This article is an excerpt from our Sefer
Buy me on Amazon.com
One who reads the Megillah is to recite three blessings prior to the reading. This applies by both the night and day reading. [See below regarding Shehechiyanu] If one forgot to say the blessings he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.
The three blessings are:
- Al Mikra Megillah […on the reading of the Megillah].
- Sheasah Nissim…
Is Shehechiyanu recited by the night and day reading? Some opinions rule that Shehechiyanu is only recited prior to the night reading and is not repeated prior to the day reading. Others rule it is to be recited prior to both the night and day readings, and so is the custom in all the Ashkenazi provinces. [Practically there is no set custom amongst Ashkenazim and Sefaradim and hence each community is to follow his custom. The Chabad custom is to say Shehechiyanu by both night and day.]
Having the other Mitzvahs in mind upon reciting Shehechiyanu: Upon reciting the blessing of Shehechiyanu by the day reading, it is proper to also have in mind the Mitzvah of eating the Purim meal and the Mitzvah of Mishloach Manos. [The Baal Korei is to be told to have this in mind on behalf of the listeners, prior to beginning the blessing. Some Poskim rule one is also to have in mind the Mitzvah of Matanos Laevyonim. However many Poskim omit this requirement. According to all one is not to refrain from giving charity prior to Davening due to the Shehechiyanu said later on before Megillah. See Q&A regarding Purim Meshulash.]
May one person say the blessings and another perform the reading? It is permitted to have one person say the blessings and another read the Megillah. [This applies for both the before and after blessings, as long as the person reciting the blessing has in mind to fulfill the obligation of the congregation. However, this may only initially be done if the person reciting the blessings is currently fulfilling his obligation with the reading, as will be explained in the next Halacha.]
Reciting the blessing for a women’s reading: When a woman reads the Megillah for herself some opinions rule that she is to word the first blessing as follows: Lishmoa Megillah .לשמוע מגילה [Some say she is to say Lishmoa Mikra Megillah. The same applies when a man who already fulfilled his obligation is reading the Megillah on behalf of women. However there are opinions which rule the wording of the blessing is the same as that of men “Al Mikra Megillah”. Some Poskim write that the custom is that women do not say any blessing when reading the Megillah or hearing it read from a man which already fulfilled his obligation. Practically the blessing of Leshmoa Megillah is to be recited. Although one is not to protest those that say the regular Nussach.]
Not to answer Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo: The listeners are not to say Baruch Hu Uvarach Shemo upon hearing Hashem’s name said in the blessing. In the event one said Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo it is possible that one has not fulfilled his obligation of the blessing. For this reason it is imperative to warn the public of this matter, as many are unaware of this.
The after blessing- Harav Es Riveinu:
After the completion of the reading it is accustomed to recite the blessing of Harav Es Riveinu. If one forgot to say this blessing he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.
If a Minyan is not present: The blessing of Harav Es Riveinu is only recited if there is a Minyan present. [However many Poskim argue that one is also to recite the after blessing when reading without a Minyan. Practically a blessing is not to be recited. However those communities that are accustomed to be lenient have upon whom to rely. The Chabad custom is not to say it. Some write one is to nevertheless say it without Hashem’s name. See Q&A regarding a women’s reading!]
May another person, other than the Baal Korei, say the blessing of Harav Es Riveinu? It is permitted to have another person say the after blessings so long as the person reciting the blessing has in mind to fulfill the obligation of the congregation.
Rolling up the Megillah after the reading: The Chabad custom is to delay the rolling of the Megillah until after the after-blessing is recited. See the previous Halacha for further details on this topic!
The recitation of Shoshanas Yaakov: [After the Megillah reading and final blessing] one needs to say [the paragraph of שושנת יעקב which states] cursed be Haman, cursed be Zeresh, cursed be all the evil doers, blessed be Mordechai, blessed be Esther, blessed be all the righteous. One is required to also say “and also Charvona is mentioned for good”.
The hymn of Asher Heini: The custom is to recite the paragraph of Asher Heini at night. It is not recited by the day reading. [The Chabad custom is not to recite the entire prayer of Asher Heini and only the final two stanzas of Shoshanas Yaakov and Teshuasam is recited. This part of the prayer is recited both by night and by day.]
One who reads the Megillah is to recite three blessings prior to the reading, both by night and day. He is to say the after blessing of Harav Es Riveinu if there is a Minyan present. The congregation recites Shoshanas Yaakov at the conclusion of the reading. The Megillah is rolled up only after the after blessing is completed.
Is the congregation to fulfill their obligation of the blessings with the reader or should they recite it themselves?
It is a Mitzvah for the entire congregation who is fulfilling the Mitzvah of hearing Shofar to hear the blessing from a single person. Either the person blowing the Shofar or reading the Megillah is to say the blessing on everyone’s behalf, or one of the participants who are listening is to say the blessing on everyone’s behalf. [Some Poskim however rule that it is best for each individual to recite the blessing himself rather than be Yotzei with the Chazan. Some Poskim rule that this is limited to one who is reading along in a Kosher Megillah. However, one who is reading along in a Chumash is to be Yotzei with the Chazan.]
Is one who says his own blessing to answer Amen for the Chazan’s blessing? Some Poskim rule that one is to recite the blessing prior to the Chazan and then answer Amen on the Chazan’s blessing. Others however rule that one may not answer Amen due to an interval, and hence is to say word for word with the Chazan.
If a mourner within Shiva is reading the Megillah is he to recite all three blessings?
Private reading: If the mourner is reading the Megillah only to himself then he is to recite the blessings, including Shehechiyanu.
Public reading: If he is reading the Megillah also for others then according to some Poskim he may not recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu, and he is thus to have another person recite the blessings prior to him beginning the reading. If however another reader is available then it is better to have that person say the blessings and perform the reading, in order so that the blessings and reading is performed by the same person. This is with exception to a case that the Avel is the annual Megillah reader or there is no one available that knows to read as well as him, as explained in Chapter 6 Halacha 16D in Q&A!
What blessing does a convert say?
Some rule a convert is to say the blessing of “Sheasa Nissim Liyisrael”. If however he said “Laavoseinu” he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. Others however rule that even initially a convert may choose to say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim Laavoseinu.
If in middle of the reading one remembers that he did not yet say one of the blessings what is he to do?
If one forgot to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu or Sheasa Nissim or Al Mikra Megillah prior to the reading, and remembered in the midst of the reading, some Poskim rule he is to stop the reading as soon as he remembers and then say the blessing and continue the reading. Others however rule that he is to wait until “Bein Haperakim” to say the blessing. Some Poskim rule that if one already read past the ten sons of Haman he may no longer recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu. Others rule one may say all the blessings until he concludes the reading.
Q&A on Shehechiyanu
If one does not have a Megillah available on Purim day is he to say Shehechiyanu over the Mitzvos of Mishloach Manos and Seudas Purim?
Some Poskim rule the blessing may not be recited. Other Poskim rule one is to say the blessing prior to the Purim meal. Others arbitrate that if one said Shehechiyanu at night then he may not repeat during the day, over the meal, however if he did not have a Megillah at night then possibly according to all the blessing may be said.
What is the law if one did not recite a blessing of Shehechiyanu by the day Megillah reading?
See previouds Q&A!
By the blessing of Shehechiyanu said by the Friday Megillah reading of Purim Meshulash, is the congregation to have in mind the Mitzvos of Purim that they will fulfill on Sunday?
Q&A on Harav Es Riveinu
May those that already heard Megillah join the Minyan for the recitation of the blessing of Harav Es Riveinu?
Yes. Some rule that even women may join the Minyan for this regard, as explained next.
By a women’s reading in which there are ten women present, may the blessing of Harav Es Riveinu be recited?
What is the law if the reading began with a Minyan and in the middle people left, may the after blessing still be recited?
Some write that it is still considered as if they have a Minyan and the after blessing may hence be recited.
May the congregation recite the blessing of Harav Es Riveinu quietly to themselves instead of being Yotzei with the Chazan?
Some have the custom to say the blessing themselves and not be Yotzei with the Chazan. This applies even if one did not read along in a Kosher Megillah. This should especially be followed if it is difficult to hear the Chazan’s recital of the blessing due to noise and the like. However if the listener talked prior to saying Harav Es Riveinu then he should be Yotzei with the reader’s blessing, as will be explained in Halacha 14. Practically the Chabad custom is to always be Yotzei the blessing with the reader.
May the blessing of Harav Es Riveinu be recited if the reader talked prior to reciting it?
Practically in such a case one of the listeners who did not talk should say the after blessing and fulfill the obligation for the reader and congregation. See Halacha 14 for the full details of this subject!\
| Standing near the Megillah reader:
It is proper to have two people stand near the reader of the Megillah, one to his left and another to his right.
| May one read Megillah for a crowd of men and women if there is no Mechitza?
· Example 1: One is reading Megillah in an auditorium and there is no ability to set up a Mechitza.
· Example 2: One is having a private reading in his home for women, can men which did not hear also join if there is no Mechitza?
One is to try to make arrangements ahead of time that there be a Mechitza separating between the men and women. If this is not possible the men and women are to sit on separate sides. Under no circumstances may the men and women sit mixed together. In cases of need always discuss the matter with a competent Rav.
 Michaber ibid
The reason: As the lack of blessings of a Mitzvah do not invalidate the Mitzvah from being fulfilled. [Levush; M”B 692/6]
 Why do we not say “Leshmoa Mikra Megillah” as we say by Shofar? As by Shofar the main Mitzvah is the hearing while by Megillah the main Mitzvah is the reading, and hence even if he did not hear the words that he is reading he fulfills his obligation. [Abudarham brought in Kaf Hachaim 692/2; However see Halacha 3 in Q&A!] Alternatively the reason is because it is not necessary to understand the words of the Megillah, and the words “Leshmoa” can be interpreted to mean “understand. [Elya Raba 692/1; Shulchan Gavoa 692/3; Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Michaber ibid based on Rambam; Admur in Siddur
The reason: As it is similar to the Mitzvah of Sukkah of which the blessing of Shehechiyanu is not repeated the next day. [Beis Yosef]
If one did not say Shehechiyanu the previous night: According to all if one did not recite Shehechiyanu the previous night then he is to say it by the day reading. [Nehar Shalom 692/1; Beis Oved 692/7; Kaf Hachaim 692/8]
 Rama ibid based on Rabbeinu Tam and Rosh; Mordechai; Shut Min Hashamayim 15; Tzemach Tzedek in Piskeiy Dinim [Lekutim 407/4]; Aruch Hashulchan 692/2
The reason: As the main Mitzvah of reading Megillah is by day. [M”A 692/2]
 Kaf Hachaim 692/13
The Ashkenazi custom: Although the Rama concludes that the custom of all Ashkenaz is to repeat the blessing, the Tur writes that this is not the custom hence implying that even in Ashkenazi communities it is not all encompassing. The Levush likewise writes that in Puzna [an Ashkenazi community] they do not repeat Shehechiyanu by day, and so rules Maaseh Rav 236; Admur in Siddur. [see Kaf Hachaim ibid]
The Sefaradi custom: Although the Michaber rules one is not to repeat the blessing the next day, nevertheless there are some Sefaradi communities that say the blessing, as writes Beis Yehuda 1 p. 107; Yifei Laleiv 2/4. Thus practically each community is to follow his custom. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 171 [English]; Piskeiy Dinim [Lekutim 407/4]; Shaar Hakolel 47/2
Background-Ruling of Admur in Siddur:
Admur rules in the Siddur that Shehechiyanu is not to be said by the Megillah reading of day, as rules the Michaber. Nevertheless the Tzemach Tzedek in Piskeiy Dinim [Lekutim 407/4] rules that despite this ruling one is to recite the blessing also by day and so is the Chabad custom. This was also the public ruling of the Tzemach Tzedek, and so followed all of his children, including the Rebbe Maharash. [See sources in Otzer Minhagei Chabad 132-134] As for the reason for the discrepancy between the two rulings, perhaps one can say that Admur himself was accustomed, as writes the Tzemach Tzedek, to recite the blessing also by day, and it is just that Admur rules doing so is not obligatory from the Talmud. [Shaar Hakolel ibid] Furthermore, Mishloach Manos which is done once a year, and specifically by day, likewise deserves a Shehechiyanu regardless of the obligation of the Megillah. Hence when one says the Shehechiyanu by day over Megillah he is also including the Mitzvah of Mishloach Manos. [Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2/293; Shulchan Menachem 3/327; See Shut Min Hashamayim ibid]
 Shelah brought in M”A 692/1
 M”A 692/1; Elya Raba 692/2; M”B 692/1
Those that do not say Shehechiyanu by day: Those that follow the ruling of the Rambam/Michaber and only recite Shehechiyanu by night are to have in mind the Mitzvos of Seudas Purim and Mishloach Manos upon reciting Shehechiyanu by night. [P”M 692 A”A 1]
 P”M 692 A”A 1; M”B 692/1
 P”M 692 A”A 1; Shulchan Shlomo 692/1; Chayeh Adam 154/27; Kitzur SH”A 141/12; Minhagei Chasam Sofer 9/65; Hiskashrus 1025
 The following Poskim all omit the Mitzvah of Matanos Laevyonim: Shlah; M”A ibid; M”B ibid; Derech Hachaim; Shut Min Hashamayim 15; Luach Grach Naah; See Betzeil Hachachmah 6/81
The reason: Some suggest the reason is because one may come to refrain from giving a pauper charity prior to Davening, being that he did not yet say Shehechiyanu. [Betzeil Hachochmah 6/81; See also Yesdo Veshoresh Havoda 12/20 and Siddur Yaavetz that one is to give the Mishloach Manos specifically prior to Davening in order so the paupers have time to prepare their Purim feast] Alternatively the reason is because Matanos Laevyonim is included within the Mitzvah of Tzedaka which is a constant Mitzvah and hence does not require a Shehechiyanu. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 692/5; Nitei Gavriel Purim 51 footnote 4]
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Yesod Veshoresh Havoda 12/6 and Siddur Yaavetz that one is to distribute Matanos Laevyonim prior to Davening. See Chapter 9 Halacha 4 Q&A!
 Rama ibid; Admur 213/6
 M”B 692/3; Or Zarua; Darkei Moshe; Hagahos Ashri; See Machazik Bracha 692/1
Other Opinions: The Ritva writes that the reader must say the blessings prior to the reading. However the after blessing may be said by another person. So rules also Zekan Ahron 60; Kaf Hachaim 692/14; brought in Shaar Hatziyon 692/6. Seemingly the reason behind the ruling of the Ritva is due to worry that perhaps the reader will change his mind and decide not to read the Megillah and hence the blessing was said in vain. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 692/2]
 Rama 689/2; Levush; Bach; M”A 692/5; M”B 692/11; Kitzur SH”A 141/16
 The reason: The reason for this is because a woman is not obligated to read the Megillah but rather to hear it. [Rama ibid]
 Chayeh Adam 155/11; M”B 689/8; Kaf Hachaim 689/18; Machazik Bracha 689/4; Aruch Hashulchan 692/7; Kinyan Torah 3/103
Other Opinions: The following Poskim record the previous Nussach of Lishmoa Megillah: Bach 690; M”A ibid; M”B 692/11 and Shaar Hatziyon 689/16; Siddur Derech Hachaim; Kitzur SHU”A 141/16; Luach Eretz Yisrael. The Beis Yosef brings in the name of Ravaya that one is to say Al Mishma Megillah.
 M”A ibid; M”B ibid
 Peri Chadash 689/2; Biur HaGr”a 689/5-7 and Maaseh Rav 246; Shulchan Gavoa 689/8; Machazik Bracha 689/4 brought in Kaf Hachaim 689/19; Marchesesh 1/22; Yabia Omer 1/44 [so is the Sefardi custom]
 Zechor Leavraham 3/4; Yifei Lalev 2/1; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 1; Kaf Hachaim 689/19; Shiyurei Kneses Hagedola 689/1 brings a dispute if women are obligated to read the Megillah.
 M”A 692/5; M”B 692/11; Kitzur SH”A 141/16
 Salmas Chaim 1/99
 124/2; Degul Merivava, Chayeh Adam and other Achronim brought in M”B 124/21; See Shraga Hameir 5/55; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585 footnote 29; 124/11 footnote 106; Mishneh Halachos 13/16
 The reason: Whenever a person is hearing a blessing with intent to fulfill his obligation, such as by Kiddush, Havdala and blessings over fruits and Mitzvos, he may not answer Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo, being that one who hears [and fulfills his obligation] is like one who is saying it himself and it is forbidden to make an interval in the midst of a blessing. [Admur 124/2 in parentheses]
 Admur ibid; Chayeh Adam brought in M”B 124/21; See Shraga Hameir ibid that in such a case he also missed the words “Elokeinu Melech Haolam of the person saying the blessing; See Minchas Elazar 1/20
The reason: It is possible that even Bedieved one does not fulfill his obligation as since he made an interval between Hashem’s name and Malchus with words that were not inserted by the Sages he has therefore swerved from the dialect of the blessings that was set by the Sages. [Admur ibid in parentheses]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one answered Baruch Hu Uvarach Shemo he nevertheless fulfills his obligation. [conclusion of M”B ibid; Mahram Shick 51; Birkeiy Yosef 213/3 in name of Mahrash Abuhav; Piskeiy Teshuvos 124/11 and 585/3]
 Michaber 692/1
This blessing of Harav Es Riveinu was not instituted by the Sages to be recited and is rather a custom dependent blessing. The Talmud [Megillah 21b] states that only those which are accustomed to say the blessing may do so. The Michaber hence rules here that today the custom in all places is to say it. [M”B 692/4]
The Nussach of the blessing: The Nussach of the blessing is brought in the Gemara ibid and in the Tur and other sources. There are slight discrepancies in the Nusach. The Gemara writes “Hanifra Liyisrael”. The Tur, Levush, Rokeaich, Kolbo and others write “Hanifra Leamo Yisrael”, and so writes Admur in the Siddur. Regarding the end of the blessing, the Rokeaich 237, Machzor Vitri 248 and Kol Bo write the word “Hakel Hanifra Leamo Yisrael”, and so rules Bach; Likkutei Maharich. However many argue that it is not to be said being one already said Hashem’s name in the blessing. [Ritva; Darkei Moshe 692/3; Elya Raba 692/4; Rambam; Levush; Siddur Rashash; Kaf Hachaim 692/15; M”B 692/5] However regarding the beginning of the blessing many write “Hakel Harav Es Riveinu”. [Machzor Vitri 248; Rambam; Ritva; Rokeaich ibid; Tur; Siddur Yaavetz; Siddur Rashash; Bach; Likkutei Maharich] Others however argue that one is not to say the word “Hakel”. [Tur in name of Rav Amram; Mordechai; Orchos Chaim; Levush; Kol Bo; Bach ibid [that the custom is not to say it]; Elya Raba ibid; Mamar Mordechai 692/2; M”B 692/5] Practically Admur in the Siddur does not write the word “Hakel” neither by the beginning or end of the blessing.
The six terms of battle: This blessing contains six terms of war which correspond to the six wars against Amalek. Harav Es Riveinu-the battle of Yehoshua against Amalek; Hadan Es Dineninu-Eihud who killed Eglon the king of Moav who was allied with Amaleik. Vehanokeim Es Nikmaseinu-Gidon; Vihanifra Lanu Mitzareinu-Shaul; Vihameshaleim Gemul Lechol Ayivei Nafsheinu-David; The conclusion of Hanifra Leamo Yisrael Mekol Tzareihem-Mordechai and Esther; Hakeil Hamoshia-The future destruction of Amaleik. [Abudarham; Elya Raba 692/4; Kaf Hachaim 692/17; See also Beis Yosef; Likkutei Maharich]
Sparks of Kabala: The five stanzas, excluding the conclusion, correspond to the five Gevuros which gave Divine retribution to Amaleik. [Shaar Hakavanos 109a; Peri Eitz Chaim 19/85; Siddur Rashash; Kaf Hachaim 692/17]
 Michaber ibid
The reason: As the lack of blessings of a Mitzvah do not invalidate the Mitzvah. [Levush; M”B 692/6]
 Rama 692/1; Beis Yosef 692 in name of Orchos Chaim in name of Yerushalmi; Admur in Siddur; Peri Megadim; Biur Halacha 692 “Ela Betzibur”; Yabia Omer 1/44
 The reason: The reason for this is because this blessing is merely said as a public thanksgiving and hence if there isn’t a Minyan present the publicity is not fulfilled. [Aruch Hashulchan 692/5]
 Drashos Mahril Purim; Shivlei Haleket; Radbaz 2/665; Erech Hashulchan 690/15; Elya Raba 692/8; Mamar Mordechai 692/4; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 13; Aruch Hashulchan 692/5 [that he has not found a source for this in the Yerushalmi or any of the Rishonim, and so is the custom to be lenient]; Implication of Michaber which does not record this ruling in his Shulchan Aruch-Kaf Hachaim 690/124; Kinyan Torah 3/103 in name of Pischeiy Olam, Pachad Yitzchak and Pischeiy Teshuvah.
 Admur in Siddur; Peri Megadim; Biur Halacha 692 “Ela Betzibur” as Safek Brachos Lihakel.
 The Kaf Hachaim ibid concludes that this matter is dependent on custom and hence each person is to follow the customs of the community that he derives from.
 Admur in Siddur; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p.172 that the directive for the public is not to say it.
The custom of the Rabbeim: The Chabad Rabbeim were accustomed to recite the after blessing of Harav Es Riveinu both by the night and day reading, even if a Minyan was not present. [Sefer Haminhagim ibid; Custom of Rebbe Rayatz as witnessed by the Rebbe in 1938, recorded in Igros Kodesh 13/337; Reshimos 177/4; Custom of Rebbe Rashab as testified by Rav Yaakov Landau, brought in Igros Kodesh ibid.] The Rebbe was accustomed to recite the blessings to himself both before and after the reading. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad 89]
 P”M 692 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 690/124 in order not to lose out from such a special blessing. This practice was not recorded by Admur in the Siddur.
 Rama ibid as explained in M”B 692/3; Or Zarua; Darkei Moshe; Ritva
Background: The hymn of Shoshanas Yaakov is the last two stanzas from the hymn of Asher Hini. See below.
 Explanation of Kabala: Upon saying Arur Haman one is to intend on the Samech Mem which is invested in him. Upon saying Baruch Mordechai he should intend for Yesod Aba. When he says Arura Zeresh he is to intend to Lilis which is invested in her. When he says Berucha Esther he is to intend on Yesod and Malchus. When he says Arurim Kol Hareshaim he is to intend on all the Kelipos that are invested in him. [Siddur Rashash; Kaf Hachaim 690/98]
 Some say one is to say Zeresh Vashti. [Avraham Azulai brought in Kaf Hachaim 690/99]
 Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 172; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 109 for the different dialects of Reshaim; Goyim; Ovdei Gelilim.
 Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 172; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 109 for the different dialects of Tzaddikim; Yisrael; Yehudim.
 Michaber ibid in name of Tur in name of Yerushalmi; Some have the custom of repeating “Vegam Charvona…” three times. [Birkeiy Yosef 690/10] Many however do not follow this custom. [Kaf Hachaim 690/98]
The reason of saying Zachor Latov: The Midrash [Midrash Raba 10/9; Pirkei Direbbe Eliezer 51] states that Churvona was impersonated by Eliyahu Hanavi. It is for this reason that we say Zachur Latov, as Eliyahu Hanavi is called Zachur Latov. [Drashos Mahril brought in Elya Raba 690/7; Kaf Hachaim 690/100] Other however explain that we are blessing Charvona himself and the reason for this is because there are opinions that say that he was Eliyahu and thus it ends up that his name is mentioned for blessing. [Elya Raba 690/13] The Chida brings in the name of the Gurei Arizal that Charvona is the Gematria of Pinchas Eliyahu with the Kolel. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] One is to specifically say all four words of “Vegam Charvona Zachor Latov”. [Yifei Laleiv 3/2]
 Rama 692/1
The hymn of Asher Heini was established by the Anshei Kneses Hagedola in accordance the letters of the Aleph Beis. [Machzor Vitri 248] Others say it was authored by a Rav Asher which was the first Jewish inhabitant of Worms. It contains one stanza per letter of the Hebrew alphabet. This hymn is brought in numerous Siddurim.
 As one has already recited Piyutim [Krovetz] during the Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis. [Levush; M”A 69/23; M”B 692/7] It is not the Chabad custom to recite Piyutim during Shemoneh Esrei.
 Admur in Siddur; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 108
 The reason: As Berov Am Hadras Melech, and we do not say in this acse that there is an advantage of increasing in necessary blessings, as when a group fulfills a Mitzvah together they are considered like one entity/body and it suffices for them to recite one blessing. Accordingly, if every individual says their own blessing it is not considered a required blessing at all, as their Mitzvah is considered like the Mitzvah of a single entity, and there is not so much of an advantage of increasing in blessings. Now, although saying individual blessings in such a case is not prohibited due to a blessing in vain [Bracha Sheiyno Tzericha], being that every individual is obligated in this blessing, and even now through hearing it it is as if they are saying it [and therefore are Yotzei], nevertheless, since there is no advantage in the increased amount of blessings, therefore one person is to say the blessing on everyone’s behalf to fulfill the advantage of Berov Am. [Admur ibid regarding Birchas Hanehnin, and he applies the same rule to Birchas Hamitzvos of a collective Mitzvah]
 Admur ibid; Implication of Taz 585 brought in Shaareiy Tziyon 585/24; M”B 589/4 in name of Achronim
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that initially the person who is blowing is always to say the blessing if he is currently also fulfilling his obligation. [Kaf Hachaim 589/12 and 585/38; Yoreh Deah P”M 1 M”Z 17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585/9]
 Yesod Veshoresh Havoda 12/4; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 11 [one is permitted to do so]; Rav Poalim 4/33 [testifies that this was his custom]; This was the custom of the Rebbe. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad 89]
The reason: As perhaps the listener will be unable to concentrate on the blessings due to the long blessing and melody recited by the Chazan. [Yesod Veshoresh Havoda ibid] Alternatively, the Chazan may not have proper intent to fulfill one’s obligation. [Rav Poalim ibid]
 Ben Ish Chaiy ibid; Tzitz Eliezer 11/48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 692/1
Other Opinions: The Yesod Veshoresh Havoda ibid learns that every person is to say the blessing himself, even if he does not have a Kosher Megillah.
 Yesod Veshoresh Havoda ibid
 Yalkut Yosef Moadim 5/295; See Panim Meiros 2/5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 167/11
 Kaf Hachaim 692/6; There is no prohibition for an Avel to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu. [M”A 551/42]
 M”B 692/1; Derech Hachaim 2; Kaf Hachaim 692/7; See regarding Chanukah: M”B 671/44; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671/7
The reason: As an Avel is not to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu on behalf of others. [ibid]
Other Poskim: Many Poskim permit the Avel to recite Shehechiyanu even by a public reading. [Teshuvah Meahava 2/286; Mishmeres Shalom ibid; Gesher Hachaim 23/4; Beis Yitzchak Yoreh Deah 2/158; Minchas Elazar 2/32; See Nitei Gavriel 37/4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 692/6]
 Kaf Hachaim 692/7; So rules also Mahril 22; Ikrei Daat 30/27; Mishmeres Shalom 50/3
 See Kaf Hachaim 692/6 that refers the reader to the ruling in the laws of Chanukah. The following is the ruling there:
 Kitzur SHU”A 139/12 regarding Chanukah
 Igros Harambam 9; Olas Shabbos 677/1; Elya Raba 677/2; Peri Chadash; Kaf Hachaim 677/4
 Nehar Shalom 692/1; Beis Oved 692/7
 M”B 692/6 as is the law by Shema
 Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 5 brought in Kaf Hachaim 692/8
 Nehar Shalom 692/1; Beis Oved 692/7; Regarding saying a blessing in middle of hearing Shofar the Kaf Hachaim 585/37 rules in name of the Peri Chadash that a blessing may be recited so long as one has not yet heard 30 blows. Furthermore some Poskim rule a blessing may be recited until the end of the blows of Musaf. [see Peri Haretz 9; Ikarei Daat 30/1; Bnei Yissachar 3/34] Seemingly based on this one can learn that the blessing over the Megillah may be recited so long as one has not yet completed the reading, even if he is by the last sentence.
 M”A 692/1; Elya Raba 692/2; P”M 692 A”A 2; Birkeiy Yosef 692/1; Chayeh Adam 154/7; Kaf Hachaim 692/5
 As eating a festive meal is done every Shabbos and Yom Tov and hence does not deserve a special blessing of Shehechiynau. [M”A ibid]
 Mahariy Malko brought in Birkeiy Yosef ibid; Mor Uketzia 692 [Is to say the blessing before the meal or even in the marketplace]; Siddur Yaavetz; See Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2/293; Shulchan Menachem 3/328
 M”B 692/1; Biur Halacha 692 “Vishehechiyanu”
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 692/5
 Levushei Mordechai 1/137; Chazon Ish 155/2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 690/12; 692/4
 See Mahriy Algazi in Kuntrus Chug Haaretz; Salmas Chaim 1/101; Implication of Peri Chadash and P”M 690 A”A 24; Chazon Ish 155/2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 695/4, 690/12 and Melaktim mentioned there, as they side that women do join a Minyan
 Halichos Bas Yisrael 22/14
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 690/12; See Admur 55/3-4
 Ashel Avraham Butchach 692; Tzitz Eliezer 11/48; Rav Poalim 4/33; Custom of Rebbe brought in next footnote.
 Tzitz Eliezer ibid
 Otzer Minhagei Chabad 104; Nevertheless the Rebbe himself was accustomed to recite this blessing to himself after the reading. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad 89]
 Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 12; Kaf Hachaim 692/1; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 82
 Heard from Rabbanei Anash; See Admur 315/3 regarding having a Mechitza during a Torah Shiur; See Hiskashrus 588 for a thorough analysis on the concept of a Mechitza and when it is required.
 As writes Admur ibid
 See Hiskashrus ibid in name of Rav Y.L. Groner that Avraham Fried was told by the Rebbe to only agree to give a concert if the men and women were on different sides.
 See Hiskashrus ibid that Rav Chadakav told Rav Ginzberg not to be fanatical and that if he is invited to speak in front of a modern or non-religious mixed crowd he is not to refrain from going. However it is not clear if this was a directive from the Rebbe or his own personal answer. [ibid]