Halachic Hazards Encyclopedia Letter E

This article is an excerpt from our Sefer 

Buy here on Amazon

Letter E


See Chapter 4-7!


A solar or lunar eclipse: [Talmud/Achronim/Rebbe]

The Talmud[1] states that an eclipse is a bad omen for the entire world.[2] More particularly, a solar eclipse is a bad omen for the gentile nations, while a lunar eclipse is a bad omen for “The enemies of Israel[3].”[4] [Although an eclipse is set in nature as part of the orbit of the sun and moon, and is foreseen many years in advance, nonetheless, the Sages learned that its occurrence is a bad omen for the world due to the four sins found amongst people, as will be explained. Several explanations for this have been offered: 1) It refers to G-d arranging visibility of the eclipse, which is weather dependent.[5] 2) The occurrence itself is not caused by the sins, but rather the occurrence represents a time of bad omen in which the below mentioned sins are punished for, if applicable in that area. It is a time of severity in which the above sins are more likely to get punished.[6] Furthermore, this bad omen causes people to have feelings for the sins to be mentioned, and create within them a bad nature. Nonetheless, man has ability to control these instincts and not give into his inclination.[7]] 3) The Talmud is not referring to an eclipse, but rather to sunspots, which are black dots found by the sun.[8]   

The location of the bad omen: The Talmud[9] states that the bad omen given by an eclipse applies to the location in which the eclipse was seen. If it was seen in the eastern hemisphere than it is a bad omen for those who live in the eastern hemisphere. If it was seen in the western hemisphere than it is a bad omen for those who live in the western hemisphere. If it was seen in the middle of the sky, then it is a bad omen for the entire world.

Who receives retribution? The Talmud[10] states that aside for the nations who live in the area of the eclipse receiving Divine retribution, so too their deity [which refers to the angelic minister who oversees that nation[11]] receives punishment.

Avoiding punishment:[12] At times that the Jewish people fulfill the will of G-d they do not need to fear the eclipse, as the verse[13] states “Don’t learn from the ways of the gentiles and from the signs in Heaven do not fear.”

What sins cause G-d to bring an eclipse and its bad omen:[14] There are four sins which case the bad omen of the solar eclipse to take place.

  1. The sin of not respecting the leader of the Beis Din through giving a proper eulogy at the time of his funeral.
  2. The sin of rape of a young married woman, which the community ignores.[15]
  3. Same-gender attraction.
  4. Simultaneous murder of siblings.

There are four sins which cause the bad omen of the lunar eclipse to take place.

  1. Forgeries, such as forged documents and papers which slander an individual.
  2. False testimony.
  3. Raising domestic livestock in Eretz Yisrael and letting them eat from other fields.
  4. Cutting down good trees [who can bear fruit].

Fasting: Some Poskim[16] record that one is to fast when a lunar eclipse occurs.[17]

Teshuvah: The sighting of an eclipse should bring a person to perform Teshuvah and pray to Hashem to nullify the upcoming evil decree.[18]  The sighting of the natural phenomenon is to bring a Jew to a renewed recognition of G-d’s managing of the world.[19]


Stepping on eggshells:[20] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch Harav]

One who steps on eggshells [whether barefoot or with shoes[21]] endangers himself to receive Tzaraas/leprosy. [Although many of the Talmudic, and even codified warnings of mystical dangers are no longer followed today[22], practically, many people are accustomed to abstaining from stepping on eggshells even today. Thus, eggshells are not to be thrown in areas that people walk. There is a story recorded regarding the Rebbe Maharash, that he once admonished someone to be careful in this matter.[23]]


An enemy who appears in your dream:[24] [Sefer Chassidim]

It is possible for a person who passed away to get revenge against his enemy by appearing to him in a dream and injuring him. This once occurred, and a dead man who was the enemy of an individual appeared to him in a dream and injured his thigh and he then woke up with tremendous pain in that area.


Actions that cause weakness and loss of energy:[25] [Talmud/Achronim]

There are three things which weaken a person’s energy, and they are as follows:

  1. Fear and worry
  2. Travel
  3. Sins

There are three things which weaken a person’s body, and they are as follows:[26] [Talmud/Achronim]

  1. One who eats while standing
  2. One who drinks while standing
  3. One who has marital relations while standing

Epidemics-What to do in time of an epidemic:[27] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch/Shulchan Aruch Harav/ Achronim]

A. Fleeing versus quarantine and isolation:[28]

Escaping the city:[29] In times of a [contagious[30]] plague[31], one is to escape [and help his children escape[32]] from the city [or neighborhood[33]].[34] [Indeed, Rav Yosef Caro, the famous author of the Shulchan Aruch fled the city of Tzefas during an outbreak in 1572 and lived in the nearby town of Biryah during the interim. In the event that you already came down with the disease and were cured, then there is no need for you to flee the city any longer.[35]]

When to escape:[36] One is to escape from the city when the plague first begins. If one did not escape when it first began, then he should not run away [later] towards its end.[37]

Quarantine and isolation:[38] [If one did not run away in the start of the plague, then] he is to hide himself in hidden places and is not to show his face in the marketplace due to the Mazikin [i.e. quarantine and isolation].[39] 

Walking the road:[40] If there is a plague in the city, then one should not walk in middle of the road [whether by day or by night] being that the angel of death walks down the middle of the road, as he now has permission to pass. [Furthermore, some write that it is proper not to walk outside at all during a pandemic, as stated above.]  

Social distancing:[41]

In times of a contagious plague, one distances himself from the clothing and items of the infected individual.


Covering one’s forehead:[42]

During times of plague, it is proper for a person to cover his forehead in order, so the angel of death does not recognize his sins which are written on his forehead.


Visiting a cemetery:[43]

One is to avoid visiting a cemetery during the time of a plague.


Walking alone to Shul:[44]

One is to avoid walking alone to Shul during the time of a plague if it does not have a set Minyan, and does not have a Talmud Torah in its premises.


Doctors, paramedics, and people working on the frontlines to help those stricken by the epidemic:

Rav Avraham Azulaiy[45] emphasizes that by a long epidemic which lasts 3-4 months, those people who work on the front lines to help the sick and bury the dead are to continue with their holy work and not be worried of the plague and the fact that they are not following the protocol of isolation, as “Shomer Pesaim Hashem.”



Although in the past the Poskim[47] ruled that one is to run away from the city during a Smallpox epidemic, in today’s times there is no longer any need for one to flee, as in today’s times a vaccine is given against this and there are expert doctors who know how to contain it.


A disease which has a cure and is not lethal:

From the above law regarding the chickenpox epidemic, we can learn that any epidemic which can be contained either through medicine or preventive measures such as through vaccination, one does not have to leave the city for or enter into isolation.

Segulos against epidemics:

Checking if the dead have worn out clothing:[48] Whenever there is an epidemic in the city, one should search the clothing of the dead to see if any of their clothing have worn out [and if so, then one is to remove them or switch them] as this is a grave danger. [Alternatively, some explain the issues is not if the garment of the dead has worn out, but rather the issue is if he was buried with worn out garments which is a belittlement for the dead, and is therefore a danger for the community.[49] According to this approach, so long as he was buried with dignified clothing, there is no longer a danger even if it later became worn out after the burial.]

Open hands of dead:[50] Likewise, one is to make sure that their fists are open and not closed, which is also a matter of danger. All these things are permitted to be done to the dead being that it is a matter of danger for the living.

The Ketores Paragraph:[51] It is a great and wondrous healing for one to recite the paragraph of the Ketores at a time of an epidemic.

Torah learning:[52] During an epidemic, one is to beware to study Torah by both night and day, as the Torah is called “Lekach” which is the numerical value of the word Mageifa-Plague.

Honesty:[53] it is very careful that one speaks honestly during times of an epidemic. It is a great rule, that whoever speaks lies during an epidemic endangers himself

Reading the 42 Masaos in Parshas Masei:[54] One who reads daily the portion of the Torah discussing the 42 travels [i.e. the Mem Beis Masaos, found in Parshas Masei] is guaranteed to be guarded and safe from the pandemic.

Tikkunim to stop the plague: See Shaar Hakavanos p. 13; Kaf Hachaim O.C. 576:10 based on Zohar

A Maaseh Shehayah:[55]

In the city of Baghdad in the year 1773 an epidemic broke out. When they were digging the grave of one of the dead, they accidentally reopened the grave of a certain woman who had been one of the first victims of the epidemic and was already buried. Lo and behold, they found her to be eating her burial garments which were worn out. They told this to the head sage of the city, Rabbi Tzalach Matzliach who in turn related that he has a tradition from previous generations that this is a great danger and is a bad omen that the epidemic will continue for much time. He thereby instructed for the woman to be slaughtered and so indeed a brave man came forward to do the job asking to first be given some alcohol so we can garner his strength and bravery, and he went ahead and slaughtered the woman and removed the garments from her mouth. Immediately after this was done, the epidemic came to a sudden halt.


Questions in Hashkafah

Why must I quarantine myself and act as if I can run away from G-d’s wrath? If I am meant to get ill r”l it will happen anyways and if not, then I will live regardless. Everything has already been decided on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, so what is the worth of all this running away from reality and sabotaging religious life and activity?

Indeed, this very question has been addressed by the Gedolei Haposkim and Mefarshei Hatorah. Rabbeinu Bechayeh in Parshas Korach[56] explains that making oneself exposed to the illness naturally causes one to become infected by it, and hence even if he was not deserving to initially receive the illness, it does not afford him a protection to not receive it in face of open exposure. A precedent for this can be found in the Torah regarding Lot’s wife, that although she was destined to be saved, because she turned around and exposed herself to the punishment of Sodom, she also lost her life. An alternative reason for the requirement to isolate oneself is because Chazal[57] state that in a time that the attribute of judgement is expressed in the world, it does not differentiate between a Tzaddik and Rasha, and hence placing oneself in the face of exposure to the plague can cost him his life even though he was not destined to die.


The Rashbash in Teshuvah 195[58] was likewise addressed this very question and explained in length that all those written on Rosh Hashanah in the book of life will outlive the epidemic even if they do not escape the city, while all those written in the book of death will die from the epidemic even if they escape the city. However, it is possible that certain people were left in limbo on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur and were not written neither for life or death, and it is for this group of people that running away from the city, and going into isolation can help save their lives. He writes a parable for this matter: A certain state was found to be rebellious against the King and the King decided to send an army to destroy the rebels. He instructed the army to kill all the rebels in the city and search to kill any rebels who ran away into hiding. He likewise instructed that all of his loyal servants are to be protected even if they remain in the city. However, those who are not rebels but are likewise not servants of the King, were not afforded the King’s protection and therefore if they remained in the city, they exposed themselves to death.

B. Fasting:[59] [Achronim]

During a pandemic, one is not to fast, as abstaining from eating and drinking can make one more susceptible to the illness.

The law by the set fast days: It is unclear if the above directive applies only to non-fast days, and it is coming to negate the establishment of new fast days during a pandemic, or if it coming to negate fasting even the established fasts of the Sages. Practically, it all depends on the severity of the illness.[60] Regarding Covid-19: Some Rabbanim view Covid-19 as a clear danger of life for all people and therefore advise the general public not to fast this year during the pandemic even on the 17th of Tamuz. Most Rabbanim, however, take a more complex view differentiating between areas[61], age groups, and risk groups, and so is to be followed in all areas absent of their own Mara Deasra to give them direction. Anyone who is fasting must take extra care to avoid leaving their home the entire day, and if they do leave their home, must do so while wearing a mask.[62]

Tisha Beav: Some Poskim[63] rule that on Tisha Beav during a time of a pandemic, one is to eat and drink according to the Shiur that is followed for a dangerously ill person on Yom Kippur [i.e. eat less than a Kusebes, 30cc, of food within every nine minutes, and drink less than one cheek full of water every nine minutes].

Yom Kippur:[64] At the time of the cholera pandemic in Europe, the Poskim[65] ruled based on the advice of doctors [who stated that it is dangerous for one to leave his house on an empty stomach], that every individual should drink less than one cheek full of tea, or coffee, or soup, every nine minutes. However, practically, this is all dependent on the time and place of the pandemic and hence regarding Yom Kippur one should not break his fast without the directive of a doctor.[66]

C. Mourning during a time of epidemic:[67] [Shulchan Aruch/Achronim]

Some Poskim rule that during an epidemic, one does not mourn, due to fear. Some are accustomed to this opinion.

D. Wearing a mask: [Achronim]

The wearing of a mask during a pandemic is first mentioned in a response of the Tzemach Tzedek to the famous scholar, Rabbi Nechemia of Dubrava during the infamous Cholera pandemic in Europe in the early 1800s. The ruling of the Tzemach Tzedek relates to the fast day of Tisha B’av in face of the epidemic and what should be done. His ruling was later recorded in the Sefer Pischei Olam of Rav Dov Ber Karasik, volume 2 554:8, which was later brought in the Mishneh Berurah in Chapter 554:6 in the Biur Halacha. The following is a free translation of the statement of the Tzemach Tzedek printed in Shaalos Vetueshuvos Tzemach Tzedek O.C. 110, and in Divrei Nechemia O.C. 41: “Whoever desires to fast in an area where the epidemic is not very strong heaven forbid, should be advised, and warned not to leave his home the entire day. Likewise, when he does have to leave, he should be forced to wear a small piece of camphor around his nose and mouth, and have with them a little bit of mint leaf.” Camphor is an herb, and was believed to be one of the best homeopathic remedies against the cholera. Seemingly the same applies for the mint leaves. Now, in order for the camphor and little bit of mint leaf to be placed around his nose and mouth, it either had to be placed in a mask which was worn around the nose and mouth, possibly similar to the doctor masks that were used in previous times which contained a beak in which the herbs were placed, or that the leaves themselves covered one’s nose and mouth. Whatever the case, it is clear that the Tzemach Tzedek is instructing that there be an item covering one’s nose and mouth, whether a cloth, herb, or beak. [Now, while one can certainly argue that the purpose of this was to inhale the medicinal attributes of these herbs, perhaps it was also said to be done in order to prevent inhaling the bad air which was believed to carry the Cholera. At the very least we have found a hint to the idea of wearing Covid masks, and the need to force the population to do whatever they can to prevent the spread of the disease in accordance with the believed medical directives of the time.] To note that based on this statement it is understood that not only have we found a source in Poskim for wearing “masks” but also for quarantine, as he states, “should be advised and warned not to leave his home the entire day.”


See also “Sight”

A. Matters that damage one’s eyesight:[68] [Achronim]

Sudden light or sudden darkness: It is damaging to one’s eyesight for one to enter from light into sudden darkness, or from darkness into sudden light. Rather, one should gradually accustom his eyes to the darkness or light, such as by slightly opening the door of his dark room to the bright hallway, and stare at it for a few moments, and then open it more and stare at this brighter light for a few moments, until one is ready to open the door fully. The same applies when walking from a bright room into a dark room, that one is to gradually enter it. It is due to this reason that G-d in his mercy created that the sunrise and sunset is not sudden but gradual. On this we bless Hashem “Hameir La’aretz Veladarim Aleha Berachamim.”

Reflective light: Reflective light of the sun is damaging to one’s eyesight. Hence one is to avoid living in a home that has windows only on the north side, as the sun never comes to the north and one’s entire source of light is only from the reflection of the sun. Likewise, one should avoid living in a home with walls that block the sunlight from entering one’s window directly, even if the windows are in the east or west, as the light which penetrates the window is reflective light.

Reading, writing, or performing discerning work in the bright or in the dark: One is to avoid reading, writing, or performing eye-discerning work in front of bright light, such as in middle of the day when the sun is shining brightly below. Likewise, one is to avoid doing any of the above during the dark, such as during twilight or at night, or by a [weak] candle at night.

Staring at the color white: Excessive staring at a white color is unhealthy for one’s eyesight. It is for this reason that G-d did not make the heavens white in color, but rather blue, in order so they do not damage one’s eyesight.

Staring at the color red: Excessive staring at a bright red color is unhealthy for one’s eyesight.

Staring at fire: Excessive staring at a flame is unhealthy for one’s eyesight.

Dust: Exposure of one’s eyes to dust is unhealthy for one’s eyesight.

Wind: Exposure of one’s eyes to wind is unhealthy for one’s eyesight. [Hence, it is not good to have a fan blowing into one’s face and eyes.]

Crying: Excessive crying is unhealthy for one’s eyesight.

Smoke: Smoke is damaging to one’s eyesight.

Sulfur: The smell of sulfur is damaging to one’s eyesight.

Wide steps: One is not to walk in wide steps, as doing so takes way 1/500th of one’s ability of sight.[69] See “Walking in large steps” for the full details of this subject!

Intercourse: Overindulgence in intercourse weakness one’s eyesight.

Rainbow:[70] One who looks excessively at a rainbow causes his eyesight to weaken being that the Divine presence is there.

Nassi:[71] One who looks excessively at a Nassi/leader causes his eyesight to weaken being that the Divine presence is on their hands.

Kohanim:[72] One who stares at the Kohanim at the time that they perform Nesias Kapayim damages his eyesight, being that the Divine presence is on their hands.  

B. Matters which benefit the eyesight:[73] [Talmud/Shulchan Aruch/Shulchan Aruch Harav/ Achronim//Rebbe]

Kiddush and Havdalah wine-Drinking & Rubbing: If a person walked in large steps [during the week] he can fix the danger of losing part of his eyesight through “Kiddush of Bein Hashmashos.”[74] This means that one drinks ]and is careful in[75]] the kiddush wine on the night of Shabbos [and the wine of Havdalah[76]].[77] Alternatively, this means that one rubs the Kiddush wine of Friday night [or Motzei Shabbos by Havdalah[78]] on one’s eyes.[79] This is hinted to in the numerical value of “יין” which is the same as the letter “ע” which represent the eye.[80]

Looking at candles:[81] One who looks at the candles during kiddush [and Havdalah[82]], immediately prior to reciting Kiddush, helps benefit his eyesight. [The above Segulos only help for one who took large steps during the week and not for one who took large steps on Shabbos.[83]]

Exercise: [Rambam, Achronim]

The following great rule was said regarding the health of the body: Whoever exercises and exerts a lot of energy and does not eat to satiation, and has loose stools, then no illness will come upon him, and he will be strong and healthy. This applies even if he eats unhealthy foods.[84] On the other hand, if one does not exercise and rather sits all day in serenity, then even if he eats only healthy foods and follows all other health directives, will be weak and stricken with pain all of days.[85]

How much exercise:[86] An average amount of exercise is very beneficial for the health of the body. However too much exercise and bodily exertion damages the body. During winter months one is to exercise more than in the summer months, in which one is totally exercise a little. One who is fat and overweight needs exercise more than one who is skinny and of satisfactory weight.

When:[87] One should exercise prior to eating a meal, as explained in Volume 1 Chapter 4. Thus, one should exercise in the morning prior to eating the morning meal. One is not to exercise after eating the meal until he has digested the food, as one who does exercise prior to digestion of the meal brings upon himself many illnesses.[88]

Bathing:[89] If one bathes in hot water after exercising this is very good, and only then should one sit to eat, after a slight rest.

Bathroom:[90] One should check himself if he needs the bathroom prior to exercise and after exercise.


[1] Sukkah 29a

[2] The reason: This is similar to a king who made a feast for his servants and then got angry at them and asked his servant to remove the torch [i.e. turn off the lights]. [Sukkah ibid] Accordingly, the concealment of the light of the sun or the moon is a sign that Hashem is angry and is hiding his Chesed from us.

[3] This is a euphemism, referring to the Jewish people.

[4] The reason: As the gentile follow a solar calendar while the Jews follow a lunar calendar. [Sukkah ibid]

[5] 1st explanation in Likkutei Sichos 15 p. 7; Igros Kodesh 15:260

[6] Likkutei Sichos ibid; Aruch Laneir Sukkah ibid

[7] Likkutei Sichos ibid

[8] Yearos Devash 2 Drashos 3 of Rebbe Yonason Eibeschitz

[9] Sukkah ibid

[10] Sukkah ibid

[11] Rashi ibid

[12] Sukkah ibid

[13] Yermiyahu 10:2

[14] Sukkah ibid

[15] The Talmud ibid refers to a Naarah Meurasa

[16] M”A 580:1; Sefer Chassidim 230; M”B 580:2; See Mamar Mordechai 580:5; Iyun Yaakov Sukkah ibid; Yifei Laleiv 2:12; Kaf Hachaim 580:3

[17] This is due to the fact that it is a bad omen for Jewry. [ibid]

[18] Igros Kodesh 15:260 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 1:355]

[19] Toras Menachem 5751 p. 308-309

[20] Admur Hilchos Shemiras Guf Vinefesh 9; Abayey in Pesachim 112b; Shemiras Hanefesh Os 76; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 106:3; Omitted from Michaber/Rama/Peri Chadash and Nosei Keilim in Y.D. 116, including Kaf Hachaim 116; Vetzaruch Iyun

[21] Shulchan Chaiy 68; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 106 footnote 4

Other opinions: Some Poskim, however, rule that the issue only applies if one steps on the eggshells while barefoot, and not when wearing shoes. [Sefer Zechira Inyanei Olam Hazeh]

[22] See Shabbos 129b and Tzemach Tzedek E.H. 11 that when the public becomes accustomed to perform a danger Chazal state “Shomer Pesaim Hashem; See Igros Kodesh 2:144 that when the danger is associated with matters of Segula [unnatural] then only when people beware from doing it does the Segula danger apply, while if people are no longer careful then the danger subsides completely; See Rashal Yam Shel Shlomo Kol Habasar 12 that today the Ruach Raah no longer resides and only applies in Talmudic times, just as we rule regarding Zugos.

[23] Shemuos Usipurim 1:173 tells over that the Rebbe Maharash once passed the inn of Yitzchak Shaul in Lubavitch and noticed eggshells laying in front of the inn. The Rebbe went on to warn Yitzchak Shaul that in the future he is not to throw eggshells in areas that people walk, as it is forbidden to walk over them. 

[24] Sefer Chassidim 708; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 201

[25] Gittin 70a; Kaf Hachaim 116:90

[26] Gittin 70a; Chupas Eliyahu Raba 3, in end of Reishis Chochma; Kaf Hachaim O.C. 155:25; Y.D. 116:90

[27] See Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184

[28] Admur Hilchos Shemiras Haguf Vehanefesh Halacha 13; Rama Y.D. 116:5; Braisa Bava Kama 60b; See Zecher David Mamar Alef chapter 39 p. 98; See Zohar Vayakhel p. 197; Vayeira p. 107b; Kaf Hachaim 116:54-65; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:1 and 7

[29] Admur ibid; Rama Y.D. 116:5; Maharil 50; Braisa Bava Kama 60b “Our Sages taught: When there is a plague in the city, gather your legs [i.e. flee] as the verse states “And you shall not leave the opening of your homes until morning.”; Shelah Hakadosh in Shaar Haosiyos Erech Derech Eretz 14; M”A 576:3; Beir Heiytiv 576; M”B 576; Kaf Hachaim 116:54

[30] Shaar Hakavanos p. 13; Kaf Hachaim 116:55

[31] Regarding the definition of a plague in halacha: See Michaber O.C. 576:2 regarding establishing a fast day [ratio of 3:500 of the employed population dead in three days and that if there is a plague in all of Israel, all the world fasts and if there is a plague in an area of the world in which people travel to and from, then all destinations of travel must fast]; 576:3 [That even if the plague is by pigs, and certainly by gentiles, one must fast]; M”A 576:2 that today we no longer fast due to danger;

[32] M”A 576:3; The Shelah Hakadosh in Shaar Haosiyos Erech Derech Eretz 14 writes that when there is a plague in the city, every individual should help their children escape the city and if they abstain from doing so then they are liable for their souls; Beir Heiytiv 576; M”B 576

[33] Shaar Hakavanos p. 13; Kaf Hachaim 116:55

[34] The reason: This is because as at times a decree of annihilation is placed against a city or country [and hence one should escape the city to not be included in the decree]. Likewise, one should run away from the city in order to escape living in fear. [Maharil 50; Kaf Hachaim 116:54]

[35] Rashal Bava Kama 6:26; Maharil 50; Kneses Hagedola 116:34; Beis Lechem Yehuda 116:13; Kaf Hachaim 116:58; Darkei Teshuvah 115:93; Mishmeres Shalom 116:18; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:2

[36] Admur ibid; Rama Y.D. 116:5; Maharil 50; Maharshal Yam Shel Shlomo Bava Kama ibid

[37] The reason: This is because the disease has already spread and it will no longer help to avoid it by running away, and furthermore, going out into the public can make one susceptible to the disease being that the angel of death now roams the streets without limitation. [Taz Y.D. 116:5; See also Rashal ibid; Iyun Yaakov Bava Kama ibid; See however Torah Temima Shemos 12 footnote 195; Zivcheiy Tzedek 2:116] Alternatively, this is mere good advice to flee the city at the start of the pandemic, in order so you can flee with enough sustenance, as more people die from starvation during a pandemic than from the actual disease. [Lechem Hapanim 116:8; Kaf Hachaim 116:56] Accordingly, one is discouraged from leaving at the end of the pandemic being that he will not find a place to settle, as also his friends and his relatives will distance [from hosting them]. [Lechem Hapanim 116:9; Beis Lechem Yehuda 116:13; Kaf Hachaim 116:57]

[38] Admur ibid; Bava Kama ibid; Zohar Vayakhel p. 197; Braisa Bava Kama 60b “Rava during times of wrath [Rashi=plague] would close his windows.”; The famous Kabbalist, Rav Avraham Azulaiy writes in Chesed Leavraham Mayan Chamishi Eiyn Mishpat Nehar 28, “It is implied from the Zohar that the most effective way to escape an epidemic is to seclude oneself in his room and therefore without doubt it is proper for people to seclude themselves during a time of a plague and study Torah, and Hashem will protect him.”; Reishis Chochmah Perek Derech Eretz Shaar 3 “A person is not permitted to go in the marketplace alone”; Sefer Zechira; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:7

[39] The reason: As it says in the verse [Shemos 12:22] [regarding the plague that struck Egypt on the night of the 15th of Nissan] “And you shall not leave the opening of your homes until morning.” [Admur ibid; Bava Kama ibid; Zohar Vayakhel p. 197]

[40] Admur Hilchos Shemiras Haguf Vehanefesh Halacha 13; Rama and Taz Y.D. 116:5; Braisa Bava Kama 60b; Kaf Hachaim O.C. 576:8; Y.D. 116:54-65; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:7

[41] Shaar Hakavanos p. 13; Kaf Hachaim 116:55

[42] Zohar; Zivcheiy Tzedek 116:44; Beis Dovid Y.D. 57; Asis Rimonim p. 18 in name of Zohar; Kaf Hachaim 116:55; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:9

[43] Shemiras Hanefesh 61; Sefer Refuos; Zivcheiy Tzedek 107; Kaf Hachaim O.C. 576:7; Y.D. 116:65; Mishmeres Shalom Y.D. Semachos Dever 7; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:6

[44] Bava Kama 72; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:5; Omitted from Admur and other Poskim

[45] Chesed Leavraham ibid

[46] Zivcheiy Tzedek 116:41; Zera Emes Y.D. 32; Kaf Hachaim 116:60; Aruch Hashulchan 576:9; Mishmeres Shalom Y.D. 116:18; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:3

[47] M”A 576:3; Shelah brought in Zera Emes ibid; M”B 576:14

[48] Sefer Chassidim 451; Zivcheiy Tzedek 116:42 in name of elderly Rabbanim; Kaf Hachaim 116:61.

[49] Beis Dovid Y.D. 57

[50] Sefer Chassidim 451; Zivcheiy Tzedek 116:42 in name of elderly Rabbanim; Kaf Hachaim 116:61; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 187:4

[51] Beis Dovid Y.D. 57; Seder Pitum Haketores of Arizal; Zivcheiy Tzedek 116:43; Kaf Hachaim 116:62; Imreiy Yaakov 10:46

[52] Beis Dovid Y.D. 57; Seder Pitum Haketores of Arizal; Zivcheiy Tzedek 116:43; Kaf Hachaim 116:62

[53] Beis Dovid Y.D. 57; Seder Pitum Haketores of Arizal; Zivcheiy Tzedek 116:43; Kaf Hachaim 116:62

[54] Emes Leyaakov p. 123 in name of Mekubalim; Kaf Hachaim 116:63

[55] Kaf Hachaim 116:61

[56] Brought in Hagahos Rebbe Akiva Eiger Y.D. 116:5

[57] Bava Kama 60a

[58] Brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah Y.D. 116:8

[59] M”A 576:2; Kaf Hachaim O.C. 576:6; 554:35; Y.D. 116:155; Biur Halacha 554:6 “Debimakom”; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 184:4

[60] See Biur Halacha 554:6 “Debimakom Choli” in name of Pischeiy Olam

[61] See Biur Halacha 554:6 “Debimakom Choli” in name of Pischeiy Olam

[62] Biur Halacha 554:6 “Debimakom Choli” in name of Pischeiy Olam

[63] Kaf Hachaim 116:155

[64] Kaf Hachaim 116:156; Sdei Chemed Mareches Bein Hametzarim beginning of Chapter 2

[65] Chasam Sofer 6:23

[66] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[67] Rama 374:11; Maharil 3; Chasam Sofer 342, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 396:3; See also Divrei Malkiel 2:90; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 181:8

[68] Kitzur SHU”A 32:27

[69] Admur 301:1-2 and 90:13; 271:19; M”A 301:1; Shabbos 113b; Brachos 6b and 43b; Kitzur SHU”A 32:27

[70] M”A 229:2; Chagigah 16a [see Machatzis Hashekel ibid and P”M 229 A”A 2 who replace the word Shlah in M”A ibid]; Kol Bo 118; Chupas Eliyahu Raba 3;Olas Tamid 229:1; M”B 229:5; Kaf Hachaim 229:5; Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 234:1

[71] Chagigah 16a; Kol Bo 118; See Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 234:1 footnote 3

[72] Chagiga ibid; Rashi Megillah 24b; Kol Bo 118; Chupas Eliyahu Raba 3.

[73] See Sefer Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh [Lerner] 110:6 footnote 10; Shulchan Menachem 5:252

[74] Brachos 43a

[75] Igros Kodesh 11:375, and whoever is more careful in this adds to his eyesight

A directive of the Rebbe to an individual to use red wine: See JEM “Here’s My Story” of 16th Sivan 5773 that Dr. Leonard Lovitch [a surgeon living in LA] received a directive from the Rebbe to be particular to drink only red wine for Kiddush and Havdalah as a Segulah for his dislocated eye, and failing eyesight, to return to normal, which miraculously a few weeks later after drinking red wine for Kiddush and Havdalah! Nonetheless, as with all private directives of a Rebbe [i.e. Horah Pratis], no Halachic matters, or even acts of piety can be derived from this story, as it was a Tikkun meant for that individual, and does not come to add or subtract from the Halacha explained above, which is the directive for the masses.

[76] Igros Kodesh 11:375, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:66; See Pirkei Derebbe Eliezer 20 in Pirush Radal

[77] Rashi Brachos ibid and Shabbos ibid

[78] Perisha 269; Igros Kodesh 12:226, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:145; See Admur 296:5

[79] Tur 269 and Tosafus Pesachim 110a in name of Rav Nutranaiy Gaon; See Maharsha Brachos ibid, Perisha ibid; Igros Kodesh 12:226, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:145 and footnote 2 there

[80] Igros Kodesh, printed in Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 6; See Eiruvin 65a; Sanhedrin 38a and Rashi there

[81] Admur 271:19; Rama 271:10; Maharil Shabbos 2; M”A 271:23; See Likkutei Sichos 22:283

The reason: As two times the word Ner/נר is 500 which heals the damaged eyesight which occurs to one who takes large steps and loses 1/500th of man’s sight. [Admur ibid]

[82] See Admur 296:4

[83] Elya Raba 301:3; P”M 301 A”A 1; Ran Shabbos 113

[84] Rambam Deios 4:14

[85] Rambam Deios 4:15

[86] Kitzur SHU”A 32:21

[87] Rambam Deios 4:2

[88] Rambam Deios 4:3

[89] Rambam Deios 4:2

[90] Rambam Deios 4:16

Was this article helpful?

Related Articles

Leave A Comment?

You must be logged in to post a comment.