Katan] “And even if he removed it and then put it back on at night there is no prohibition of Baal Tosif”; Igros Moshe Y.D. 2/137; Kaf Hachaim 8/1; See Tehila Ledavid 18; Piskeiy Hasiddur 42
Other opinions: Some rule one may never initially put on a Tallis [whether Katan or Gadol] at night until Mi Sheyakir, as one may not enter oneself into a Safek Brachos Lihakel. [Taz 581/2; Mateh Efraim 581/14; M”B 581/6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 18 footnote 16 in name of Maharshal 68 that it is forbidden to do a Mitzvah without a blessing] Some Poskim write that it is forbidden to wear a Tallis at night even without a blessing as one who wears a Tallis at night transgresses a Biblical positive command to wear it only during the day. [Rabbeinu Yeshaya brought in Birkeiy Yosef 18/1] The Shaareiy Orah [Rav Yosef Gegtalya] writes that wear the Tallis at night is a complete prohibition. [Beis David 9; Kaf Hachaim 18/12] The Arizal Shaar Hakavanos Derush 2 was very careful not to wear a Tallis at night. To note however that the above sources deal with a Tallis Gadol and not a Tallis Katan. Vetzaruch Iyun as to their opinion regarding a Tallis Katan
 Admur 18/7; Rama 18/3; Tashbatz 132
 Vetzaruch Iyun as to the novelty of this ruling? Why would one think it would be permitted to recite a blessing at night?
 Poskim in previous footnotes; See there for other opinions!
 Admur 18/7; Rama ibid; Tashbatz ibid; Elya Raba 18/6; Olas Tamid 18/8; Binyamin Zev 197
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to remove the Tallis completely and then replace it with a blessing. [Mordechai in Hilchos Tefillin; Mateh Efraim 581/14; Kaf Hachaim 18/23 “One who does so is blessed”; See Bach that shaking only helps by Tefillin and not by Tzitzis]
 Admur ibid states “Yair Hayom” as states Rama, which refers to Alos. However according to the final ruling of Admur in 18/6 and Siddur, one must wait until Mi Sheyakir in order to say the blessing.
 The reason why one is not required to remove the Tzitzis and re-wear it for the blessing: One who shakes the Tzitzis is considered like one who is wearing it anew. [Admur ibid and 8/20 and 29; 30/3 regarding Tefillin]
 The reason: If one does not shake the Tzitzis now prior to the blessing then the blessing may not be recited as one cannot say a blessing on the previous wearing which was worn before Alos Hashachar. [18/7] Vetzaruch Iyun if the emphasis here is that one cannot say a blessing on a previous wearing until he wears it anew, or the emphasis here is that one cannot say a blessing on a Tallis that was originally worn at night when one was not obligated in the Mitzvah.
 Makor Chaim 18
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 18/5
 This is dependent on various factors such as that 1) It must be a clear day without clouds and without snow, and without a bright moon or other street lights. 2) It is to be measured in a flat plane or on a mountain and not in a valley. [See Ashel Avraham Butchach 58; Nimukei Orach Chaim 58; Toras Chaim Sofer 58/2; Igros Moshe 4/6] 3) We no longer have Techeiles today to compare the white to. [See Aruch Hashulchan 18/9; Birchas Habayis 37/37; Shulchan Shlomo 18/2]
 Some hold it is exactly 60 minutes before sunrise. [Kaf Hachaim 18/18 as Minhag Yerushalayim; Sefer Eretz Yisrael of Rav Tukichinsky that so is custom of Sephardim] Others hold it is 52 minutes before sunrise. [Nivreshes p. 43 as custom of Eretz Yisrael] Others say it is 57 minutes before sunrise. Others say it is 42 minutes before sunrise. [See Birur Halacha 18 and Beis Baruch on Chayeh Adam 11] Others say it is 35-40 minutes before sunrise. [Igros Moshe 4/6] Others are lenient to consider Mi Sheyakir from 6 minutes after Alos. [Peri Megadim; Rav Ovadia Yosef]
 Kaf Hachaim ibid
 See previous footnotes!
 12.9 degrees corresponds to the opinion of 60 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem. 11.5 degrees corresponds to the opinion of 52 minutes from sunrise in Jerusalem. Some calendars measure from 11 degrees or 10.2 degrees from the horizon. [My Zmanim in opinion of Kovetz Otzros Yerushalayim]
 Chesed Lealafim 8/15; M”B 18/10; Kaf Hachaim 8/62; 18/22
 The reason: As perhaps we rule like the Rosh that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis applies at night. [ibid]
 Siddur Admur; Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos 51; Shaareiy Teshuvah; Mateh Efraim 619/7 [brought in M”B 18/7]; Kitzur SHU”A 131/17; Siddur Yaavetz; Aruch Hashulchan 18/9; Ketzos Hashulchan 7/2; Kaf Hachaim 18/21; Rav Akiva Eiger ibid leaves this matter in question
Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch and other Poskim: In the Shulchan Aruch 18/8 Admur rules that the blessing over Tzitzis may be recited until nightfall [Tzeis Hakochavim]. [Admur ibid; M”A 18/4] Meaning it may be recited even during Bein Hashmashos. [P”M 18 A”A 4; Machatzis Hashekel ibid; Rav Akiva Eiger ibid; Derech Hachaim brought in M”B 18/7; Ashel Avraham Butchach 18; Chayeh Adam 11/3; Birchas Habayis 37/31] The reason for this is because the Tzitzis is still able to be seen by others until Tzeis Hakochavim, and hence regarding the Mitzvah of Tzitzis the status of Bein Hashmashos retains the same status as daytime. [Machatzis Hashekel ibid; P”M ibid; Rav Akiva Eiger ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because this is a case of Safek Sfeka, as perhaps we rule like those opinions that say the Mitzvah of Tzitzis applies at night, and even if it we rule like the other opinions, perhaps it is not yet night. [P”M ibid; Rav Akiva Eiger ibid; see next footnote]
Ruling of Michaber: The Kaf Hachaim ibid leaves in question as to how the Michaber would rule in this issue.
 The reason why the blessing may not be said after sunset:
- As the time of Bein Hashmashos is questionably day or night, and according to some opinions, the Mitzvah of Tzitzis does not apply at night. Hence, a blessing may not be recited due to Safek Brachos Lihakel. Now, although this is a case of Safek Sfeka, in which case the rule of Safek Brachos Lihakel does not apply [as rules Admur 489/24-25; Terumos Hadeshen 37; most Poskim as recorded in Kaf Hachaim 17/7 and 489/80], nevertheless in the Siddur Admur retracted this ruling and holds that we apply Safek Brachos Lihakel even in the event of a Safek Sfeka. [Ketzos Hashulchan 7 footnote 3; Piskeiy Hassidur 42; Toras Menachem 5719 pages 230-233; This follows the ruling of the Lechem Chamudos Tzitzis 1; Peri Chadash 489 that even by Sfek Sfeka we say Lihakel, and so rules Mateh Efraim 619/7; Kitzur SHU”A 131/17; P”M Yoreh Deah 18 M”Z 16; Birkeiy Yosef 7/3; See Kaf Hachaim 17/7]
Tzaruch Iyun: Vetzaruch Iyun regarding if according to the Siddur the final ruling in the case of Sefira should also change?
- Alternatively, the reason is because in the Siddur, Admur rules like the Geonim, as opposed to Rabbeinu Tam. [Shaar Hakolel 16/3] The Ketzos Hashulchan in Piskeiy Hassidur negates this explanation stating it has no relevance to this issue.
- As according to Kabala, after sunset is no longer the time of Tzitzis. [Arizal ibid, brought in Piskeiy Hassidur 42 as a possible explanation in Admur]
 18/8; Rama 18/1
 The reason: As by Davening Maariv early the individual considered that time as night, and one may not say a blessing over Tzitzis at night. [Admur ibid] See also Admur 30/5 [regarding Tefillin]; 108/13 [regarding Tashlumin for Mincha]; 188/17 [regarding Yaaleh Veyavo]
 Implication of Admur 18/6; Siddur Admur “And even if he removed it and then put it back on at night there is no prohibition of Baal Tosif”; Igros Moshe Y.D. 2/137; Kaf Hachaim 8/1; See Tehila Ledavid 18; Piskeiy Hasiddur 42
Other opinions: Some rule one may never initially put on a Tallis [Gadol, and seemingly the same would apply to a Tallis Katan] at night until Mi Sheyakir, as one may not enter oneself into a Safek Brachos Lihakel. [Taz 581/2; Mateh 581/14; M”B 581/6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 18 footnote 16 in name of Maharshal 68 that it is forbidden to do a Mitzvah without a blessing] Some Poskim write that it is forbidden to put on a Tallis at night even without a blessing as one who wears a Tallis at night transgresses a Biblical positive command to wear it only during the day. [Rabbeinu Yeshaya brought in Birkeiy Yosef 18/1] The Shaareiy Orah [Rav Yosef Gegtalya] writes that wear the Tallis at night is a complete prohibition. [Beis David 9; Kaf Hachaim 18/12] The Arizal Shaar Hakavanos Derush 2 was very careful not to wear a Tallis Gadol at night. To note however that the above sources deal with a Tallis Gadol and not a Tallis Katan. Vetzaruch Iyun as to their opinion regarding a Tallis Katan. The Arizal certainly wore a Tallis Katan at night, although it is unclear if he would allow one to initially put it on at night.
The reason it is not forbidden due to Safek Brachos: Seemingly, although one is entering himself into a problem of Safek Brachos by putting on the Tallis, nevertheless it is permitted to wear it in order to fulfill the Mitzvah at all times, and for the other reasons mentioned for why we sleep with Tzitzis.
 M”B 18/7
 Kaf Hachaim 18/21
 The reason: As we rule Safek Brachos Lihakel even by a Sfek Sfeka. [ibid]
 8/27; 494/3; Tur 8; Bach; Taz 8/15; M”A 8/21; Elya Raba 8/18; M”B 8/42; Custom of Arizal [as brought in Kaf Hachaim 8/61]; Chesed Lealafim 8/7; Ben Ish Chaiy Bereishis 2; Kaf Hachaim 8/61
There is a dispute regarding if there is an obligation to have Tzitzis on a four cornered garment at nighttime, as explained in Halacha A. According to those which hold that there is an obligation of Tzitzis at night, then one cannot make a blessing upon awakening. The reason for this is because there was no time interval between the previous blessing made and his current fulfillment of the Mitzvah, as there was no span of time in which the garment was exempt from Tzitzis. Hence, the nighttime is not considered an interval at all and is rather like one long day. However, according to those which hold that at nighttime there is no obligation to place Tzitzis on a four cornered garment, then the blessing is to be repeated in the morning. The reason for this is because the garment went through a time period of exemption, which serves as an interval. Now, although he physically wore the Tzitzis throughout the night, nevertheless since it was exempt from Tzitzis during that time, it is considered as if he was not wearing the Tzitzis at all throughout the entire night. There is thus a long interval between the previous Bracha he made and his fulfillment of the Mitzvah in the morning, and a new blessing is therefore required. Practically, in compliance with the rule that when there is a dispute regarding the saying of a blessing, the blessing is not said, the blessing may not be said on the Tallis that he has woken up wearing. Nevertheless, in order to satisfy also the stringent opinion, one should try to wear another Tallis and upon saying the blessing on it have in mind also the Tallis that he is wearing. [8/27]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one who slept with a Tallis is to recite a blessing over it upon awaking in the morning. [Michaber 8/16] The Poskim ibid, negate this opinion, and so rules Admur, and so is the Sefardi ruling, unlike the Michaber, as Safek Brachos Lihakel. [See Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 If however he did not wear the Tallis Katan with a blessing the previous day, such as he forgot to say it, or he switched his Tallis Katan at night and thus did not make a blessing on it [due to the night] then obviously a blessing may be said in the morning.
 The reason: To suspect for those opinions that rule an interval from the previous blessing has not been made and hence a blessing is not required. [Admur ibid; see Background]
 See there that when replacing within three hours a blessing is not repeated unless one had decided not to wear it again until later and then changed his mind. [See M”B 8/42]
 Admur ibid; M”A 8/21; Chayeh Adam 12/8; M”B ibid; Chesed Lealafim 8/7; Ben Ish Chaiy Bereishis 2; Kaf Hachaim 8/61
 The reason: To suspect for those opinions that rule an interval has been made, and hence a blessing is required. [Admur ibid; see Background]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 7/7
 Ketzos Hashulchan ibid
 M”B 18/10; See Chesed Lealafim 8/15; Kaf Hachaim 8/62; 18/22
 The reason: As perhaps we rule like the Rosh that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis applies at night. [ibid]