Chapter 15: The Torah reading of Pesach, Shavuos & Sukkos

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Chapter 15: The Torah reading of Pesach, Shavuos & Sukkos

1.The General laws of Yom Tov Kerias Hatorah:

One removes two Sifrei Torah from the ark. Five people are called to 1st Torah and the 6th to Maftir. [On Shabbos one reads 7 Aliyos from the first Torah.]

A. The Torah reading:

Moshe Rabbeinu established for the Jewish people that on every Yom Tov one is to read the Torah portion dealing with that Holiday.[1] The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of the Torah that is read on each holiday.[2]

B. The amount of Aliyos:[3]

Moshe instituted that five men be called up for an Aliyah by the Torah reading of Yom Tov.[4] [On Shabbos one reads 7 Aliyos from the first Torah.]

C. Haftorah:[5]

The reading of the Haftorah was instituted by the Anshei Kneses Hagedola.[6] They instituted that one should read from Navi on every holiday from a portion that deals with the holiday events. The Sages of the Mishneh and Gemara chose the exact portion of Navi that is read on each holiday.

D. The Maftir:[7]

[Maftir in truth refers to the reading of the portion from Navi formally known as the Haftorah. It comes from the word Petor which means finish, as the reading is completed with the Haftorah.] However, the person that reads the Maftir from Navi is also required to first read a section from the Torah.[8] In the times of the Sages of the Mishneh and Talmud the Maftir would read from the Torah as part of the five Aliyos that were read from the portion of that Holiday which was read from the first Torah scroll. [There was hence no second scroll taken out from the ark] However, in later generations, the Rabanan Savuraiy established, and so was accustomed by the Geonim which followed them, that the Maftir is to read [from a second scroll] the portion of the Musaf sacrifice written in Parshas Pinchas. This institution was based on the following teaching of the Sages: Avraham stated in front of Hashem “Master of the world when the Temple is not in existence the children of Israel do not have on what to find support. What will be with my children when they sin? Perhaps you will do to them as you did to the generation of the Mabul and Haflaga. Hashem answered “I have already established for them the order of the Karbanos. When the Karbanos are read, I consider it as if they sacrificed the Korban before me and I forgive all of their sins.  [Regarding why the Maftir is read as the sixth Aliyah and is not part of the five Aliyos-see chapter 282/10-13!]

E. Two Torah scrolls:[9]

Being that two different sections of the Torah need to be read on Yom Tov[10], therefore, one is initially required to remove two Torah scrolls; one for the Holiday reading, and the second for the Maftir. It does not suffice to remove only one Torah scroll and then roll it to the Parsha of Musafim [for Maftir].[11] [The scrolls are to be rolled to their proper places prior to Davening. Doing so is not to be delayed until Kerias Hatorah.[12] If only one scroll is available then the two portions are to be read from the same scroll.[13]]

F. Yud Gimmel Middos-Hashem Hashem:[14]

When the Shalosh Regalim fall on a weekday, the 13 attributes [i.e. passage of Hashem Hashem] is recited one time when the Ark is opened to remove the Torah scrolls, prior to Brich Shmei.[15] If Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, the Yud Gimmel Middos [and Ribono Shel Olam[16]] is not recited.[17] After the recital of Hashem Hashem one recites the prayer of Ribono Shel Olam[18] [one time[19]]. [Likewise, the verse of Veani Sefilasi, which is recited after the Ribono Shel Olam is only recited one time.[20]] This is then followed by the prayer of Brich Shmei.[21]

G. Kaddish:[22]

On Yom Tov, half Kaddish is recited after the reading of the 1st Torah scroll, prior to Maftir.[23] The second scroll is then placed on the Bima [to the left of the first Sefer Torah, near the Baal Korei[24]] prior to the half Kaddish.[25] [If the half Kaddish was said prior to placing the second Sefer on the Bima, it is nevertheless valid.[26]]

2. The first days of Pesach:[27]

On the first day of Pesach, five Aliyos are read from the portion of “Mishchu Ukechu Lachem Tzon” in Parshas Bo [Shemos 12:21-51].

Maftir: The Maftir is read from Parshas Pinchas “Ubachodesh Harishon.”

Haftorah:[28] The Haftorah is read from Sefer Yehoshua from the portion of “Pesach Gilgal.” The custom is today is to start from Vayomer Yehoshua El Ha’am.

2nd day of Pesach: On the first day of Pesach, the Torah is read from the portion of “Shur O Kesev” in Parshas Emor.[29]

3. Chol Hamoed Pesach:[30]

On each day of Chol Hamoed the Torah is read. Two Torah scrolls are removed from the ark. The following are the portions read on each day:

A. The portions read from the first Torah scroll:

2nd day of Pesach:[31] On the second day, the Torah portion of “Shur O Kesev” is read.[32] This applies in both Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora.

3rd-5th day: The Torah portion of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th days of Chol Hamoed vary in accordance to whether the day falls on Shabbos. Whenever one of those days falls on Shabbos, the Torah portion of Shabbos Chol Hamoed is read, which is the portion of “Riea-Psal Licha”.[33] On the other two days, the portion of “Kadesh Li” is read on the first day, and the portion of “Im Kesef Tilveh” is read on the second day. If the above three days do not fall on Shabbos, then the order is Kadesh, Im Kesef, and Psal Licha.

6th day: The portion of “Bamidbar Sinai” is read.

The order if Pesach falls on Sunday or Shabbos: 2nd day: Shur O kesev; 3rd day: Kadesh; 4th day: Im Kesef; 5th day: Psal Licha, 6th day: Bamidbar Sinai.

The order if Pesach falls on Tuesday: Wednesday/2nd: Shur o kesev; Thursday/3rd: Kadesh; Friday/4th: Im Kesef; Shabbos/5th: Rieh- Psal Licha; Sunday/6th: Bamidbar Sinai.

The order if Pesach falls on Thursday: Friday/2nd: Shur o kesev; Shabbos/3rd: Riea-Psal Licha; Sunday/4th: Kadesh; Monday/5th: Im kesef Tilveh; Tuesday/6th: Bamidbar Sinai.

If the wrong portion was read:[34] If one read the wrong portion on one of the above days [such as he read the portion of Im Kesef instead of Kadesh], one has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and is not required to repeat the reading with the correct portion. [However, he is to read the omitted portion when the day comes for reading the portion that was accidently read.[35] If, however, he read a completely different reading that is never read during any of the days of Pesach, then he does not fulfill his obligation and the correct reading must be repeated.[36] In such a case, the Sefer Torah is to be removed and have one Aliyah called up to read the correct reading.]

B. The portion read from the second Torah scroll:[37]

On each day of Pesach, a second Sefer Torah is taken out of the Ark and the portion discussing the Pesach Musaf offering is read. The Maftir of all the days is read from the same portion, beginning from “Vehikravtam” in Parshas Pinchas [Bamidbar 27:19]. This is with exception to the Maftir of the 1st day which begins one verse earlier “And on the 1st day…”

C. The number of Aliyos?[38]

On Chol Hamoed, four people are called up to the Torah. Three people called up for the daily reading in the first Sefer Torah and a fourth person is called up for Maftir.[39]

May one call up for the Torah reading more people than needed?[40] On Chol Hamoed, one may not call up more than four people for the Torah reading.[41]

D. Kaddish:[42]

On Chol Hamoed the half Kaddish is recited only after the reading of the Maftir in the second Sefer Torah.[43]  [If the Kaddish was accidentally recited after the third Aliyah, it is to be repeated after the fourth Aliyah.[44] Some Poskim[45], however, rule one is not to repeat the Kaddish. Practically, the Kaddish is to be repeated.] The first Sefer Torah does not have to be placed on the Bima at the time of the saying of this Kaddish.[46]

E. The Haftorah of Shabbos Chol Hamoed Pesach:[47]

Both the Haftorah of Shabbos Chol Hamoed Pesach and Sukkos discuss the times of the redemption. On Pesach the Haftorah discusses the resurrection, being that the resurrection will take place in Nissan. On Sukkos the Haftorah discusses the battle of Gog and Magog, being that in Tishrei there will be the war of Gog and Magog.

The concluding blessing:[48] The last blessing said after the Haftorah on Pesach concludes with only “Mikadesh Hashabbos” being that Chol Hamoed Pesach is not considered a separate Yom Tov.

 

4. The last days of Pesach

The Torah reading:[49] On the seventh day of Pesach, two Torah scrolls are removed from the ark. From the first scroll, the portion of Beshalach regarding Kerias Yam Suf is read until the end of the Shirah, until the words “Ani Hashem Rofecha”.

Standing for Shirah:[50] One is to stand during the reading of the Shirah.

The Maftir:[51] The Maftir is read from the verse of Vehikravtem, just as on Chol Hamoed.

The Haftorah:[52] The Haftorah is read from Shmuel[53] [discussing the song of David] “Vayidaber David Es Divrei Hashirah Hazos etc”.[54]

5. Shavuos:

A. The recital of Akdamos:[55]

It is customary to recite Akdamos by the Torah reading of Shavuos.[56] [The Chabad custom is not to recite Akdamos on Shavuos.[57]]

B. Yud Gimmel Middos-Hashem Hashem:

See Halacha 1F!

C. The reading:[58]

First day of Shavuos:[59] On the first day of Shavuos, after reciting Hallel, two Torah scrolls are removed from the Aron. The Torah scroll is to be rolled to its proper section before Davening in order to prevent delay for the congregation.[60] By the first scroll, five men are called up for Aliyos and [a portion from] the Parsha of Yisro is read. One reads from the words “Bachodesh Hashlishi Latzei until the end of the Parsha.[61] [After the above reading the second scroll is placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish.[62] Hagbah is then done to the first scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagbah. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[63] When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.[64]]

Second day of Shavuos in Diaspora: On the second day of Yom Tov two Torah scrolls are removed from the Aron. By the first Torah scroll one calls up five Aliyos and reads the Parsha of “Kol HaBechor”. [After the above reading the second scroll is then placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish.[65] Hagbah is then done to the first scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagbah. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[66] When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.[67]]

D. Standing during Aseres Hadibros:[68]

It is an old custom amongst many communities to stand during the reading of Aseres Hadibros.[69] Some Poskim[70], however, rule one is not  allowed to stand during Aseres Hadibros.[71] Practically, the Chabad custom is to stand, facing the Sefer Torah.[72] If the entire congregation is standing then one is obligated to stand together with them, even if in general he is accustomed to sit.[73] 

E. Who is to be called up for the reading of the ten commandments?[74]

Some communities are accustomed to call up the Rav of the community for the Aliyah of Aseres Hadibros. [This is not the Chabad custom. Nevertheless, if lack of doing so will be seen as a form of disrespect to the community Rabbi, one is to be meticulous to give him the Aliyah.[75]]

 

Having all men, women and children come to hear the reading of Aseres Hadibros:[76]

It states in the Psikta that G-d told the Jewish people “When you read the Ten Commandments each year, I consider it as if you were standing on Mount Sinai accepting the Torah.” For this reason, all members of Jewry are to attend the Torah reading of the Aseres Hadibros. This includes men, women and children of all ages, including even infants who were just born; just as was the case by Matan Torah.

 

 

Q&A relating to Mivtza Kerias Hatorah of Shavuos:

May one remove a Sefer Torah from a Shul in order to read for others in a different area?[77]

No. One is to arrange that people come to Shul for the Torah reading. It is forbidden to remove the Sefer Torah and bring it to the area the people are found, unless one prepares an Aron for the Sefer Torah in its new location and it is brought there some time prior to the reading, and the Sefer Torah will remain there for 1-2 days, and one will read from at least on three different occasions.[78] See Chapter 1 Halacha 8 for the full details of this subject!

 

People stuck in a hospital or old age home:

If there are ten adult Jewish men stuck in a hospital, or old age home, and all cases of the like where they do not have permission to leave, then they may have a Sefer Torah brought to them for Kerias Hatorah. It is permitted to be brought there even temporarily for the sake of the reading and returned. See Chapter 1 Halacha 8B!

Women: One may not carry a Sefer Torah to another area for the sake of a woman’s reading.

 

How many people are needed for a Minyan?[79]

One may not read from the Torah [with its blessings] with less than ten adult men above the age of Mitzvos.[80] Many Poskim[81] rule that if at least six people amongst the ten have not yet heard Kerias Hatorah and still need to be Yotzei, one may perform Kerias Hatorah with its blessing.[82] See Chapter 1 Halacha 3 for the full details of this subject!

 

May six people who already heard the reading join for the Minyan if they had in mind to not be Yotzei?

Some Poskim[83] rule that one who has in mind to not be Yotzei, is considered still obligated to hear the reading, and thus they may join for a Minyan to make a new reading of Kerias Hatorah. They can also make a stipulation that if they will be needed for another Minyan then they have in mind to not be Yotzei.[84] [Accordingly, those involved in Mivtza Aseres Hadibros on Shavuos, may have in mind by the Torah reading to not be Yotzei with the reading just in case they are needed for a reading later on. Nonetheless, initially, if a Minyan for the reading is already scheduled to take place later on, then it is better for the participants to exit the Shul prior to the reading in the morning, than to remain and intend to not be Yotzei.[85]] See Chapter 1 Halacha 3 in Q&A for the full details of this subject!

 

When making another reading must the Maftir and Haftorah also be read?

If there are six people present who did not yet hear the Maftir/Haftorah, or who heard but had in mind to not be Yotzei, then it is to be read.

 

F. The punctuation for the reading of the Aseres Hadibros:[86]

In the Ten Commandments, there are two forms of reading melodies. The readings differ in their stop points within the verses and in their vocalization.

First method:[87] In the first method each command is read as a single verse.[88] This applies whether the command is long [i.e. split to many verses] or short [the verse includes many commands]. This means that the verses of Anochi, Lo Yihyeh Lecha, Lo Saseh Lecha, lo Sishtachaveh and Oseh Chesed is all read as one verse.[89] Likewise, the verses of Zachor, Sheshes Yamim, Yom Hashevi’i, and Vehi Sheses are all read as one verse.[90] Likewise, the two words of Lo Tirtzach is one complete verse.[91] Likewise, the two words of Lo Tinaf is one complete verse.[92] The same applies for the words Lo Tignov.[93] [In this method, the words Tirtzach, Tinaf and Tignov are recited with a Taf and not a Saf.]

Second method:[94] In the second method, each verse is read as a single verse [even if they only contain part of the command or contain more than one command].[95] Thus, the verse of Anochi is one verse, and the verse of Lo Yihyeh Lecha is a second verse.[96] Likewise, Zachor is read as one verse, and Sheshes Yamim as a second verse.[97] Likewise, the words Lo Tirtzach, Lo Tinaf, Lo Tignov, and Lo Seaneh is all read as one verse.[98]

Final practice:[99] On Shavuos, the custom is to read for the congregation like the first method, to read each command as a separate verse.[100] Furthermore, there are those who are accustomed to read like the first method for the congregation even on Shabbos Parshas Yisro and on Shabbos Parshas Vaeschanan, and only a private individual who reads the verses to himself reads it in the second method.

G. The Maftir:[101]

For Maftir of both[102] days of Shavuos one reads from the second Torah scroll the portion of “Ubeyom Habikkurim” found in the Parsha of Pinchas. After Maftir, one performs Hagbah to the second scroll and reads the Haftorah.

Who is to be called up for the reading of the Maftir/Haftorah?[103] In some communities the custom is to call up a great leader and scholar for the Aliya of Maftir and the subsequent Haftorah.[104]

H. The Haftorah:

First day:[105] The Haftorah of the 1st day of Shavuos is read from the Merkavah of Yechezkel.[106] The custom is to conclude with the verse “Vatisaeini Ruach”, even though it is not written at all by the Merkavah.

Second day:[107] The Haftorah of the second day is read from “Tefilla Lechabakuk” until the words “Lamnatzeiach Beniginosaiy”. Some places are accustomed to begin the Haftorah from the words “VeHashem Beheichal Kodesh”, [and so is the Chabad custom].

Standing for the reading of the Haftorah:[108] Throughout all the Haftorahs of the year, the person reading the Haftorah aloud must initially stand when doing so out of honor for the congregation. In addition, [on the 1st day of Shavuos] some have the custom for all those who read the Haftorah of Merkavah Yechezkel, along quietly with the reader, to stand during its reading.[109] [However, those who do not read along quietly with the reader, there is no custom for them to stand. Practically, the Chabad custom is to always read a Haftorah quietly along with the reader[110], although it is not necessarily our custom to stand even for the Haftorah of Shavuos. Each community is to follow the directive of their Rav regarding this matter.]

 

 

Wishing Mazal Tov:[111]

It was customary amongst the original Chassidim to wish each other Mazal Tov on Shavuos. At first, this wish was given during the Torah reading, however due to the Halachic issue of making an interval, it was therefore delayed until after the Torah reading. Later, it was pushed off until after Davening. The Rebbe Rayatz concludes “I remember that the elderly Chassidim in Lubavitch would wish each other Mazal Tov.”

 

6. The first days of Sukkos:

A. Yud Gimmel Middos-Hashem Hashem:

See Halacha 1F!

B. The reading:[112]

First day of Sukkos: On the first day of Sukkos, after reciting Hallel, two Torah scrolls are removed from the Aron. The Torah scroll is to be rolled to its proper section before Davening in order to prevent delay for the congregation.[113] By the first scroll, five men are called up for Aliyos and the portion from the Parsha of Emor “Shur Oi Kesev” is read.[114] [After the above reading, the second scroll is placed on the Bima which is followed by half Kaddish.[115] Hagbah is then done to the first scroll. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is recited after Hagbah. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[116] When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.[117]]

Second day of Sukkos in Diaspora:[118] The reading on the second day in the Diaspora follows the same order as on the first day, with the same reading as the first day repeated from the first scroll and the same reading of Maftir repeated in the second scroll.

C. The Maftir:

First day:[119] For Maftir of Sukkos one reads from the second Torah scroll the portion of “Ubachamisha Asar Yom” found in the Parsha of Pinchas. After Maftir, one performs Hagbah to the second scroll and reads the Haftorah.

Second day Diaspora:[120] The reading of Maftir on the second day in the Diaspora follows the same order as on the first day.

D. The Haftorah:

First day:[121] The Haftorah of the 1st day of Sukkos is read from Zechariah “Hinei Yom Ba.”

Second day:[122] The Haftorah of the second day is read from Melachim from “Vayikhalu” until “Hotziu Osam Meieretz Mitzrayim.”

7. Chol Hamoed Sukkos:[123]

On each day of Chol Hamoed the Torah is read. Two Torah scrolls are removed from the ark. The following are the portions read on each day:

A. The portions read:[124]

The Torah is read from Parshas Pinchas, from the portion dealing with the Karbanos that were brought on Chol Hamoed Sukkos [Bamidbar 29:20-34]. On each day one reads the Karbanos that were brought on that day. Nonetheless, due to the Sfeika Deyoma that exists in the Diaspora, there is a difference of custom in the reading between Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora, as will now be explained.

Diaspora:[125] In the Diaspora, the four Aliyos read from the Karbanos of different days due to the Sfeika Deyoma. For Rishon one reads the previous days Korban, for Sheiyni one reads that days Korban, for Shelishi one reads the next day’s Korban[126], and for Revi’i one repeats the reading of the previous day and the next day’s Korban.

Eretz Yisrael:[127] In Eretz Yisrael, where there is no Sfeika Deyoma, all four Aliyos are read from that days Korban, hence repeating the same reading four times.

The Chabad custom in Eretz Yisrael:[128] The custom amongst Chabad in Eretz Yisrael up until 1988 was to read like the rest of Eretz Yisrael, and repeat the same text four times, as ruled above.[129] However, based a talk of the Rebbe stated that year[130] which suggests that even in Eretz Yisrael they read like the portions of the Diaspora [as rules the Tzemach Tzedek[131]], some Chabad congregations in Eretz Yisrael began following a similar reading to that of the Diaspora. Many Rabbanim[132] have protested against this change of custom, especially in light of the fact the Rebbe requested that the above-mentioned talk be omitted from the official transcripts of the Sicha[133], and instructed the author of Luach Kolel Chabad to not make any changes to the established tradition, despite his pursuance to adapt the new custom in the Luach.[134] Other Rabbanim[135], however, defend the new custom.[136] Practically, each Rav is to direct his community in how to follow, and the community must abide by his decision. Nonetheless, it remains quite apparent that the Rebbe’s final stance on the issue was not to make any changes to the accepted custom, and to read like the rest of Eretz Yisrael, repeating the same text four times.[137] [To note, that the new Tehilas Hashem Siddur published by Kehos Kfar Chabad adapts the new custom in the reading of Kerias Hatorah for Chol Hamoed Sukkos, although this place no weight into the true directive that should be followed, and was done on their own initiative. All in all, one is not to make Machlokes out of this issue, as the order of the reading is a custom, while Machlokes is forbidden Biblically.[138] This is especially in light of the fact that Bedieved one is Yotzei even with the new adapted reading, as explained next.] 

If the wrong days Korban was read:[139] If one read the wrong portion on one of the above days, then so long as the correct day was read in one of the four Aliyos, one is Yotzei. If none of the Aliyos read the correct days Korban, then another Aliyah is to be called up. In the Diaspora, one is required to read both days of Sfeika Deyoma in order to be Yotzei, with exception to Shabbos Chol Hamoed in which case if one read that days Korban it suffices, and the Sfeika Deyoma Korban is to be read without a blessing.[140] [Certainly, if in Eretz Yisrael the reading for the Diaspora was read on that day one is Yotzei.]

 

B. The number of Aliyos?[141]

On Chol Hamoed, four people are called up to the Torah.

May one call up for the Torah reading more people than needed?[142] On Chol Hamoed, one may not call up more than four people for the Torah reading.[143]

C. Kaddish:[144]

The half Kaddish is recited after all four Aliyos are complete. 

D. The Haftorah of Shabbos Chol Hamoed Pesach:[145]

The Haftorah of Shabbos Chol Hamoed Pesach and Sukkos discuss the times of the redemption. On Pesach the Haftorah discusses the resurrection, being that the resurrection will take place in Nissan. On Sukkos the Haftorah discusses the battle of Gog and Magog, being that in Tishrei there will be the war of Gog and Magog.

The concluding blessing: The last blessing said after the Haftorah on Sukkos it ends with “Mikadesh Hashabbos Yisrael Vehazmanim” being that each day is a separate Yom Tov.

8. Shemini Atzeres

Diaspora:[146] Two scrolls are removed from the ark. The portion of “Aser Tiaser-Kol Bechor” from Parshas Re’eh is read from the first Torah scroll. Five Aliyos are called up to read from the first Torah scroll. If Shemini Atzeres falls on Shabbos, then seven Aliyos are called up. Maftir is read from the second Torah scroll, from the portion of “Bayom Hashmini Atzeres.” The Haftorah is read from Melachim I 8:54-66, from “Vayehi Kechalos Shlomo until UleYisrael Amo.”[147]

Israel:[148] In Israel, where Shemini Atzeres and Simchas Torah coincide, the order of reading for Simchas Torah is followed, as explained next.

9. Simchas Torah:

Ata Hareisa, Vayehi Binsoa and the thirteen Middos are recited prior to Kerias Hatorah, as is done on all Holidays. [See Halacha 1F for full details!]

The reading and Torah scrolls:[149] Three Torah scrolls are removed from the ark. From the first Torah scroll one reads [six Aliyos[150]] from Vezos Habracha until the end of the Torah. [According to Chabad custom, this applies even when Simchas Torah falls on Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael.[151]] From the second Torah scroll one reads [a seventh Aliyah] from Bereishis until the words “Asher Bara Elokim Lasos.” From the third Torah scroll, the same Maftir as Shemini Atzeres is read, from “Ubayom Hashemini Atzeres.” For the Haftorah one reads from Yehoshua “Vayhei Acharei Mos Moshe.”

If only two scrolls are available:[152] If the congregation only has two Torah scrolls then Vezos Habracha is read from the first scroll, Bereishis is read from the second scroll, and the first Sefer Torah is returned and used for the reading of Maftir. [This however only applies if the first scroll is rolled to the third Parsha prior to its Hagbah. If, however, the first scroll was not rolled to the third Parsha prior to its Hagbah, then it is better to read the third Parsha from the second scroll.[153]]

Each man gets an Aliyah:[154] It is customary to increase in calling up people for Aliyos on Simchas Torah. [Practically, the custom is for every male to receive an Aliyah.] To facilitate this, the Parsha is repeated many times [until Meona Elokeiy Kedem[155]]. There is no prohibition against doing so. [Alternatively, many people may be called up for the same Aliyah, and so is the Chabad custom, as explained in the Q&A!]

Kol Hanearim:[156] It is a worldly custom that on Simchas Torah all the male children receive an Aliyah to the Torah.[157] This Aliyah is customarily known as Kol Hanearim.[158] [This Aliyah takes place by Chamishi, from the words Uledan Amar, until the portion of Chasan Torah. It is customary for many children to go up together.[159] It is customary to spread a Tallis over the heads of the children during this Aliyah.[160]] It is likewise customary to recite the Parsha of Hamalach Hagoel [after the conclusion of the reading].[161] [Practically, the Chabad custom is not to spread a Tallis over the heads of the children during the Aliyah of Kol Hanearim. Likewise, it is not customary to read the verses of Hamalach Hagoel.[162] One is to have at least one adult above Bar Mitzvah called up together with the children for this Aliyah.[163] The adult is to say the blessings out load and have all the children listen and be Yotzei, rather than have all the children say the blessing themselves.[164] Nonetheless, some are accustomed to have all the children recite the blessings themselves.[165] The Chabad custom is to have the adult Olah recite the blessing on behalf of all the children who do not know to say it themselves.[166] Some are accustomed to bring their son with them for their personal Aliya rather than have the child go up for Kol Hanearim.[167]]

Chasan Torah/Bereishis:[168] It is customary for the Chasan Torah and Chasan Bereishis to donate towards the Shul and arrange for a communal feast to  be held.[169] It is customary to call up even a child for Chasan Torah, and it is not necessary to give the Aliyah specially to a Torah scholar, even though there are opinions[170] who require this to be done.[171] [It is not the Chabad custom to spread a Tallis as a canopy over the heads of the Chasan Torah or Chasan Bereishis when they are called to the public reading of the Torah].[172] 

Reciting Chazak Chazak Venischazeik:[173] The person who is called to the reading of the concluding passage of the Torah is to say the words chazak chazak venischazeik together with the rest of the congregation. The same applies at the conclusion of the other [four] Books of the Chumash.

Sisu Vesimcha: The prayer of Sisu Vesimcha is recited after the Maftir and Haftorah, prior to Yizkor.

 

Q&A

On Shabbos Simchas Torah in Eretz Yisrael, is one to read seven Aliyos for Parshas Vezos Habracha?

On Shabbos Simchas Torah in Eretz Yisrael, it is not necessary to read all seven Aliyos from Parshas Vezos Habracha, as the Aliyah of Bereishis counts as the seventh Aliyah on Shabbos.[174] Some Poskim[175], however, rule that seven Aliyos are to be read in Parshas Vezos Habracha, as is required on every Shabbos to read seven Aliyos from that Parsha. Practically, however, the widespread Chabad custom is not to do so, and rather to have the reading of Bereishis count as the seventh Aliyah.[176]

 

May many people be called up for the same Aliyah?[177]

The custom is to call up many individuals for a single Aliya, such as many Kohanim for the Aliya of Kohen, and many Levi’im for the Aliyah of Levi. Nonetheless, there are Poskim who question this custom. [The Chabad custom is to call many people for the same Aliyah.[178]]

Should everyone say the blessing?[179] It is best when having more than one person go up for the Aliya to have only one person say the blessing and all the others be Yotzei with him.[180] However, some are accustomed to reciting the blessings themselves even in such a case.[181] Practically, the Chabad custom is for everyone to say the blessing to themselves.[182]

From which Torah scroll is Maftir read from if there are only two scrolls available?

In such a case Maftir is read from the first scroll.

On Simchas Torah may relatives be called up one after the other?[183]

The custom is to be lenient in this matter to allow calling relatives for Chasan Torah and Chasan Bereishis, one after the other. [However, regarding the Aliyos in Vezos Habracha, seemingly one is to be stringent even on Simchas Torah not to call relatives one after the other.[184] However, some Poskim[185] write that the custom is to be lenient completely even regarding the other Aliyos.]

May a Kohen receive Revi’i, Chamishi, if they did not yet get an Aliya?[186]

If there are many Kohanim and Levi’im present, they may be given the 4th or 5th Aliyah after the regular order of Kohen, Levi and Yisrael. In such a case it is proper to repeat the order of Kohen Levi Yisrael.

May a Kohen or Levi receive Chasan Torah or Chasan Bereishis?[187]

Yes.

Ben Chutz La’aretz in Eretz Yisrael:[188]

A Ben Chutz La’aretz in Eretz Yisrael, may receive any Aliyah on Simchas Torah.[189] However, a Ben Eretz Yisrael who is in the Diaspora and is only keeping one day of Yom Tov, may not receive an Aliyah on Simchas Torah.[190] [However, he may receive an Aliyah by Kol Hanearim, and be Yotzei the blessing with one of the adults.[191]]

Hagbah:

Many on are accustomed on Simchas Torah to perform Hagbah backwards, with the writing facing the people.[192] Practically, this is not the Chabad custom.[193]

 

May an Avel prior to Shiva receive an Aliyah during Simchas Torah?

Yes.[194] However, some write he is not to be called up as one of the 5 required Aliyos.[195] In the Diaspora, he should certainly avoid being called up for Chasan Torah or Chasan Bereishis.[196]

 

10. The law if one read the wrong Torah portion on Yom Tov:[197]

If the wrong Torah portion was read on Yom Tov, they do not fulfill their obligation and the correct Torah portion needs to be read with all its Aliyos.

__________________________________

[1] Admur 488:5; 282/1; M”A 135/1; 535; Rambam Tefilla 13/8; Mishneh Megillah 31a

The hint in scripture: The above institution is hinted to in the verse “Vayidaber Moshe Es Moadeiy Hashem El Bnei Yisrael”, from which we learn that Moshe established that each Parsha of the Moadim is to be read at its proper time. [Admur ibid]

[2] Admur ibid; Megillah ibid

[3] Admur 282/1; 488/5; M”A 135/1

[4] The reason: The reason behind the different number of Aliyos [Three during the week; Four on Rosh Chodesh; Five on Yom Tov; six on Rosh Hashanah; seven on Shabbos] is based on the levels of holiness that each day contains over the other days. See 282/1 for further details on this matter.

[5] Admur 488/5

[6] Admur ibid; Sefer Hamachria 31 in name of Rabbeinu Tam that it was instituted by Ezra

[7] Admur 488/6

[8] Admur 282/10; 488/6

[9] Admur 488/6; Michaber 144/3

[10] One must read from the Parsha of the Holiday, as per the institution of Moshe Rabbeinu, and one must also read the Karbanos from Parshas Pinchas, as per the institution of the Rabanan Savuraiy.

[11] The reason: As one may not roll a Sefer Torah in front of the congregation due to respect of the congregation. [Admur ibid]

[12] See M”B 144/13

[13] Michaber 144/3; Although the scroll will need to be rolled to the proper place of the second reading, after completing the first reading, nevertheless since there is no other scroll available we allow it to be rolled and differ the “respect of the Tzibur”. [ibid; See M”B 144/16]

[14] Siddur Admur

[15] Admur ibid; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar 20/3

It is not customary to recite the words “Vayavor Hashem Al Panav” prior to saying it being that the Hashem Hashem is recited as a prayer and not as a verse in the Torah. [Halichos Olam brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 584 footnote 16, unlike Mateh Ephraim 584/584/16; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 206].

[16] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 715; Siddur Rav Raskin footnote 72

[17] Implication of Admur in Siddur; Shaarei Ephraim 10/5 See Sefer Haminhagim p. 119 [English Edition]; Hayom Yom 10th Tishrei; Hisvaadus 6th Tishrei 1970; Shaarei Teshuvah 488/1; Likkutei Maharich Pesach based on Ramaz; Custom brought in M”E 584/16; Luach Eretz Yisrael; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 210; Piskeiy Teshuvos 488/3

[18] This prayer was established with Ruach Hakodesh by the Arizal. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 584/3; See Kaf Hachaim 134/11; Shaar Hakavanos p. 89] On Rosh Hashanah the words “Umechol Al Kol Avonosaiy” is omitted as we do not mention sin on Rosh Hashanah. [See Siddur Admur; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 205]

[19] Shaarei Teshuvah 488 [“so is the custom”]; implication of Admur in Siddur [Rav Raskin p. 300]

Other Opinions: According to the Arizal one is to recite the prayer of Ribono Shel Olam three times. [Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Tefilos R”H]

[20] Implication of Admur in Siddur and so is the Chabad custom

Other customs: Some have the custom to recite the verse of Veani Sefilasi three times. [Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar R”H; Siddur Shlah]

[21] Siddur Admur; Ketzei Hamateh 619/48 [so is custom of world] unlike the custom brought in Shaarei Ephraim 10/5 and Mateh Ephraim 619/48

[22] Admur 490:11; 282:11

[23] The reason: This is done to differentiate between the original institution to call up 5 people on Yom Tov, and the additional institution to call up an additional person for Maftir. [Admur ibid]

[24] Mishneh Halachos 13:22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:10; Some however say that the Torah is to be placed on the right side of the first Torah. [Rav M. Harlig; See Hiskashrus 1078 footnote 5]

[25] Rama 147:8

[26] Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:10

[27] Admur 488:5; 490:9; Michaber 488:3; Megillah 31a

[28] Admur 488:5

[29] The reason: This portion is read because it mentions the Omer offering. [Admur ibid]

[30] Admur 490:8-9

[31] Admur 490:9

[32] The reason: This portion is read because it mentions the Omer offering. [Admur ibid]

[33] The reason: The reason this portion is read on Shabbos is because it discusses both Shabbos and Chol Hamoed, being that Chol Hamoed is learned from the verse of “Seven days you shall keep of Pesach”, which is written in that Parsha. [Admur ibid]

[34] Admur 490:9; Peri Chadash 490:5; P”M 490; Biur Halacha 490:5 “Siman”

[35] Peri Chadash ibid; P”M ibid; Biur Halacha ibid

[36] Shaareiy Efraim 8:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 490:4

[37] Admur 490:11; Michaber 490:6

The history: In the times of Mishneh and Gemara Temple the Karbanos of Parshas Hamusafim were not read. Later on the Rabanon Savuraiy instituted to take out the second Sefer Torah on each day in order to read the Parshas Hamusafim from Pinchas, which is the Parsha of Vehikravtam. [Admur ibid]

[38] Admur 490:10-11; Rama 490:6; Tur 490

The reason: The reason four people are called up on Chol Hamoed is because by every day that contains a Musaf prayer, the sages added another Aliyah to the Torah reading. [Admur ibid]

[39] The history: In the times of Mishneh and Gemara Temple [when the Karbanos of Parshas Hamusafim were not read] a fourth Aliyah was called up for the reading of the daily portion of Kadesh, Bekaspa, Pesal, Hamidbara. Later on when the Rabanon Savuraiy instituted to take out the second Sefer Torah on each day in order to read the Parshas Hamusafim from Pinchas, which is the Parsha of Vehikravtem, then we began reading only three Aliyos from the Parshas Hayom, and the fourth Aliyah would be called up in the second Sefer Torah to read Parshas Hamusafim, as on Chol Hamoed its forbidden to add to the four Aliyos. [Admur 490:11]

[40] Admur 490:10

[41] The reason: The reason for this is due to Tircha Detzibura, as people have work and may not be delayed. [Admur ibid]

[42] Admur 490:11; M”A 490:4; Levush 490:4; Beis Yosef 490 in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham Nesiv 5:4; M”B 490:4

[43] The reason: One is not to say the Kaddish after the reading of the Parsha of the day, prior to reading the Parsha of the Musaf, as is done by Yom Tov. The reason for this is because the only reason the half Kaddish is said beforehand on Yom Tov is because the five obligatory Aliyos have been completed in the Parshas Hayom read in the first Sefer Torah, and the Maftir which reads the Parshas Hamusafim is not part of the list of obligatory Aliyos, as explained in 282:11, and therefore we make an interval with a Kaddish in between. However, on Chol Hamoed, the obligatory reading of the four Aliyos is not complete until after the fourth reading in the second Sefer Torah and is part of the original institution to call up four people to the Torah on Chol Hamoed. Therefore, Kaddish is not recited until after the reading of the Parshas Hamusafim. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Levush ibid; Beis Yosef ibid; M”B ibid]

[44] P”M 684 A”A 4; Daas Torah 684; Igros Moshe 1:101; Piskeiy Teshuvos 490:4; See Elya Raba 669:19; Shaareiy Efraim 8:77; Imrei Eish 51; Kaf Hachaim 282:48

[45] Levush; Rosh; P”M 282 A”A 17; M”B 282:34; Shraga Hameir 3:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 684:4; See M”A 684:4; Taz end of 684; Maharil 182; M”B 684:16; Kaf Hachaim 684:24

[46] See Levush 682; P”M 147 A”A 12; 684 A”A 5; Elya Raba 430; Shaareiy Efraim 8:12 and 75; Kitzur SHU”A 79:1; Mishneh Berurah 685:5; Daas Torah 147; Likkutei Maharich; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:11

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that all three Sifrei Torah are to be placed on the Bima when the half Kaddish is recited. [Siddur Yaavetz Chol Hamoed Pesach 17; Aruch Hashulchan 147:17; Luach Eretz Yisrael in name of Rav Salant; Chayeh Levi 1:40; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 41]

[47] Admur 490:16

[48] Admur 490:16; Darkei Moshe 663:2; Bach 490; Levush 663; M”B 663:9; Kaf Hachaim 490:78; Glosses of Rebbe Rashab on Siddur in name of Tzemach Tzedek; Yechaveh Daas 1:70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 284:7 that so is custom of all Jewry

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to conclude Mikadesh Hashabbos also on Shabbos Chol Hamoed Sukkos. [Birkeiy Yosef 424:2; Maaseh Rav 226, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 663:6; Shaar Hakolel 25:4 that so is opinion of Admur in Siddur]

[49] Admur 490:8-9

[50] Sefer Haminhagim p. 83

Standing facing the Sefer Torah: It is recorded in Reshimos 5 p. 25 in the name of the Rebbe Rayatz that the Rebbe Rashab would stand facing the Sefer Torah during the reading of Shira and Aseres Hadibros. This was likewise the custom of the Rebbe. However, it is not recorded in Hayom Yom to face the Torah when standing for Shirah, in contrast to Aseres Hadibros of which it is recorded. [Otzer p. 216]

[51] Admur 490:13; Michaber 490:6

[52] Admur 490:13; Michaber 490:8

[53] 2:22:1-51

[54] The reason: The reason for why this Haftorah is read is because this song is similar to the song of the sea that was read in the Torah reading. Likewise, it discusses the exodus from Egypt in the verse “Vayishlach Chitzim” and “Vayiru Afikei Yom”. [Admur ibid]

[55] Admur 494:7

[56] When is the Akdamos recited? Some have the custom to recite Akdamos after the Kohen reads the 1st verse in the Torah reading. One should not protest against those who do so, even though they are making an interval during the reading with a matter that is not relevant to the reading, as they have upon whom to rely. However, in a place where there is no custom, it is best to say the Akdamos before the Kohen begins the blessing over the Torah reading. The same applies for the Piyut of Yatziv Pisgam. On the second day of Shavuos it is best to recite the Akdamos prior to the blessings of the Haftorah, and so is the custom today in many places. [Admur ibid]

[57] Hayom Yom p. 59; Sefer Haminhagim p. 87 [English]; Igros Kodesh 18:427 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:40]; Letters and Sichas in Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 302-304; This is also the custom of the Sephardim [Igros Kodesh ibid]

Custom of the Rebbe: The Rebbe was accustomed to say the Akdamos quietly to himself on Shavuos. It was said before, and between, the Aliyos, of the Torah reading. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 303]

[58] Admur 488:5

[59] Admur 494:4

[60] Pashut as this is the entire reason for why we are to take out two Sifrei Torahs.

[61] The reason: As this Parsha discusses the matters that occurred on Shavuos, which is the giving of the Torah. [ibid]

[62] See 282:12 for the reason why Kaddish is recited between the five Aliyos and Maftir.

[63] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[64] See Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

[65] See 282:12 for the reason why Kaddish is recited between the five Aliyos and Maftir.

[66] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[67] See Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

[68] See Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 146:6; Beit Maran [Rav Yitzchak Yosef]; Bayit Neman [Rav Meir Mazuz] No. 14; 51; 65; 100; 113

[69] Ledavid Emes 7:5; Tov Ayin 11; Shaar Efraim 7:37; Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22 that so is custom of world; Igros Moshe 4:22; Shemesh Umagen 57; Mishneh Halachos 11:118

[70] Teshuvas Rambam 46; Maharikash in Ohalei Yaakov 33; Machazik Bracha 146:8 based on Arizal, brought in Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Opinion in Ledavid Emes 7:5 [He originally writes that it is improper for the entire congregation to stand, and then brings from his Sefer Machazik Bracha that even individuals should not stand, and then concludes that in some communities everyone stands, and ends up defending the practice]; Yechaveh Daas 6:8 rules not to stand and that the custom to stand is to be abolished; Toldos Hair Kavna p. 229 that so ruled the Raavad, Rav Leib Shapiro, to abolish the custom; See Beir Moshe 8:60

[71] The reason: As it is forbidden to single out a section of Torah, such as the Aseres Hadibros, due to it leading people to believe that only it is the true part of the Torah. [Poskim ibid; See Admur Basra 1:9, Kama 1:10; Rama 1:5; Brachos 12a; Rashba 1:184] However, others negate this worry by stating that the worry is no longer applicable today and does not apply here as one anyways stands for more than just the ten commandments. [See Ulidavid Emes ibid; Shaareiy Rachamim on Shaar Efraim ibid based on Levush 494 and Machatzis Hashekel 429]

[72] Hayom Yom 24th Shevat; 1st day Chag Hashavuos; 13th Menachem Av; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 61; See Shulchan Menachem 1:262 footnote 11 and Chikrei Haminhagim 1:62

[73] Tov Ayin 11; Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 146:23; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22; See Kneses Hagedola E.H. 62; Ikarei Hadaat, and other Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid; Yechaveh Daas ibid concludes that in such a case he is to stand already from the beginning of the reading; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid [see there that the same applies vice versa, that if the entire congregation is accustomed to sit then one is not to stand, however, see Ledavid Emes and Kaf Hachaim ibid who write that individuals may stand and see Q&A below!];

[74] M”A 428:8

[75] The Magen Avraham ibid writes that the custom in some places is to only call up the Rabbis of the community, or a great scholar for the reading of the Ten Commandments. However, the Alter Rebbe does not make any mention of this here. The Rebbe in 5746 emphasized that this custom is to certainly be practiced in a scenario that there are those which despise and try to undermine the Rabbinical leader, and thus in order to emphasize the Rabbis authenticity he is to be called up for the Aliyah, even if the above is not the usual custom of the community.

[76] See Likkutei Sichos 23:251; 256; 28:315; Toras Menachem 5784 3:1833

[77] Michaber 135:14; 584:3; based on Yerushalmi brought in Beis Yosef 135 “In all places we say one must go to the Sefer Torah and not have the Sefer Torah come to him”;

[78] See Rama 135:14 [one to two days]; M”A 135:22 [Makom Kavua]; Aruch Hashulchan 135:32 [three times]

[79] Michaber 143:1

[80] Michaber ibid; Rambam Tefilla 2; Ketzos Hashulchan 26:14

[81] Biur Halacha 143:1 “Bepachus” based on Ran; Ashel Avraham 69; Maharsham 1:175; 2:97; Lev Chaim 2:25; Levushei Mordechai 1:39; Ketzos Hashulchan 26:14; Keren Ledavid 16; Har Tzevi 1:52; Shaareiy Teshuvah 566:4 in name of Machazik Bracha regarding Taanis Tzibur  that 6-7 people fasting suffices; See Yabia Omer 8:14; Mishneh Halachos 3:17

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may only perform Kerias Hatorah with its blessing if at least ten people have not yet heard Kerias Hatorah and still need to be Yotzei. [Chayeh Adam 31:11 questions this matter; Aruch Hashulchan 69:14; Binyan Shlomo 35; Igros Moshe 1:38] Other Poskim rule that one may perform Kerias Hatorah with its blessing if at least seven people have not yet heard Kerias Hatorah and still need to be Yotzei. [Kaf Hachaim 143:3 in name of Lev Chaim 2:25] Other Poskim rule that by a reading of three Aliyos, such as on Monday, Thursday, and Mincha of Shabbos, it suffices to have three people who have not yet heard Kerias Hatorah and still need to be Yotzei. [Peri Hasadeh 2:97; Shaareiy Rachamim 7:18; Toras Yekusiel 51; Daas Sofer 1:8; Daas Torah 69 although concludes with Tzaruch Iyun; Mahariy Asad 51; So rule regarding a fast: Bach in name of Aguda; Meiri Megillah 2a; Orchos Chaim [Lunil]; Leket Yosher 114 in name of Terumos Hadeshen; Aruch Hashulchan 566:7; Maharsham 2:97; Daas Torah 69; Sdei Chemed 1 Klalei Haposkim 13:7; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 26; Piskei Dinim 566; Shut Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 8, brought in Shaar Hakolel 9:17; Igros Kodesh 16:313; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 1024 footnote] Other Poskim imply it suffices to have even one person who did not yet hear the Torah. [Implication of Maharil end of Shabbos that he once missed Kerias Hatorah and read it to himself after the Minyan. See Daas Torah ibid] Other Poskim rule one may repeat the reading even if everyone already heard the Torah. [See Noda Beyehuda Tinyana O.C. 15; Birkeiy Yosef, brought in Daas Torah ibid]

[82] The reason: As whenever majority of a Minyan is obligated in a matter, we allow the recital of a Davar Shebekedusha. [See Admur 55:3; 69:4-5]

[83] Noda Beyehuda Tinyana O.C. 15; Daas Torah 69; Toras Yekusiel 51; Levushei Mordechai 1:19; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:3

Other opinions: From some Poskim, it is evident that one cannot intend to not be Yotzei Kerias Hatorah as it is a congregational obligation. [See Aruch Hashulchan 69:8 and all Poskim who rule that it is a congregational obligation, seemingly would also hold that it does not suffice to intend to not be Yotzei; See reply of Rebbe recorded in Igros Kodesh 3:4, brought in the next Q&A, from which it is possible to learn that having in mind to not be Yotzei does not suffice, although this is not imperative, as perhaps the case there refers to a case where the listeners had nothing in mind!]

[84] See Admur 46:9 in parentheses; 489:12; Michaber 489:3 as explained in Taz 489:6; M”A 489:7 according to opinion that Mitzvos need Kavana; M”B 489:16; See Birchas Habayis 46:15 footnote 41; Piskeiy Teshuvos 489:13 footnote 62; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296:17; Yalkut Kerias Hatorah p. 1321

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that making a Tnaiy is useless, as one cannot questionably join the fulfillment of a Mitzvah. [Taz 489:6] It is thus questionable whether he has fulfilled his obligation even if he made a Tnaiy and remembered later on. [P”M 489 M”Z 6]

[85] This is in order to suspect for the stringent opinions brought above

[86] Admur 494:8-11; See M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Elya Raba 142:1; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14

[87] Admur 494:8

[88] The reason: The reason for this custom is because they follow the way the commands were written in the Torah [I.e. Kesiv], in which each command was written as its own Parsha. From Anochi until Lo Sisa is one Parsha Setuma, and one command, and it is therefore read as a single verse. Likewise, from Zachor until Lo Tirtzach is a single Parsha Setuma. However, Lo Tirtzach until Lo Tachmod is written in four Parshiyos Setumos, as they are four commands, and therefore they are read as four verses. [494:10]

[89] The reason: As Anochi and Lo Yihyeh Lecha were said simultaneously. It is for this reason that the Nun of the word Panaiy is vocalized with a Patach and not a Kamatz, as there is no stop [Asnachta or end of verse] by it. [Admur ibid]

[90] The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Chaf of the word “Chol” which is in proximity to the word “Veasisa” is Refuyah and not Degusha. [Admur ibid]

[91] The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Tzaddik of the word Tirtzach is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that there is a conclusion of verse at this area. Likewise, the Taf is Degusha being that the word Lo is vocalized with a Mafsik, which is a Tafcha. [Admur ibid]

[92] The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Tinaf is Degusha and the Alef is vocalized with a Kamatz being that there is a conclusion of verse at this area. [Admur ibid]

[93] The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Tignov is Degusha. [Admur ibid]

[94] Admur 494:9

[95] One reads the verses as they have been allocated to be read from the Torah [i.e. Keri]. Thus, at times a single verse includes many commands, and at times the same command is read in many verses.

[96] The vocalization: According to this method, the Nun of Panaiy is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that it represents the end  the verse. [Admur ibid]

[97] The vocalization: According to this method the Chaf of the word “Kol” is Degusha. [Admur ibid]

[98] The reason: The reason for this custom is because they follow the way the verses are to be read according to Kri, as from Lo Sirtzach until Lo Sachmod there is only one verse. The reason for why this custom does not allow one to stop in middle of the verse and read it in accordance to the commands is because it is forbidden to completely stop in middle of a verse, even when one is reading the verse in private, as all the stop marks in the Torah are a tradition to Moshe from Sinai, and it is forbidden to stop in an area that Moshe did not make a stop in accordance to his tradition from Sinai. Now, since it is forbidden to make a complete stop in middle of these four small Parshiyos [from Lo Sirtzach to Lo Sinaf], therefore, when they are read in one setting they are read in a continuous melody which connects them into one verse, being that they are in truth one verse, as there is no verse in the entire Torah that contains less than three words. Likewise, from Anochi until Lo Sisa and from Zachor until Lo Sirtzach, there are various verses in the reading. Accordingly, a private individual may make a complete stop in the middle of the Parsha of Anochi and Zachor, so long as he does so at the end of a verse. Furthermore, even when reading in public there is no prohibition to stop in these areas due to stopping in middle of a verse, but rather due to those who enter and exit during the reading, as explained in 138:1. Therefore, they are read in a melody that makes a break between them, in order to turn them into many verses, being that in truth they are considered many verses regarding the number of verses they contain. [Admur 494:11; M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14]

The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Sirtzach, Sinaf, Signov, Seaneh is Refuyah and the Tzaddik of the word Sirtzach is vocalized with Patach, and the Alef of Sinaf is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that it has an Asnachta. [Admur ibid]

[99] Admur 494:11; M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Elya Raba 142:1; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14

[100] The reason: As on Shavuos the Ten Commandments were given and therefore it is read in accordance to the way they were given, which is each command as a different verse. [Admur ibid]

[101] Admur 494:4 and 12

[102] Admur 494:12

[103] Admur 494:5; Chok Yaakov 494:5

[104] The reason: This custom is hinted to in the ruling that we do not expound on Maaseh Merkavah unless the student is a great scholar and has great understanding of his own. [Admur ibid; See Mishneh Chagiga 11b]

[105] Admur 494:4

[106] The reason: The reason why this Haftorah is read is because it discusses matters similar to the revelation of G-d by Sinai, with hundreds of thousands of Shinan. [Admur ibid] Some explain Shinan refers to a type of angel. [Radak]

[107] Admur 494:12

[108] Admur 494:6; Brought in Luach Kolel Chabad; Elya Zuta 494; Chok Yaakov 494:5

[109] The reason: This is done out of honor for the Haftorah of Merkava Yechezkel. [ibid]

[110] See Admur 284:11

[111] Sefer Hasichos 1940 p. 121; See Sichas Shavuos 5713; Nitei Gavriel Shavuos

[112] Michaber 659:1

[113] Pashut as this is the entire reason for why we are to take out two Sifrei Torahs.

[114] Michaber ibid

[115] See 282:12 for the reason why Kaddish is recited between the five Aliyos and Maftir.

[116] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[117] See Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

[118] Michaber 662:3

[119] Michaber 659:1

[120] Michaber 662:3

[121] Michaber 659:1

[122] Michaber 662:3

[123] Michaber 663:1-3; Admur 490:8-9 regarding Pesach

[124] Michaber 663:1

[125] Michaber and Rama ibid

[126] Rama ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that for Shelishi one repeats the reading of Sheiyni, which is the Korban of that day.

[127] Michaber ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even in Eretz Yisrael, Ashkenazim are to read according to Sfeika Deyoma. [Tzemach Tzedek Piskei Dinim Chidushim on Rambam p. 686; Bikurei Yaakov 663:2; See Rama in 684:1; Mahariy Beiy Rav in Beis Yaakov Tefilla 13:13; Igros Kodesh 15:25; All sources in next footnote]

[128] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Tishrei p. 324; Article of Rav Avraham Alter Heber in Oholei Sheim 3 p. 99-102; Rav Moshe Chefer in Tiferes Lamelech 1 p. 82-91; Pardes Chabad 16; Hiskashrus 640-643; 651; Sefer Al Minhagim Umekoroseihem of Rav Tuvia Bloy p. 71-118;

[129] Hiskashrus 640

[130] Sichas 2nd night of Sukkos 5749 “Even in Eretz Yisrael the custom is to read the Karbanos of a few days for the four Aliyos, as done in the Diaspora” This part of the Sicha was not allowed to be published, and hence is only found on the audio of the Sicha.

[131] Tzemach Tzedek Miluim 11 [printed Piskei Dinim Chidushim on Rambam p. 686]; See footnotes below for elaboration

[132] Rav Y.S. Ginzberg in his final conclusion in Hiskashrus [after much deliberation and contradictory rulings in different years of the publication] writes that it is clear that the Rebbe’s final directive is to read the same text four times as rules the Michaber, unlike the custom adapted based on the talk in 5749, and people who remain stubborn to follow the new adapted custom are making a mistake, and contradicting the Rebbe’s own directives; Rav Tuvia Bloy publicized a list of many Rabbanei Chabad who agree that the old custom is to remain.

[133] Rav Leibal Groner relates that after the Sicha he mentioned to the Rebbe that this is not the custom in Eretz Yisrael, and hence the Rebbe directed him to tell the transcribers to omit it.

[134] See Pardes Chabad ibid where the original letter that Rav Baruch Na’ah wrote to the Rebbe and the Rebbe’s reply is printed. In the letter Rav Baruch Na’ah tells the Rebbe that he is changing the order of Kerias Hatorah for the next years Luach, based on the Sicha he was informed of, and asks the Rebbe to inform him the exact new order that should be followed. The Rebbe replied as follows, as printed there: All the above [Sicha] was the first version, however, after being told by many from Eretz Yisrael of the custom there, I request a full research to be done into it and publicized, prior to writing and Pesak Din on the issue” Rav Baruch Na’ah immediately went to work to do the research the Rebbe requested and came up with proofs that the new custom mentioned in the original Sicha is correct, and he thus sent his research to the Rebbe, asking him to give his consent to change the custom in the Luach Kolel Chabad. The Rebbe answered him that he should leave the custom as is and not change anything from the Luach.

[135] Rav Mordechai Shmuel Ashkenazi defended the new custom, brought in Hiskashrus 642

[136] The defense of the is custom based on the ruling of the Rama in 684:1 regarding the Chanukah reading, in which the Rama argues on the Michaber and rules that one is not to repeat the same reading. Now, the Mahariy Beiy Rav in Beis Yaakov Tefila 13:13 explains that this applies even in Eretz Yisrael, and so rules the Tzemach Tzedek Miluim 11 [Piskei Dinim Chidushim on Rambam p. 686] that the Sfeika Deyoma reading applies even in Eretz Yisrael. Practically, so is the Chabad custom on Chanukah even in Eretz Yisrael, as recorded in Luach Kolel Chabad and directed by the Rebbe. [See Igros Kodesh 15:25, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:290] Based on this, they claim that the same should apply by Sukkos. This, however, is a difficult argument to accept as the Rama makes no gloss on the ruling regarding Chol Hamoed Sukkos, and hence it does not appear that he is arguing on the Michaber in that regard. Nonetheless, from the Tzemach Tzedek ibid it is clear that this ruling should apply likewise regarding the reading of Chol Hamoed Sukkos even in Eretz Yisrael, just as we apply it regarding the reading of Chanukah. Accordingly, the change of the custom is based on the ruling of the Rama ibid, as explained by the Tzemach Tzedek ibid. [See Hiskashrus ibid and article of Rav Ashkenazi ibid] However, some argue that the Tzemach Tzedek’s ruling was not meant as a ruling but rather a suggestion, and is part of Mefarshei Hatorah and not Pesachim. See article of Rav Bloy ibid]

[137] Hiskashrus ibid

[138] See Igros Kodesh 14:391 regarding Nussach of Davening; 5:91; 16:12 and 99; 19:249 regarding wearing a Tallis as Chazan

[139] See Shaareiy Efraim 8:47; Tehila Ledavid 282:48; Birkeiy Yosef 684; Kaf Hachaim 137:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 663:1

[140] Shaareiy Efraim 8:47-49; Poskim brought in Tehila Ledavid ibid; M”B 137:11; Kaf Hachaim 137:13; Regarding if yesterday’s Korban was read on Shabbos Chol Hamoed: It is disputed whether one is to repeat the reading of that days Korban with a blessing. Some say the Aliyah is repeated with a blessing. [M”A 137; Elya Raba 137:10; Shaareiy Efraim and M”B ibid] Others rule it is repeated without a blessing. [Maharam Melublin 85; Aruch Hashulchan 137:8; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[141] Admur 490:10-11

The reason: The reason four people are called up on Chol Hamoed is because by every day that contains a Musaf prayer, the sages added another Aliyah to the Torah reading. [Admur ibid]

[142] Admur 490:10

[143] The reason: The reason for this is due to Tircha Detzibura, as people have work and may not be delayed. [Admur ibid]

[144] Admur 490:11

[145] Admur 490:16

[146] Michaber 668:2

[147] Michaber ibid; Sefer Haminhagim

[148] Michaber 668:2; See also 669:1 regarding Simchas Torah reading for Diaspora communities

[149] Michaber 669:1; Admur 282:15; See Kaf Hachaim 669:2 for various customs

[150] Custom of all Jewry; Kaf Hachaim 669:3; Siddurim

Other customs: Some are accustomed to only read four Aliyos in Vezos Habracha. [Maaseh Rav 231]

[151] See Q&A!

[152] Rama 669:1; Peri Chadash 684; Shulchan Gavoa 684:11; Kaf Hachaim 684:16

[153] Chemed Moshe 669; Kaf Hachaim 669:41; Biur Halacha 669:1 “Vechozrim”

[154] Rama 669:1; See Kaf Hachaim 669:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:3

[155] M”B 669:13; See Kaf Hachaim 669:3 for various customs

[156] Rama 669:1; Sichas Leil Simchas Torah 5715, printed in Toras Menachem 13:55; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 380

[157] Rama ibid

[158] This follows the wording of the Rama ibid

[159] Shalmei Tzibur p. 293:3; M”B 669:12; Kaf Hachaim 669:4

[160] Rebbe ibid

[161] Rama ibid; Rebbe ibid

[162] Rebbe ibid in name of the Rebbe Rayatz

The reason: As the day of Simchas Torah is higher than this concept of spreading a Tallis and saying these verses. [Rebbe ibid]

[163] M”B 669:12 “Likewise when they call up a Gadol with the children for Kol Hanearim..”; However see Kaf Hachaim 669:4 in name of Shalmei Tzibur p. 293:3 who implies the children may go up on their own and say the blessing; See also Rama 669:1 that the custom is to call a Katan for even Chasan Torah!

[164] Shalmei Tzibur p. 293:3; M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 669:4

[165] See Kaf Hachaim ibid

[166] Sichas Yom Simchas Torah 5719 p. 146

[167] Kaf Hachaim 669:4; No mention is made in the Poskim that the children must go up together in one Aliya, and some are actually accustomed for each child to get their own Aliya.

[168] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:4

[169] Rama 669:1 “He calls to others to make a festive meal”; Tur 669

[170] Mordechai Hagahos Ketanos

[171] Rama ibid

The reason: As in today’s times, in any event the Baal Korei reads the Parsha for the congregation and not the Olah. [Rama ibid]

[172] Sefer Haminhagim p. 148 [English edition]

[173] Sefer Haminhagim p. 148 [English edition]

[174] Implication of Admur 282:15 who writes “And we complete the Minyan [of five/seven Aliyos] in the first two Sefarim” thus proving that the Aliyah in Sefer Bereishis counts as part of the 5/7!; See Hiskashrus 274 and 283

[175] Kinyan Torah 3:71; Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:3; Luach Devar Beito; Siddur Olas Reiyah; Eim Lamikra; Luach Eretz Yisrael Tukichinsky

[176] Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus ibid

[177] Elya Raba 669; M”B 669:12; See Kaf Hachaim 669:4 in name of Shalmei Tzibur p. 293:3 “If two people go up for the same Aliya…”

[178] Sichas Yom Simchas Torah 5719 p. 146; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 379

[179] See Sichas Yom Simchas Torah 5719 p. 146 for three customs in this

[180] Shalmei Tzibur p. 293:3; M”B and Kaf Hachaim ibid

[181] See Kaf Hachaim ibid

[182] Sichas Yom Simchas Torah 5719 p. 146

[183] Shaareiy Efraim 1:32; Ruach Chaim 669:2; Kaf Hachaim 669:11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:4; 669:5

[184] The above sources in Ruach Chaim and Kaf Hachaim ibid only discuss the case of Chasan Torah and Chasan Bereishis where two Sifrei Torah are removed, and so is also implied from Shaareiy Efraim ibid

[185] Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:4 and footnote 25

[186] M”B 135:37; Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:3

[187] M”B 669:2 in name of Maharil; Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:4

[188] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:4

[189] Kaf Hachaim 496:61; Luach Eretz Yisrael Tukichinsky; Tzitz Eliezer 12:50; Beir Moshe 7 p. 293; Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:4

[190] Chaim Sheol 1:13; Shaareiy Efraim 8:97; Rebbe in Sichas Simchas Torah 5719

[191] Rebbe ibid

[192] Shaareiy Efraim 8:2; Ashel Avraham Butchach 669; Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:4

[193] Hiskashrus; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 381

[194] Eish Daas 7, brought in Y.D. Pischeiy Teshuvos 399:1; Gilyon Maharsha Y.D. 400; Chochmas Shlomo 548:1; See Nitei Gavriel Sukkos 101:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 669:6

[195] See M”B 548:16

[196] Beir Heiytiv 669:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[197] Piskeiy Teshuvos 135:7; See M”B 137:11

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