Halachic Hazards Encyclopedia Letter M

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Letter M

Machlokes:[1] [Kabbalah/Achronim]

One who continues a conflict is placed in excommunication.[2] A home that contains Machlokes, hosts the Satan in their home.[3] Such a home will eventually become destroyed.[4] Machlokes brings one to poverty and other suffering to one’s home.[5] Many good people, endeavors, and communities have been destroyed due to Machlokes.[6]

Magicians-Performing magic tricks, hiring a performer, and watching a performance:[7] [Rambam/Shulchan Aruch/Achronim]

It is forbidden to perform an action that makes it appear to the onlooker as if he is performing a supernatural act.[8] One who does so transgresses the Biblical command of “Lo Sionein” and is liable for Biblical lashes.[9] According to many Poskim[10] this prohibition applies even when one is not performing any actual sorcery and is simply performing an optical illusion through the swiftness of his hands and other schemes.[11] [Accordingly, it is Biblically forbidden for Badchanim/comedians to perform magic tricks at weddings and other performances.[12] Nevertheless, some Poskim[13] rule it is permitted to perform magic tricks if one informs the audience that he is not performing any actual magic and that it is simply an optical illusion, and so is the widespread custom of many.[14] For this purpose, many Frum magicians, or magicians performing for Frum audiences, show the audience how they do one of their tricks, to emphasize that there is no real magic involved in it at all. Other Poskim[15], however, completely negate this allowance and hence prohibit any and all types of magic shows. Practically, different communities follow different rulings, and each is to abide by the accepted Rabbinical ruling of their community or affiliation. Regarding the Rebbe’s opinion: The Rebbe once answered a Shliach who hired a magician to perform, that the next time he should verify if it is being done in a way permitted according to Halacha.[16] Likewise, regarding more general activities of Chabad, the Rebbe once related that it is not the position of Chabad at all to permit that which others are accustomed to prohibit.]



Ideally, it is forbidden to perform magic tricks, although it is disputed as to whether this prohibition applies even when the audience is made aware that it is a mere optical illusion. Practically, different communities follow different rulings on this matter, although in many communities it is widely accustomed to be lenient. It is advised that one speaks to a Rav prior to becoming a magician or performing magic tricks, or hiring a magician to perform in front of an audience. Certainly, one is to avoid performing magic tricks in front of audiences which follow the stringent opinion.


May one hire a magician to perform at an event?[17]

Ideally, just as it is forbidden to perform magic tricks so too it is forbidden to hire a magician to perform at an event.[18] [This prohibition applies even against hiring a gentile magician.[19]] However, those who are lenient to permit magic tricks when the audience is made aware that it is a mere optical illusion may certainly be lenient to hire someone to do a show in the above manner, and so is the widespread custom of many communities. However, one should not do so if amongst the audience there are people whose communities follow the stringent Poskim which forbids it in all cases.


May one watch a magician perform magic tricks?[20]

Live: It is forbidden to watch a Jewish magician perform [unless he makes it known beforehand that it is a mere optical illusion, as stated above that some are lenient in such a case].[21] It is, however, permitted to watch a gentile magician perform.[22] [Accordingly, one may not attend a David Copperfield performance or a performance of anyone of the like. However, those who are lenient to watch a Jewish magician perform on the basis that everyone knows it is a mere illusion have upon whom to rely, as stated above.]

Recording: Seemingly, it is permitted according to all to watch a video recording of a magician, even if he is Jewish. However, one may not purchase a video of the performance according to the stringent opinion.


May one do magic tricks on Purim?[23]

Ideally, it is forbidden to perform magic tricks on Purim just like the rest of the year. However, those who are lenient to do so when the audience is aware that it is a mere optical illusion may be lenient here as well.


It is forbidden for one to smoke recreational marijuana. Rav Moshe Feinstein[25] rules that smoking marijuana is forbidden due to numerous Biblical reasons, including: 1) It harms and consumes the body; 2) confuses the minds even of the healthy, and prevents one from studying Torah and prayer and fulfillment of Mitzvos; 3) It creates great lusts for food and the like, and causes one to be similar to a Ben Sorer Umorer. 4) It transgresses Kibud Av Vaeim, as the parents of the drug taker are greatly pained over their child’s choice. 5) Causes many more prohibitions. “It is thus one of the most severe prohibitions, and we must make all efforts to banish this impurity from all the Jewish people, especially from those who learn in Yeshiva.”[26]

Marital relations-Hazards related to marital relations:

See Volume 1 Chapter 16

Marriage and wedding hazards and restrictions:

See Volume 1 Chapter 15

Medical treatment:[27]

A. Talmudic Medicine and health directives:[28] [Rishonim/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

There are numerous medical treatments and medicinal cures recorded in the Talmud that have no scientific basis and are viewed to be in the realm of supernatural and alternative medicine.[29] These Talmudic medical directives and cures, are no longer applicable today due to change in the nature of the human physique[30], and are actually prohibited in being followed.[31] Practically, a Cherem was placed against relying on the medical treatments recorded in the Talmud, in order not to cause a mocking of the Sages if the cures do not work.[32]

B. List of Talmudic Segula cures and medicines: [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch/Shulchan Aruch Harav]

  1. The egg of a locust called Chargel is a Segula against ear pain. It is hung on the ear that is in pain in order to relieve it.[33]
  2. The tooth of a live fox is a Segula against oversleeping. It is hung on a person that is sleeping too much in order for him to awaken.[34]
  3. The tooth of a dead fox is a Segula for falling asleep. It is hung on a person that is having trouble falling asleep in order for him to sleep.[35]
  4. A wood nail used for crucifixion is a Segula for healing a swollen area due to being hit by a metal object.[36]
  5. Certain stones and gems have healing powers and are used to heal certain ailments.[37] The Tekuma stone when worn is a Segula to prevent a woman from having a miscarriage.[38]
  6. The Ruda plant is a Segula against Ayin Hara and sorcery. It is carried by the person and helps heal someone who is under a bad spell.[39]
  7. A certain Kamiah was known to have the power to make a person vomit his food. Whenever someone would consume poison, this Kamiah would be written, and the person would vomit and have his life saved.[40]
  8. Feeding the liver of a rabid dog to one who was bitten has the Segula to remove the rabies.[41]
  9. If a person has a bone stuck in his throat, then he should place part of that food from which the bone came from onto his head, and say the following incantation: “Chad Chad Nachis, Bala Bala, Nachis, Chad Chad.[42] Not only does this incantation not contain the prohibition of Darkei Emori[43], but furthermore, it is proven to work to the point that it may be followed even today, even though in general we no longer follow Talmudic medicinal cures, and it is actually forbidden to do so.[44]

C. Using nonconventional medical treatment:[45] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch/Shulchan Aruch Harav]

Any medical treatment that works in accordance to Segulah [i.e. supernatural causes] rather than natural cause and effect [i.e. scientifically based] does not contain the prohibition of Darkei Emori so long as it is recognizable [to the onlookers] that it’s intent is for the sake of healing[46] [and it is has been established that the treatment works[47] and it does not come from idolatry or Kishuf[48]]. This allowance applies even though it remains unknown as to how the ailment is healed through doing the above action. However, if one does an action that is not recognizable [to the public] that it is being done for the sake of healing [and certainly if it has not been established to work[49]], then it is forbidden to do so due to Darkei Emori, as the Torah warned us against doing such practices as we may not go in the paths of the gentiles.



Those forms of alternative healing which work in a supernatural method and have no natural understanding of their healing effect may only be used if all the following conditions are met:

1. It was not founded by sorcerers or idolaters.

2. It does not involve sorcery or mention idolatry.

3. It has been proven to work for at least three different people.

4. It is widespread enough to be recognizable to the onlooker that it is being done for the sake of medical treatment, and not as some strange act.

In the above cases it is permitted to make use of an alternative medical treatment even though it is not understood by medical science, and involves unexplainable phenomenon.



How often must a supernatural medical treatment work for it to be considered permitted to be done?[50]

If the practice has been proven to work three times for three different people, then it is considered valid, even if at times it does not work.

Is the practitioner believed to say that his treatment works?[51]

Yes. He is believed to say that it has worked a number of times on patients.

If a non-conventional action is widely practiced by people for medicinal purposes, can it be assumed to be Halachically permitted?

Some Poskim[52] rule that all incantation and Kemios [or actions] that have been spread amongst G-d fearing can be assumed to be valid and not contain the prohibition of Darkei Emori.


D. Incantation:[53] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch/Shulchan Aruch Harav]

It is permitted to recite incantations for the sake of healing, or for the sake of protection in order to prevent illness or injury. This applies even if one does not know for certain whether the incantation works or not. However if one knows for certain that the incantation does not work then it is forbidden to say it due to Darkei Emori. Furthermore, there are opinions[54] who question that perhaps any incantation that is not verified to work, and every Kemia that is not verified to work, contains the prohibition of Darkei Emori. Practically, [while we rule like the first opinion] every Baal Nefesh is to suspect of their words (in a situation which does not contain much need).[55] 

E. Medical treatment which carries a risk of death:[56] [Achronim]

A medical treatment, or operation-surgery, for a life-threatening condition may be administered to a patient even if the treatment carries a risk of death, so long as there is ample chance that it will be successful to cure him of the illness. Thus, for example, if the doctors give a patient only 1-2 more days to live, and offer a treatment which may save his life if successful, but also may cause him to die within a few hours if unsuccessful, then it may be administered. Nonetheless, one must advice well with doctors prior to proceeding in order to properly understand the risk of death from the condition versus the risk of death from the treatment. One is to advise with two expert doctors in these matters, and if both agree to the necessity and potential benefits of the operation, then one may go through with it.[57]

F. Surgery:

Erev Yom Tov:[58] One should not have a surgery on Erev Yom Tov. [See “Bloodletting” for the full details of this matter.]

G. Measuring one’s belt to cure headaches:[59] [Rishonim/Shulchan Aruch/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

It is permitted [for those women who are knowledgeable and practice the following incantation] to measure the belt of one who has a headache for the sake of determining the measurement in order to recite the incantation as is customarily done by women, as this is considered a measurement of a mitzvah [for the sake of healing a person suffering from a headache.] There is also no intrinsic prohibition in reciting the incantation even on Shabbos.[60]

H. A cure of the sages for bloodletting:[61] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

Whoever lets blood and does not have the means of healing himself, the sages gave him the following advice: He should take into his hand a bad currency of a Dinar and visit a store and taste some wine to see if it is tasty to be purchased. When he comes to pay for the wine, he should offer his bad currency as payment which the stroma refused to accept. He should then visit a second store owner and do the same, until he has tasted a Revius of wine. Now, although by today’s bloodletting there is not so much of a worry, nevertheless, one can learn from this [cure] to other illnesses.

Medical conditions:

List of bodily injuries and illnesses which are considered dangerous according to Halacha regarding the desecration of Shabbos: [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch/Shulchan Aruch Harav]

A wound in an inner limb: A wound in an inner limb is defined as all wounds to limbs that are inwards from ones teeth, including ones teeth, which have impaired the use of the limb, or if the limb has grown a blister and the like.[62] Such wounds are considered deadly and do not require any medical evaluation to determine this, although if one knows that the wound is not deadly, then one may not desecrate Shabbos for it.[63] Mere aches and pains in the inner limbs which are for certain not a result of a wound or blister are not considered a lethal wound and thus do not have the laws of ones whose life is in danger.[64]

A wound in an outer limb: Is only considered lethal if evaluated by a professional which confirms this to be the case or that this will be lethal if left untreated, or if the patient himself says so.[65] This is with exception to a wound on the back of his feet or hands which are always considered lethal just like an inner wound.[66] As well any wound which resulted from iron is considered lethal, even if it is only an exterior wound.[67]

Swallowed a leech:[68] Is considered lethal.

Bitten by a rabid dog:[69] Is considered lethal.

A boil on the rectum:[70] Is considered lethal.

Fever:[71] If the fever is very high, or even if not very high but was simultaneously accompanied with shivering is considered lethal. However, a typical fever is not considered lethal.

Blood accumulation: Is at times lethal[72], and one is to thus light a bon fire for him even in the summer, even if he has warm clothing.[73]

Eye Pain:[74] One has pain in his eye and there is fluid in it or there are tears pouring out of it as a result of the pain, or there is blood pouring out of it or it has pus which continuously congeals, or the pain [feels] like the prickling of a needle or it is burning and feverish, then it is lethal and one is to transgress Shabbos on the outset of all these sicknesses. However if it has already begun to heal then it is no longer lethal.

A baby locked in a room[75]: Can be life threatening if the child is scared and thus the door may be broken down.

A scorpion sting:[76] Is dangerous and one may desecrate Shabbos for it. A known cure is to capture the scorpion, kill it and fry it and then place it on the wound. This thus may be done even on Shabbos.

A poisonous snake:[77] Is lethal and one may desecrate Shabbos for it.

A lethal fire:[78]Any fire which is threatening the lives of people which do not have the ability to escape, such as old and sick people as well as children, then one is to extinguish the fire on Shabbos. If the old, sick or children are unable to walk out but are able to be carried out, then if one will carry them to a public domain, he is to extinguish the fire rather than carry them.[79]

Meditations:[80] [Rebbe]

Rabbinical supervision: Yoga[81] and many eastern meditations, contain aspects of idolatry that are forbidden for a Jew, of which one is required to give up his life rather than perform. Nonetheless, the aspect of seclusion and meditation in it of itself does not contain idolatry and is not Halachically forbidden, and on the contrary can be found rooted in Torah. Likewise, much of the physical exercise of Yoga is not idolatry related. One who desires to perform any of the above types of therapies is to beware to do so in a Kosher manner, making sure that it is removed from any idolatry tainted practices. The same way a food requires Rabbinical supervision, so it does not contain any non-Kosher ingredients, so too eastern meditations and Yoga style practices require Rabbinical approbation to verify that they have been ridden of their prohibited aspects of idolatry. The Rebbe encouraged Rabbanim to seek G-d fearing psychologists and mental health experts to study the field of meditation and make Kosher forms of meditations available for the public in need of these therapies. In addition, the Rebbe proposed that the meditations include a Jewish spiritual content, such as the concept of Shema Yisrael, G-d’s oneness.

Who should use this therapy? The Rebbe’s position even regarding Kosher meditations was that it is not meant for the healthy minded and should only be used as proscribed by a medical or mental health professional. The same way a healthy person does not take medicines for ailments he does not have, and if he does so it will damage his body, so too taking part in these therapies when not needed can prove detrimental to one’s mental health. Furthermore, even one who needs these therapies, it should be used like a medicine, only on occasion and according to need. Just as one can overdose on medicine, and become addicted, similarly one can become indoctrinated and infatuated with the therapy given to the point that what was once a healer of mental health becomes its destroyer. Kosher meditations must be regulated. Once one becomes stable and healthy, he is to leave this therapy all together and continue to lead a normal and healthy life without external dependencies. 


A. Long life:[82] [Shulchan Aruch]

Anyone who is careful[83] to fulfill this command will merit long life for himself and for his children.[84] One who is not careful to fulfill it, will have his days shortened [and at times is punished with having his children die young[85]].[86]

B. Removes evil spirits:[87] [Achronim]

One who desires to live securely in his home without any evil spirits is to be very careful to put up Mezuzos on each of his doors.

C. Protects home: [Talmud/Achronim/Rebbe]

Even more than the above reward, the Mezuzah protects ones house[88] in a miraculous fashion.[89] This protection provided by the Mezuzah is in truth the entire purpose behind the Mitzvah.[90] Nevertheless one should not fulfill the mitzvah in order for it to give him protection, but rather because it is a commandment of G-d[91].]



May one hold on to a Mezuzah as a Segulah for protection?[92]

Yes. The Rebbe Rayatz was accustomed to have a Mezuzah on his desk.[93]


May one give a Mezuzah to a gentile as a Segulah for protection?[94]


The story of Chaf Beit Yaldei Maalot and the need to check the Mezuzos of a school to make sure that they are kosher

Question: [Tuesday, 23rd Iyar, 5782]

I once heard mentioned that the Rebbe stated that the terrible terrorist attack and ensuing horrific murder of the 22 Safed religious school students in the town of Maalot [known as Chaf Beit Yaldei Maalot] came as a result of the Mezuzos of the school not being kosher. Is this true, and if true how does it make any sense to say that G-d would kill 22 young students just because the Mezuzos were not Kosher?



This is only partially accurate. As always, whenever one hears a statement said in the name of another individual, especially if it is a puzzling statement, he should make the effort to verify it from the source, as often there are discrepancies between the original statement, and that which one was told, and on occasion, upon verifying with the so-called source it ends up being completely false.


What happened was as follows: A group of about 100 male and female students from a religious public school in Tzefas [Dati Mamlachti] were taken hostage during a sleepover field trip in the town of Maalot, and were brutally murdered by terrorists on the 23rd of Iyar 5734/1974 after a failed and error filled attempt by the IDF to save them. After this terrible tragedy the Rebbe directed to check the Mezuzos of the doors of the school building in Tzefas, where the students had learned. At first, it was discovered that 17 of the Mezuzos were invalid which exactly corresponded at that time to the known death toll of the students which was 17. It was later released that a total of 20 students had been killed, and not 17, after which the Rebbe instructed for further Mezuzos in the school building to be checked, and indeed another two Mezuzos were found to be invalid and another two were found to be questionably invalid.


Regarding the connection between the murder and the invalid Mezuzahs: The Rebbe begun the Mezuzah campaign a few months earlier on the 10th of Shevat 5734, asking for everyone to have kosher mezuzahs placed on their doorways, and for them to be periodically checked for their Kashrus status. The Rebbe stated that kosher Mezuzos draw down a miraculous form of protection from G-d for those who live in that home, even when they are outside the house, and gives them peace and security by Hashem. The Rebbe even stated that if this would have been followed years earlier it would have saved many Jews from tragic terrorist attacks, and other tragedies. After the above tragic terrorist attack happened with the students, the Rebbe immediately desired to discover the state of the mezuzahs of their school, and most astonishingly the number of invalid mezuzahs matched the number of murder victims r”l. The Rebbe made public mention of this in a talk on Shabbos Parshas Behar 5734, and used the event to further plead with the public to have kosher mezuzahs on their doors for the G-dly protection that they survive, stating “I have most enthusiastically been involved lately in the Mezuzah campaign. I was pushed and given no rest regarding this issue and was forced to publicize it. I myself had no idea why, and now we see [as a sign from G-d] that the entire event that happened was connected with the mitzvah of mezuzah.”


Despite all this, it is most inaccurate to conclude that the Rebbe is saying that the reason the students died r”l is as a punishment for their mezuzahs not being valid. We do not understand the calculations of Heaven, and cannot fathom at all the unthinkable tragedy that occurred to the 22 students, and as to why G-d chose them to die at such an early age Al Kiddush Hashem. G-d does not punish people who have invalid mezuzahs by killing them r’l, and G-d forbid to think of G-d in such a manner. Rather, the intent is that kosher mezuzahs provide extra protection against matters of severities and both spiritual and physical prosecutions, and when one does not have kosher mezuzahs, he loses the special protection offered against spiritual and physical persecutors which try to compromise one’s safety. To use a simple parable to understand the above: if a security guard left the premises, which then allowed for a crime to take place, it is not the security guard who committed the crime. However, if the security guard had remained it is very possible that the crime would not have happened, due to the security and protection that he provides. The mezuzah is our security guard against persecutions, and is not the criminal who commits the act when invalid.


This idea and concept that a mezuzah provides physical protection and safety is not the novelty of the Rebbe at all, and is explicitly mentioned in the Talmud, Rishonim and Poskim.


Sources: See regarding the 22 murdered students r”l: Igros Kodesh Vol. 29 p. 11 and p. 162; Sichos Kodesh 5734 2:126; See regarding the general reward of protection and security provided by a Mezuzah: Beis Yosef Y.D. 285; Avoda Zara 11a; Menachos 33b; Tosafos Menachos 44a;Tur 285; Taz 289:1; Likkutei Sichos 19 p. 121

D. Mezuzah case:[95] [Achronim]

There is a tradition from the Baal Shem Tov that one is not to use tubes made of metal or iron.


E. Changing a diaper and doing other filthy work in front of a Mezuzah:[96] [Shulchan Aruch/Achronim]

It is forbidden to perform belittling acts in front of a Mezuzah on a constant basis. This applies even if the Mezuzah is covered by a non-transparent covering. It is thus forbidden to constantly change diapers in front of a Mezuzah, or wash soiled clothing in front of it. One mere occasion this may be done if the Mezuzah is covered, as explained above. The Mekubalim[97] write that one is to be careful that the four-cubit area surrounding the Mezuzah remain always clean. [It is a danger for one to leave filth in front of a Mezuzah, or for one to constantly change diapers, or do other filthy work in front of a Mezuzah.[98]]


F. Removing the Mezuzah upon moving out:[99] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch/Achronim]

Upon moving out of a rental home, the renter may not remove his Mezuzahs from the doors.[100] [This applies even if one plans to place the Mezuzos on the doors of his new home.[101] Furthermore, this applies even if a new renter is moving in simultaneously to his exiting the home and will replace the Mezuzos with his own Mezuzos.[102] Some Poskim[103] however rule that if one will not be able to find Mezuzahs for his new home, he may remove the Mezuzos and immediately place them on the doors of his new home, even if the old home will remain without Mezuzos.[104]]

Rented from or to gentiles:[105] If the house was rented from a gentile, or will now be rented to a gentile, he is to remove the Mezuzos [immediately[106]] upon moving, [prior to the gentiles moving in[107]]. [This removal is an obligation.[108] This applies even if one knows that the gentile plans to rent it to another Jew.[109]]

Paying for the remaining Mezuzos:[110] When the renter leaves his Mezuzahs on the doors of the rented home, if he is particular on their cost, the second person[111] [the next renter who moves in[112], or from the owner[113], if he is moving in[114]] must pay him for the Mezuzahs. [However, even if the person that moved in refuses to pay for them, the renter may nevertheless still not remove the Mezuzahs.[115]]



Upon moving out of a rental home of a Jew, the renter may not remove his Mezuzahs from the doors even if he plans to place the Mezuzos on the doors of his new home and even if the new renter will replace the Mezuzos with his own Mezuzos. If, however, one will not be able to find Mezuzahs for his new home, some Poskim permit to remove the Mezuzos and immediately place them on the doors of his new home. When the renter leaves his Mezuzahs on the doors of the rented home, the next renter who moves in must pay him for the Mezuzahs. If the house was rented from a gentile, or will now be rented to a gentile, he is to remove the Mezuzos [immediately] upon moving, [prior to the gentiles moving in].


Circumventing the prohibition:

It is possible to circumvent the prohibition, and retrieve one’s Mezuzos, in the following ways:

1. The new renter or owner comes to the home and removes the Mezuzos of the previous renter and replaces it with his own Mezuzos.[116]

2. The renter may remove the Mezuzos to be checked and then replace them with other Mezuzos of the owner, or renter, or of a Gemach.[117] The Gemach may then remove their Mezuzos if other Mezuzos of the owner or new renter are immediately placed on.

3. The renter may remove his Mezuzos [even not to be checked] and immediately replace them with other Mezuzos and then immediately place them in his new home.[118]

4. The renter may purchase the Mezuzos of the owner/new renter in exchange for his Mezuzos, and then remove his Mezuzos and place the “newly purchased” Mezuzos on his doors, and then buy back his Mezuzos from the owner/new renter.[119]

5. Some Poskim[120] rule the renter may paint the home and remove his Mezuzos in order so they do not get ruined with the paint. Once they are removed he is no longer required to replace them.


If one sold his home to another Jew, may he remove the Mezuzos from the home?[121]

No. Furthermore, the Mezuzos are considered to be included within the sale of the house unless explicitly stated otherwise by the seller. Even in such a case, the seller may not remove the Mezuzos, but may demand compensation for their cost.

If one plans to demolish a room/house may the Mezuzos be removed?[122]

Yes. They may be removed as soon as one moves out of the home.

May the Mezuzos be removed if people will not be living in the house for a very long time?

No.[123] However some Poskim[124] are lenient in this matter.

If the renter placed borrowed Mezuzos on his door, may they be removed upon moving?

They may only be removed if other Mezuzos are placed in its stead.

If the doors originally had Mezuzos of the owner and were replaced with the renters Mezuzah, may the renter remove the Mezuzos and replace the owners Mezuzos to the doors upon moving?

Seemingly it is permitted to do so.[125]


See Volume 1 Chapter 16

Immersing if is sick:[126] [Achronim]

One who goes to fulfill the mitzvah the immersing in a Mikveh will be guarded to no evil happened to him.[127] Accordingly, there is a tradition from the Bal Shem Tov that would not fear any damage to ones health from a single immersion in a mikvah.[128]  Likewise, there is a tradition in Chabad, that the Rabbeim take the responsibility of a single immersion.[129] Nonetheless, in the case that there is real worry danger to one’s health one should not rely on this unless he truly trusts that he is deserving of this protection.[130]


See “Bris Mila”


A. Covering mirror at Shiva home

See Volume 1 Chapter 13

B.  Child looking at mirror before growing teeth:[131] [Sichas Nashim/Tradition of some-No source]

Many families have a tradition that a child should not look in the mirror prior to him growing teeth. This traditional superstition does not have any known source in classic Jewish literature, and therefore is not obligatory to be followed. Nonetheless, being that these customs have traditionally been followed amongst G-d-fearing families throughout many generations, they therefore do not transgress any prohibition, and may be adapted if one wishes. While one without a family tradition in this matter is not obligated to follow this custom, he may do so if he wishes. Those who have a family tradition to beware of these matters, should respect their family tradition. If a husband does not have the tradition while the wife does, or vice versa, then it is proper for the spouse without the tradition to follow them anyways for the sake of peace.


Stopping the fulfillment of a Mitzvah:[132] [Sefer Chassidim/Achronim]

Any mitzvah that one is habitually involved in performing, there is a danger for him to stop performing it. Thus, if one is the set Chazan for Yom Kippur in Shul, then he should not skip it one year without justifiable reason.


Consequences for one who is not modest in his dress:[133] [Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

The Sages[134] stated on the verse[135] “With the revealing of the hands the house will drip” that through the laziness of a person not being careful in properly covering the body “the house will drip”, which means that his body will grow skin ailments. From here we learn that a person has to cover his entire body.

Money: [Talmud/Achronim]

Lending one’s wallet to another:[136] One is to beware not to lend his wallet to another person as by doing so he sells his Mazal [i.e. good fortune].

Selling land:[137] One is not to sell the first property of land that he purchased, as doing so is not a good omen.

Selling ancestral property:[138] A person should not sell his ancestral property.


A. Staring at moon:[Kabbalah/Achronim]

According to Kabala it is forbidden to look at the moon.[139] This is similar to the prohibition of looking at a rainbow.[140] Thus, before beginning the blessing of “Mechadeish Chadashim” by Kiddush Levana one is to look and then remove his eyes from the moon and is not look at it anymore throughout the prayer.[141]

B. The omen of the moon on the night of Hoshana Rabbah:[142] [Shulchan Aruch/Achronim]

The Rishonim record that on the night of Hoshana Rabbah there is an omen in the shadow of the moon regarding all that will occur to oneself, or to one’s relatives, during that year. Some write that one should not pay any attention to this matter in order not to worsen one’s Mazal. Likewise, many do not understand the matter properly and it is hence better to act with simple faith and not look into the future.[143]

C. Standing naked in the moon light:[144] [Achronim]

One is not to stand naked within the light of the moon.

Motzei Shabbos:

A. Drinking water after sunset, before nightfall, on Erev Shabbos and Motzei Shabbos:[145] [Rishonim/Shulchan Aruch/Shulchan Aruch Harav/Achronim]

Between Mincha and Maariv, during the period of Bein Hashmashos of Erev Shabbos and Motzei Shabbos, it is forbidden to drink drawn water due to danger. This applies even if one is in the midst of a meal, or is after the meal. This only applies to water that was drawn during Bein Hashmashos, however, water that was drawn before Bein Hashmashos may be drunk during Bein Hashmashos.[146] [Some Poskim[147], however, rule that this worry only applies within the 12 months from the passing of a parent. Practically, we are stringent in this matter even past 12 months.[148]]

B. Havdalah:[149]

Rav Tzadok stated:[150] Whoever does not say Havdalah over wine on Motzei Shabbos or does not hear Havdalah from others does not see a Siman Bracha. However, one who does say Havdalah over wine on Motzei Shabbos Hashem calls him Kadosh and calls him a Segula, and separates him from the other nations.

Rebbe Yochanan states:[151] Three inherit the world to come; one who lives in Eretz Yisrael; one who brings up his children to Torah; one who says Havdalah over wine.

Rebbe Chiya Bar Rebbe Aba stated in the name of Rebbe Yochanan:[152] Whoever says Havdalah over wine on Motzei Shabbos merits having male children. Rebbe Yehoshua Ben Levi says he merits children which are fit to be Rabbis.

Water:[153] Based on Kabala one is to refrain from ever adding water to his wine.

May women drink from the wine of Havdalah?[154] If a woman makes Havdalah, she must drink the wine. It is however accustomed for women not to drink from the leftover Havdalah wine of someone else who made Havdalah.[155] The reason for this is because the tree of knowledge was a grape vine, and it is due to Chava eating from it that all women were punished to receive Nida blood. It is therefore improper for women to drink from this wine.[156] This is in addition to the custom that no one drinks from the Havdalah wine other than the person saying Havdalah.[157] The custom is to allow women to drink from the wine of Kiddush of which Havdalah was said over on Motzei Shabbos that coincides with Yom Tov.[158]

Kiddush and Havdalah wine-Drinking & Rubbing: If a person walked in large steps [during the week] he can fix the danger of losing part of his eyesight through “Kiddush of Bein Hashmashos.”[159] This means that one drinks ]and is careful in[160]] the kiddush wine on the night of Shabbos [and the wine of Havdalah[161]].[162] Alternatively, this means that one rubs the Kiddush wine of Friday night [or Motzei Shabbos by Havdalah[163]] on one’s eyes.[164] This is hinted to in the numerical value of “יין” which is the same as the letter “ע” which represent the eye.[165]

C. Extinguishing a candle on Motzei Shabbos:[166] [Achronim]

Some Poskim rule that one is never to extinguish a candle on Motzei Shabbos

D. Eating hot and freshly baked bread on Motzei Shabbos:[167] [Talmud/Achronim]

One is to eat hot bread on Motzei Shabbos, as hot bread on Motzei Shabbos is a cure [for depression[168]].[169] [Some Poskim[170] explain this to refer to prebaked bread which is warmed on Motzei Shabbos, as one may not eat freshly baked hot bread due to danger.[171] Other Poskim[172] rule that it does not refer to actual hot bread but rather to freshly baked bread after it has cooled down.]

E. Drawing water:[173]

Some are accustomed to draw water from wells and springs on Motzei Shabbos as a Segula for a cure for all their ailments.[174] [This is helpful for both physical and spiritual ailments and assists in one is understanding of Torah.[175]]



How is one to fulfill the above Segula if he does not have a well or spring available to draw water from? Does it suffice to simply open the faucets?[176]

Yes. One can use water drawn from the faucet on Motzei Shabbos, with intent of this Segula. It does not help to use water that was drawn before Shabbos.

Maaseh Shehayah[177]

There was a certain man which was suffering from leprosy whose wife went out to draw water on Motzei Shabbos. She was delayed at the well and unknowingly managed to draw the water from the well of Miriam. When she came home her husband vented anger at her delay to the point that it caused her to drop the bucket. Drops of water spilled on his skin and immediately cured all the areas they touched. On this the Sages stated the angry man only benefited from the amount of water that remained due to his anger. Based on this it became accustomed to drawing water on Motzei Shabbos.

F. Folding ones Tallis on Motzei Shabbos:

See “Tallis”

G. Avoiding Melacha on Motzei Shabbos-Women Sewing:[178] [Talmud/Rishonim/Achronim]

Some Poskim[179] write it is customary for women to avoid doing Melacha throughout the entire duration of Motzei Shabbos. However, this custom is negated by the Yerushalmi[180], was omitted by Admur[181], and is no longer the accepted custom, and therefore so is the practical ruling that it is not necessary to be careful in this matter.[182] Nonetheless, some have a custom to avoid writing Safrus on Motzei Shabbos.[183] Others avoid any laborious work done for payment the entire Motzei Shabbos.[184] Others avoid sewing on Motzei Shabbos.[185] [Practically, each family is to abide by their tradition, and those who avoid sewing are to continue to avoid doing so, while those who do not have such a tradition, may continue to sew on Motzei Shabbos.]  

The Chabad custom: According to Admur in his Shulchan Aruch there is no need for women to avoid doing any Melacha, even sewing, on Motzei Shabbos.[186] Nonetheless, some testify that the established Chabad tradition dating back to Russia is for women to avoid sewing on Motzei Shabbos.[187] Others however claim to be unaware of such a custom in Chabad.[188]

H. Writing on Motzei Shabbos:[189] [Achronim]

Some write that writing words of Torah on Motzei Shabbos is a grave danger.[190] Based on this, many are accustomed not to write at all on Motzei Shabbos.[191] Practically, the world is not careful in this matter.[192]

I. Avoiding lighting a candle from your candle on Motzei Shabbos:[193] [Achronim]

Some families carry a family tradition to avoid letting a person light a candle from their candle on Motzei Shabbos. [While such families who received such a tradition may and should honor it, it is not obligatory for others to follow.]

J. Giving charity and spending money on Motzei Shabbos:[194] [Rebbe]

It is our custom to avoid giving money or buy items on Motzei Shabbos, as doing so gives nurture to the Kelipas.[195] It is however permitted to distribute charity on Motzei Shabbos, as by doing so there is no better way to drive away the Kelipas.

K. Not to get angry on Motzei Shabbos:[196] [Achronim]

One is to be extremely beware from strife and anger with his household on Motzei Shabbos as the Satan attempts at this time to stir friction between people, just as he does on Erev Shabbos. His motif for doing so is because after Shabbos one is escorting the King, and causing strife at this time gives the Satan power for the whole week.


Sparks of Kabbala & Chassidus regarding Melaveh Malka

Drawing the holiness of Shabbos into the weekday:[197]

The purpose of Melaveh Malka is to draw down the holiness of the Shabbos meals into all the meals of the week.

The Luz Bone:[198]

There is a certain bone in the body called the Luz bone which does not benefit or nurture from any food other than the food eaten during Melaveh Malka.[199] This bone is created from the essence of mans seed and cannot be destroyed, not in fire, nor through a grinder, nor through erosion. It lasts forever and is what Hashem will use to build the body by the resurrection. The reason this bone is everlasting is because it did not benefit from the tree of good and evil.

Chibut Hakever:[200]

In merit of eating Melaveh Malka one is spared from needing to experience Chibut Hakever after his passing.

Preventive Medicine for the healthy:[201]

Even if one is very satiated, he should push himself to eat this meal, as it will protect his health and save him from needing to eat medicines.

Segula for an easy birth:[202]

It is said in the name of Harav Elimelech Milizensk that it is a Segula for women to have an easy birth if they eat a food in honor of the Mitzvah of Melaveh Malka. They are explicitly to state they are eating the food out of respect for this meal.

Segula to prevent Atzvus:[203]

Eating freshly baked bread on Motzei Shabbos is a Segula to prevent depression.

Segula for Parnasa:[204]

Eating Melaveh Malka is a Segula for Parnasa.

Saves one from heresy and murder:[205]

The Baal Shem Tov stated that in merit of eating Melaveh Malka one is spared from having thoughts of heresy, and is saved from murder.

The Neshama Yiseira:[206]

The extra soul which a Jew receives on Shabbos does not leave the body until after the 4th meal of Melaveh Malka. Upon its return the soul is asked “What were you fed? What novelty in Torah did you learn?”. The soul is then elevated to the Heavenly Yeshiva.


Tikkun for the third meal:[207]

The Zohar states: One who does not fulfill the 4th meal of Melaveh Malka is as if he has not fulfilled the 3rd meal either.

The feast of David Malka Mashicha:[208]

The reason that the meal of Melaveh Malka is referred to as the feast of David is because Davis Hamelech was accustomed to make a large feast every Motzei Shabbos out of celebration that he did not pass away that Shabbos, as David Hamelech knew his day of passing would be on Shabbos.

There are also Kabalistic reasons for referring to the meal as the feast of David.[209]

Reciting a story of the Baal Shem Tov:[210]

There is a tradition from Tzadikkim to recite a story of the Baal Shem Tov on Motzei Shabbos. The reason for this is because Achiya Hashiloni was the teacher of Eliyahu and of the Baal Shem Tov. Hence just like one is to mention Eliyahu Hanavi he is to mention the Baal Shem Tov.


A. Burying the victim with a knife:[211] [Sefer Chassidim/Tzavah of Rav Yehuda Hachassid/Achronim]

Some are accustomed to burying a murder victim with a knife in his hands, representing the fact that he will avenge his death. It is forbidden to get benefit from this knife if the body becomes unearthed.[212]

B. The murder weapon:[213] [Sefer Chassidim/Tzavah of Rav Yehuda Hachassid/Achronim]

It is forbidden to benefit from a murder weapon, such as a murder knife, and it is to be buried with the victim.

C. The murder victim does not rest until the murderer is killed:[214] [Achronim]

The soul of a murder victim does not rest in heaven until their murderer is apprehended and held accountable. The soul of the victim demands justice and that his murderer be put to death, and does not rest his case until this is done. This is the secret meaning of the verse “One who spills blood of man, his blood will spill” as the prosecution that the soul of the victim voices against the murderer, brings about the death of the murderer, and if not in this world, then in the next world. This can be seen with the story brought in the Midrash[215] that after a certain son was murdered by his brother, his mother saved the blood in a jar, and that blood boiled until the murderer sibling as killed. It is for this reason that we do not perform Taharah to the victim, as burying the victim in the clothing of his murderer helps motivate him to seek vengeance against the murderer.

D. Saying Hashem Yikom Damo:[216] [Achronim]

It brings satisfaction to the soul of the murder victim when one says “Hashem Yikom Damo/May Hashem avenge his death” after mentioning his name.


Moving homes: [Rishonim/Shulchan Aruch/Achronim]

Avoiding moving on Mondays and Wednesdays:[217] It is customary not to begin a new activity on Mondays and Wednesdays.[218] [Thus, one is to avoid moving on Mondays and Wednesdays.[219] If this is unavoidable, then one is to at least move some items into the home, the day before.[220] Alternatively, one is to bring Torah books, and/or have a Chassidic gathering, at the home on the day before.[221] Some[222] rule that one may be completely lenient regarding starting activities on Monday’s, and one is only to be careful on Wednesdays. The custom of the world today is to be completely lenient in this regard[223] although some segments of Jewry are stringent even today.[224]]

Changing Mazal by moving to a different country:[225] A person who has had a few of his children pass away, is to move to a different country, as it could be that the country causes the death.

Auspicious and non-auspicious days of the month to move:[226] The following days of the month are auspicious for moving: 2, 4, 9 11, 15, 16, 19, 21, 27, 29. The following days of the month are not auspicious for moving: 1,3, 25. [Practically, however the custom is to no longer be particular in this matter, and Shomer Pesaim Hashem.[227]]

Moving back to one’s old home:[228] After a person moves away from his home to live elsewhere, he should not move back into his home until the passing of seven complete years. [However, if one left an item that he owns in his original home, then it is permitted for him to move back there within seven years.[229]] See “House” for the full details of this matter!



[1] See Encyclopedia Talmudit ibid  “Chumrasa” p. 59-61; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 254

[2] Kav Hayashar 34

[3] Zohar 1:37

[4] Derech Eretz Zuta 9

[5] Sefer Zechira

[6] Rambam in his will to his son

[7] See Hilchos Avodas Kochavim 11:9 and 15; Tur 179; Michaber 179:15; Encyclopedia Talmudit “Achizas Eiynayim” 1:459

[8] Michaber Y.D. 179:15 “Ocheiz Es Haeiynayim Assur”; Rambam Avodas Kochavim 11:9 “One who fools the eyes and makes it appear to the onlooker as if he performed a supernatural act, and in truth he didn’t”; Chochamim in Sanhedrin 65b regarding the definition of Lo Sionein; Rashi Sanhedrin ibid; Chinuch Mitzvah 250; Toras Kohanim Vayikra 19:26

[9] Rambam ibid; Chinuch Mitzvah 250; Toras Kohanim ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Achizas Eiynayim does not carry with it the penalty of lashes, although is forbidden. [Tur 179]

[10] Shach 179:17; Beir Heiytiv 179:10; Bach 179 in explanation of contradiction in Rambam Avodas Kochavim 11:9; Teshuvas Rama 67 in name of Maharam Landau in explanation of Rambam “There is a difference between one who does so through sorcery and one who does so without sorcery”; Rambam in Sefer Hamitzvos 32 “A Meonein is one who performs optical illusions using the swiftness of his hands and schemes to make it appear that he is doing magic”; Chinuch Mitzvah 250 in name of Mishnas Chachamim Mitzvah 47; Possible understanding of 1st answer of Grandson of Rambam, brought in Kesef Mishneh ibid “There are two types of Achizas Eiynayim”; Chochmas Adam 89:6, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 179:7; Maharam Shick on Mitzvah 251; Darkei Teshuvah 179:37; Kitzur SHU”A 166:4; Shevet Halevi 5:129-1; Yechaveh Daas 3:68; Yabia Omer 5:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 696:14; Rav Raskin

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule there is no prohibition involved in doing an action that appears supernatural if it does not involve actual sorcery. [Igros Moshe Yoreh Deah 4:13; Maharshal “Every Achizas Eiynayim involves Kishuf”, brought in Teshuvas Rama ibid; Implication of all the following Poskim in their answer of the contradiction in Rambam ibid that both Achizas Eiynayim written in Rambam involve actual magic: Beis Yosef 179 and Kesef Mishneh Hilchos Avodas Kochavim 11:15; Taz 179:10 [see there that he offers alternative explanation than Bach]; Hagahos Maimanis 11:5; Semak 53; Maharik Shoresh 76-2; 2nd explanation of grandson of Rambam, brought in Kesef Mishneh ibid; Radbaz 5:1695 [585] on Leshonos Harambam and in Metzudos David 61]

Opinion of Igros Moshe: The Igros Moshe ibid holds it is permitted to perform magic tricks, and argues on ruling of Shach/Bach and others. Nevertheless, he states a) It should not be done unless the audience is aware that it is an illusion; b) This is only Lelimud and not Lemaaseh, even though he has no doubt in his position; c) If he was asked he would avoid answering in honor of the stringent opinion, but if he had to answer he would say its Mutar

[11] The reason: Since to the onlooker it appears as if he is doing a supernatural act of sorcery, therefore it is included in the above prohibition and is liable for lashes, as even an action that is not a real action but appears like an action it is therefore considered an action. [See Taz 179:10]

[12] Mishnas Chachamim Mitzvah 47; Chochmas Adam 89:6 brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 179:7; Kitzur SHU”A 166:4; Maharam Shick on Mitzvah 251; Darkei Teshuvah 179:37

[13] Yavin Daas p. 119 that so is custom to be lenient, as seen from the Badchanim; Igros Moshe Yoreh Deah 4:13; See Taz 179:10; 2nd explanation in Radbaz 5:1695 [585] on Leshonos Harambam; Divrei Yatziv Y.D. 1:57; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:455; Betzel Hachochmah 4:13; Rav Mazuz

[14] The reason: As the entire prohibition of magic tricks that do not involve real magic is because it appears to the public as magic, and hence if the public is notified beforehand, there is no prohibition involved. [Yavin Daas ibid; See Taz ibid and Radbaz ibid who implies this way as well] Alternatively, as there is no Biblical or Rabbinical prohibition of Kishuf or Lo Sionein to perform optical illusions that appear like magic. Nevertheless, since it appears to others that he is doing magic, which is forbidden, therefore it is forbidden due to Meisis, unless he tells them that it is an optical illusion, or it is well known to the audience that it is not real magic. [Igros Moshe ibid]

[15] Shevet Halevi 5:129-1; Yechaveh Daas 3:68; 3:500-501; Yabia Omer 5:14

[16] Igros Kodesh 16:30; See Hiskashrus 772; 823

[17] Chochmas Adam 89:6, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 179:7; Kitzur SHU”A 166: Minchas Chinuch Mitzvah 250 in name of Mishnas Chachamim regarding the Lav of Nichush

[18] The reason: This is forbidden due to Lifnei Iver. [Poskim ibid] Alternatively, asking another to perform Nichush is included in the Biblical prohibition, and this applies even if he is a gentile. [Minchas Chinuch Mitzvah 250 in name of Mishnas Chachamim]

[19] Minchas Chinuch Mitzvah 250 in name of Mishnas Chachamim regarding the Lav of Nichush; So is implied from Chochmas Adam ibid and Kitzur SHU”A ibid who only allows to see a gentile magician perform. See however Darkei Teshuvah 179:37 in name of Maharam Shick; Seemingly, the reason is due to Amira Lenachri, as every matter in the Torah that is forbidden for a Jew to perform is likewise forbidden for a Jew to ask a Gentile to do for him. [Beis Shmuel 5:16; Beir Hagoleh; Admur 243:1; 343:5; 450:20; Ribis 72; Sheila Usechirus 29; Michaber C.M. 338:6 [regarding muzzling animal]; Question brought in Bava Metzia 90a and above Poskim rule stringently-see Biur Hagr”a 5:32] Now, although there are opinions who permit one to even visit a gentile sorcerer who performs actual magic [See Piskei Terumos Hadeshen 96, brought in Shach 179:1], and hence certainly hiring a magician should be allowed, nevertheless there it refers to a case of one who is sick and is visiting the sorcerer for medical treatment, in which the prohibition of Amira Lenachri is lifted. [See Admur 328:19] This allowance does not apply in this case and hence hiring a gentile magician is forbidden due to Amira Lenachri.

[20] Chochmas Adam 89:6, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 179:7; Kitzur SHU”A 166:4; Shevet Halevi 5:129-1; Yechaveh Daas 3:68; Rav Raskin

[21] The reason: This is forbidden due to Lifnei Iver. [ibid]

[22] Chochmas Adam ibid writes “it seems to me that it is permitted”; However, Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid and Kitzur SHU”A ibid rules that it is permitted; See Darkei Teshuvah 179:37 in name of Maharam Shick

The reason: Seemingly the reason is because gentiles are not commanded against performing optical illusions that appear like Kishuf, and there is no Amira Lenachri involved if one is simply watching.

[23] See Yechaveh Daas 3:68; Yabia Omer 5:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 696:14

[24] See Pesachim 113a; Rashbam ibid; Igros Moshe Yoreh Deah 3:35 that it is forbidden to take Hashish, marijuana; Maadanei Shlomo of Rav SZ”A p. 148 and Nishmas Avraham C.M. 155:2; Rav Ezra Batzri in Dinei Mamanos 4:117-118; Asher Chanan 8:39; Piskeiy Din Yerushalayim [Levin] 7:540; Encyclopedia Hilchatit Refuit Erech Berius p. 367

[25] Igros Moshe Yoreh Deah 3:35

[26] Igros Moshe ibid

[27] See Encyclopedia Hilchatit Refuit Vol. 7 Erech “Refua”

[28] See Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] Mavo Chapter 6

[29] See Rashba 1:413

[30] 2nd opinion in Admur 288:7 “today the interpretation of dreams has changed from the times of the Talmud just as the medical treatment of back then has changed”; Malbushei Yom Tov; Elya Raba 288:12; All the Talmudic cures are omitted from the Rambam Hilchos Deios; Kesef Mishneh 4 Deios 18; Pilpula Charifta Avoda Zara 1:10; Bris Olam on Sefer Chassidim 477; Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 32:2; Nismas Avraham 14:4

[31] Tosafus Moed Katan 11a; Likkutei Maharil; Chidushei Rebbe Akiva Eiger Y.D. 336:1; Beis Lechem Yehuda 336:1; Chavos Yair 234

[32] Likkutei Maharil; Rashal in Yam Shel Shlomo Chulin Kol Habasar 12; Chidushei Rebbe Akiva Eiger Y.D. 336:1

[33] Admur 301:33; Michaber 301:27; Mishneh Shabbos 67a

[34] Admur 301:33; Michaber 301:27; Mishneh Shabbos 67a

[35] Admur 301:33; Michaber 301:27; Mishneh Shabbos 67a

[36] Admur 301:33; Michaber 301:27; Mishneh Shabbos 67a

[37] Rabbeinu Bechayeh Tetzaveh 28:15 explains how each one of the stones on Choshen, corresponding to each Shevet, held special healing powers and Segulos; See also Pesech Dvir 301:9, brought in Kaf Hachaim 301:137 that a certain stone was used to heal an eye ailment.

[38] Michaber 303:24

[39] Kikar Laeden p. 281; Ruach Chaim 301:2, brought in Kaf Hachaim 301:135

[40] Birkeiy Yosef 301:6; Zera Emes 3:123; Kaf Hachaim 301:138

[41] Rambam Pirush Hamishnayos 8:4; Birkeiy Yosef 301:6

[42] Shabbos 67a

[43] Shabbos 67a

[44] Likkutei Maharil; Chidushei Rebbe Akiva Eiger Y.D. 336:1; Beis Lechem Yehuda 336:1

[45] Admur 301:33; Michaber 301:27; Abayey and Rava Shabbos 67a; See Encyclopedia Hilchatit Refuit Vol. 7 Erech Refua p. 215

[46] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rashi and Rosh on Shabbos ibid that it must be recognizable

The reason: The reason for why doing so does not contain Darkei Emori is because the Torah only prohibited actions that have no logic or understanding if they give no benefit. If however they are beneficial to heal, then they are permitted. [Ran ibid] Alternatively, only those actions listed in the Talmud that contain Darkei Emori are forbidden even if they work and are recognizably done for healing, as these actions derive from idolatry and Kishuf. However all other actions that are not listed in the Talmud, are permitted to be done so long as they work and are recognizably done for healing, as they have no root in Kishuf and do not appear like Darkei Emori. [Rashba 166; Pesach Devir 301:9; Beis Yosef Y.D. 178 in name of Hagahos Maimanis 11; See Minchas Yitzchak ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that any medical treatment that is not known to heal a certain illness is forbidden to be done due to Darkei Emori, even if people know that it is being done for the purpose of healing. On the other hand, if it is known to heal then it is not necessary that this healing be recognizable to others. [Ran on Shabbos ibid and Chulin; See Levushei Serud 301:27 in his explanation of Michaber ibid; Kaf Hachaim 301:160]

[47] Ran on Shabbos ibid and Chulin; implication of Rashi and Rosh on Shabbos ibid; Rambam Shabbos 19 “So long as the doctors say that it works”; Levushei Serud 301:27 [brought in Kaf Hachaim 301:160] in his explanation of Michaber ibid implies that Nikar: recognizable means that the treatment is known to work and is therefore recognizable that it is done for healing; M”B 301:105 “that it is not recognizable that it heals”; Minchas Yitzchak 6:80

Ruling of Admur: The fact that the treatment must be known to work is implied from the wording of Admur ibid and from fact that an incantation/Kemia is more lenient than a treatment, and there is a dispute by an incantation if it must be known to work, hence implying that by a treatment it must be known to work according to all. See also the coming footnotes.

[48] Shach 179:1 based on Piskei Terumos Hadeshen 96; Kapos Temarim Yuma 83a; Chavos Yair 234 “If it works through Segula it is valid, while if it works through celestial powers, it is invalid”; Aruch Hashulchan 301:80; Minchas Yitzchak 6:80

The law if one does not know the source of the treatment: Some Poskim rule that any treatment that was innovated by the Dr’s and medical practice does not have Darkei Emori even if they work based on Segula [if they work and are recognizable], however those treatments that were innovated by idolaters or sorcerers, are forbidden due to Darkei Emori even if they work and are recognizable. [Kapos Temarim Yuma 83a; Chavos Yair 234 “If it works through Segula it is valid, while if it works through celestial powers, it is invalid”; Minchas Yitzchak ibid] Accordingly, a treatment whose source is not known if it came from medicine or idolaters, is forbidden due to Safek Darkei Emori and Kishuf. [Minchas Yitzchak ibid] Other Poskim however argue and rule that in all cases that it is not known that it was innovated by idolatry or Kishuf one may use the treatment if it is known to work and is recognizably done for healing. [Binyan Tziyon 1:67; See also Tzemach Tzedek 38 who permitted a Segula treatment on Shabbos without discussing that perhaps it comes from idolatry.]

[49] M”B 301:105; See Poskim in previous footnotes

[50] Admur 301:27 regarding a Kemia Mumche “A person does not become a Mumche until he heals three people with three letters”; Tzemach Tzedek 38 “Since the person stated that he has healed three people through the treatment he is therefore believed, and possibly this applies even if he was not successful a few times”

[51] Tzemach Tzedek 38 “As a person is believed to state that he is a Mumche”

[52] Chavos Yair 234; Minchas Yitzchak 6:80

[53] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Tosefta 8:11; Rashba 86

Explanation of Halacha: Tzaruch Iyun behind this Halacha and the reason for why its ruling differs from the previous ruling regarding illogical actions done for healing. In the previous ruling no mention was made regarding the success level of the treatment, and it simply has to be recognizable to others that it is done for medical purposes, irrelevant of whether it is understood or not or whether it works or not. In this Halacha however Admur depends the allowance on the success level and not on whether it is recognizable to others that it is done for healing. Accordingly, the law by a Lachash:Kemia is stricter than that of a regular treatment. However according to the explanation of the Levushei Serud it ends up that the law by a Lachash:Kemia is less strict than that of a regular treatment, as by a regular treatment, according to all it must work, while by a Lachash according to some it is valid even if it is not proven to work. The Levushei Serud ibid explains the reason for this leniency by a Lachash:Kemia is because everyone knows that some Lachashim:Kemias work, and thus unless one knows for certain that it does not work it does not contain Darkei Emori. One must thus conclude that even according to Admur Segula treatments must be known to work, as rules the Levushei Serud, and in addition it must be recognizable to all.

[54] Opinion in Admur and Michaber ibid; Rabbeinu Yonah in Shaareiy Teshuvah 3:104, brought in Ran ibid; Chavos Yair 234.

[55] Admur ibid

[56] Shvus Yaakov, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah Y.D. 339:1; Gilyon Maharsha 155 in name of his father Rav Alova Eiger; Tashbeitz; Darkei Teshuvah 155:2; Imrei Yaakov 10 Likkutim 9

[57] Minchas Elazar 5:85; Darkei Chaim Veshalom Hilchos Bikur Cholim; Imrei Yaakov 10 Likkutim 9

[58] See Admur 468:22-23; Shabbos 129b; Imreiy Yaakov 10:22; Tzitz Eliezer 12:46; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 133:3

[59] Admur 306:18; Michaber 306:7; Tur 306; Ravayah 202; Maharam Merothenberg  512; Hagahos Maimanis Shabbos 24:4; Elya Raba 306:21;See Kaf Hachaim 306:65

[60] Admur ibid; 307:32; See Michaber Y.D. 179:8; Shach 179:8

[61] Admur 156:20; M”A 156:2; Shabbos 129a

[62] Admur 328:3

[63] Admur 328:4

[64] Admur 328:3

[65] Admur 328:5

[66] Admur 328: 6

[67] Admur 328:7

[68] Admur 328:6

[69] Admur 328:6

[70] Admur 328:7

[71] Admur 328:7

[72] Admur 328:8

[73] Admur 328:24

[74] Admur 328:9

[75] Admur 328:15

[76] Admur 328:6, Ketzos Hashulchan 137 footnote 1. See also chapter 316

[77] Admur 328:6, and chapter 316

[78] Admur 329:1

[79] However, in a Karmalis, seemingly if they have the ability to be carried out, one must do so rather than extinguish the fire. [so is implied from Admur]

[80] See Sichos Kodesh 5739 3/314; Likkutei Sichos 36/335-336; Heichal Menachem 1/48, two letters of Rebbe to Rav Yaakov Landau, Chief Rabbi of Bnei Brak; Healthy in Body Mind and Spirit chapter 9

[81] Yoga is a group of physicalmental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. There is a broad variety of Yoga schools, practices, and goals in HinduismBuddhism, and Jainism. Many of the positions and mantras in Yoga contain pure idolatry, summoning deities and spiritual forces and showing one’s subservience towards them.

[82] Michaber Y.D. 285:1; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 212:1

[83] Lit. “Zahir”

[84] Michaber ibid; Shabbos 32b

The source: As is stated explicitly in the verse following the command “Lman Yirbu Yimeichem Uyimei Bineichem Al Hadama….” [Shach 285/2]

[85] Shabbos 32b

[86] Michaber ibid

[87] Taz 289:4

[88] Avoda Zara 11a; Menachos 33b; Tur 285

[89] Beis Yosef: This aspect of the Mitzvah is even greater than the previous mentioned reward, being that usually a Mitzvah only protects a person at the time of its performance [as mentioned in Sotah 21a], which is regarding Mezuzah at a time that one remembers the unity of G-d written in the Mezuzah. Thus the novelty here is that even when a person is sleeping and is not involved in the Mitzvah, it protects him. [Beis Yosef brought in Taz 289/1] However the Bach explains this matter differently, as will be explained in the next footnote.

[90] Tosafos Menachos 44a “Lishimur Avid/The Mitzvah of Mezuzah is in order to protect one’s home.” Similarly, the Bach on the Tur explains that the difference between the guarding that one receives from the Mezuzah, and the rewards that are mentioned regarding all the other Mitzvos, including the reward here of long life, is that usually a reward is only given by G-d in the future and in accordance to one’s effort, however by the Mitzvah of Mezuzah, in addition to the future reward of long life that G-d gives, the Mezuzah itself naturally guards. Thus, the guarding in truth is not a reward but is a direct effect of the Mezuzah itself. [This is similar to how a key effects that a door is locked; this effect is not termed a reward, as a reward is only termed when one receives something which is not an obligated natural result of what he did, but rather was decided to be given in exchange for him doing so.] This aspect found in this Mitzvah of Mezuzah, that the Mitzvah itself brings a direct physical advantage, is not found by any other mitzvah. Similarly, we do not find by any other Mitzvah that the Mitzvah was given in order to give one a physical benefit. It is for this reason that we find that the Halacha states that one needs to place the mezuzah on the outer Tefach in order for it to guard the entire house, as this is the purpose of the Mitzvah. [Likkutei Sichos 19 p. 121]

[91] Tur ibid

The reason: Although the purpose of the Mitzvah of Mezuzah is to protect, nevertheless one must fulfill Hashem’s decrees like a servant, irrelevant to the reason he was commanded to do them. However in this case one can have in mind to fulfill the Mitzvah of Hashem to protect ones house with the Mezuzah. Furthermore, even one who places a Mezuzah in order for the Mitzvah to bring him protection, although this is considered that he is doing the Mitzvah for an ulterior motif [lo Lishma], nevertheless he has still fulfilled the Mitzvah. Regarding that which the Rambam writes [that one who writes names of angels on the Mezuzah to add in protection is considered a fool, and has lost his portion in the world to come being that he turned G-d’s command into a personal pleasure] this was only said in that case, being that they have proven by adding angels to the Mezuzah that they don’t believe that it’s the Mitzvah that protects, but rather think that it is a good luck charm and thus are considered heretics. [Nonetheless from here it is implied that it is forbidden for one to place a Mezuzah if he does not G-d Forbid believe in the Mitzvah and rather thinks it brings good luck.] [Likkutei Sichos ibid]

[92] Yerushalmi Peah 1/1; Tosefes Yom Tov on Keilim 17/15; Likkutei Sichos 19/121, Igros Kodesh 4/159; printed in Shulchan Menachem 234-236

[93] Rebbe ibid

[94] Yerushalmi Peah 1/1; Likkutei Sichos 19/121, printed in Shulchan Menachem 234-236

[95] Daas Kedoshim 289:1; Pischeiy Shearim 190; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 215:2

The reason: There is a known tradition in the name of the Besht not to use tubes made of iron since iron is used to make weapons which kill, while the Mezuzah is grants long life. Hence, just as stated regarding the Mizbeiach, it is unfit for that which shortens to be placed on that which lengthens. [ibid] 

[96] See Michaber 286:5; Shach 289:9; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 216:1 footnote 1

[97] Shela Hakadosh Miseches Chulin; Yosef Ometz 600 in name of Rav Chaim Vital

[98] Sefer Zechira Inyanei Sakana; Shemiras Hanefesh 40; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 216:1

[99] Michaber 291:2; Tur C.M. 314; Smeh C.M. 314:8; Baba Metzia 102a; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 217:1-7

[100] The reason: As this allows Mazikin [evil spirits] to enter the home, and it is thus considered as if one damaged the home with his bare hands. [Tosafos Baba Metzia 101b; Smeh ibid; Aruch Hashulchan 291/3] Alternatively, the reason is because there is danger that his children will die [as is told in Gemara that once a renter removed his Mezuzahs and he ended up burying his wife and two children]. [Bava Metzia 102a; Sefer Chasidim; Beis Lechem Yehudah 291] Alternatively, the reason is because the Mezuzos draw the Shechinah onto the home and when one removes it, it causes the Shechinah to depart. [Ritva ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because the person entering the home may be lax in placing Mezuzos on the doorpost. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid; Rishon Letziyon 291] Alternatively, it is because it is a belittlement for a Mezuzah to sit idle without use. [Shelasos 126 Beshalach; First explanation in Tosafus Shabbos 22a]

[101] Tosafos Baba Metzia 101b; Ritva ibid; Implication of Michaber ibid, as brought in P”M 15 M”Z 2; Beis Yosef 291 in name of Tosafus; Darkei Moshe 291/1 in name of Hagahos Ashri; Beis Lechem Yehuda 291; See Birkeiy Yosef 291/3

The reason: As through removing the Mezuzos the Mazikin enter into the house, and this causes damage to the new tenants. [Tosafus ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because the Mezuzos draw the Shechinah onto the home and when one removes it, it causes the Shechinah to depart. [Ritva ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one will immediately place the Mezuzos on the doors of his new home they may be removed just as is the law regarding Tzitzis, that one may remove Tzitzis from a Tallis if he plans to tie them to a different Tallis. [Rav Acha Mishavcha Gaon in Sheilasos Shelach; Ritva Baba Metzia in name of Rav Haiy Gaon; Nimukei Yosef in end of Hilchos Mezuzah [although leaves in Tzaruch Iyun]; First explanation in Tosafus Shabbos 22a, brought in Birkeiy Yosef O.C. 15 and Y.D. 391/3, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 391/7; Eshkol]

[102] Conclusion of Birkeiy Yosef 291/5, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 391/7; See there for the different sides for answering this question and that in conclusion it is logical to say the Sages did not differentiate in this matter.

[103] Birkeiy Yosef O.C. 15 and Y.D. 391/3, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 391/7, that in a time of need one may rely on the ruling of Rav Haiy and Rav Acha Gaon; Yad Avraham 291; P”M 15 M”Z 2

Other opinions: Some Poskim leave this ruling in question. [Aruch Hashulchan 291/3]

[104] The reason: This follows the reason of the Shelasos brought in previous footnotes.

[105] Michaber 291/2; Baba Metzia 102a

[106] Shach 291/3

[107] Shach ibid

[108] Sheilas Yaavetz 2/122, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 291/9

The reason: In order so the gentile does not cause the Mezuzah any belittlement. [ibid]

[109] Sheilas Yaavetz 2/122, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 291/9; Beis Lechem Yehudah 291

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one knows another Jew will be moving in it is forbidden to remove the Mezuzos. [Aruch Hashulchan 291/3; Shulchan Melachim 11/185

[110] Rama 291/2; Sheilasos; Ritva; Beis Yosef in name of Rabbeinu Manoach

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is not necessary for the owner to pay the renter for his Mezuzos, but is simply a good act, and cannot be forced upon the owner. [Implication of wording of Beis Yosef in name of Rav Manoach that it is “a good thing to pay”; Ritva, brought in Shita Mekubetzes that it is only “possible” that he must pay]

[111] Literally “hasheyni” which means the second person.

[112]  Bach 291; M”A 437/6 as explained in Machatzis Hashekel there; Chayeh Adam 15/23; Aruch Hashulchan 291/3; Igros Moshe 4/44

[113] See Pischeiy Shearim 291/12

[114] Seemingly one may only demand money from the owner if the owner is moving in, as if not, why should he need to pay for the renters Mezuzos if he has no obligation to have Mezuzos on his home being he is not living there. However, if new ten nets or buyer enters the home they would be required to pay.

[115] Aruch Hashulchan 291:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if the owner refuses to pay for the Mezuzos then the renter may remove them. [Ritva and Eshkol of Raavad, brought in Shita Mekubetzes, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 291:4, Chelkas Yaakov 3:160]

[116] See Mur Veahalos 15; Kevius Mezuzah Kehilchasa 14 footnote 16; Lehoros Nasan 6/126; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 217:3

[117] Daas Kedoshim 291:1; Mili Deavos O.C. 5:6; Levushei Mordechai Telisa 42; Chelkas Yaakov 3/160; Yabia Omer Y.D. 3:18; See Kevius Mezuzah Kehilchasa 14 footnote 16; Perhaps this is permitted even if he does not immediately replace the Mezuzos by his home as the Mezuzos were removed in a permitted way, for the sake of checking. Vetzaruch Iyun. Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 217:4-5

[118] See Daas Kedoshim ibid; Mili Deavos O.C. 5:6; Levushei Mordechai Telisa 42; Yabia Omer Y.D. 3:18; Chelkas Yaakov ibid regarding switching for less Mehudar Mezuzos; So seems Pashut that it is permitted to do so, as he is not transgressing any reason brought in Poskim for the reason of the prohibition and so is implied from Birkeiy Yosef 291/6 that if he himself will be placing other Mezuzos it is permitted and so rules Chelkas Yaakov ibid that in truth even if he removes it not for the sake of checking, but simply to place in his own home it is permitted; However see Igros Moshe O.C. 5/44 who is stringent in general against switching a more Mehudar mezuzah for a less Mehudar one. Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 217:4

Other opinions: See Yad Yitzchak 3:77; Hillel Omer Y.D. 183

[119] See Kevius Mezuzah Kehilchasa 14 footnote 16

[120] Igros Moshe O.C. 5/44 in name of Rav Henkin

[121] Shivas Tziyon 110, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 291/8

[122] P”M 15 M”Z 2 regarding if people no longer plan to live in the building; Daas Kedoshim 291:1

[123] Sheilas Yaavetz 2/119; Minchas Yitzchak 10/96

[124] Chelek Halevi 114

[125] So seems Pashut that it is permitted to do so, as he is not transgressing any reason brought in Poskim for the reason of the prohibition. See Chelkas Yaakov ibid

[126] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 88 footnote 16; Sheyikadesh Atzmo 63:5

[127] Reishis Chochma Shaar Ahava 11:39

[128] Mishmeres Shalom 2:1; Siddur Lev Sameich in name of Belzer Rav; Baal Shem Tov Al Hatorah Parshas Yisro 15

[129] Likkutei Sichos 17:481

[130] Divrei Yatziv 1:56; See also Igros Kodesh 13:441; 23:295

[131] See Beir Moshe 8:36; Response of Rav Eli Landau Shlita: Rav Eli Landau responded to us regarding the above custom, that the adherence of not allowing a child to look at the mirror until a certain age was certainly followed in his home as well as the home of many Jewish families and is a traditional Jewish custom. Whatever the case, he stated that one without a family tradition in this matter has no obligation to adapt to these customs if they do not want to, and it is simply a question of whether one is allowed to suspect for them, or should suspect for them due to his family tradition.

See regarding the general Halachic issues with superstitious beliefs: Michaber Y.D. 178-179; Rambam Avoda Zara 11; Sanhedrin 65a; Encyclopedia Talmudit Erech Darkei Haemori Vol. 7; Shiltei Hagiborim Avoda Zara 9a, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 179:3; See Yerushalmi Terumos 8:3 that one needs to suspect for that which people worry of danger; Sefer Chassidim 261 that there is danger involved in matters that people believe to be dangerous; Minchas Yitzchak 9:8; See regarding Hataras Nedarim: Michaber Y.D. 214:1-2

Explanation: Adapting superstitious practices that are not sourced in classic Jewish sources enters the question of the prohibition of Lo Sinacheish and Darkei Emori, and practically one needs to research whether they were traditionally practiced amongst G-d-fearing Jewish homes, in which case one does not have to worry of them containing any prohibition. Nonetheless, even if verified that the superstition has traditionally been followed by some Jewish families, it does not obligate everyone to adapt to these superstitions, and so can be argued that it is better to ignore it and not create unnecessary Ayin Haras. Now, regarding the specific superstition of not having a child look at the mirror, we find that it was traditionally practiced amongst G-d-fearing homes in Europe, and therefore there is no prohibition involved in following it. However, those who did not receive such a tradition may ignore it if they choose. Now, regarding if one who received such a tradition from his family if he may stop following it, this enters the question of breaking a family custom, although in my opinion it seems that one can choose to ignore it if it has no source in classic Jewish sources and is not a very widespread adherence that is kept. For extra insurance, he should do Hataras Nedarim. [See Michaber Y.D. 214:1-2]

[132] Taz 581:3; Sefer Chassidim 755; See Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 258

[133] Admur Kama 2:9 [omitted in Basra]; Darkei Moshe 2; Or Zarua Shabbos 2:43

[134] Vayikra Raba 19:4.

[135] Koheles 10

[136] Bava Metzia 27a; Shemiras Hanefesh 153; Kaf Hachaim 116:187; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 243

[137] Kiddushin 59a; Ben Ish Chaiy  Pinchas 2:13; Kaf Hachaim 116:188; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 214:1

[138] Shemiras Hanefesh 154; Ben Ish Chaiy Pinchas 2:13; Kaf Hachaim 116:188; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 214:2

[139] Chida in Moreh Baetzba 6:186

[140] Kneses Hagedola 426 in name of the author of Sefer Chareidim

[141] Siddur Admur; M”A 426:8 in name of the Shlah rules that one looks at the moon one time and after that it is forbidden to look at the moon any longer; The Chida in Moreh Baetzba 6:186 concludes likewise that one is only to look at the moon one time prior to the blessing, as according to Kabala it is forbidden to look at the moon.

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that one should look at the moon until he finishes the entire prayer of Kiddush Levana and that so is the custom. [Keneses Hagedola 426] Other Poskim rule to look at the moon only until the end of the blessing of Mechadeish Chadashim, and afterwards it is forbidden to look at it just like it is forbidden to look at a rainbow. [Kneses Hagedola ibid in name of the author of Sefer Chareidim]

[142] Rama 664:1; See Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Halulav 5; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 140:2

[143] The Rama ibid concludes “so it appears to me”

[144] Derech Eretz Raba 11; Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh 267:6

[145] See Admur 291:2; Opinion in Rama 291:2; Tosafus Pesachim 105a; Rosh Pesachim 13; Mordechai Pesachim; Midrash Socher Tov 11:6; See Kaf Hachaim 291:16-17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 291:3; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 130 footnote 1 in length

Background: Between Mincha and Maariv, during the period of Bein Hashmashos of Motzei Shabbos, it is forbidden to drink drawn water due to Sakana. This applies even if one is in the midst of a meal, or is after the meal. The reason for this is because by Motzei Shabbos, this is close to the time that the souls return to Gehenom, and a person who drinks water from the river at that time is stealing from the dead which cool themselves off in the water before they return to Gehenom. [1st and Stam opinion in Admur ibid and Rama ibid and Tosafus and Rosh ibid] However, some Poskim rule that this danger applies specifically by Bein Hashmashos on Erev Shabbos as at that time the souls cool off when they leave Gehenom, and there is hence a danger to drink from the water of the river at that time. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid and Rama ibid; Girsas Rabbeinu Meshulam in Midrash, brought in Tosafus and Rosh; Levush 291:3; Tosefes Shabbos 291:8] Practically, it is proper to suspect of their words. [Admur ibid; Elya Raba 291:9; Bach 291]

[146] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Hagahos Maimanis 30

[147] Opinion in  Rama ibid; Rabbeinu Yechiel, brought in Tosafus ibid

[148] Omitted from Admur ibid

[149] Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 131

[150] Pirkei Derebbe Eliezer 20, brought in Tur 296

[151] Brought in Tur 296

[152] Shavuos 18b

[153] Shaar Hakavanos; Peri Eitz Chaim; Kaf Hachaim 296:7; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 131:1

[154] Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 131:2

[155] M”A 296:4 in name of Shlah

[156] Shlah ibid

[157] Perhaps this is the reason Admur omitted this custom although it is brought in the Magen Avraham, as it is included within the custom that no one, not even men drink from the Havdalah wine.

[158] SSH”K 62:16

[159] Brachos 43a

[160] Igros Kodesh 11:375, and whoever is more careful in this adds to his eyesight

A directive of the Rebbe to an individual to use red wine: See JEM “Here’s My Story” of 16th Sivan 5773 that Dr. Leonard Lovitch [a surgeon living in LA] received a directive from the Rebbe to be particular to drink only red wine for Kiddush and Havdalah as a Segulah for his dislocated eye, and failing eyesight, to return to normal, which miraculously a few weeks later after drinking red wine for Kiddush and Havdalah! Nonetheless, as with all private directives of a Rebbe [i.e. Horah Pratis], no Halachic matters, or even acts of piety can be derived from this story, as it was a Tikkun meant for that individual, and does not come to add or subtract from the Halacha explained above, which is the directive for the masses.

[161] Igros Kodesh 11:375, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:66; See Pirkei Derebbe Eliezer 20 in Pirush Radal

[162] Rashi Brachos ibid and Shabbos ibid

[163] Perisha 269; Igros Kodesh 12:226, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:145; See Admur 296:5

[164] Tur 269 and Tosafus Pesachim 110a in name of Rav Nutranaiy Gaon; See Maharsha Brachos ibid, Perisha ibid; Igros Kodesh 12:226, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:145 and footnote 2 there

[165] Igros Kodesh, printed in Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 6; See Eiruvin 65a; Sanhedrin 38a and Rashi there

[166] Shaar Shlomo, brought in Darkei Teshuvah 179:23; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 139:2

[167] See Kaf Hachaim O.C. 300:12; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 6:4-5 footnote 7

Background: In one area of the Talmud [Yuma 84a] it states that one who eats wheat bread that is very hot causes damage to his teeth. However, elsewhere the Talmud [Avoda Zara 28a] states that only one who eats barley bread that is very hot is in danger of causing damage to his teeth. Likewise, the Yerushalmi Shabbos 1:10 plainly states that hot bread brings illness. However, elsewhere the Talmud and Poskim state that one is to specifically eat hot bread on Motzei Shabbos and that such bread is a cure [for depression]. [Shabbos 119b that eating hot bread on Motzei Shabbos is a cure; Chulin 6b; Yifei Laleiv 300:1; Divrei Yitzchak 300:4; Orchos Chaim 300:2; Kaf Hachaim O.C. 300:12; Mishmeres Shalom ibid] Some therefore explain that this refers to prebaked bread which is warmed on Motzei Shabbos. [Yifei Laleiv 300:1, Kaf Hachaim O.C. ibid, Hagahos of Divrei Yisrael on Shemiras Hanefesh] Likewise, some explain that it does not refer to actual hot bread but rather comes to negate old bread. [see Kaf Hachaim O.C. 300:12]

[168] Divrei Yitzchak 300:4; Orchos Chaim 300:2; Kaf Hachaim O.C. 300:12

[169] Shabbos 119b; Yifei Laleiv 300:1; Divrei Yitzchak 300:4; Orchos Chaim 300:2; Kaf Hachaim O.C. 300:12; Mishmeres Shalom ibid; Likewise, see Kaf Hachaim O.C. 300:12 that it does not refer to actual hot bread but rather comes to negate old bread

[170] Yifei Laleiv 300:1; 2nd explanation in Kaf Hachaim O.C. ibid; Yad Yosef O.C. 300 based on Imrei Eish; Hagahos of Divrei Yisrael on Shemiras Hanefesh

[171] Yuma 84a regarding wheat bread; Avoda Zara 28a regarding barley bread; Yerushalmi Shabbos 1:10 regarding all hot bread; Chupas Eliyahu Raba in end of Reishis Chochma 10; M”A 254:17 in name of Bach “Hot bread is not so good”; Machatzis Hashekel ibid “People do not eat hot bread”; Ben Ish Chaiy Pinchas 2:16; Shulchan Chaiy 4 footnote 2; Mishmeres Shalom Semachos Sakana 17; Kaf Hachaim ibid and ibid; Hagahos of Shoel Umeishiv to Shemiras Hanefesh; Atzei Olah Y.D. 116; Likkutei Maharich Devarim Hanehugim Beseuda

[172] 1st explanation in Kaf Hachaim O.C. ibid

[173] Admur 299:20; Rama 299:10; Kol Bo 41 that so is custom of women

[174] This is based on the statement of the Sages [Vayikra Raba 22:4; Bamidbar Raba 18:22] that the well of Miriam which is found in the sea of Tiberius meets every Motzei Shabbos with all wells and springs, and whoever is able to grab this water and drink it is immediately healed from all ailments. Therefore, the custom is to draw water every Motzei Shabbos, as perhaps one will receive the water of Miriam’s well. [ibid] The Rama [299:10] adds that he has not seen this custom being followed. Admur however omitted this in his ruling. See Sichos Kodesh 5739 Vol 3 p. 277-279 for an analysis in this subject.

[175] Kaf Hachaim [Rav Chaim Falagi] 31:53

[176] Kitzur Halachos Shabbos 300 footnote 9

[177] Kol Bo 41, Brought in Taamei Haminhagim 423

[178] See Aruch Hashulchan 299:22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 300:6

[179] M”A 299:15 in name of Abudarham end of Seder Motzei Shabbos; Elya Raba 299:23 in name of Tashbeitz that so is the custom of the world to not do Melacha throughout the entire Motzei Shabbos

[180] Yerushalmi Pesachim 4, Perek Hamakom Shenahagu Halacha 1, brought in Tur 299 and M”A 299:15, “Women who are accustomed to not do Melacha on Motzei Shabbos are not fulfilling a custom”

[181] It is omitted likewise in the Mishneh Berurah

[182] Aruch Hashulchan 299:22; Nesiv Hachaim; Torah Lishma 79

[183] Based on testimony of Leket Yosher p. 58 in name of Terumos Hadeshen

[184] Tosefes Shabbos 299:18; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 300:6

[185] Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair 300; Piskeiy Teshuvos 300:6 that so is custom in many communities; Received from HaRav Eliyahu Landau Shlita that so is the explicit Chabad tradition for women to avoid sewing on Motzei Shabbos; Rivivos Efraim 2:107 that so is custom of many; Shulchan Halevi that the custom only applies until midnight

[186] As Admur 299:20 rules that the statement of the Gemara against doing work on Motzei Shabbos applies only until Maariv is finished in Shul.

[187] Received from HaRav Eliyahu Landau Shlita

[188] Received from HaRav Leibel Groner Shlita

[189] Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 132:4

[190] Leket Yosher O.C. p. 58

[191] Darkei Teshuvah 179:23 in name of Shaar Shlomo 47

[192] Shemiras Hanefesh

[193] Darkei Teshuvah 179:23 in name of Shaar Shlomo 47

[194] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:160; 5:35

[195] This was the custom of Rebbe Rashab, as revealed by Rebbe Rayatz. See Sichas Motzei Shabbos Vayeilech 5739

Prohibition of Lo Sinacheish: In Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah 179:3 the Michaber rules that one who states he will not give money to a collector because it is Motzei Shabbos transgresses “Lo Sinacheish”. This raises a question regarding our custom to avoid giving money on Motzei Shabbos. The Rebbe mentions this in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:160 and concludes that nevertheless this was the custom. To note however from Taz 179:2 and Pischeiy Teshuvah 279:3 that if one does not tell the person why he is not giving the money and simply thinks in his head that it is because of Motzei Shabbos, then no transgression has been done.

[196] Divrei Torah Munkatch 2:81

[197] Shaar Hakavanos p. 60; Kaf Hachaim 300:2

[198] Beis Yosef 300:1; Shibulei Haleket 130; Mateh Moshe 513; Elya Raba 300:2-3; brought in Kaf Hachaim 300:1; Ketzos Hashulchan 100 footnote 7

[199] See Likkutei Sichos 36 Beshalach for the reason why the Luz bone benefits specifically from the meal of Melaveh Malka

[200] Peri Eitz Chaim 18:17; Kaf Hachaim 300:5

[201] Orchos Yosher 10 p. 155; Yifei Laleiv 300:1; Kaf Hachaim 300:4

[202] Divrei Yitzchak 61; Orchos Chaim 300:2;  brought in Kaf Hachaim 300:4

[203] Kaf Hachaim 300:12

[204] Maritz Gais Hilchos Havdalah

[205] Minchas Shabbos 85:30

[206] Kaf Hachaim 300:7 and 13

[207] Kaf Hachaim 300:15

[208] Taamei Haminhagim 425; Likkutei Maharich

[209] Peri Eitz Chaim 18:17, as there is a ray of David Hamelech revealed by this meal.

[210] Shiyurei Mincha 96:6

[211] Sefarim brought in Nitei Gavriel 48 footnote 7

[212] Tzavaas Rebbe Yehuda Hachassid Azharos Nosafos 6; Sefer Chassidim 1013; Mavor Yabok Sefas Emes 10; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 194:1

[213] Azharos Nosafos of Rav Yehuda Hachassid in Tzavah 6; See also Sefer Chassidim 1013 and Mavor Yabok ibid; Nitei Gavriel 48:13

[214] Mavor Yabok Sefas Emes 10

[215] Midrash Raba Vaeschanon

[216] Mavor Yabok Sefas Emes 10

[217] Michaber Y.D. 179:2 based on Teshuvas Ramban 282 [104] who states, “Those that do not begin on ב”ד [Mondays or Wednesdays]…”, Based on Zohar p. 273

[218] The reason: As on Mondays the Mazal of the moon shines, and the Mazal of the moon is not good omen. [Ramban ibid; Shabbos 156a “One who is born by Mazal Levana” will have difficulties-Banaiy Vesoser”] On Wednesday the Mazal of Shabsai Kochav shines, which is also not a good omen. [Ramban ibid] The Mazal that shines on that day or night rules over everything of that entire day. [Pirkei Derebbe Eliezer 6]

[219] Igros Kodesh 15:390 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 6:237]

[220] Dvar Eliyahu 37 brought in Darkei Teshuvah 179:13

[221] Ruach Chaim ibid

The reason: As then it is considered done for the sake of a Mitzvah, and is hence allowed.

[222] Birkeiy Yosef 179 in Shiyurei Bracha 3 in name of Derech Chaim brought in Darkei Teshuvah 179:12

[223] Heard from Rav Asher Lemel Hacohen

[224] The custom in Belz is to be very particular regarding this matter. They hence do not marry, get engaged or even start the learning semester on Mondays or Wednesdays.

[225] Sefer Chassidim 246; Kaf Hachaim 116:137

[226] Azharos Nosafos Tzavah Rebbe Yehuda Hachassid 15; Shevet Mussar 31; Nefesh Chaim Mareches Yud 24; Sefer Zechira; Shemiras Hanefesh 42; Shulchan Chaiy 38:1; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 93; see there footnote 2 for various opinions in this matter and different days that are recorded

[227] See Avnei Tzedek Y.D. 44

[228] Nagid Mitzvah in name of Rav Chaim Vital in name of Arizal; Kaf Hachaim 116:119; Igros Kodesh 20:178, printed in Shulchan Menachem 4:29

[229] Yosef Ometz 37:6 based on Bava Basra 144; Zechor Leavraham 3:191-60; Zivcheiy Tzedek 116:84; Kaf Hachaim 116:119

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